Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1228

Search results for: Islamic banking and finance

1228 Islamic Finance: Challenges of Islamic Banking in Pakistan

Authors: Asif Zaheer Shaikh, Zhaoyong Zhang, Jaime Yong, Ume Laila Shah

Abstract:

Islamic finance is growing with remarkable pace, especially Islamic banking, a major segment of Islamic finance, is expanding rapidly. This paper discusses the position of Islamic finance and Islamic banking, around the world in general and particularly in Pakistan. History of Islamic banking in Pakistan is protested, presently a significant growth is observed. However Islamic banking is confronting with number of challenges, which are refraining from sustainable growth of this industry in Pakistan. Growth level of Islamic banks should be steeper to contribute substantial share in country’s economy. It is important to formulate effective policies, at institutional and operational level to address these challenges through close collaboration of key stakeholders.

Keywords: Islamic finance, challenges, Islamic banking, Pakistan

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1227 Islamic Finance: Its Theory, Products and a Brief View of Islamic Finance in Europe

Authors: Ahmet Sekreter

Abstract:

Although there are conceptual similarities in terms of financial products between conventional and Islamic finance, they are entirely different financial systems. Despite Islamic finance’s small size in the conventional finance world, its promising growth makes Islamic finance a hot topic both in academia and business world. Today customers can access sophisticated Islamic financial products not only in Muslim countries but also in Europe. This study analyzes Islamic finance and its products and includes a brief overview of Islamic finance in Europe. Literature review is the basis of this paper. The author analyzed the academic papers, numerical data, and estimations to set a perspective for the future of Islamic finance in Europe. Findings show that UK is the main hub for the Islamic finance, and it will remain so in the near future.

Keywords: islamic finance, islamic banking, islamic finance in Europe, finance

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1226 Islamic Banking in Ghana: Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Shaibu Ali, Sherif Heiman Shaban, Musah Ismaila, Imoro Alhassan, Yusif Ali

Abstract:

Purpose: Islamic banking and finance is one of the most rapidly growing segments of the global finance industry. Starting with the Dubai Islamic Bank in 1975, the number of Islamic financial institutions worldwide has shot up astronomically, to over three hundred, with operations in seventy-five countries and assets in excess of US$400 billion. The purpose of this study is to explore the prospects and challenges of Islamic banking introduction in a non-Islamic country like Ghana. Design/Methodology: Data for the study was collected via an expert opinion of three Islamic scholars on Islamic banking from Ghana. Findings: Findings from this study indicates some of the benefits of Islamic banking includes connecting financial markets and economic activity, promoting the principle of financial justice, greater stability, avoiding economic bubbles (and bursts) and reducing the impact of harmful products and practices. The study also identified lack of experts in various fields of Islamic banking, product innovation, moral hazard, and need for experienced staff in Islamic banking as some of the challenges to Islamic banking system’s introduction. Contribution: The study contributes to literature on Islamic banking from a non-Islamic country like Ghana.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Shari’ah, Riba, conventional banking

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1225 Comparing the Theory to the Practice of Islamic Banking: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Zareen Khan

Abstract:

Islamic Banking has experienced high growth in Pakistan in recent years and has successfully survived the economic downturn of 2009-2011. Despite the increase in branch network and expansion of services, it is unclear if Islamic banks are truly following the theory and practical application of Shariah Law. This paper explores the theological basis of Islamic finance and examines the discrepancies between the theory and practice of Islamic banking using Pakistan as a case study. It discusses areas where Islamic banks lack proper Shariah compliance and analyzes the financial weaknesses of Islamic banks in terms of the services offered. Furthermore, the paper offers plausible explanations for the clientele of Islamic banks. The case study has three major findings. Firstly, most of the employees of Islamic banks come from conventional banking backgrounds and the banks have to invest in additional trainings to specialize employees in Islamic Banking. Secondly despite the efforts of State Bank of Pakistan, there is a lack of accounting and auditing standards tailored for Islamic Banking. Thirdly, majority of the clients of Islamic banks in Pakistan are accustomed to conventional banking causing the bankers to “speak the conventional banking language.” Combined, these three factors can create gaps in the practical application of Islamic finance in Islamic banks in Pakistan.

Keywords: islamic finance, comparing theory with practice, islamic banking, Pakistan

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1224 Islamic Banking: An Ultimate Source of Financial Inclusion

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

Abstract:

Promotion of socioeconomic justice through redistribution of wealth is one of the most salient features of Islamic economic system. Islamic financial institutions known as Islamic banks are used to implement this in practice under the guidelines of Islamic Shariah law. Islamic banking systems strive to promote and achieve financial inclusion among the society by offering interest-free banking and risk-sharing financing solutions. Shariah-compliant micro finance is one of the most popular financial instruments used by Islamic banks to enhance access to finance. Benevolent loan (or Qard-al-Hassanah) is one of the popular financial tools used by the Islamic banks to promote financial inclusion. This aspect of Islamic banking is empirically examined in this paper with specific reference to firm’s resources, largely defined here as intellectual capital. The paper finds that Islamic banks promote financial inclusion by exploiting available resources especially, the human intellectual capital.

Keywords: financial inclusion, intellectual capital, Qard-al-Hassanah, Islamic banking

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1223 Islamic Finance in Tunisia: Reality and Development

Authors: Amira Kaddour, Hedia Teraoui, Khmayes Bougatef

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the major causes of the underdevelopment of Islamic finance in Tunisia. Indeed, it’s surprising to note that Zitouna bank established in May 2010 is the first Islamic Tunisian bank although 99% of Tunisians are Muslim and Islam is the religion of the State according to the Constitution. So we rely in our paper on the opinions of number of professors of finance and economics as educated people to prove or reject our hypothesis that the underdevelopment of Islamic finance in Tunisia can be explained by the ignorance of its main principles and advantages. Ours findings reveal that this branch of finance is still largely unknown, not only from public but also from professionals. The results obtained surprisingly show that this insignificance of Islamic banking cannot be explained by the fact that Tunisia has been governed since its independence by a secular left-wing party. Indeed, only 3% of respondents believe that legislation and regulation in Tunisia represent an obstacle to the development of Islamic finance. Moreover, respondents are not very optimistic about the future role of Islamic financing.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic insurance (takaful), Islamic law (shariah), usury (riba)

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1222 Shari'ah Governance in Islamic Banking and Finance - A Comparison Between Malaysia and Other Selected Countries, Current Challenges and Potential Solution

Authors: Muhamad Badri Bin Othman

Abstract:

As a role model and leading country in the world that establishes and promotes Islamic banking and finance, Malaysia has set up and come up with a set of standards and frameworks to govern its Shari’ah function towards implementing the desired outcome of Islamic banking and finance as new source of wealth creation. This paper, examines and highlights, at the very minimum, the importance and application of Shari’ah governance in Islamic banking and finance in Malaysia as a leading country in Islamic banking and finance. This paper also, compares on Shari’ah governance, which is being adopted between Malaysia and other selected countries namely, Pakistan, Bahrain, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar. This paper also, aims at highlighting the current challenges and issues faced by the scholars in Shari’ah Supervisory Board (SSB) in deliberating their opinions and fatwa towards the implementation of new products in Islamic banking industry to promote innovation among the industry players. The author of this paper will highlight the major challenges and issues faced by the SSB members of Islamic banks in Malaysia, taking into account the complexity of the operation wise and products of Islamic banking, and how they overcome those challenges and issues identified. This will be done through a series of face-to-face interview sessions which will be conducted with a few prominent figures of Islamic banking and finance scholars in Malaysia to highlight the issues and challenges they are facing towards Islamic financial innovation and subsequently finding solutions for the identified issues and challenges.

Keywords: Shari’ah governance, Shari’ah supervisory board (SSB), Issues and challenges, Islamic financial innovation

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1221 The Tense Dichotomy Between Shari'ah Compliance and the Goals of an Economic Bank

Authors: Camille Paldi

Abstract:

The tense dichotomy between Shari’ah compliance and the economic goals of an Islamic Bank produces a proliferation of reverse engineered products, which are barely in compliance with Islamic law. The result is basically a hybrid conventional banking system with conventional products in Islamic disguise using Arabic and Islamic terminology. Many Islamic financial professionals and academics advocate for the use of conventional products and devices despite their non-Shari’ah compliance based on commercial necessity and the need to compete. However, this dangerous trend will lead to the demise of the Islamic finance industry. Rather than thoughtlessly following conventional products and practice, Islamic finance professionals should delve into the Shari’ah to find the answers to the current Islamic banking conundrum and lead the industry on the right path of developing Shari’ah based products and using Shari’ah devices to hedge risk.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Shari'ah, finance, investment

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1220 Survival of Islamic Banking Services in Tanzania: A Quick Survey on Conflicting Legal Framework

Authors: Ayoub Ali Maulana

Abstract:

“The success and sustainability of an Islamic finance system depends on the ability to establish a comprehensive legal and regulatory framework that supports synergy amongst the components in the system”. Numbers of banks have introduced Islamic banking windows claiming that their products follow Islamic banking values without any compromise. National Bank of Commerce Limited, Stanbic Bank Limited, Kenya Commercial Bank, The Peoples Bank of Zanzibar and Amana Bank Limited are some of the banks which offer Islamic banking products in Tanzania. To date, there is no single provision in Tanzanian laws that speak of Islamic banking activities in the country. Despite the fact that consultancy commissioned to International Monetary Fund (IMF) to research on the best laws to govern Islamic banking industry in the country, the speed is not encouraging in making sure that the same is introduced as soon as possible. This paper highlights the trend of the banking services in Tanzania and examines the application of Islamic banking system in the Tanzanian conventional banking environment. In particular the paper considers whether the Islamic banking services in Tanzania can survive without an appropriate legal framework that accommodates it.

Keywords: islamic banks, interest, islamic windows, Tanzania

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1219 Effect of Islamic Finance on Jobs Generation in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: B. Ashraf, A. M. Malik

Abstract:

The study was accomplished at the Department of Economics and Agriculture Economics, Pir Mahar Ali Shah ARID Agriculture University, Punjab, Pakistan during 2013-16 with a purpose to discover the effect of Islamic finance/banking on employment in Punjab, Pakistan. Islamic banking system is sub-component of conventional banking system in various countries of the world; however, in Pakistan, it has been established as a separate Islamic banking system. The Islamic banking operates under the doctrine of Shariah. It is claimed that the referred banking is free of interest (Riba) and addresses the philosophy and basic values of Islam in finance that reduces the factors of uncertainty, risk and others speculative activities. Two Islamic bank’s; Meezan Bank Limited (Pakistan) and Al-Baraka Bank Limited (Pakistan) from North Punjab (Bahawalnagar) and central Punjab (Lahore) west Punjab (Gujrat), Pakistan were randomly selected for the conduct of research. A total of 206 samples were collected from the define areas and banks through questionnaire. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Multiple linear regressions were applied to prove the hypothesis. The results revealed that the assets formation had significant positive; whereas, the technology, length of business (experience) and bossiness size had significant negative impact with employment generation in Islamic finance/banking in Punjab, Pakistan. This concludes that the employment opportunities may be created in the country by extending the finance to business/firms to start new business and increase the Public awareness by the Islamic banks through intensive publicity. However; Islamic financial institutions may be encouraged by Government as it enhances the employment in the country.

Keywords: assets formation, borrowers, employment generation, Islamic banks, Islamic finance

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1218 Implementation of 'Bay Al-Salam' in Agricultural Banking of Bangladesh: An Islamic Banking Perspective

Authors: M. Obydul Haque Kamaly

Abstract:

This paper aims to provide a brief discussion on bay al-salam as a method of implementing Islamic Banking in the agricultural arena of Bangladesh. For this purpose, the nature and conditions of bay al-salam contracts will be first discussed. Next, the paper will focus on the comparison between conventional banks and Islamic banks and should answer how bay al-salam can be used as a popular method in agricultural transactions in the country. The paper is based on secondary data which is to describe bay al-salam as future proceedings for Islamic banking. Evidence suggests Islamic banking is very much practiced like modern conventional banking with certain restrictions imposed by Sharia and addresses a large number of business requirements successfully. Thus, it’s time for us to implement Islamic banking (bay al-salam) on our agricultural arena and to get most benefits from them.

Keywords: bay al-salam, agricultural banking, Islamic banking, implementation

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1217 Wave of Islamic Fintech: Revolutionizing Malaysia's Islamic Banking and Finance Regulatory Landscape

Authors: Ho Wen Hui, Azwina Wati Abdull Manaf, Asfarina Kartika Mohd Shakri

Abstract:

The global trend of Fintech had taken the Malaysian shore by storm in recent years, thus making the studies and observations of its impacts more critical than ever. Additionally, Fintech has grown to become an unavoidable subject in the Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF) industry. In relation to that, this paper seeks to analyze the development of Fintech parallel with the IBF industry and its connection to Islamic economics. While the scarcity of studies on this area is apparent, it is found that there is a need to regulate the development of the Fintech Industry and its effects while analyzing the ramifications and positive effects of Fintech towards parties involved in IBF industry. This paper objectively studies the phenomenon of Islamic Fintech around the world as a whole as well as more specifically in Malaysia. The paper will then explore on the existing regulatory instruments in Malaysia, study their boundaries as well as limitations and contribute on possible reform to regulate Islamic Fintech in this jurisdiction. It is aimed that this paper will prompt and encourage more thorough studies to be conducted on the topic of Fintech which would subsequently contribute to a positive growth of the IBF industry worldwide.

Keywords: financial technology, FinTech, Islamic banking & finance, regulation

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1216 Toward Green Islamic Finance: A Case Study from an Emirati Islamic Bank

Authors: Nada Hamed, Mariam Aldhaheri, Sonia Abdennadher

Abstract:

Islamic Finance is not a new term that emerging in the global market, but it is still under scope by many countries. Its characteristics and regulation are not widely clear and implemented. In 2015, The United Nation announced a plan about potential benefits of using Islamic Finance as a sustainable development approach. Enhancing its application in financial markets could protect from unexpected crisis that might be created from the traditional tools of finance. This paper focuses on this area to test if Islamic finance could be used for maintaining sustainable development and if the term of 'Green Islamic Finance' could be implemented to minimize the deficiencies and 'pollution’ generated from traditional techniques and tools of finance. This paper intends to measure the impact on financial performance and sustainability when financial institutions use Islamic finance or better practice it. The objective of this explanatory research is to measure the performance of Islamic Finance with using a case study of an Islamic bank. The paper would analyze and compare the behavior of financial institutions that used traditional financing tools and converted to Islamic banking system. The methodology used is based on a case study of an Islamic bank in Dubai with comparing its performance before implementing Islamic Finance and after. The selected case study represents the first national bank in Emirates Arab Unis who adopt the Islamic finance approach. Based on a time series analysis, a quantitative analysis would be also used through looking at various set of ratios that are routinely used to measure bank performance.

Keywords: Islamic finance, financial stability, green finance, Islamic finance practices, financial ratios

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1215 Exploring the Possibility of Islamic Banking as a Viable Alternative to the Conventional Banking Model

Authors: Lavan Vickneson

Abstract:

In today’s modern economy, the conventional banking model is the primary banking system used around the world. A significant problem faced by the conventional banking model is the recurring nature of banking crises. History’s record of the various banking crises, ranging from the Great Depression to the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis, is testament to the fact that banking crises continue to strike despite the preventive measures in place, such as bank’s minimum capital requirements and deposit guarantee schemes. If banking crises continue to occur despite these preventive measures, it necessarily follows that there are inherent flaws with the conventional banking model itself. In light of this, a possible alternative banking model to the conventional banking model is Islamic banking. To date, Islamic banking has been a niche market, predominantly serving Muslim investors. This paper seeks to explore the possibility of Islamic banking being more than just a niche market and playing a greater role in banking sectors around the world, by being a viable alternative to the conventional banking model.

Keywords: bank crises, conventional banking model, Islamic banking, niche market

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1214 Commerce and Islamic Banking System

Authors: Rahmoune Abdelhaq

Abstract:

Systemic Islamic banking has been in practice for long but started receiving due attention and high popularity since last decade. It has received a warm welcome from all over the world and these banks operating on Islamic principles have been able to get a sizeable business not only in Islamic countries but in non-Islamic countries too. Despite exemplary advancements and achievements, there remains number of controversies over various underlying concepts and practices. This paper basically explores and highlights all those controversies and challenges which are in minds of different school of thoughts and are needed to be addressed and overcome if Islamic banking continues flourishing the way it is at present. The authors have also tried to suggest suitable remedies to overcome these challenges where appropriate. As well, This paper makes an attempt to review major principles surrounding the working of Islamic banking and its historical growth. A brief overview of main differences between the Islamic banking and the conventional banking. In addition, references are particularly made to implications arising from the emergence of e-commerce and the realities that the Islamic Shari’ah law has to consider in adopting the new phenomenon into its banking system. This paper shows, whilst the conventional banking and financial system is based on the principle of rationality and interest, the Islamic financial system is based on morality and social justice which prohibits interest as a means of speculation and injustice. The concepts of e-business such as e-commerce and e-banking are acceptable in Islam as since in Islam anything is halal unless prohibited by Shari’ah, dealing with business by internet is considered as Shari’ah compliant. This paper, therefore, provides the latest thinking of e-business from an Islamic viewpoint, thus creating a reference point and valued information for a future research.

Keywords: Islamic Finance, principles of Islamic banking, Islamic commerce, Shari’ah compliant

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1213 Islamic Banking and Finance in Theory and Practice: The Experience of Malaysia and Algeria

Authors: Zidane Abderrezaq

Abstract:

This paper’s primary objective is to identify the relative importance of various Islamic financial products, in theory and in practice, by examining the financing records of the Bank Islam Malaysia (Berhad) and the Algeria Islamic Bank. Currently, seven available Islamic financing products are considered viable alternatives to interest-based conventional contracts: mudarabah (trust financing), musharakah (equity financing), ijarah (lease financing), murabahah (trade financing), qard al-hassan (welfare loan), bay` bi al-thaman al-ajil (deferred payment financing), and istisna` (progressive payments). Among these financial products, mudarabah and musharakah are the most distinct. Their unique characteristics (at least in theory) make Islamic banks and Islamic financing viable alternatives to the conventional interest-based financial system. The question before us is to determine the extent of mudarabah and musharakah in Islamic financing in practice. The data are as follows: the average mudarabah is 5% of total financing, and the average musharakah is less than 3%. The combined average of mudarabah and musharakah for the two Islamic banks is less than 4% of the total finance and advances. The average qard al-hassan is about 4%, while istisna` does not yet exist in practice. Murabahah is the most popular and dominates all other modes of Islamic financing. The average use of murabahah is over 54%. When the bay` bi al-thaman al-ajil is added to the murabahah, the percentage of total financing is shown to be 82.68%. This paper also explores some possible reasons why these two Islamic banks appear to prefer murabahah to mudarabah and musharakah.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Islamic banking rofitability, investment banking

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1212 Value Analysis of Islamic Banking and Conventional Banking to Measure Value Co-Creation

Authors: Amna Javed, Hisashi Masuda, Youji Kohda

Abstract:

This study examines the value analysis in Islamic and conventional banking services in Pakistan. Many scholars have focused on co-creation of values in services but mainly economic values not non-economic. As Islamic banking is based on Islamic principles that are more concerned with non-economic values (well-being, partnership, fairness, trust worthy, and justice) than economic values as money in terms of interest. This study is important to know the providers point of view about the co-created values, because, it may be more sustainable and appropriate for today’s unpredictable socioeconomic environment. Data were collected from 4 banks (2 Islamic and 2 conventional banks). Text mining technique is applied for data analysis, and values with 100% occurrences in Islamic banking are chosen. The results reflect that Islamic banking is more centric towards non-economic values than economic values and it promotes team work and partnership concept by applying Islamic spirit and trust worthiness concept.

Keywords: economic values, Islamic banking, non-economic values, value system

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1211 The Viability of Islamic Finance and Its Impact on Global Financial Stability: Evidence from Practical Implications

Authors: Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Muhammad Saarim Ghazi, Amir Khalil ur Rehman

Abstract:

This study examines the factors which influence and contribute towards the financial viability of Islamic finance and its impact on global financial stability. However, the purpose of this paper is to differentiate the practical implications of both Islamic and conventional finance on global financial stability. The Islamic finance is asset backed financing which creates wealth through trade, commerce and believes in risk and return sharing. Islamic banking is asset driven as against to conventional banking which is liability driven. In order to introduce new financial products for market, financial innovation in Islamic finance must be within the Shari’ah parameters that are tested against the ‘Maqasid al-Shari’ah’. Interest-based system leads to income and wealth inequalities and mis-allocation of resources. Moreover, this system has absence of just and equitable aspect of distribution that may exploit either the debt holder or the financier. Such implications are reached to a tipping point that leaves only one choice: change or face continued decline and misery.

Keywords: viability, global financial stability, practical implications, asset driven, tipping point

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1210 The Dubai World Islamic Finance Arbitration Center and Jurisprudence Office as the Dispute Resolution Center and Mechanism for the Islamic Finance Industry

Authors: Camille Paldi

Abstract:

As the Islamic finance industry is growing annually at a rate of 10% to 15% per year, it is imperative that a unique, independent legal framework is established in order to effectively adjudicate Islamic finance disputes. Currently, Islamic finance disputes are being adjudicated in inadequate civil and common law courts and arbitration centers where the contracts in dispute are being transformed from Islamic to conventional transactions. Through case analysis combined with an exploration of the efficacy of existing arbitration centers and dispute resolution methods available to Islamic finance, this paper will seek to reveal that the Islamic finance industry currently lacks an adequate dispute resolution mechanism and facility to adjudicate disputes arising from Islamic finance contracts. Hence, now is the time for the Dubai World Islamic Finance Arbitration Center (DWIFAC) and Jurisprudence Office (DWIFACJO) as the Dispute Resolution Center and Mechanism for the Islamic Finance Industry.

Keywords: Islamic finance, dispute resolution, Dubai world Islamic finance arbitration center, jurisprudence office

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1209 Analyzing the Empirical Link between Islamic Finance and Growth of Real Output: A Time Series Application to Pakistan

Authors: Nazima Ellahi, Danish Ramzan

Abstract:

There is a growing trend among development economists regarding the importance of financial sector for economic development and growth activities. The development thus introduced, helps to promote welfare effects and poverty alleviation. This study is an attempt to find the nature of link between Islamic banking financing and development of output growth for Pakistan. Time series data set has been utilized for a time period ranging from 1990 to 2010. Following the Phillip Perron (PP) and Augmented Dicky Fuller (ADF) test of unit root this study applied Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method of estimation and found encouraging results in favor of promoting the Islamic banking practices in Pakistan.

Keywords: Islamic finance, poverty alleviation, economic growth, finance, commerce

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1208 Islamic Banking Adoption Model from Technology Prospective

Authors: Amer Alzaidi

Abstract:

Islamic banking is an alternative solution to those people who are worried about Riba (interest) in all forms of transaction while using banking services and products. Today, banks around the world have Islamic banking services and products the in one form or another. The use of Islamic banking is not only restricted to Muslims world but have reached to non-Muslim countries like UK, USA, Australia and Canada as well. Compared to conventional banking, the adoption rate of Islamic banking is low because of unawareness of customers, financial cost, and performance issues. The interest in Islamic banking by financial institutions as well as low adoption rate motivated us to look this matter into detail in order to identify Critical Success Factors, which are positively motivating customers to use Islamic banking services/ products and Critical Risk Factors, which have significantly negative effect on the adoption of Islamic banking. The CSFs and CRFs will be initially identified from the literature using methodology called Systematic Literature Review, followed by the empirical analysis of these factors using survey research method. Later, we will develop Islamic Banking Adoption Model (IBAM) to help banks to assess their Islamic banking strategic positioning and to improve their operational efficiency. The first potential contribution of this research study will be the development of IBAM protocol that will provide us guidelines for conducting our actual SLR. The second major contribution of this research will be the development of Islamic Banking Adoption Model (IBAM), and the third contribution of this research study will be the evaluation of the developed IBMA.

Keywords: Islamic banking, adoption model, protocol, technology

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1207 Perception, Awareness and Attitude of Muslim Academicians on Islamic Banking Products in Kano State of Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Abdullahi Mago

Abstract:

Islamic Banking began in Nigeria last three years and the sector has shown the sign of bright future for the sector and the Nigerian economy, within this very short time it is important to know the perception of the customers particularly learned or educated individuals for immediate evaluation and adjustment. This study investigates into the perception, awareness and attitudes of the academicians in the most populous state/place in Nigeria with more than 90% muslims, and the results has shown a relatively low levels results in all the variables of the study.The study recommends aggressive marketing strategy for the Banks operating within the sector.

Keywords: Islamic Banking Products, Islamic Financial Products, academicians, Islamic finance industry, perception, awareness and attitude

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1206 Prospects and Problems of Islamic Banking: A Case Study of Aurangabad District

Authors: Shabina Khan, Rukhsana Tabassum Syeda

Abstract:

Islamic banking is a finance system based on the principles of Shariah law. Charging interest is prohibited in Islam. Instead of charging interest the lender shares some part of profit or loss with the borrower, there is a great need for Islamic banking after the collapse of leading Wall Street institutions notably Lehman Brothers and other global finance institution, economic recession, Islamic banking have emerged as an alternative to conventional banking. Islamic banking is growing at the rate of more than 15% not only in Muslim countries, but also in secular and modern industrialized countries like U.K. Japan, France, Singapore, Hongkong. India with a total population of about 184 million about $ 1.5% Muslim deposit interest is lying unclaimed in different Indian banks, as there are no banks based on shariah laws approved by the RBI. When we take the example of Kerala state in India, almost 26.2% population is Muslim. Thus thousands of crore of rupees earned in interest is suspended accounts. In Kerala alone Rs. 40,000 crore and in Jammu and Kashmir Rs. 50,000 crore as interest earned on deposit of Muslim are lying unclaimed. By 2050, Indian Muslim population would be the largest in the world. It will surpass Indonesia. The Muslim population is likely to exceed 18% i.e. 310 mn. Muslim population will increase four percentage points from 14% to 18%. This paper studies the problems and prospects of Islamic banking in India. India has 29 states and Maharashtra is one of them. In the Maharashtra state is Aurangabad district. According to census 2011, Aurangabad city population is 51.07% is Hindu .Muslim is the second most popular religion with approximately 30.79. There are branches of Islamic banking run by Anjuman e Islam in many parts of India by the name of Al- Khair Baitul Mal which is a nongovernment organization. Its branch is in Aurangabad. The main objectives of this study are: 1. To find the scope of Islamic banking. 2. To study and analyze the prospects and problems of such organizations in Aurangabad district. 3. To create awareness about Islamic banking. 4. To study the functions of the organizations based on Islamic banking rules. 5. To encourage non-Muslims to invest in Islamic banking. The methodology used will be primary as well as secondary data. This is helping the weaker section of the society to obtain sources for trade and business. This paper finds that there is sufficient scope of Islamic banking in the region.

Keywords: Aurangabad, conventional banking, Islamic banking, Riba (interest)

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1205 Islamic Banking and Finance in Nigeria: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Ya'u Saidu

Abstract:

The introduction of the non-interest banking system in Nigeria was part of the regulators efforts to increase the inclusion of other stakeholders into the financial sector who have stayed out of the sector for some reasons. However, the concept has been misunderstood by various stakeholders within the country where some view it as a Muslim affair which exclude the non-Muslims from gaining despite its existence in advance countries of the world. This paper attempts to fill-in the gap created by the literature especially with regards to the proper education and enlightenment of the Nigerian citizens. Survey research method was employed where primary data was collected using questionnaire and convenience sampling was used to select 100 respondents. The data was analysed using Chi-square. It was found that lack of knowledge on Islamic banking has significant effect on its prospects.

Keywords: finance, non-interest, sustainability, enlightenment

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1204 An Overview of the Islamic Banking Development in the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda

Authors: Pradeep Kulshrestha, Maulana Ayoub Ali

Abstract:

The level of penetration of Islamic banking products and services has recorded a reasonable growth at an exponential rate in many parts of the world. There are many factors which have contributed to this growth including, but not limited to the rapid growth of number of Muslims who are uncomfortable with the conventional ways of banking, interest and higher interest rates scheduled by conventional banks and financial institutions as well as the financial inclusion campaign conducted in many countries. The system is facing legal challenges which open the research fdoor for practitioners and academicians for the sake of finding out solutions to those challenges. This paper tries to investigate the development of the Islamic banking system in the United Kingdom (UK), Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Iran, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda in order to understand the modalities which have been employed to run an Islamic banking system in the aforementioned countries. The methodology which has been employed in doing this research paper is Doctrinal, of which legislations, policies and other legal tools have been carefully studied and analysed. Again, papers from academic journals, books and financial reports have been deeply analysed for the purpose of enriching the paper and come up with a tangible results. The paper found that in Asia, Malaysia has created the smoothest legal platform for Islamic banking system to work properly in the country. The United Kingdom has tried harder to smooth the banking system without affecting the conventional banking methods and without favouring the operations of Islamic banks. It also tries harder to make UK as an Islamic banking and finance hub in Europe. The entire banking system in Iran is Islamic, while Nigeria has undergone several legal reforms to suit Islamic banking system in the country. Kenya and Uganda are at a different pace in making Islamic Banking system work alongside the conventional banking system.  

Keywords: shariah, Islamic banking, law, alternative banking

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1203 A Decade of Creating an Alternative Banking System in Tanzania: The Current State of Affairs of Islamic Banks

Authors: Pradeep Kulshrestha, Maulana Ayoub Ali

Abstract:

The concept of financial inclusion has been tabled in the whole world where practitioners, academicians, policy makers and economists are working hard to look for the best possible opportunities in order to enable the whole society to be in the banking cycle. The Islamic banking system is considered to be one of the said opportunities. Countries like the United Kingdom, United States of America, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, the whole of the United Arab Emirates and many African countries have accommodated the aspect of Islamic banking in the conventional banking system as one of the financial inclusion strategies. This paper tries to analyse the current state of affairs of the Islamic Banking system in Tanzania in order to understand the improvement of the provision of Islamic banking products and services in the said country. The paper discusses the historical background of the banking system in Tanzania, the level of penetration of banking products and services and the coming of the Islamic banking system in the country. Furthermore, the paper discusses banking regulatory bodies, legal instruments governing banking operations as well as number of legal challenges facing Islamic banking operations in the country. Following a critical literature review, the paper discovered that there is no legal instrument which talks about the introduction and provision of Islamic banking system in Tanzania. Furthermore, the Islamic banking system was considered as a banking product which is absolutely incorrect because Islamic banking is considered to be as a banking system of its own. In addition to that, it has been discovered that lack of a proper regulatory system and legal instruments to harmonize the conventional and Islamic banking systems has resulted in the closure of one Islamic window in the country, which in the end affects the credibility of the newly introduced banking system. In its conclusive remarks, the paper suggests that Tanzania should work on all legal challenges affecting the smooth operations of the Islamic banking system. This can be in a way of adopting various Islamic banking legal models which are used in countries like Malaysia and others, or a borrowing legal harmonization process which has been adopted by the UK, Uganda, Nigeria and Kenya.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic windows, regulations, banks

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1202 Realizing the Full Potential of Islamic Banking System: Proposed Suitable Legal Framework for Islamic Banking System in Tanzania

Authors: Maulana Ayoub Ali, Pradeep Kulshrestha

Abstract:

Laws of any given secular state have a huge contribution in the growth of the Islamic banking system because the system uses conventional laws to govern its activities. Therefore, the former should be ready to accommodate the latter in order to make the Islamic banking system work properly without affecting the current conventional banking system and therefore without affecting its system. Islamic financial rules have been practiced since the birth of Islam. Following the recent world economic challenges in the financial sector, a quick rebirth of the contemporary Islamic ethical banking system took place. The coming of the Islamic banking system is due to various reasons including but not limited to the failure of the interest based economy in solving financial problems around the globe. Therefore, the Islamic banking system has been adopted as an alternative banking system in order to recover the highly damaged global financial sector. But the Islamic banking system has been facing a number of challenges which hinder its smooth operation in different parts of the world. It has not been the aim of this paper to discuss other challenges rather than the legal ones, but the same was partly discussed when it was justified that it was proper to do so. Generally, there are so many things which have been discovered in the course of writing this paper. The most important part is the issue of the regulatory and supervisory framework for the Islamic banking system in Tanzania and in other nations is considered to be a crucial part for the development of the Islamic banking industry. This paper analyses what has been observed in the study on that area and recommends for necessary actions to be taken on board in a bid to make Islamic banking system reach its climax of serving the larger community by providing ethical, equitable, affordable, interest-free and society cantered banking system around the globe.

Keywords: Islamic banking, interest free banking, ethical banking, legal framework

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1201 Incorporation of Hibah as a Catalyst for Channelling Profits and Compensations in Islamic Transactions

Authors: Ameen Alshugaa, Farrukh Habib

Abstract:

Shariah (the Islamic law) sanctions a plethora of profit-sharing arrangements for financial transactions. However, when it comes to the practice of Islamic banking, it is felt by the scholars and practitioners that many of these arrangements often fail to compensate different parties of a financial transaction compared to conventional banking, due to the Riba (interest / usury) element. This issue is caused by the parties inability to codify these compensations in any contract so as to avoid Riba. Here, hibah (gift) may be regarded as one of the solutions. In essence, hibah is a unilateral charity contract where a party voluntarily gives away something to another party without any counter value. This paper attempts to analyse theoretical and practical aspects of hibah from the perspective of Islamic law, enunciating its legality and detailing its allowance in Islamic banking. It also discusses several practices evaluating the role of hibah in resolving issues related to Riba. In particular, these practices demonstrate the validity of hibah as a way to distribute revenues and compensate parties in Islamic financial transactions, while achieving competitive advantage over conventional banking, and avoiding the element of Riba.

Keywords: hibah (gift), Islamic Finance, Islamic Law of Contract, profit distribution, Shariah

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1200 Religiosity and Customer Loyalty in Islamic Banking: An Evidence from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Taimoor Hassan, Kausar Abbas

Abstract:

The Islamic Banking Services is one of the growing businesses in financial sector around the globe with 15 to 18 percent growth all over the world and 10-12 percent growth rate in Pakistan. This research study is aimed at measuring the impact of religiosity on the customer loyalty of Islamic Banking in Pakistan. The study has utilized cause and effect research design to assess the impact of religiosity on Islamic Banking. Data from 350 respondents have been collected to meet the purpose of the study. The results revealed that the religiosity has a significant impact on the customer loyalty of Islamic Banking through the customer attitude and customer trust on the sequential model. The results suggest that the religiosity, customer attitude, and customer trust are the interconnected variables which lead to customer loyalty in Islamic Banking of Pakistan. The study is useful in the setting of Pakistan to further increase the customer loyalty for Islamic Banks.

Keywords: Islamic banks, customer loyalty, attitude, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
1199 Urgency of Islamic Economic System Implementation in Indonesian Banking

Authors: Muhammad Rifqi Hafizhudin Arif, Mukhamad Zulfal Faradis, Ahmad Hidayatullah

Abstract:

Indonesia is the country that uses conventional financial system adopted from European countries as a form of finance in the national banking system. Many of the derivative products of conventional banks either investment, buy and sell, saving and loan, which is not in accordance with Islamic Ethics. While the majority population in Indonesia are belief in Islam, which Islam has had financial management guide is written in the Quran, the Hadith, as well as the opinions of experts who strongly prohibits the use of interest in each transaction activities. Many different expert opinions on the application of the Islamic financial system in Indonesia. However, as the majority of the population of Indonesia, Islamic community have not been able to get the opportunities to choose the Islamic financial system that has mutual benefit between consumers and banks, particularly fairness in transactions, ethical investment, uphold the values of solidarity and brotherhood in every transaction activities, and avoid speculation. In this paper, we will discuss the reasons for the importance of providing an option for Islamic community as the majority of the population of Indonesia to use the banking system which adopted the Islamic ethical values that have been much discussed by other researchers in various countries. The existence of this research is expected to Government, academia and the general public aware of the urgency of Islamic economic system implementation in Indonesian banking as the solution and justice especially for the Islamic community to use the values which they held.

Keywords: Islamic economic system, conventional system, Islamic value, banking

Procedia PDF Downloads 280