Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11351

Search results for: inclusion level

11351 Inclusive Education in Higher Education: Looking from the Lenses of Prospective Teachers

Authors: Kiran, Pooja Bhagat

Abstract:

Inclusion of diversities is much talked and discussed for school education, mainly at the elementary level. However, not enough discourse has taken place as far as the promulgation of diversities from school education to higher education in terms of guarantee of access, retention and success of students belonging to the diverse groups is concerned. In view of this, the present paper attempts to look at the phenomenon of inclusion of diversities in higher education from the perspective of the people, who themselves are the part of the present system of higher education and aspiring to take up teaching at higher education level as profession. The paper focuses on exploring the awareness of the group under study about the inclusion of diversities at higher education, their perception of diversities, and the mechanism which they consider effective to facilitate inclusion.

Keywords: inclusion, higher education, perception, belief, attitude

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11350 Impact of Financial Inclusion on Gender Inequality: An Empirical Examination

Authors: Sumanta Kumar Saha, Jie Qin

Abstract:

This study analyzes the impact of financial inclusion on gender inequality in 126 countries belonging to different income groups during the 2005–2019 period. Due to its positive influence on poverty alleviation, economic growth, women empowerment, and income inequality reduction, financial inclusion may help reduce gender equality. This study constructs a novel composite financial inclusion index and applies both fixed-effect panel estimation and instrumental variable approach to examine the impact of financial inclusion on gender inequality. The results indicate that financial inclusion can reduce gender inequality in developing and low- and lower-middle-income countries, but not in higher-income countries. The impact is not always immediate. Past financial inclusion initiatives have a significant influence on future gender inequality. Financial inclusion is also significant if the poverty level is high and women's access to financial services is low compared to men. When the poverty level is low, or women have equal access to financial services, financial inclusion does not significantly affect gender inequality. The study finds that compulsory education and improvement in institutional quality promote gender equality in developing countries apart from financial inclusion. The study proposes that lower-income countries use financial inclusion initiatives to improve gender equality. Other countries need to focus on other aspects such as promoting educational support and institutional quality improvements to achieve gender equality.

Keywords: financial inclusion, gender inequality, institutional quality, women empowerment

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11349 Critical Thinking Skills in Activities Included in 11th Grade Chemistry Textbook - An Analytical Study

Authors: Sozan H. Omar, Luluah A. Al Jabr

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The current study aimed to identify critical thinking skills and its level of inclusion in all the activities (44) listed in 11th grade chemistry textbooks. The researcher used a descriptive analytical method by using the content analyzing design. An instrument was created for this purpose and tested for validity and reliability. Results showed that, all activities included critical thinking skills with different ratios as follow: conclusion skill was (87.72%), induction skill was (80.90%), interpretation skill was (77. 72%), discussion of evaluation skill was (68.64%), and assumption skill was (50.45%). Also, the study results indicated that, the level of inclusion of critical thinking skills in the scientific activities was more explicit than implicit with same order as the level of inclusions. In the light of the study's results, the researcher provided some recommendations including the need to provide and redistribute critical thinking skills in the activities listed the chemistry textbook, as well as the need to pay attention to the inclusion level of these skills more implicitly in the activities.

Keywords: critical thinking skills, chemistry textbooks, scientific activities

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11348 Financial Inclusion for Inclusive Growth in an Emerging Economy

Authors: Godwin Chigozie Okpara, William Chimee Nwaoha

Abstract:

The paper set out to stress on how financial inclusion index could be calculated and also investigated the impact of inclusive finance on inclusive growth in an emerging economy. In the light of these objectives, chi-wins method was used to calculate indexes of financial inclusion while co-integration and error correction model were used for evaluation of the impact of financial inclusion on inclusive growth. The result of the analysis revealed that financial inclusion while having a long-run relationship with GDP growth is an insignificant function of the growth of the economy. The speed of adjustment is correctly signed and significant. On the basis of these results, the researchers called for tireless efforts of government and banking sector in promoting financial inclusion in developing countries.

Keywords: chi-wins index, co-integration, error correction model, financial inclusion

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11347 Existence Result of Third Order Functional Random Integro-Differential Inclusion

Authors: D. S. Palimkar

Abstract:

The FRIGDI (functional random integrodifferential inclusion) seems to be new and includes several known random differential inclusions already studied in the literature as special cases have been discussed in the literature for various aspects of the solutions. In this paper, we prove the existence result for FIGDI under the non-convex case of multi-valued function involved in it.Using random fixed point theorem of B. C. Dhage and caratheodory condition. This result is new to the theory of differential inclusion.

Keywords: caratheodory condition, random differential inclusion, random solution, integro-differential inclusion

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11346 Usage of Internet Technology in Financial Education and Financial Inclusion by Students of Economics Universities

Authors: B. Frączek

Abstract:

The paper analyses the usage of the Internet by university students in Visegrad Countries (4V Countries) who study economic fields in their formal and informal financial education and captures the areas of untapped potential of Internet in educational processes. Higher education and training, technological readiness, and the financial market development are in the group of pillars, that are key for efficiency driven economies. These three pillars have become an inspiration to the research on using the Internet in the financial education among economic university students as the group of the best educated people in finance. The financial education is a process that allows for improving the level of financial literacy. In turn, the financial literacy it is the set of financial knowledge, skills, awareness and patterns influencing the financial decisions. The level of financial literacy influences the level of financial well-being of individuals, determines the scale of saving of households and at the same time gives the greater chance for sustainable and more predictable development of the financial market with the positive impact on economy. The financial literacy is necessary for each group of society but its appropriate level is desirable especially in respect of economics students as future participants of financial markets as well as the experts and advisors in financial decision making. The low level of financial literacy is the great problem of many target groups in both developing and developed countries and the financial education is seen as the best way of improving this situation. Also the financial inclusion plays the special role in enhancing the level of financial literacy in the aspect of education by practice as well as due to interrelation between level of financial literacy and degree of financial inclusion. Despite many initiatives under financial education, the level of financial literacy is still very low. Scientists still search for new ways of solving this problem. One of the proposal is more effective usage of the new technology in financial education, especially the Internet, because of the growing popularity of e-learning and the increasing number of Internet users, especially among young people who are called the Generation Net. Due to special role of the university students studying the economics fields for the future financial markets, students of four universities from Visegrad Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) were invited to participate in the survey. The aim of the article is to present the level and ways of using the Internet technology in financial education and indicating the so far unused or underused opportunities.

Keywords: financial education, financial inclusion, financial literacy, internet and university education

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11345 The Role of Islamic Finance and Socioeconomic Factors in Financial Inclusion: A Cross Country Comparison

Authors: Allya Koesoema, Arni Ariani

Abstract:

While religion is only a very minor factor contributing to financial exclusion in most countries, the World Bank 2014 Global Financial Development Report highlighted it as a significant barrier for having a financial account in some Muslim majority countries. This is in part due to the perceived incompatibility between traditional financial institutions practices and Islamic finance principles. In these cases, the development of financial institutions and products that are compatible with the principles of Islamic finance may act as an important lever to increasing formal account ownership. However, there is significant diversity in the relationship between a country’s proportion of Muslim population and its level of financial inclusion. This paper combines data taken from the Global Findex Database, World Development Indicators, and the Pew Research Center to quantitatively explore the relationship between individual and country level religious and socioeconomic factor to financial inclusion. Results from regression analyses show a complex relationship between financial inclusion and religion-related factors in the population both on the individual and country level. Consistent with prior literature, on average the percentage of Islamic population positively correlates with the proportion of unbanked populations who cites religious reasons as a barrier to getting an account. However, its impact varies across several variables. First, a deeper look into countries’ religious composition reveals that the average negative impact of a large Muslim population is not as strong in more religiously diverse countries and less religious countries. Second, on the individual level, among the unbanked, the poorest quintile, least educated, older and the female populations are comparatively more likely to not have an account because of religious reason. Results also show indications that in this case, informal mechanisms partially substitute formal financial inclusion, as indicated by the propensity to borrow from family and friends. The individual level findings are important because the demographic groups that are more likely to cite religious reasons as barriers to formal financial inclusion are also generally perceived to be more vulnerable socially and economically and may need targeted attention. Finally, the number of Islamic financial institutions in a particular country is negatively correlated to the propensity of religious reasons as a barrier to financial inclusion. Importantly, the number of financial institutions in a country also mitigates the negative impact of the proportion of Muslim population, low education and individual age to formal financial inclusion. These results point to the potential importance of Islamic Finance Institutions in increasing global financial inclusion, and highlight the potential importance of looking beyond the proportion of Muslim population to other underlying institutional and socioeconomic factor in maximizing its impact.

Keywords: cross country comparison, financial inclusion, Islamic banking and finance, quantitative methods, socioeconomic factors

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11344 Examining K-12 In-Service Teachers’ Comfort Level with the Social Model of Disability and Its Impact on Inclusive Measures in the Classroom

Authors: Frederic Fovet

Abstract:

Inclusive provisions have been statutorily mandated in North America for now over two decades. Despite a growing body of literature around inclusive practices, many in-service teachers continue to express difficulties when it comes to tangible implementation of inclusion in the everyday classroom. While there is debate around the various forms inclusion can take (UDL, differentiation, personalization, etc.), there appears to be a more significant hurdle in getting in-service teachers to fully embrace inclusion both as a goal and a practice. This paper investigates teachers’ degree of awareness around the Social Model of Disability. It argues that teachers often lack basic awareness of disability studies, more particularly of the Social Model of Disability, and that this has a direct impact on their capacity to conceptualize and embrace inclusion. The paper draws from the researcher’s experience as a graduate instructor with in-service teachers, as well as from his experience as a consultant working with schools and school boards. The methodology chosen here is phenomenology, and it draws on tools such as auto-ethnography. The paper opens a discussion around the reform and transformation of pre-service teacher training. It argues that disability studies should be integrated into teacher training as it plays a key role in having teachers develop a theoretical understanding of disability as a social construct.

Keywords: disability, K-12, inclusion, social model, in-service teachers

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11343 Simulation of Binary Nitride Inclusions Effect on Tensile Properties of Steel

Authors: Ali Dalirbod, Peyman Ahmadian

Abstract:

Inclusions are unavoidable part of all steels. Non-metallic inclusions have significant effects on mechanical properties of steel. The effects of inclusion on stress concentration around the matrix/inclusion have been extensively studied. The results relating to single inclusion behavior, describe properly the behavior of stress but not the elongation drop. The raised stress in inclusion/matrix results in crack initiation. The influence of binary inclusions on stress concentration around matrix is a major aim of this work which is representative of the simple pattern distribution of non-metallic inclusions. Stress concentration around inclusions in this case depends on parameters like distance between two inclusions (d), angle between centrally linking line of two inclusions, load axis (φ), and rotational angle of inclusion (θ). FEM analysis was applied to investigate the highest and lowest ductility versus varying parameters above. The simulation results show that there is a critical distance between two cubic inclusions in which bigger than the threshold, the stress, and strain field in matrix/inclusions interface converts into individual fields around each inclusion.

Keywords: nitride inclusion, simulation, tensile properties, inclusion-matrix interface

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11342 Sensory Evaluation of Meat from Broilers Bird Fed Detoxified Jatropher Curcas and that Fed Conventional Feed

Authors: W. S. Lawal, T. A. Akande

Abstract:

Four (4) different methods were employed to detoxified jatropha caucas, they are physical method (if include soaking and drying) chemical method (use of methylated spirit, hexane and methene) biological method,(use of Aspergillus niger and Sunday for 7 days and then baccillus lichifarming) and finally combined method (combination of all these methods). Phobol esther andysis was carried out after the detoxification and was found that combined method is better off (P>0.05). 100 broiler birds was used to further test the effect of detoxified Jatropha by combined method, 50 birds for Jatropha made feed at 10 birds per treatment and was replicated five times, this was also repeated for another 50 birds fed conventional feed, Jatropha made feed was compranded at 8% inclusion level. At the end of the 8th weeks, 8 birds were sacrificed each from each treatment and one bird each was fry, roast, boil and grilled from both conventional and Jatropha fed birds and panelist were served for evaluation. It was found that feeding Jatropha to poultry birds has no effect on the taste of the meat.

Keywords: phobol esther, inclusion level, tolerance level, Jatropha carcass

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11341 Disability and Education towards Inclusion

Authors: Amratpal Kaur

Abstract:

The right to education is universal in nature. This right has been enshrined in Indian Constitution and in various significant international documents. Unfortunately, despite of comprehensive legislation at the regional and international level 98% children with disabilities in developing countries don’t attend schools. Vast majority of children suffering from disability in developing nations lack basic literacy. The paper discusses in detail that the term inclusive education has got impetus all over the world and more so in India in the last decade. India has committed itself to the development of an inclusive education system as it is signatory to the Salamanca Statement and it has strived to achieve it thereon. Due to the shift from medical to social model of disability the emphasis is on inclusive school, so that the disabled children can be integrated in the mainstream easily. Thus, the idea is to educate disabled children along with their peers. The paper focuses on developing a clear understanding of inclusive education and identifying strategies to enhance the education of all children at the regional and international level.

Keywords: inclusion, disability, education, policy

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11340 Financial Inclusion in Indonesia and Its Challenges

Authors: Yen Sun, Pariang Siagian

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The aim of this paper is to examine the progress of financial inclusion in Indonesia. The object of this paper is Micro Enterprises (MEs) and methodology used will be qualitative method by using surveys and questionnaires. The results show that there are still 20% MEs have no banking facilities at all and about 78% MEs still use their own capital to run their business. Furthermore, personal characteristics such as gender and education are factors that can explain financial inclusion. It is also said that in general MEs need banking product and services. However, there are still barriers that hinder them to be financially included. The most barriers they have to face are marketing exclusion. It shows that they have lack information about banking product and services since marketing strategy from bank is not disseminated clearly through various media.

Keywords: financial inclusion, financial exclusion, micro enterprises, Indonesia

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11339 Financial Inclusion from the Perspective of Social Innovation: The Case of Colombia

Authors: Maria Luisa Jaramillo, Alvaro Turriago Hoyos, Ulf Thoene

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Financial inclusion has become a crucially important factor in debates on economic inequality posing challenges to the financial systems of countries around the world. Nowadays, governments and banks are concerned about creating products that allow access to wide sectors of the population. The creation of banking products by the financial sector for people with low incomes tends to lead to improvements in the quality of life of vulnerable parts of the population. In countries with notable social and economic inequalities financial inclusion is a key aspect for equitable economic growth. This study is based on the case of Colombia, which is a country with a strong record of economic growth over the past decade. Nevertheless, corruption, unemployment, and poverty contribute to uncertainty regarding the country’s future growth prospects. This study wants to explain the situation of financial exclusion and financial inclusion with respect to the Colombian case. Financial inclusion is going to be studied from the perspective of social innovation.

Keywords: Colombia, financial exclusion, financial inclusion, social innovation

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11338 Social Capital and Adoption of Sustainable Management Practices of Non Timber Forest Product in Cameroon

Authors: Eke Bala Sophie Michelle

Abstract:

The renewable resource character of NTFPs is an opportunity to its sustainability, this study analyzed the role of social capital in the adoption of sustainable management practices of NTFPs by households in the community forest (CF) Morikouali-ye. The analysis shows that 67% of households surveyed perceive the level of degradation of NTFPs in their CF as time passes and are close to 74% for adoption of sustainable management practices of NTFPs that are domestication, sustainable management of the CF, the logging ban trees and uprooting plants, etc. 26% refused to adopt these practices estimate that, at 39% it is better to promote logging in the CF. The estimated probit model shows that social capital through trust, solidarity and social inclusion significantly influences the probability of households to adopt sustainable NTFP management practices. In addition, age, education level and income from the sale of NTFPs have a significant impact on the probability of adoption. The probability of adoption increases with the level of education and confidence among households. So should they be animated by a spirit of solidarity and trust and not let a game of competition for sustainable management of NTFPs in their CF.

Keywords: community forest, social capital, NTFP, trust, solidarity, social inclusion, sustainable management

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11337 Effect of Moringa (Moringa oleifera LAM) Leaves Extract on Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Fullfat and Lowfat Yoghurt

Authors: B. F. Muhammad, A. M. Abdulqadeer

Abstract:

The current study determined the effect of fortification using Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Leaves Extract (MLE) at different inclusion levels (0, 6, 8, and 10% v/v) on physicochemical and sensory properties of fullfat (FFY) and lowfat (LFY) yoghurt. The results revealed significantly higher protein (p<0.01), fat (p<0.001) and pH in FFY compared to LFY. The MLE inclusion significantly (p<0.001) increased fat contents of the yoghurt types. The pH of LFY produced with 6% MLE was significantly the lowest (p<0.001). The concentration of Mg (21.0 mg/100g), Na (63.0 mg/100g), Ca (173.0 mg/100g), P (416.7 mg/100g), Cu (0.59 mg/100g), Co (0.30 mg/100g), Fe (1.13 mg/100g), and Mn (0.059 mg/100g) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in 10% MLE inclusion level for both FFY and LFY. Also, Mg, Na, Cu and Fe showed significant (p<0.001) negative correlation in fullfat and positive in lowfat yoghurt. The sensory assessment revealed that taste, flavour, colour, texture, and overall acceptability of yoghurt produced with 6% MLE (rated as liked very much) was significantly (p<0.001) better than that produced with 8 and 10% (rated liked slightly). It was concluded that fortification of FFY and LFY with 6% MLE produced acceptable yoghurt that has high nutritional value.

Keywords: moringa, fortification, yoghurt, bioactive compounds

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11336 Deposit Insurance and Financial Inclusion in the Economic Community of Central African States

Authors: Antoine F. Dedewanou, Eric N. Ekpinda

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We investigate whether and how deposit insurance program affects savings decisions in the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Specifically, using the World Bank’s 2014 and 2011 Global Financial Inclusion (Global Findex) databases, we apply special regressor approach. We find that the deposit insurance program increases significantly, everything else equal, the probability that people save their money at a financial institution by 11 percentage points in Gabon, by 22.2 percentage points in DR Congo and by 15.1 percentage points in Chad. These effects are matched with positive effects of age and education level. But in Cameroon, the effect of deposit insurance is not significant. The policies aimed at fostering financial inclusion will be more effective if there is a deposit insurance scheme in place, along with awareness among young people, and education programs. JEL Classification: G21, O12, O16

Keywords: deposit insurance, savings, special regressor, ECCAS countries

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11335 Reimagining Financial Inclusion in the Post COVID-19 World: The Case of Grameen America

Authors: Rania Mousa, Peterson Ozili

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A key agenda of policymakers in developed and developing countries is to increase the level of financial inclusion. Microlending institutions have been recognized as important agents of financial inclusion, which have the potential to achieve this objective and help move toward a more accessible, inclusive, and equitable path to financial sustainability. In that respect, this case study attempts to identify and assess the key initiatives undertaken by Grameen America as it responded to the COVID-19 pandemic within the framework of selected United Nations’ Sustainability Development Goals (UN’s SD Goals). This study goes beyond the stated objective by using the vulnerable group theory and special agent theory of financial inclusion to support the analysis of financial and non-financial information collected from Grameen America’s Annual Reports and audited financial statements. The study follows a qualitative content analysis method to precisely gauge the shift in Grameen’s strategy and focus, as well as to assess the impact of its initiatives on the small business community before and after the pandemic. The findings showcase that Grameen’s longstanding mission to alleviate poverty is in line with the UN’s Sustainability Development Goal 1. Furthermore, Grameen’s commitment to creating partnerships with external organizations to offer credit and non-credit services and support is consistent with UN’s Sustainability Development Goal 17. The study suggests that policymakers should foster the creation of more member-based financial and non-financial institutions which are ethically and morally responsible to their members in both good and bad times.

Keywords: COVID-19, financial inclusion, microfinance, sustainable development, microlending

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11334 Training as Barrier for Implementing Inclusion for Students with Learning Difficulties in Mainstream Primary Schools in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed Alhammad

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The movement towards the inclusion of students with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream schools has become widely accepted practice in many countries. However in Saudi Arabia, this is not happening. Instead the practice for students with learning difficulties (LD) is to study in special classrooms in mainstream schools and they are not included with their peers, except at break times and morning assembly, and on school trips. There are a number of barriers that face implementing inclusion for students with LD in mainstream classrooms: one such barrier is the training of teachers. The training, either pre- or in-service, that teachers receive is seen as playing an important role in leading to the successful implementation of inclusion. The aim of this presentation is to explore how pre-service training and in-service training are acting as barriers for implementing inclusion of students with LD in mainstream primary schools in Saudi Arabia from the perspective of teachers. The qualitative research approach was used to explore this barrier. Twenty-four teachers (general education teachers, special education teachers) were interviewed using semi-structured interview and a number of documents were used as method of data collection. The result showed teachers felt that not much attention was paid to inclusion in pre-services training for general education teachers and special education teachers in Saudi Arabia. In addition, pre-service training for general education teachers does not normally including modules on special education. Regarding the in-service training, no courses at all about inclusion are provided for teachers. Furthermore, training courses in special education are few. As result, the knowledge and skills required to implemented inclusion successfully.

Keywords: inclusion, learning difficulties, Saudi Arabia, training

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11333 Investigations of Inclusion Complexes of Imazapyr with 2-Hydroxypropyl(β/γ) Cyclodextrin Experimental and Molecular Modeling Approach

Authors: Abdalla A. Elbashir, Maali Saad Mokhtar, FakhrEldin O. Suliman

Abstract:

The inclusion complexes of imazapyr (IMA) with 2-hydroxypropyl(β/γ) cyclodextrins (HP β/γ-CD), have been studied in aqueous media and in the solid state. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and HNMR were used to investigate and characterize the inclusion complexes of IMA with the cyclodextrins in solutions. The solid-state complexes were obtained by freeze-drying and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The most predominant complexes of IMA with both hosts are the 1:1 guest: host complexes. The association constants of IMA-HP β-CD and IMA-HP γ -CD were 115 and 215 L mol⁻¹, respectively. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were used to monitor the mode of inclusion and also to investigate the stability of these complexes in aqueous media at atomistic levels. The results obtained have indicated that these inclusion complexes are highly stable in aqueous media, thereby corroborating the experimental results. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that in addition to hydrophobic interactions and van der Waals interactions the presence of hydrogen bonding interactions of the type H---O and CH---O between the guest and the host have enhanced the stability of these complexes remarkably.

Keywords: imazapyr, inclusion complex, herbicides, 2-hydroxypropyl-β/γ-cyclodextrin

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11332 Islamic Banking: An Ultimate Source of Financial Inclusion

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

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Promotion of socioeconomic justice through redistribution of wealth is one of the most salient features of Islamic economic system. Islamic financial institutions known as Islamic banks are used to implement this in practice under the guidelines of Islamic Shariah law. Islamic banking systems strive to promote and achieve financial inclusion among the society by offering interest-free banking and risk-sharing financing solutions. Shariah-compliant micro finance is one of the most popular financial instruments used by Islamic banks to enhance access to finance. Benevolent loan (or Qard-al-Hassanah) is one of the popular financial tools used by the Islamic banks to promote financial inclusion. This aspect of Islamic banking is empirically examined in this paper with specific reference to firm’s resources, largely defined here as intellectual capital. The paper finds that Islamic banks promote financial inclusion by exploiting available resources especially, the human intellectual capital.

Keywords: financial inclusion, intellectual capital, Qard-al-Hassanah, Islamic banking

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11331 Umbilical Epidermal Inclusion Cysts, a Rare Cause of Umbilical Mass: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Christine Li, Amanda Robertson

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Epidermal inclusion cysts occur when epidermal cells are implanted in the dermis following trauma, or surgery. They are a rare cause of an umbilical mass, with very few cases previously reported following abdominal surgery. These lesions can present with a range of symptoms, including palpable mass, pain, redness, or discharge. This paper reports a case of an umbilical epidermal inclusion cyst in a 52-year-old female presenting with a six-week history of a painful, red umbilical lump on a background of two previous diagnostic laparoscopies. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans revealed non-specific soft tissue thickening in the umbilical region. This was successfully treated with complete excision of the lesion. Umbilical lumps are a common presentation but can represent a diagnostic challenge. The differential diagnosis should include an epidermal inclusion cyst, particularly in a patient who has had previous abdominal surgery, including laparoscopic surgery.

Keywords: epidermal inclusion cyst, laparoscopy, umbilical mass, umbilicus

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11330 Effect of Inclusion of Moringa oleifera Leaf on Physiological Responses of Broiler Chickens at Finisher Phase during Hot-Dry Season

Authors: Oyegunle Emmanuel Oke, A. O. Onabajo, M. O. Abioja, F. O. Sorungbe, D. E. Oyetunji, J. A. Abiona, A. O. Ladokun, O. M. Onagbesan

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion levels of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) on growth and physiological responses of broiler chickens during hot-dry season in Nigeria. Two hundred and forty (240) day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments having four replicates each. Each replicate had 15 birds. The levels of inclusion were 0g (Control group), 4g, 8g and 12g/Kg feed. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. The results of the study revealed that the initial body weight was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in birds fed 12g/kg diet than those fed 0, 4, and 8g MOLP. The birds fed 0, 4 and 8g/kg diet however had similar weights. The final body weight was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the birds fed 12g MOLP than those fed 0, 4 and 8g MOLP. The final weights were similar in the birds fed 4 and 8g/kg diet but higher (P < 0.05) than those of the birds in the control group. The body weight gain was similar in birds fed 0 and 4g MOLP but significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the birds in 12g/kg diet. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the feed intake. The serum albumin of the birds fed 12g MOLP/Kg diet (48.85g/L) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mean value of those fed the control diet 0 and 8g MOLP/Kg diets having 36.05 and 37.10g/L respectively. Birds fed 12g MOLP/Kg feed recorded the lowest level of triglyceride (122.75g/L) which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the birds fed 0 and 4g/kg diet MOLP. The serum corticosterone decreased with increase in MOLP inclusion levels. The birds fed 12g MOLP had the least value. This study has shown that MOLP may contain potent antioxidants capable of ameliorating the effects of heat stress in broiler chickens with 12g MOLP inclusion.

Keywords: physiology, performance, heat stress, anti-oxidant

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11329 Inclusion of Transgender in Mainstream Secondary Schools of Bangladesh: Perceptions and Issues

Authors: Shanaj Parvin Jonaki

Abstract:

After the first wave of the feminist movement, gender has become one of the most important issues to be researched in social science. Many gender theories have been invented and opened a new window to look at. These works showed how gender is a social construct, how gender has been used to oppress, how to rule. While it's the education system’s duty to guide students to understand the concept of gender, it sometimes shows gender-based discrimination. Transgenders exclusion from educational institutes of Bangladesh justifies this very statement. This study aims to figure out how people perceive transgenders’ identity, their inclusion in secondary schools, as well as the underlying barriers in the pathway of inclusion in the context of Bangladesh. A qualitative approach was taken to explore different perspectives towards transgender inclusion from several stakeholders such as students, parents, and teachers of secondary schools and transgenders as well. Data were collected through focus group discussion and interview by convenient sampling. 15 students, 10 parents, and 5 teachers were selected from Bangla Medium school as well as from Madrasha. Collected data were analyzed thematically and were run by experts of gender, education, and psychology to identify the core barriers of inclusion. The study revealed that most of the students, teachers, and parents lacked the knowledge of non-binary gender identities, and they showed unwillingness towards the inclusion of transgender in schools because of the cultural context of Bangladesh. Moreover, this study suggests future initiatives to be taken to ensure the inclusion of transgenders in a secondary school in our country and analyzes it through the lens of feminist theories.

Keywords: education, gender, inclusion, transgender

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11328 Green Function and Eshelby Tensor Based on Mindlin’s 2nd Gradient Model: An Explicit Study of Spherical Inclusion Case

Authors: A. Selmi, A. Bisharat

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Using Fourier transform and based on the Mindlin's 2nd gradient model that involves two length scale parameters, the Green's function, the Eshelby tensor, and the Eshelby-like tensor for a spherical inclusion are derived. It is proved that the Eshelby tensor consists of two parts; the classical Eshelby tensor and a gradient part including the length scale parameters which enable the interpretation of the size effect. When the strain gradient is not taken into account, the obtained Green's function and Eshelby tensor reduce to its analogue based on the classical elasticity. The Eshelby tensor in and outside the inclusion, the volume average of the gradient part and the Eshelby-like tensor are explicitly obtained. Unlike the classical Eshelby tensor, the results show that the components of the new Eshelby tensor vary with the position and the inclusion dimensions. It is demonstrated that the contribution of the gradient part should not be neglected.

Keywords: Eshelby tensor, Eshelby-like tensor, Green’s function, Mindlin’s 2nd gradient model, spherical inclusion

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11327 Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Sultanate Oman Schools

Authors: Ibrahim Azem

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of regular classroom teachers, special education teachers, principals, social workers, parents of students without disabilities and parents of students with disabilities, in Sultanate Oman towards inclusion of students with disabilities in the general school setting. Participants’ Four hundred fifty schools were selected randomly from all public schools in Sultanate Oman. From these schools 2,025 individuals volunteered to participate in this study. The Attitude Scale toward inclusion was used to measure adults’ attitudes toward teaching students with disabilities with their peers in an inclusive classroom. The scale was developed based on the conceptualization of attitude as a tri component evaluation consisting of cognitive, affective, and behavioral intention. To investigate the validity and the reliability of the scale, it shows that it has valid appropriate connotations and reliability. The results of the study showed that the adult’s role had significant effect (p < .05) on the participants’ attitudes toward inclusion. Moreover, the results indicated significant (p < .05) gender differences in the attitudes toward inclusion, males scored significantly (p < .05) higher than females. The result of the study also showed that the special education teachers had positives attitudes more than the other type of stakeholders.

Keywords: inclusion, students with disabilities, Oman, stakeholders

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11326 Social Inclusion of Rural Elderly Left Behind by Internal Labor Migration: A Case Study in a Chinese Rural Village in Anhui Province

Authors: Lei Liu

Abstract:

Since the famous opening up and reform strategy of China, lots of migrants have flowed from rural areas to urban areas. In this paper, the author investigates the rural elderly left behind, which are defined aged people left alone at home while their adult children have to migrant outside. This phenomenon is a quite general and serious social problem that cannot be ignored, accompanied by the process of urbanization and regional transferring of rural labor. The Chinese internal migration not only exerts great influence to China’s economy and urbanization but also obviously reduces the labor and care to rural aged people. Contrary to assumptions in some migration and aging studies, which show the inevitable negative effects of migration upon the old age care, the author highlights unique features in their daily strategies of house holding to integrate into society with the analysis of the conception of social inclusion. Through life history interviews with elderly left behind in one rural village, this article sheds light on three different factors of social inclusion, namely, economic inclusion, social identity and political inclusion and shows its necessaries to fully understand the status of the social wellbeing of rural elderly left behind.

Keywords: labor migration, elderly left behind, social inclusion, rural China

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11325 Effect of Graded Levels of Detoxified Jatropha cursas on the Performance Characteristics of Cockerel Birds

Authors: W. S. Lawal, T. Akande

Abstract:

Abstract— Four (4) difference methods were employed to detoxify Jatropha carcas, they were physical method (it include soaking and sun drying) Chemical (the use of methylated sprit, hexane and methane). Biological (the use of Aspergillus niger and then sundry for 7days and then Bacillus lichiformis) and Combined method (the combination of chemical and biological methods). Phobol esther analysis was carried out after the detoxification methods and it was found that the combined method is better off (P<0.05). Detoxified Jatropha from each of this methods was sundry and grinded for easy inclusion into poultry feed, detoxified jatropha was included at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% but the combined method was increased up to 7% because the birds were able to tolerate it, the 0% was the control experiment. 405 day old broiler chicks was used to test the effect of detoxified Jatropha carcas on their performance, there are 5birds per treatment and there are 3 replicates, the experiment lasted for 8weeks,highest number of mortality was obtained in physical method, birds in chemical method tolerated up to 3% Jatropha carcas, biological method is better, as birds there were comfortable at 5% but the best of them is combined method the birds did very well at 7% as there were less mortality and highest weight gain was achieved here (P<0.05) and it was recommended.

Keywords: phobol esther, inclusion level, tolerance level, Jatropha carcas

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11324 Growth Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Isa Brown Pullet Chicks Fed Diets Containing Turmeric and Clove

Authors: Ayoola Doris Ayodele, Grace Oluwatoyin Tayo, Martha Dupe Olumide, Opeyemi Arinola Ajayi, Ayodeji Taofeek Ayo-Bello

Abstract:

Antibiotics have been widely used in animal nutrition to improve growth performance and health worldwide for many decades. However, there are rising concerns on the negative impact of dependence on antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) to improve animal performance despite its tremendous use. The need to improve performance in poultry production creates demand for natural alternative sources. Phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are plant-derived natural bioactive compounds that could be incorporated into animal feed to enhance livestock productivity. The effect of Turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove as feed additive was evaluated on performance and intestinal morphology of egg type chickens. 504- fifteen day old Isa brown chicks were weighed and randomly distributed to nine dietary treatments by a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (test ingredient x inclusion level) in a completely randomized design, with four replicates of 14 birds each. The birds were fed Chick starter diet containing (2800 kcal/kg ME; 20.8% CP). Dietary treatments were Group 1 (T1- basal diet with 0% Turmeric inclusion), (T2- basal diet with 1% Turmeric inclusion), (T3- basal diet with 2% Turmeric inclusion). Group 2 (T4- basal diet with 0% clove inclusion), (T5- basal diet with 1% clove inclusion), (T6- basal diet with 2% clove inclusion). Group 3, turmeric + clove combination on 1:1 ratio weight for weight (T7- basal diet with 0% turmeric + 0% clove inclusion), (T8- basal diet with 0.5% turmeric + 0.5 clove% inclusion), (T9- basal diet with 1% turmeric + 1% clove inclusion). Performance parameters were evaluated throughout the experiment. The experiment spanned from day 15 to 56. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test with significance of P≤ 0.05. Significant differences (P>0.05) were not observed in final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and FCR among birds fed with diets containing across the treatments. However, birds fed with test ingredients showed higher numerical values in final body weight and weight gain when compared to the birds without additive. Birds on T8 had the highest final body weight value of 617.33 g and low values in all the control treatments (T1 -588 g, T4- 572 g and T7 -584 g). At day 56, intestinal samples were taken from the jejunum and ileum to evaluate the villus height, crypt depth and villus: crypt depth ratio. Addition of turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove in the diet produced significant (P< 0.05) effect on Jejunum and ileum of birds. Therefore, Turmeric and clove can be used as feed additives for pullet birds because they have a positive effect on growth performance and intestinal morphology of pullet chicks.

Keywords: clove, intestinal morphology, isa brown chicks, performance, turmeric

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11323 Role of Vocational Education and Training in Economic Excellence and Social Inclusion

Authors: Muhammad Ali Asadullah, Zafarullah Amir

Abstract:

In recent years, Vocational Education and Training (VET) has been under discussion by the academic researchers and remained in focus in the political grounds. Due to potential contribution of VET, the World Bank and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) support vocational education to reduce poverty, enhance economic growth and increase competitiveness. This paper examines the impact of Vocational Education and Training on the Economic Growth and Social Inclusion with direct and mediation effect of Social Inclusion. The basic purpose of this study is to assess economic pay-offs as a result of long term investments in VET. Based on the review of Anderson Nilsson, initially we explored the increasing or decreasing trend in investment on VET. Further, the study explores that the countries which invest more on VET, tend to get more economic growth and are socially more ‘inclusive’. It is a longitudinal / panel data study with 12 years of registered data which involves 24 OECD countries. The results of the study indicate the VET has positive association with Social Inclusion and Economic Growth. Further, there is also a positive association of VET and Economic Growth through mediation of Social Inclusion. The current study considers not only issue and challenges in developing VET systems but also contributes to develop the theoretical framework for considering how VET can directly and indirectly improve economic growth and social inclusion. A wider appreciation of how VET’s benefits operate may influence a country’s decisions to invest in it. If policy makers increase investment on VET, the result would be positive in Economic Growth and Social Inclusion. It is also recommended that the same OECD model may be implemented in developing countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: Vocational Education and Training (VET), Social Inclusion, Economic Growth, OECD countries

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11322 Evaluation of Growth Performance and Survival Rate of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Fed with Graded Levels of Egg Shell Substituted Ration

Authors: A. Bello-Olusoji, M. O. Sodamola, Y. A. Adejola, D. D Akinbola

Abstract:

An eight (8) weeks study was carried out on Four hundred and five (405) African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles to examine the effect of graded levels of egg shell on their growth performance and survival rates. They were acclimatized for two (2) weeks after which they were weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments of three (3) replicates each and 27 fishes per replicate making a total number of eighty-one (81) fishes per treatment. The dietary treatments contained 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100(%) egg shell inclusion from treatment one to treatment five respectively. Parameter on daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, and daily mortalities were recorded. The result of the experiment indicated that treatment four (4) with 75% inclusion of egg shell was the best in terms of weight gain and survival rates and was significantly different (P<0.05) when compared with the other treatments. For Catfish farming to remain viable in the nearest future, lower feed cost and increased profit are required; it is therefore recommended that diets of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) be supplemented with well processed egg shell at 75% level of inclusion to achieve this.

Keywords: African catfish, egg shell, performance, performance, survival rate, weight gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 260