Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8802

Search results for: social science

8802 To Present and Explain Effective Methods in Teaching Social Science

Authors: Sulmaz Mozaffari, Zahra Mozaffari, Saman Mozaffari

Abstract:

Training is a counting and orderly process which purpose is to grow all as peals of the students to get the human knowledge and have the social norms. Also to help them grow their talents. Social science as in educational and training science at the sometime is very important for schools and universities. Unfortunately the method which is mostly used for teaching and training at present is student- teacher method and because of its ease the other methods are ignored. This research is to consider the most efficient methods in social science and analyse them. The Results show that the best methods in which the students are present during the teaching procedure.

Keywords: social science, methodology, student base methodology, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
8801 Science of Social Work: Recognizing Its Existence as a Scientific Discipline by a Method Triangulation

Authors: Sandra Mendes

Abstract:

Social Work has encountered over time with multivariate requests in the field of its action, provisioning frameworks of knowledge and praxis. Over the years, we have observed a transformation of society and, consequently, of the public who deals with the social work practitioners. Both, training and profession have had need to adapt and readapt the ways of doing, bailing up theories to action, while action unfolds emancipation of new theories. The theoretical questioning of this subject lies on classical authors from social sciences, and contemporary authors of Social Work. In fact, both enhance, in the design of social work, an integration and social cohesion function, creating a culture of action and theory, attributing to its method a relevant function, which shall be promoter of social changes in various dimensions of both individual and collective life, as well as scientific knowledge. On the other hand, it is assumed that Social Work, through its professionalism and through the academy, is now closer to distinguish itself from other Social Sciences as an autonomous scientific field, being, however, in the center of power struggles. This paper seeks to fill the gap in social work literature about the study of the scientific field of this area of knowledge.

Keywords: field theory, knowledge, science, social work

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8800 Big Data: Appearance and Disappearance

Authors: James Moir

Abstract:

The mainstay of Big Data is prediction in that it allows practitioners, researchers, and policy analysts to predict trends based upon the analysis of large and varied sources of data. These can range from changing social and political opinions, patterns in crimes, and consumer behaviour. Big Data has therefore shifted the criterion of success in science from causal explanations to predictive modelling and simulation. The 19th-century science sought to capture phenomena and seek to show the appearance of it through causal mechanisms while 20th-century science attempted to save the appearance and relinquish causal explanations. Now 21st-century science in the form of Big Data is concerned with the prediction of appearances and nothing more. However, this pulls social science back in the direction of a more rule- or law-governed reality model of science and away from a consideration of the internal nature of rules in relation to various practices. In effect Big Data offers us no more than a world of surface appearance and in doing so it makes disappear any context-specific conceptual sensitivity.

Keywords: big data, appearance, disappearance, surface, epistemology

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
8799 Exploring Students’ Views on Science Education

Authors: Ahmad Alshammari

Abstract:

This study focused on exploring the students’ views about the science education in intermediate stage in State of Kuwait. This study used Social-Culture Theory (SCT) as a theoretical framework to understand the science curriculum reform process through the socio-cultural context and to discuss and explain the study findings. This study used a multi-method design, with both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect the data: students’ questionnaires and interviews. The study sample was selected randomly. First, the questionnaire was conducted with 647 students. Then 30 students (5 in each of 6 focus groups) were chosen to conduct the in-depth interviews. The findings of this study indicated the generally negative views of most of the students about the new science curriculum. The findings showed that most of the students have a negative attitude toward science, they have difficulty understanding most of the lessons, and they do not enjoy studying the science subject. This study recommends reviewing the new science curriculum (now currently in use) and taking into account the perspectives of the students about this curriculum. Developing and adapting the new science curriculum took place without taking into consideration the socio-culture and Islamic religion of Kuwaiti students. The MoE should deal with the relationship between science and culture and between science and religion, integrating more relevant science into the curriculum.

Keywords: science education, students views, science curriculum, curriculum development

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
8798 Encounter of Muslim World with Western Social Sciences: Reception, Indigenization, Islamization

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Panahi

Abstract:

Modern social sciences developed in Western Europe, and from there, it disseminated to the rest of the world, including Muslim World. Within the hierarchical world social science system that emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries, the West occupied the center, and the Third and Muslim Worlds fell into its periphery. Many social scientists, especially sociologists, in the Third and Muslim World since the 1970s have criticized this worldwide unequal division of scientific labor and have called for the development of independent/indigenous social sciences relevant to their own social conditions. Based on the conceptual framework of the World Social Science System, this paper studied the encounter of Muslim social scientists/sociologists with the Western social sciences. Using inductive thematic content analysis as the method of research, the author analyzed 32 purposefully selected articles from among over 500 collected articles from the 1970s to 2018 and categorized the obtained themes. The findings revealed three main types of encounters: reception, indigenization, and Islamization. ‘Reception’ refers to the encounter of those Muslim social scientists who embrace the positivist approach and believe that Western social sciences are valid and applicable worldwide, including the Muslim World. ‘Indigenization’ refers to the approach of those Muslim social scientists who, along with many critical Third World social scientists, reject the universality of Western social sciences and call for the development of indigenous social sciences. ‘Islamization’ refers to the position of those religious Muslim social scientists who believe that Muslim nations should Islamize social sciences based on the Islamic value and knowledge systems, in order to attain viable social sciences and free themselves from Western domination. Discussing these encounters, their supporters and opponents, the paper concludes that despite various efforts, none of the two alternatives to the Western social sciences have been able to replace it so far.

Keywords: indigenization, Islamization, Muslim world, social sciences, world social science system

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
8797 Virtual Science Hub: An Open Source Platform to Enrich Science Teaching

Authors: Enrique Barra, Aldo Gordillo, Juan Quemada

Abstract:

This paper presents the Virtual Science Hub platform. It is an open source platform that combines a social network, an e-learning authoring tool, a video conference service and a learning object repository for science teaching enrichment. These four main functionalities fit very well together. The platform was released in April 2012 and since then it has not stopped growing. Finally we present the results of the surveys conducted and the statistics gathered to validate this approach.

Keywords: e-learning, platform, authoring tool, science teaching, educational sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
8796 Whether Chaos Theory Could Reconstruct the Ancient Societies

Authors: Zahra Kouzehgari

Abstract:

Since the early emergence of chaos theory in the 1970s in mathematics and physical science, it has increasingly been developed and adapted in social sciences as well. The non-linear and dynamic characteristics of the theory make it a useful conceptual framework to interpret the complex social systems behavior. Regarding chaotic approach principals, sensitivity to initial conditions, dynamic adoption, strange attractors and unpredictability this paper aims to examine whether chaos approach could interpret the ancient social changes. To do this, at first, a brief history of the chaos theory, its development and application in social science as well as the principals making the theory, then its application in archaeological since has been reviewed. The study demonstrates that although based on existing archaeological records reconstruct the whole social system of the human past, the non-linear approaches in studying social complex systems would be of a great help in finding general order of the ancient societies and would enable us to shed light on some of the social phenomena in the human history or to make sense of them.

Keywords: archaeology, non-linear approach, chaos theory, ancient social systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
8795 Science Explorer Modules as a Communication Approach to Encourage High School Students to Pursue Science Careers

Authors: Mark Ivan Roblas

Abstract:

The Science Explorer is a mobile learning science facility in the Philippines. It is a bus that travels to different provinces in the country bringing interactive science modules facilitated by scientists from the industry and academe. The project aims to entice students to get into careers in science through interactive science modules and interaction with real-life scientists. This article looks into the effectiveness of its modules as a communication source and message to encourage high school students to get into careers in the future. The study revealed that as the Science Explorer modules are able to retain students to stay in science careers of their choice and even convert some to choose from non-science to a science degree, it still lacks in penetrating the belief system of the students and influencing them to take a scientific career path.

Keywords: informal science, mobile science, science careers, science education

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
8794 The Impact of School Environment and Peer Relation on Anti-Social Behaviour of Students in Science Secondary Schools in Katsina State

Authors: Umar Mamman

Abstract:

The study investigated the impact of school environment and peer relations on antisocial behaviour of the students of science secondary schools in Katsina State. The study sought to achieve the following objectives: to determine whether school influences antisocial behaviour among science secondary school students, and to determine whether peer relation influences anti-social behaviour among science secondary school students. The study population composed of all the students in science secondary schools in Katsina State. The study used a sample of 378 students and 18 teachers randomly selected from eleven science secondary schools in Katsina state. Three instruments were used to collect data for the study, thus: socio-economic status background questionnaire, antisocial process screening device (APSD), and inventory of parent and peer relationship questionnaire. The study findings revealed that school environment has significant effect on antisocial behaviour of the students in science secondary school (F (7, 372) = 52.08, p ≤ .01), and there is a significant effect of peer relation on antisocial behaviour of the students in science secondary school (F (7, 372) = 14.229, p ≤ .01). Based on these findings the following major recommendations were made: School environment should be made attractive and conducive for learning and character development. Teachers, as role model, should desist from indecent acts. School environment should be made learner-centered and friendly. Functional guidance and counselling outfits need to be provided in all secondary schools in Katsina state.

Keywords: school environment, peer relation, anti-social behaviour, psychology

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
8793 Women, Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities

Authors: Cheryl Leggon

Abstract:

Although women in the aggregate are earning more doctorates in science and engineering from U.S. institutions, they continue to concentrate in some fields--e.g., biology--and underrepresented in others--e.g., engineering. Traditionally, most studies of women doctorate recipients in the sciences (including the social, behavioral and economic sciences) or engineering do not report their findings by demographic subgroups. This study extends the literature on these topics by using an intersectional approach to examine decadal trends. Intersectionality suggests that race, gender, and nation are not separate mutually exclusive entities whose impacts are summative, but rather as a confluence of synergistic factors that shape complex social inequities. Drawing on critical aspects of the intersectionality approach is particularly well suited for a more fine-grained analysis of the representation of women doctorate recipients in science and engineering. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of policies and evidence-based programmatic strategies for enhancing women’s participation in fields in which they are especially underrepresented.

Keywords: doctorates, engineering, science, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
8792 Science Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Ogbeta I. Joseph, Habiba B. A. Awwalu, Otokiti Jimoh

Abstract:

This paper entitled science education in Nigeria issues and challenges highlighted the role of science education to the development of science and technology in Nigeria. Science embraces every attempt of human to explore and manage the natural world, the contribution of science education to the technological development of the nation, the role of science education in ICT development, the importance of mathematics in the development of science education, the paper also analyzed the challenges facing the development of science education to include corruption, insecurity, and political instability, the paper concluded by encouraging the government and other stakeholders in educational sector to pay more attention to the teaching and learning of science in our schools. Therefore recommended the development that emphasizes should be on the teaching and learning of science base subjects in the school.

Keywords: education, science, technology and national development, challenges

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
8791 Use of Technology to Improve Students’ Attitude in Learning Mathematics of Non- Mathematics Undergraduate Students

Authors: Asia Majeed

Abstract:

The learning of mathematics in science, engineering and social science programs can be enhanced through practical problem-solving techniques. The instructors can design their lessons with some strategies to improve students’ educational needs and accomplishments in mathematics classrooms. The use of technology in class problem solving and application sessions can enhance deep understanding of mathematics among students. As mathematician, we believe in subject specific and content-driven teaching methods. Through technology the relationship between the physical problems and the mathematical models can be analyzed. This paper is about selective use of technology in mathematics classrooms and helpful to others mathematics instructors who wishes to improve their traditional teaching techniques to improve students’ attitude in learning mathematics. These techniques corpus can be used in teaching large mathematics classes in science, technology, engineering, and social science.

Keywords: attitude in learning mathematics, mathematics, non-mathematics undergraduate students, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
8790 The Performance of Modern Eugenics: Ballroom of the Skies as a Method of Understanding American Social Eugenics

Authors: Michael Stokes

Abstract:

Using a disability studies approach, this paper analyzes the American science fiction novel Ballroom of the Skies as way to address and access narratives of American exceptionalism in relation to global struggle. Combined with a critical race studies analysis of identity and cultural practice, this essay seeks to find parallels between the treatment of disability and the treatment of the racialized body in literature to forcibly reread potential for multiple assemblages of identity in the speculated futures of science fiction. Thinking through this relationship, the essay constructs a thematic understanding of social eugenics as practiced in American culture.

Keywords: disability studies, science fiction, eugenics, cultural studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
8789 Advantages and Disadvantages of Socioscientific Issue Based Instruction in Science Classrooms: Pre-Service Science Teachers' Views

Authors: Aysegul Evren Yapicioglu

Abstract:

The social roles and responsibilities expected from citizens are increasing due to changing global living conditions. Science education is expected to prepare conscious and sensitive students. Because today’s students are the adults of future. Precondition of this task is Teacher Education. In the past decade, one of the most important research field is socioscientific issues. This study deals with advantages and disadvantages of socioscientific issue based instruction in science classroom according to pre-service science teachers’ views. A case study approach that is one of the qualitative research design was used to explore their views. Fourteen pre-service science teachers participated to instruction process. Dolphinariums, Kyoto Protocol, genetically modified organisms, recyclable black bags’ benefits and damages, genetic tests, alternative energy sources and organ donation are examples of socioscientific issues, which were taught through activities in a special teaching course. Diaries and focus group interview were used as data collection tools. As a result of the study, the advantages of socioscientific issue based instruction in science classroom comprise of six sub-categories which are multi-skilling, social awareness development of thinking, meaningful learning, character and professional development, contribution of scientific literacy whereas disadvantages of this instruction process are challenges teachers and students, limitations of teaching and learning process in pre-service science teachers’ perspectives. Finally, this study contributes to science teachers and researchers to overcome disadvantages and benefit from the advantage of socioscientific issue based instruction in science classroom.

Keywords: science education, socioscientific issues, socioscientific issue based instruction, pre-service science teacher

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
8788 Influence of Social Media on Perceived Learning Outcome of Agricultural Students in Tertiary Institutions in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adedoyin Opeyemi Osokoya

Abstract:

The study assesses the influence of social media on perceived learning outcome of agricultural science students in tertiary institutions in Oyo state, Nigeria. The four-stage sampling procedure was used to select participants. All students in the seven tertiary institutions that offer agriculture science as a course of study in Oyo State was the population. A university, a college of agriculture and a college of education were sampled, and a department from each was randomly selected. Twenty percent of the students’ population in the respective selected department gave a sample size of 165. Questionnaire was used to collect information on respondents’ personal characteristics and information related to access to social media. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, correlation, and multiple regression at the 0.05 confidence level. Age and household size were 21.13 ± 2.64 years and 6 ± 2.1 persons respectively. All respondents had access to social media, majority (86.1%) owned Android phone, 57.6% and 52.7% use social media for course work and entertainment respectively, while the commonly visited sites were WhatsApp, Facebook, Google, Opera mini. Over half (53.9%) had an unfavourable attitude towards the use of social media for learning; benefits of the use of social media for learning was high (56.4%). Removal of information barrier created by distance (x̄=1.58) was the most derived benefit, while inadequate power supply (x̄=2.36), was the most severe constraints. Age (β=0.23), sex (β=0.37), ownership of Android phone (β=-1.29), attitude (β=0.37), constraints (β =-0.26) and use of social media (β=0.23) were significant predictors of influence on perceived learning outcomes.

Keywords: use of social media, agricultural science students, undergraduates of tertiary institutions, Oyo State of Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
8787 A Methodology for Investigating Public Opinion Using Multilevel Text Analysis

Authors: William Xiu Shun Wong, Myungsu Lim, Yoonjin Hyun, Chen Liu, Seongi Choi, Dasom Kim, Kee-Young Kwahk, Namgyu Kim

Abstract:

Recently, many users have begun to frequently share their opinions on diverse issues using various social media. Therefore, numerous governments have attempted to establish or improve national policies according to the public opinions captured from various social media. In this paper, we indicate several limitations of the traditional approaches to analyze public opinion on science and technology and provide an alternative methodology to overcome these limitations. First, we distinguish between the science and technology analysis phase and the social issue analysis phase to reflect the fact that public opinion can be formed only when a certain science and technology is applied to a specific social issue. Next, we successively apply a start list and a stop list to acquire clarified and interesting results. Finally, to identify the most appropriate documents that fit with a given subject, we develop a new logical filter concept that consists of not only mere keywords but also a logical relationship among the keywords. This study then analyzes the possibilities for the practical use of the proposed methodology thorough its application to discover core issues and public opinions from 1,700,886 documents comprising SNS, blogs, news, and discussions.

Keywords: big data, social network analysis, text mining, topic modeling

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8786 Mega Development Projects Problems and Challenges From a Social Science Perspective: A Critical Review

Authors: Shakir Ullah

Abstract:

This article reviews social science understanding to explore the challenges megaprojects face before and after implementation. It also sheds light on the problems directly and indirectly caused by mega development projects in the project implemented areas. By Using a qualitative approach such as thematic analysis, the article uses recent literature such as published articles, government reports, and books to cite examples of different mega projects worldwide. The study report that mega development projects are a necessary element of the modern-day infrastructural development process as they represent the perfect example of urban socioeconomic development. They are introduced and implemented by multinational companies with the support of state authorities to produce the common good. However, they are not devoid of their critical challenges and bring implicit and explicit problems to the targeted localities. The article takes insights from social science research for suggestions on how to reduce the challenges faced by project implementers and problems received by local people due to the fault lines of such projects.

Keywords: development, mega-projects, challenges, problems

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8785 Genres of Communication and Readers’ Reactions: Popular Science Magazines on Facebook

Authors: Artur Daniel Ramos Modolo

Abstract:

Popular science magazines are an important way to communicate scientific information to lay audience in science. Since the popularization of social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook and Twitter, these magazines are trying to adapt their content to these new media. In this study, one hundred posts of popular science magazines on Facebook are analyzed regarding the use of genres of communication and readers’ reactions. The quantitative analysis of these features considers the variety of genres and how the users of Facebook answer to them (liking, sharing and commenting). The first hypothesis was that these magazines used the genres of communication posted on Facebook both to marketing and informational purposes and that these mixed intentions have an impact in the number of readers’ reactions. In order to analyze these features, twenty timeline posts published by five magazines: Cosmos, Galileu, New Scientist, Scientific American and Superinteressante were gathered during the period of three days (6th November 2015–8th November 2015). This research shows that the hyperlinks posted by these magazines created ways to diversify the communication genres used on their pages and, at the same time, revealed that, overall, readers react quantitatively different to these genres.

Keywords: Facebook, genres of communication, likes, popular science magazines, social networking sites

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8784 The Study of Factors Affecting Social Responsibility among Undergraduate Students of the Faculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Somtop Keawchuer

Abstract:

The purpose of the research is to study the level of social responsibility among the undergraduate students of the faculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The research also studies the factors affecting social responsibility of the undergraduate students. The research methodology applied a self-administered questionnaire as a quantitative method. A convenience sampling was used to distribute the questionnaire. Finally, 350 questionnaires were received for data analysis. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics including percentage, mean, standard deviation, and inferential statistics including regression analysis for hypothesis testing. The results indicated that the level of social responsibility of the students was at a good level. In addition, internal and external factors were related to social responsibility of the undergraduate students with the statistical significance level of 0.05.

Keywords: internal and external factors, social responsibility, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, undergraduate students

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
8783 Undergraduates Learning Preferences: A Comparison of Science, Technology and Social Science Academic Disciplines in Relations to Teaching Designs and Strategies

Authors: Salina Budin, Shaira Ismail

Abstract:

Students learn effectively in a learning environment with a suitable teaching approach that matches their learning preferences. The main objective of the study is to examine the learning preferences amongst the students in the Science and Technology (S&T), and Social Science (SS) fields of study at the Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Pulau Pinang. The measurement instrument is based on the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles which measure five elements of learning styles; environmental, sociological, emotional, physiological and psychological. Questionnaires are distributed amongst undergraduates in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Faculty of Business Management. The respondents comprise of 131 diploma students of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and 111 degree students of the Faculty of Business Management. The results indicate that, both S&T and SS students share a similar learning preferences on the environmental aspect, emotional preferences, motivational level, learning responsibility, persistent level in learning and learning structure. Most of the S&T students are concluded as analytical learners and the majority of SS students are global learners. Both S&T and SS students are concluded as visual learners, preferred to be in an active mobility in a relaxing and enjoying mode with some light of refreshments during the learning process and exhibited reflective characteristics in learning. Obviously, the S&T students are considered as left brain dominant, whereas the SS students are right brain dominant. The findings highlighted that both categories of students exhibited similar learning preferences except on psychological preferences.

Keywords: learning preferences, Dunn and Dunn learning style, teaching approach, science and technology, social science

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
8782 The Importance of Science and Technology Education in Skill Acquisition for Self Dependence

Authors: Olaje Monday Olaje

Abstract:

Science and technology has been prove to be the back bone for economic development of any country, and for Nigeria, it has more critical role to play. This paper examines the importance of science and technology education for national development and self dependence for Nigerian citizens. A historical overview of the interconnectivity of science and technology and self dependence is heighted. The current situation and challenges facing science and technology education are also highlighted to bring out the theoretical importance of science and technology education for self dependence which actually has not been practically achieved. Recommendations are also made at the of the study so as to skill acquisition through science and technology for self dependence.

Keywords: acquisition, education, self-dependence, science, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
8781 Social Entrepreneurship: When Social Innovation Is Driven by Value Creation

Authors: Zeinab Hmama, Majda Alaoui

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship is seen as a response to social problem. The literature on social entrepreneurship highlights two elements: social value creation and economic value creation. The creation of social value is a process that results from the creation of a value with 'value' for society that leads to a social change. However, theoretical thoughts consider that social value is a multidimensional concept that is difficult to define. Many definitions of social value and social change have been proposed. Most of these definitions use financial and economic value to justify the social value created. As a result, social value is often identified in monetary value. Referring to the economic concept to explain social value is not a false approach but limits the understanding of the creation of social value and reduces exploration of opportunities and analysis of other facets of this value. In this article, we explore the dimensions of social entrepreneurship and try to better understand the concept of social value based on the different visions conveyed in the literature.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social impact, social change, measurement, social value, social problem, value creation

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
8780 Children's Literature and the Study of the Sociological Approach

Authors: Sulmaz Mozaffari, Zahra Mozaffari, Saman Mozaffari

Abstract:

Man has always tried to find the Ideal place for life and he has experienced a lot of problems. So many internal and external limits has been on his way. Today man is threatened by so many crisis because of his specific look to the world. Literature as a universal science has not ignored this problem either. Children's literature has tried to present the social, cultural, religious and economical problems in tales and novels. This research tries to analyse social and cultural problems related to 10th century children from social point of criticism.

Keywords: social criticism, crisis, children's literature, tale

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
8779 Artificial Intelligence Based Meme Generation Technology for Engaging Audience in Social Media

Authors: Andrew Kurochkin, Kostiantyn Bokhan

Abstract:

In this study, a new meme dataset of ~650K meme instances was created, a technology of meme generation based on the state of the art deep learning technique - GPT-2 model was researched, a comparative analysis of machine-generated memes and human-created was conducted. We justified that Amazon Mechanical Turk workers can be used for the approximate estimating of users' behavior in a social network, more precisely to measure engagement. It was shown that generated memes cause the same engagement as human memes that produced low engagement in the social network (historically). Thus, generated memes are less engaging than random memes created by humans.

Keywords: content generation, computational social science, memes generation, Reddit, social networks, social media interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
8778 Promoting Stem Education and a Cosmic Perspective by Using 21st Century Science of Learning

Authors: Rohan Roberts

Abstract:

The purpose of this project was to collaborate with a group of high-functioning, more-able students (aged 15-18) to promote STEM Education and a love for science by bringing a cosmic perspective into the classroom and high school environment. This was done using 21st century science of learning, a focus on the latest research on Neuroeducation, and modern pedagogical methods based on Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences, Bill Lucas’ theory of New Smarts, and Sir Ken Robinson’s recommendations on encouraging creativity. The result was an increased sense of passion, excitement, and wonder about science in general, and about the marvels of space and the universe in particular. In addition to numerous unique and innovative science-based initiatives, clubs, workshops, and science trips, this project also saw a marked rise in student-teacher collaboration in science learning and in student engagement with the general public through the press, social media, and community-based initiatives. This paper also outlines the practical impact that bringing a cosmic perspective into the classroom has had on the lives, interests, and future career prospects of the students involved in this endeavour.

Keywords: cosmic perspective, gifted and talented, neuro-education, STEM education

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8777 Focus Group Study Exploring Researchers Perspective on Open Science Policy

Authors: E. T. Svahn

Abstract:

Knowledge about the factors that influence the exchange between research and society is of the utmost importance for developing collaboration between different actors, especially in future science policy development and the creation of support structures for researchers. Among other things, how researchers look at the surrounding open science policy environment and what conditions and attitudes they have for interacting with it. This paper examines the Finnish researchers' attitudes towards open science policies in 2020. Open science is an integrated part of researchers' daily lives and supports not only the effectiveness of research outputs but also the quality of research. Open science policy in ideal situation is seen as a supporting structure that enables the exchange between research and society, but in other situation, it can end up being red tape generating obstacles and hindering possibilities of making science in an efficient way. Results of this study were carried out through focus group interviews. This qualitative research method was selected because it aims to understand the phenomenon under study. In addition, focus group interviews produce diverse and rich material that would not be available with other research methods. Focus group interviews have well-established applications in social science, especially in understanding the perspectives and experiences of research subjects. In this study, focus groups were used in studying the mindset and actions of researchers. Each group's size was between 4-10 people, and the aim was to bring out different perspectives on the subject. The interviewer enabled the presentation of different perceptions and opinions, and the focus group interviews were recorded and written as text. The material was analysed using grounded theory method. The results are presented as thematic areas, theoretical model, and as direct quotations. Attitudes towards open science policy can vary greatly depending on the research area. This study shows that the open science policy demands in medicine, technology, and natural sciences compared to social sciences, educational sciences, and the humanities, varies somewhat. The variation in attitudes between different research areas can thus be largely explained by the fact that the research output and ethical code vary significantly between certain subjects. This study aims to increase understanding of the nuances to what extent open science policies should be tailored for different disciplines and research areas.

Keywords: focus group interview, grounded theory, open science policy, science policy

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8776 Active Learning Based on Science Experiments to Improve Scientific Literacy

Authors: Kunihiro Kamataki

Abstract:

In this study, active learning based on simple science experiments was developed in a university class of the freshman, in order to improve their scientific literacy. Through the active learning based on simple experiments of generation of cloud in a plastic bottle, students increased the interest in the global atmospheric problem and were able to discuss and find solutions about this problem positively from various viewpoints of the science technology, the politics, the economy, the diplomacy and the relations among nations. The results of their questionnaires and free descriptions of this class indicate that they improve the scientific literacy and motivations of other classroom lectures to acquire knowledge. It is thus suggested that the science experiment is strong tool to improve their intellectual curiosity rapidly and the connections that link the impression of science experiment and their interest of the social problem is very important to enhance their learning effect in this education.

Keywords: active learning, scientific literacy, simple scientific experiment, university education

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
8775 Gender and Science: Is the Association Universal?

Authors: Neelam Kumar

Abstract:

Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Gender stratification is one of the most prevalent phenomena in the world of science. In most countries gender segregation, horizontal as well as vertical, stands out in the field of science and engineering. India is no exception. This paper aims to examine: (1) gender and science associations, historical as well as contemporary, (2) women’s enrolment and gender differences in selection of academic fields, (2) women as professional researchers, (3) career path and recognition/trajectories. The paper reveals that in recent years the gender–science relationship has changed, but is not totally free from biases. Women’s enrolment into various science disciplines has shown remarkable and steady increase in most parts of the world, including India, yet they remain underrepresented in the S&T workforce, although to a lesser degree than in the past.

Keywords: gender, science, universal, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
8774 Transdisciplinary Methodological Innovation: Connecting Natural and Social Sciences Research through a Training Toolbox

Authors: Jessica M. Black

Abstract:

Although much of natural and social science research aims to enhance human flourishing and address social problems, the training within the two fields is significantly different across theory, methodology, and implementation of results. Social scientists are trained in social, psychological, and to the extent that it is relevant to their discipline, spiritual development, theory, and accompanying methodologies. They tend not to receive training or learn about accompanying methodology related to interrogating human development and social problems from a biological perspective. On the other hand, those in the natural sciences, and for the purpose of this work, human biological sciences specifically – biology, neuroscience, genetics, epigenetics, and physiology – are often trained first to consider cellular development and related methodologies, and may not have opportunity to receive formal training in many of the foundational principles that guide human development, such as systems theory or person-in-environment framework, methodology related to tapping both proximal and distal psycho-social-spiritual influences on human development, and foundational principles of equity, justice and inclusion in research design. There is a need for disciplines heretofore siloed to know one another, to receive streamlined, easy to access training in theory and methods from one another and to learn how to build interdisciplinary teams that can speak and act upon a shared research language. Team science is more essential than ever, as are transdisciplinary approaches to training and research design. This study explores the use of a methodological toolbox that natural and social scientists can use by employing a decision-making tree regarding project aims, costs, and participants, among other important study variables. The decision tree begins with a decision about whether the researcher wants to learn more about social sciences approaches or biological approaches to study design. The toolbox and platform are flexible, such that users could also choose among modules, for instance, reviewing epigenetics or community-based participatory research even if those are aspects already a part of their home field. To start, both natural and social scientists would receive training on systems science, team science, transdisciplinary approaches, and translational science. Next, social scientists would receive training on grounding biological theory and the following methodological approaches and tools: physiology, (epi)genetics, non-invasive neuroimaging, invasive neuroimaging, endocrinology, and the gut-brain connection. Natural scientists would receive training on grounding social science theory, and measurement including variables, assessment and surveys on human development as related to the developing person (e.g., temperament and identity), microsystems (e.g., systems that directly interact with the person such as family and peers), mesosystems (e.g., systems that interact with one another but do not directly interact with the individual person, such as parent and teacher relationships with one another), exosystems (e.g., spaces and settings that may come back to affect the individual person, such as a parent’s work environment, but within which the individual does not directly interact, macrosystems (e.g., wider culture and policy), and the chronosystem (e.g., historical time, such as the generational impact of trauma). Participants will be able to engage with the toolbox and one another to foster increased transdisciplinary work

Keywords: methodology, natural science, social science, transdisciplinary

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8773 Factors Influencing the Adoption of Social Media as a Medium of Public Service Broadcasting

Authors: Seyed Mohammadbagher Jafari, Izmeera Shiham, Masoud Arianfar

Abstract:

The increased usage of Social media for different uses in turn makes it important to develop an understanding of users and their attitudes toward these sites, and moreover, the uses of such sites in a broader perspective such as broadcasting. This quantitative study addressed the problem of factors influencing the adoption of social media as a medium of public service broadcasting in the Republic of Maldives. These powerful and increasingly usable tools, accompanied by large public social media datasets, are bringing in a golden age of social science by empowering researchers to measure social behavior on a scale never before possible. This was conducted by exploring social responses on the use of social media. Research model was developed based on the previous models such as TAM, DOI and Trust combined model. It evaluates the influence of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust, complexity, compatibility and relative advantage influence on the adoption of social Media. The model was tested on a sample of 365 Maldivian people using survey method via questionnaire. The result showed that perceived usefulness, trust, relative advantage and complexity would highly influence the adoption of social media.

Keywords: adoption, broadcasting, maldives, social media

Procedia PDF Downloads 408