Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1589

Search results for: Maxwell’s equations

1589 Magnetohydrodynamic 3D Maxwell Fluid Flow Towards a Horizontal Stretched Surface with Convective Boundary Conditions

Authors: M. Y. Malika, Farzana, Abdul Rehman

Abstract:

The study deals with the steady, 3D MHD boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid flow due to a horizontal surface stretched exponentially in two lateral directions. The temperature at the boundary is assumed to be distributed exponentially and possesses convective boundary conditions. The governing nonlinear system of partial differential equations along with associated boundary conditions is simplified using a suitable transformation and the obtained set of ordinary differential equations is solved through numerical techniques. The effects of important involved parameters associated with fluid flow and heat flux are shown through graphs.

Keywords: boundary layer flow, exponentially stretched surface, Maxwell fluid, numerical solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
1588 Modified Fractional Curl Operator

Authors: Rawhy Ismail

Abstract:

Applying fractional calculus in the field of electromagnetics shows significant results. The fractionalization of the conventional curl operator leads to having additional solutions to an electromagnetic problem. This work restudies the concept of the fractional curl operator considering fractional time derivatives in Maxwell’s curl equations. In that sense, a general scheme for the wave loss term is introduced and the degree of freedom of the system is affected through imposing the new fractional parameters. The conventional case is recovered by setting all fractional derivatives to unity.

Keywords: curl operator, fractional calculus, fractional curl operators, Maxwell equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
1587 Visualization of Energy Waves via Airy Functions in Time-Domain

Authors: E. Sener, O. Isik, E. Eroglu, U. Sahin

Abstract:

The main idea is to solve the system of Maxwell’s equations in accordance with the causality principle to get the energy quantities via Airy functions in a hollow rectangular waveguide. We used the evolutionary approach to electromagnetics that is an analytical time-domain method. The boundary-value problem for the system of Maxwell’s equations is reformulated in transverse and longitudinal coordinates. A self-adjoint operator is obtained and the complete set of Eigen vectors of the operator initiates an orthonormal basis of the solution space. Hence, the sought electromagnetic field can be presented in terms of this basis. Within the presentation, the scalar coefficients are governed by Klein-Gordon equation. Ultimately, in this study, time-domain waveguide problem is solved analytically in accordance with the causality principle. Moreover, the graphical results are visualized for the case when the energy and surplus of the energy for the time-domain waveguide modes are represented via airy functions.

Keywords: airy functions, Klein-Gordon Equation, Maxwell’s equations, Surplus of energy, wave boundary operators

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1586 Effects of G-jitter Combined with Heat and Mass Transfer by Mixed Convection MHD Flow of Maxwell Fluid in a Porous Space

Authors: Faisal Salah, Z. A. Aziz, K. K. Viswanathan

Abstract:

In this article, the effects of g-jitter induced and combined with heat and mass transfer by mixed convection of MHD Maxwell fluid in microgravity situation is investigated for a simple system. This system consists of two heated vertical parallel infinite flat plates held at constant but different temperatures and concentrations. By using modified Darcy’s law, the equations governing the flow are modelled. These equations are solved analytically for the induced velocity, temperature and concentration distributions. Many interesting available results in the relevant literature (i.e. Newtonian fluid) is obtained as the special case of the present general analysis. Finally, the graphical results for the velocity profile of the oscillating flow in the channel are presented and discussed for different values of the material constants.

Keywords: g-jitter, heat and mass transfer, mixed convection, Maxwell fluid, porous medium

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
1585 Pressure Distribution, Load Capacity, and Thermal Effect with Generalized Maxwell Model in Journal Bearing Lubrication

Authors: M. Guemmadi, A. Ouibrahim

Abstract:

This numerical investigation aims to evaluate how a viscoelastic lubricant described by a generalized Maxwell model, affects the pressure distribution, the load capacity and thermal effect in a journal bearing lubrication. We use for the purpose the CFD package software completed by adapted user define functions (UDFs) to solve the coupled equations of momentum, of energy and of the viscoelastic model (generalized Maxwell model). Two parameters, viscosity and relaxation time are involved to show how viscoelasticity substantially affect the pressure distribution, the load capacity and the thermal transfer by comparison to Newtonian lubricant. These results were also compared with the available published results.

Keywords: journal bearing, lubrication, Maxwell model, viscoelastic fluids, computational modelling, load capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
1584 Analytical Solutions for Corotational Maxwell Model Fluid Arising in Wire Coating inside a Canonical Die

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Khan, Rehan Ali Shah

Abstract:

The present paper applies the optimal homotopy perturbation method (OHPM) and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) introduced recently to obtain analytic approximations of the non-linear equations modeling the flow of polymer in case of wire coating of a corotational Maxwell fluid. Expression for the velocity field is obtained in non-dimensional form. Comparison of the results obtained by the two methods at different values of non-dimensional parameter l10, reveal that the OHPM is more effective and easy to use. The OHPM solution can be improved even working in the same order of approximation depends on the choices of the auxiliary functions.

Keywords: corotational Maxwell model, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, optimal homotopy perturbation method, wire coating die

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
1583 Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor Design and Optimization by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Tugce Talay, Kadir Erkan

Abstract:

In this study, the necessary steps for the design of axial flow permanent magnet motors are shown. The design and analysis of the engine were carried out based on ANSYS Maxwell program. The design parameters of the ANSYS Maxwell program and the artificial neural network system were established in MATLAB and the most efficient design parameters were found with the trained neural network. The results of the Maxwell program and the results of the artificial neural networks are compared and optimal working design parameters are found. The most efficient design parameters were submitted to the ANSYS Maxwell 3D design and the cogging torque was examined and design studies were carried out to reduce the cogging torque.

Keywords: AFPM, ANSYS Maxwell, cogging torque, design optimisation, efficiency, NNTOOL

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1582 Electrohydrodynamic Study of Microwave Plasma PECVD Reactor

Authors: Keltoum Bouherine, Olivier Leroy

Abstract:

The present work is dedicated to study a three–dimensional (3D) self-consistent fluid simulation of microwave discharges of argon plasma in PECVD reactor. The model solves the Maxwell’s equations, continuity equations for charged species and the electron energy balance equation, coupled with Poisson’s equation, and Navier-Stokes equations by finite element method, using COMSOL Multiphysics software. In this study, the simulations yield the profiles of plasma components as well as the charge densities and electron temperature, the electric field, the gas velocity, and gas temperature. The results show that the microwave plasma reactor is outside of local thermodynamic equilibrium.The present work is dedicated to study a three–dimensional (3D) self-consistent fluid simulation of microwave discharges of argon plasma in PECVD reactor. The model solves the Maxwell’s equations, continuity equations for charged species and the electron energy balance equation, coupled with Poisson’s equation, and Navier-Stokes equations by finite element method, using COMSOL Multiphysics software. In this study, the simulations yield the profiles of plasma components as well as the charge densities and electron temperature, the electric field, the gas velocity, and gas temperature. The results show that the microwave plasma reactor is outside of local thermodynamic equilibrium.

Keywords: electron density, electric field, microwave plasma reactor, gas velocity, non-equilibrium plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
1581 MHD Stagnation Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Suction in an Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) Fluid

Authors: K. Jafar, R. Nazar, A. Ishak, I. Pop

Abstract:

The present analysis considers the steady stagnation point flow and heat transfer towards a permeable sheet in an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) electrically conducting fluid, with a constant magnetic field applied in the transverse direction to flow, and a local heat generation within the boundary layer with a heat generation rate proportional to (T-T_inf)^p. Using a similarity transformation, the governing system of partial differential equations is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical results are obtained for the flow and thermal fields for various values of the shrinking/stretching parameter lambda, the magnetic parameter M, the elastic parameter K, the Prandtl number Pr, the suction parameter s, the heat generation parameter Q, and the exponent p. The results indicate the existence of dual solutions for the shrinking sheet up to a critical value lambda_c whose value depends on the value of M, K, and s. In the presence of internal heat absorbtion (Q<0), the surface heat transfer rate decreases with increasing p but increases with parameter Q and s, when the sheet is either stretched or shrunk.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), boundary layer flow, UCM fluid, stagnation point, shrinking sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
1580 A Guide for Using Viscoelasticity in ANSYS

Authors: A. Fettahoglu

Abstract:

Theory of viscoelasticity is used by many researchers to represent the behavior of many materials such as pavements on roads or bridges. Several researches used analytical methods and rheology to predict the material behaviors of simple models. Today, more complex engineering structures are analyzed using Finite Element Method, in which material behavior is embedded by means of three dimensional viscoelastic material laws. As a result, structures of unordinary geometry and domain can be analyzed by means of Finite Element Method and three dimensional viscoelastic equations. In the scope of this study, rheological models embedded in ANSYS, namely, generalized Maxwell model and Prony series, which are two methods used by ANSYS to represent viscoelastic material behavior, are presented explicitly. Afterwards, a guide is illustrated to ease using of viscoelasticity tool in ANSYS.

Keywords: ANSYS, generalized Maxwell model, finite element method, Prony series, viscoelasticity, viscoelastic material curve fitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
1579 Classification of Equations of Motion

Authors: Amritpal Singh Nafria, Rohit Sharma, Md. Shami Ansari

Abstract:

Up to now only five different equations of motion can be derived from velocity time graph without needing to know the normal and frictional forces acting at the point of contact. In this paper we obtained all possible requisite conditions to be considering an equation as an equation of motion. After that we classified equations of motion by considering two equations as fundamental kinematical equations of motion and other three as additional kinematical equations of motion. After deriving these five equations of motion, we examine the easiest way of solving a wide variety of useful numerical problems. At the end of the paper, we discussed the importance and educational benefits of classification of equations of motion.

Keywords: velocity-time graph, fundamental equations, additional equations, requisite conditions, importance and educational benefits

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1578 Integrable Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with Self-Consistent Potentials

Authors: Gulgassyl Nugmanova, Zhanat Zhunussova, Kuralay Yesmakhanova, Galya Mamyrbekova, Ratbay Myrzakulov

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider some integrable Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with self-consistent potentials. We study their Lax representations. In particular we derive their equivalent counterparts in the form of nonlinear Schr\"odinger type equations. We present the integrable reductions of the Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with self-consistent potentials. These integrable Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with self-consistent potentials describe nonlinear waves in ferromagnets with some additional physical fields.

Keywords: Heisenberg Ferromagnet equations, soliton equations, equivalence, Lax representation

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1577 Propellant Less Propulsion System Using Microwave Thrusters

Authors: D. Pradeep Mitra, Prafulla

Abstract:

Looking to the word propellant-less system it makes us to believe that it is an impossible one, but this paper demonstrates the use of microwaves to create a system which makes impossible to be possible, it means a propellant-less propulsion system using microwaves. In these thrusters, microwaves are radiated into a sealed parabolic cavity through a waveguide, which act on the surface of the cavity and follow the axis of the thrusters to produce thrust. The advantages of these thrusters are: (1) Producing thrust without propellant; without erosion, wear, and thermal stress from the hot exhaust gas; and at the same time increasing quality. (2) If the microwave output power is stable, the performance of thrusters is not affected by its working environment. This paper is demonstrated from general maxwell equations. These equations are used to create the mathematical model of the thrusters. These mathematical model helps us to calculate the Q factor and calculate the approximate thrust which would be generated in the system.

Keywords: propellant less, microwaves, parabolic wave guide, propulsion system

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
1576 Stimulated Raman Scattering of Ultra Intense Hollow Gaussian Beam

Authors: Prerana Sharma

Abstract:

Effect of relativistic nonlinearity on stimulated Raman scattering of the propagating laser beam carrying null intensity in center (hollow Gaussian beam) by excited plasma wave are studied in a collisionless plasma. The construction of the equations is done employing the fluid theory which is developed with partial differential equation and Maxwell’s equations. The analysis is done using eikonal method. The phenonmenon of Stimulated Raman scattering is shown along with the excitation of seed plasma wave. The power of plasma wave and back reflectivity is observed for higher order of hollow Gaussian beam. Back reflectivity is studied numerically for various orders of HGLB with different value of plasma density, laser power and beam radius. Numerical analysis shows that these parameters play vital role on reflectivity characteristics.

Keywords: Hollow Gaussian beam, relativistic nonlinearity, plasma physics, Raman scattering

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
1575 Error Amount in Viscoelasticity Analysis Depending on Time Step Size and Method used in ANSYS

Authors: A. Fettahoglu

Abstract:

Theory of viscoelasticity is used by many researchers to represent behavior of many materials such as pavements on roads or bridges. Several researches used analytical methods and rheology to predict the material behaviors of simple models. Today, more complex engineering structures are analyzed using Finite Element Method, in which material behavior is embedded by means of three dimensional viscoelastic material laws. As a result, structures of unordinary geometry and domain like pavements of bridges can be analyzed by means of Finite Element Method and three dimensional viscoelastic equations. In the scope of this study, rheological models embedded in ANSYS, namely, generalized Maxwell elements and Prony series, which are two methods used by ANSYS to represent viscoelastic material behavior, are presented explicitly. Subsequently, a practical problem, which has an analytical solution given in literature, is used to verify the applicability of viscoelasticity tool embedded in ANSYS. Finally, amount of error in the results of ANSYS is compared with the analytical results to indicate the influence of used method and time step size.

Keywords: generalized Maxwell model, finite element method, prony series, time step size, viscoelasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1574 Further Results on Modified Variational Iteration Method for the Analytical Solution of Nonlinear Advection Equations

Authors: A. W. Gbolagade, M. O. Olayiwola, K. O. Kareem

Abstract:

In this paper, further to our result on recent paper on the solution of nonlinear advection equations, we present further results on the nonlinear nonhomogeneous advection equations using a modified variational iteration method.

Keywords: lagrange multiplier, non-homogeneous equations, advection equations, mathematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
1573 Stability Analysis and Experimental Evaluation on Maxwell Model of Impedance Control

Authors: Le Fu, Rui Wu, Gang Feng Liu, Jie Zhao

Abstract:

Normally, impedance control methods are based on a model that connects a spring and damper in parallel. The series connection, namely the Maxwell model, has emerged as a counterpart and draw the attention of robotics researchers. In the theoretical analysis, it turns out that the two pattern are both equivalents to some extent, but notable differences of response characteristics exist, especially in the effect of damping viscosity. However, this novel impedance control design is lack of validation on realistic robot platforms. In this study, stability analysis and experimental evaluation are achieved using a 3-fingered Barrett® robotic hand BH8-282 endowed with tactile sensing, mounted on a torque-controlled lightweight and collaborative robot KUKA® LBR iiwa 14 R820. Object handover and incoming objects catching tasks are executed for validation and analysis. Experimental results show that the series connection pattern has much better performance in natural impact or shock absorption, which indicate promising applications in robots’ safe and physical interaction with humans and objects in various environments.

Keywords: impedance control, Maxwell model, force control, dexterous manipulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
1572 New Insight into Fluid Mechanics of Lorenz Equations

Authors: Yu-Kai Ting, Jia-Ying Tu, Chung-Chun Hsiao

Abstract:

New physical insights into the nonlinear Lorenz equations related to flow resistance is discussed in this work. The chaotic dynamics related to Lorenz equations has been studied in many papers, which is due to the sensitivity of Lorenz equations to initial conditions and parameter uncertainties. However, the physical implication arising from Lorenz equations about convectional motion attracts little attention in the relevant literature. Therefore, as a first step to understand the related fluid mechanics of convectional motion, this paper derives the Lorenz equations again with different forced conditions in the model. Simulation work of the modified Lorenz equations without the viscosity or buoyancy force is discussed. The time-domain simulation results may imply that the states of the Lorenz equations are related to certain flow speed and flow resistance. The flow speed of the underlying fluid system increases as the flow resistance reduces. This observation would be helpful to analyze the coupling effects of different fluid parameters in a convectional model in future work.

Keywords: Galerkin method, Lorenz equations, Navier-Stokes equations, convectional motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
1571 Simulation of Reflectometry in Alborz Tokamak

Authors: S. Kohestani, R. Amrollahi, P. Daryabor

Abstract:

Microwave diagnostics such as reflectometry are receiving growing attention in magnetic confinement fusionresearch. In order to obtain the better understanding of plasma confinement physics, more detailed measurements on density profile and its fluctuations might be required. A 2D full-wave simulation of ordinary mode propagation has been written in an effort to model effects seen in reflectometry experiment. The code uses the finite-difference-time-domain method with a perfectly-matched-layer absorption boundary to solve Maxwell’s equations.The code has been used to simulate the reflectometer measurement in Alborz Tokamak.

Keywords: reflectometry, simulation, ordinary mode, tokamak

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1570 On the Relation between λ-Symmetries and μ-Symmetries of Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Teoman Ozer, Ozlem Orhan

Abstract:

This study deals with symmetry group properties and conservation laws of partial differential equations. We give a geometrical interpretation of notion of μ-prolongations of vector fields and of the related concept of μ-symmetry for partial differential equations. We show that these are in providing symmetry reduction of partial differential equations and systems and invariant solutions.

Keywords: λ-symmetry, μ-symmetry, classification, invariant solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
1569 Equations of Pulse Propagation in Three-Layer Structure of As2S3 Chalcogenide Plasmonic Nano-Waveguides

Authors: Leila Motamed-Jahromi, Mohsen Hatami, Alireza Keshavarz

Abstract:

This research aims at obtaining the equations of pulse propagation in nonlinear plasmonic waveguides created with As2S3 chalcogenide materials. Via utilizing Helmholtz equation and first-order perturbation theory, two components of electric field are determined within frequency domain. Afterwards, the equations are formulated in time domain. The obtained equations include two coupled differential equations that considers nonlinear dispersion.

Keywords: nonlinear optics, plasmonic waveguide, chalcogenide, propagation equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
1568 Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Siti Norazura Ahmad

Abstract:

Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.

Keywords: accuracy, extended trapezoidal method, numerical solution, Volterra integro-differential equations

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1567 Reduced Differential Transform Methods for Solving the Fractional Diffusion Equations

Authors: Yildiray Keskin, Omer Acan, Murat Akkus

Abstract:

In this paper, the solution of fractional diffusion equations is presented by means of the reduced differential transform method. Fractional partial differential equations have special importance in engineering and sciences. Application of reduced differential transform method to this problem shows the rapid convergence of the sequence constructed by this method to the exact solution. The numerical results show that the approach is easy to implement and accurate when applied to fractional diffusion equations. The method introduces a promising tool for solving many fractional partial differential equations.

Keywords: fractional diffusion equations, Caputo fractional derivative, reduced differential transform method, partial

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1566 Solutions of Fractional Reaction-Diffusion Equations Used to Model the Growth and Spreading of Biological Species

Authors: Kamel Al-Khaled

Abstract:

Reaction-diffusion equations are commonly used in population biology to model the spread of biological species. In this paper, we propose a fractional reaction-diffusion equation, where the classical second derivative diffusion term is replaced by a fractional derivative of order less than two. Based on the symbolic computation system Mathematica, Adomian decomposition method, developed for fractional differential equations, is directly extended to derive explicit and numerical solutions of space fractional reaction-diffusion equations. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. Finally, the recent appearance of fractional reaction-diffusion equations as models in some fields such as cell biology, chemistry, physics, and finance, makes it necessary to apply the results reported here to some numerical examples.

Keywords: fractional partial differential equations, reaction-diffusion equations, adomian decomposition, biological species

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1565 Tunable Graphene Metasurface Modeling Using the Method of Moment Combined with Generalised Equivalent Circuit

Authors: Imen Soltani, Takoua Soltani, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

Metamaterials crossover classic physical boundaries and gives rise to new phenomena and applications in the domain of beam steering and shaping. Where electromagnetic near and far field manipulations were achieved in an accurate manner. In this sense, 3D imaging is one of the beneficiaries and in particular Denis Gabor’s invention: holography. But, the major difficulty here is the lack of a suitable recording medium. So some enhancements were essential, where the 2D version of bulk metamaterials have been introduced the so-called metasurface. This new class of interfaces simplifies the problem of recording medium with the capability of tuning the phase, amplitude, and polarization at a given frequency. In order to achieve an intelligible wavefront control, the electromagnetic properties of the metasurface should be optimized by means of solving Maxwell’s equations. In this context, integral methods are emerging as an important method to study electromagnetic from microwave to optical frequencies. The method of moment presents an accurate solution to reduce the problem of dimensions by writing its boundary conditions in the form of integral equations. But solving this kind of equations tends to be more complicated and time-consuming as the structural complexity increases. Here, the use of equivalent circuit’s method exhibits the most scalable experience to develop an integral method formulation. In fact, for allaying the resolution of Maxwell’s equations, the method of Generalised Equivalent Circuit was proposed to convey the resolution from the domain of integral equations to the domain of equivalent circuits. In point of fact, this technique consists in creating an electric image of the studied structure using discontinuity plan paradigm and taken into account its environment. So that, the electromagnetic state of the discontinuity plan is described by generalised test functions which are modelled by virtual sources not storing energy. The environmental effects are included by the use of an impedance or admittance operator. Here, we propose a tunable metasurface composed of graphene-based elements which combine the advantages of reflectarrays concept and graphene as a pillar constituent element at Terahertz frequencies. The metasurface’s building block consists of a thin gold film, a dielectric spacer SiO₂ and graphene patch antenna. Our electromagnetic analysis is based on the method of moment combined with generalised equivalent circuit (MoM-GEC). We begin by restricting our attention to study the effects of varying graphene’s chemical potential on the unit cell input impedance. So, it was found that the variation of complex conductivity of graphene allows controlling the phase and amplitude of the reflection coefficient at each element of the array. From the results obtained here, we were able to determine that the phase modulation is realized by adjusting graphene’s complex conductivity. This modulation is a viable solution compared to tunning the phase by varying the antenna length because it offers a full 2π reflection phase control.

Keywords: graphene, method of moment combined with generalised equivalent circuit, reconfigurable metasurface, reflectarray, terahertz domain

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1564 Numerical Solution for Integro-Differential Equations by Using Quartic B-Spline Wavelet and Operational Matrices

Authors: Khosrow Maleknejad, Yaser Rostami

Abstract:

In this paper, semi-orthogonal B-spline scaling functions and wavelets and their dual functions are presented to approximate the solutions of integro-differential equations.The B-spline scaling functions and wavelets, their properties and the operational matrices of derivative for this function are presented to reduce the solution of integro-differential equations to the solution of algebraic equations. Here we compute B-spline scaling functions of degree 4 and their dual, then we will show that by using them we have better approximation results for the solution of integro-differential equations in comparison with less degrees of scaling functions.

Keywords: ıntegro-differential equations, quartic B-spline wavelet, operational matrices, dual functions

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1563 Implication of the Exchange-Correlation on Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

Using the linearized quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) and by considering the role of quantum parameter (Bohm’s potential) and electron exchange-correlation potential in conjunction with Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic wave propagation in a single-walled carbon nanotubes was studied. The electronic excitations are described. By solving the mentioned equations with appropriate boundary conditions and by assuming the low-frequency electromagnetic waves, two general expressions of dispersion relations are derived for the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes, respectively. The dispersion relations are analyzed numerically and it was found that the dependency of dispersion curves with the exchange-correlation effects (which have been ignored in previous works) in the low frequency would be limited. Moreover, it has been realized that asymptotic behaviors of the TE and TM modes are similar in single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The results show that by adding the function of electron exchange-correlation potential lead to the phenomena and make to extend the validity range of QHD model. The results can be important in the study of collective phenomena in nanostructures.

Keywords: transverse magnetic, transverse electric, quantum hydrodynamic model, electron exchange-correlation potential, single-wall carbon nanotubes

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1562 Numerical Wave Solutions for Nonlinear Coupled Equations Using Sinc-Collocation Method

Authors: Kamel Al-Khaled

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical solutions for the nonlinear coupled Korteweg-de Vries, (abbreviated as KdV) equations are calculated by Sinc-collocation method. This approach is based on a global collocation method using Sinc basis functions. First, discretizing time derivative of the KdV equations by a classic finite difference formula, while the space derivatives are approximated by a $\theta-$weighted scheme. Sinc functions are used to solve these two equations. Soliton solutions are constructed to show the nature of the solution. The numerical results are shown to demonstrate the efficiency of the newly proposed method.

Keywords: Nonlinear coupled KdV equations, Soliton solutions, Sinc-collocation method, Sinc functions

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1561 Generalization of Tau Approximant and Error Estimate of Integral Form of Tau Methods for Some Class of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. I. Ma’ali, R. B. Adeniyi, A. Y. Badeggi, U. Mohammed

Abstract:

An error estimation of the integrated formulation of the Lanczos tau method for some class of ordinary differential equations was reported. This paper is concern with the generalization of tau approximants and their corresponding error estimates for some class of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterized by m + s =3 (i.e for m =1, s=2; m=2, s=1; and m=3, s=0) where m and s are the order of differential equations and number of overdetermination, respectively. The general result obtained were validated with some numerical examples.

Keywords: approximant, error estimate, tau method, overdetermination

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1560 Investigating the Invalidity of the Law of Energy Conservation Based on Waves Interference Phenomenon Inside a Ringed Waveguide

Authors: M. Yusefzad

Abstract:

Law of energy conservation is one of the fundamental laws of physics. Energy is conserved, and the total amount of energy is constant. It can be transferred from one object to another and changed from one state to another. However, in the case of wave interference, this law faces important contradictions. Based on the presented mathematical relationship in this paper, it seems that validity of this law depends on the path of energy wave, like light, in which it is located. In this paper, by using some fundamental concepts in physics like the constancy of the electromagnetic wave speed in a specific media and wave theory of light, it will be shown that law of energy conservation is not valid in every condition and in some circumstances, it is possible to increase energy of a system with a determined amount of energy without any input.

Keywords: power, law of energy conservation, electromagnetic wave, interference, Maxwell’s equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 115