Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14569

Search results for: error correction model

14569 Error Correction Method for 2D Ultra-Wideband Indoor Wireless Positioning System Using Logarithmic Error Model

Authors: Phornpat Chewasoonthorn, Surat Kwanmuang

Abstract:

Indoor positioning technologies have been evolved rapidly. They augment the Global Positioning System (GPS) which requires line-of-sight to the sky to track the location of people or objects. This study developed an error correction method for an indoor real-time location system (RTLS) based on an ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor from Decawave. Multiple stationary nodes (anchor) were installed throughout the workspace. The distance between stationary and moving nodes (tag) can be measured using a two-way-ranging (TWR) scheme. The result has shown that the uncorrected ranging error from the sensor system can be as large as 1 m. To reduce ranging error and thus increase positioning accuracy, This study purposes an online correction algorithm using the Kalman filter. The results from experiments have shown that the system can reduce ranging error down to 5 cm.

Keywords: indoor positioning, ultra-wideband, error correction, Kalman filter

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14568 Forecasting Stock Prices Based on the Residual Income Valuation Model: Evidence from a Time-Series Approach

Authors: Chen-Yin Kuo, Yung-Hsin Lee

Abstract:

Previous studies applying residual income valuation (RIV) model generally use panel data and single-equation model to forecast stock prices. Unlike these, this paper uses Taiwan longitudinal data to estimate multi-equation time-series models such as Vector Autoregressive (VAR), Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), and conduct out-of-sample forecasting. Further, this work assesses their forecasting performance by two instruments. In favor of extant research, the major finding shows that VECM outperforms other three models in forecasting for three stock sectors over entire horizons. It implies that an error correction term containing long-run information contributes to improve forecasting accuracy. Moreover, the pattern of composite shows that at longer horizon, VECM produces the greater reduction in errors, and performs substantially better than VAR.

Keywords: residual income valuation model, vector error correction model, out of sample forecasting, forecasting accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
14567 Is the Okun's Law Valid in Tunisia?

Authors: El Andari Chifaa, Bouaziz Rached

Abstract:

The central focus of this paper was to check whether the Okun’s law in Tunisia is valid or not. For this purpose, we have used quarterly time series data during the period 1990Q1-2014Q1. Firstly, we applied the error correction model instead of the difference version of Okun's Law, the Engle-Granger and Johansen test are employed to find out long run association between unemployment, production, and how error correction mechanism (ECM) is used for short run dynamic. Secondly, we used the gap version of Okun’s law where the estimation is done from three band pass filters which are mathematical tools used in macro-economic and especially in business cycles theory. The finding of the study indicates that the inverse relationship between unemployment and output is verified in the short and long term, and the Okun's law holds for the Tunisian economy, but with an Okun’s coefficient lower than required. Therefore, our empirical results have important implications for structural and cyclical policymakers in Tunisia to promote economic growth in a context of lower unemployment growth.

Keywords: Okun’s law, validity, unit root, cointegration, error correction model, bandpass filters

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
14566 An Efficient Algorithm of Time Step Control for Error Correction Method

Authors: Youngji Lee, Yonghyeon Jeon, Sunyoung Bu, Philsu Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to construct an algorithm of time step control for the error correction method most recently developed by one of the authors for solving stiff initial value problems. It is achieved with the generalized Chebyshev polynomial and the corresponding error correction method. The main idea of the proposed scheme is in the usage of the duplicated node points in the generalized Chebyshev polynomials of two different degrees by adding necessary sample points instead of re-sampling all points. At each integration step, the proposed method is comprised of two equations for the solution and the error, respectively. The constructed algorithm controls both the error and the time step size simultaneously and possesses a good performance in the computational cost compared to the original method. Two stiff problems are numerically solved to assess the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: stiff initial value problem, error correction method, generalized Chebyshev polynomial, node points

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14565 A Survey of 2nd Year Students' Frequent Writing Error and the Effects of Participatory Error Correction Process

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are 1) to study the effects of participatory error correction process and 2) to find out the students’ satisfaction of such error correction process. This study is a Quasi Experimental Research with single group, in which data is collected 5 times preceding and following 4 experimental studies of participatory error correction process including providing coded indirect corrective feedback in the students’ texts with error treatment activities. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tools for data collection include 5 writing tests of short texts and a questionnaire. Based on formative evaluation of the students’ writing ability prior to and after each of the 4 experiments, the research findings disclose the students’ higher scores with statistical difference at 0.05. Moreover, in terms of the effect size of such process, it is found that for mean of the students’ scores prior to and after the 4 experiments; d equals 1.0046, 1.1374, 1.297, and 1.0065 respectively. It can be concluded that participatory error correction process enables all of the students to learn equally well and there is improvement in their ability to write short texts. Finally, the students’ overall satisfaction of the participatory error correction process is in high level (Mean=4.32, S.D.=0.92).

Keywords: coded indirect corrective feedback, participatory error correction process, error treatment, humanities and social sciences

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14564 A Novel Way to Create Qudit Quantum Error Correction Codes

Authors: Arun Moorthy

Abstract:

Quantum computing promises to provide algorithmic speedups for a number of tasks; however, similar to classical computing, effective error-correcting codes are needed. Current quantum computers require costly equipment to control each particle, so having fewer particles to control is ideal. Although traditional quantum computers are built using qubits (2-level systems), qudits (more than 2-levels) are appealing since they can have an equivalent computational space using fewer particles, meaning fewer particles need to be controlled. Currently, qudit quantum error-correction codes are available for different level qudit systems; however, these codes have sometimes overly specific constraints. When building a qudit system, it is important for researchers to have access to many codes to satisfy their requirements. This project addresses two methods to increase the number of quantum error correcting codes available to researchers. The first method is generating new codes for a given set of parameters. The second method is generating new error-correction codes by using existing codes as a starting point to generate codes for another level (i.e., a 5-level system code on a 2-level system). So, this project builds a website that researchers can use to generate new error-correction codes or codes based on existing codes.

Keywords: qudit, error correction, quantum, qubit

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
14563 Forecasting Container Throughput: Using Aggregate or Terminal-Specific Data?

Authors: Gu Pang, Bartosz Gebka

Abstract:

We forecast the demand of total container throughput at the Indonesia’s largest seaport, Tanjung Priok Port. We propose four univariate forecasting models, including SARIMA, the additive Seasonal Holt-Winters, the multiplicative Seasonal Holt-Winters and the Vector Error Correction Model. Our aim is to provide insights into whether forecasting the total container throughput obtained by historical aggregated port throughput time series is superior to the forecasts of the total throughput obtained by summing up the best individual terminal forecasts. We test the monthly port/individual terminal container throughput time series between 2003 and 2013. The performance of forecasting models is evaluated based on Mean Absolute Error and Root Mean Squared Error. Our results show that the multiplicative Seasonal Holt-Winters model produces the most accurate forecasts of total container throughput, whereas SARIMA generates the worst in-sample model fit. The Vector Error Correction Model provides the best model fits and forecasts for individual terminals. Our results report that the total container throughput forecasts based on modelling the total throughput time series are consistently better than those obtained by combining those forecasts generated by terminal-specific models. The forecasts of total throughput until the end of 2018 provide an essential insight into the strategic decision-making on the expansion of port's capacity and construction of new container terminals at Tanjung Priok Port.

Keywords: SARIMA, Seasonal Holt-Winters, Vector Error Correction Model, container throughput

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14562 Unequal Error Protection of VQ Image Transmission System

Authors: Khelifi Mustapha, A. Moulay lakhdar, I. Elawady

Abstract:

We will study the unequal error protection for VQ image. We have used the Reed Solomon (RS) Codes as Channel coding because they offer better performance in terms of channel error correction over a binary output channel. One such channel (binary input and output) should be considered if it is the case of the application layer, because it includes all the features of the layers located below and on the what it is usually not feasible to make changes.

Keywords: vector quantization, channel error correction, Reed-Solomon channel coding, application

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
14561 MCERTL: Mutation-Based Correction Engine for Register-Transfer Level Designs

Authors: Khaled Salah

Abstract:

In this paper, we present MCERTL (mutation-based correction engine for RTL designs) as an automatic error correction technique based on mutation analysis. A mutation-based correction methodology is proposed to automatically fix the erroneous RTL designs. The proposed strategy combines the processes of mutation and assertion-based localization. The erroneous statements are mutated to produce possible fixes for the failed RTL code. A concurrent mutation engine is proposed to mitigate the computational cost of running sequential mutants operators. The proposed methodology is evaluated against some benchmarks. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method enables us to automatically locate and correct multiple bugs at reasonable time.

Keywords: bug localization, error correction, mutation, mutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
14560 Aggregate Supply Response of Some Livestock Commodities in Algeria: Cointegration- Vector Error Correction Model Approach

Authors: Amine M. Benmehaia, Amine Oulmane

Abstract:

The supply response of agricultural commodities to changes in price incentives is an important issue for the success of any policy reform in the agricultural sector. This study aims to quantify the responsiveness of producers of some livestock commodities to price incentives in Algerian context. Time series analysis is used on annual data for a period of 52 years (1966-2018). Both co-integration and vector error correction model (VECM) are used through the Nerlove model of partial adjustment. The study attempts to determine the long-run and short-run relationships along with the magnitudes of disequilibria in the selected commodities. Results show that the short-run price elasticities are low in cow and sheep meat sectors (8.7 and 8% respectively), while their respective long-run elasticities are 16.5 and 10.5, whereas eggs and milk have very high short-run price elasticities (82 and 90% respectively) with long-run elasticities of 40 and 46 respectively. The error correction coefficient, reflecting the speed of adjustment towards the long-run equilibrium, is statistically significant and have the expected negative sign. Its estimates are 12.7 for cow meat, 33.5 for sheep meat, 46.7 for eggs and 8.4 for milk. It seems that cow meat and milk producers have a weak feedback of about 12.7% and 8.4% respectively of the previous year's disequilibrium from the long-run price elasticity, whereas sheep meat and eggs producers adjust to correct long run disequilibrium with a high speed of adjustment (33.5% and 46.7 % respectively). The implication of this is that much more in-depth research is needed to identify those factors that affect agricultural supply and to describe the effect of factors that shift supply in response to price incentives. This could provide valuable information for government in the use of appropriate policy measures.

Keywords: Algeria, cointegration, livestock, supply response, vector error correction model

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14559 Banking Sector Development and Economic Growth: Evidence from the State of Qatar

Authors: Fekri Shawtari

Abstract:

The banking sector plays a very crucial role in the economic development of the country. As a financial intermediary, it has assigned a great role in the economic growth and stability. This paper aims to examine the empirically the relationship between banking industry and economic growth in state of Qatar. We adopt the VAR vector error correction model (VECM) along with Granger causality to address the issue over the long-run and short-run between the banking sector and economic growth. It is expected that the results will give policy directions to the policymakers to make strategies that are conducive toward boosting development to achieve the targeted economic growth in current situation.

Keywords: economic growth, banking sector, Qatar, vector error correction model, VECM

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
14558 Financial Inclusion for Inclusive Growth in an Emerging Economy

Authors: Godwin Chigozie Okpara, William Chimee Nwaoha

Abstract:

The paper set out to stress on how financial inclusion index could be calculated and also investigated the impact of inclusive finance on inclusive growth in an emerging economy. In the light of these objectives, chi-wins method was used to calculate indexes of financial inclusion while co-integration and error correction model were used for evaluation of the impact of financial inclusion on inclusive growth. The result of the analysis revealed that financial inclusion while having a long-run relationship with GDP growth is an insignificant function of the growth of the economy. The speed of adjustment is correctly signed and significant. On the basis of these results, the researchers called for tireless efforts of government and banking sector in promoting financial inclusion in developing countries.

Keywords: chi-wins index, co-integration, error correction model, financial inclusion

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14557 Impact of Workers’ Remittances on Poverty in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis by Ardl

Authors: Syed Aziz Rasool, Ayesha Zaman

Abstract:

Poverty is one of the most important problems for any developing nation. Workers’ remittances and investment plays a crucial role in development of any country by reducing the poverty level in Pakistan. This research studies the relationship between workers’ remittances and poverty alleviation. It also focused the significant effect on poverty reduction. This study uses time series data for the period of 1972-2013. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)Model and Error Correction (ECM)Model has been used in order to find out the long run and short run relationship between the worker’s remittances and poverty level respectively. Thus, inflow of remittances showed the significant and negative impact on poverty level. Moreover, coefficient of error correction model explains the adjustment towards convergence and it has highly significant and negative value. According to this research, Policy makers should strongly focus on positive and effective policies to attract more remittances. JELCODE: JEL: J61

Keywords: ECM, ARDL, AIC, SC

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
14556 Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are: 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tool for data collection includes 4 writing tests of short texts. The research findings disclose that frequent English writing errors found in this course comprise 7 types of grammatical errors, namely Fragment sentence, Subject-verb agreement, Wrong form of verb tense, Singular or plural noun endings, Run-ons sentence, Wrong form of verb pattern and Lack of parallel structure. Moreover, it is found that the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and error treatment reveal the overall reduction of the frequent English writing errors and the increase of students’ achievement in the writing of short texts with the significance at .05.

Keywords: coded indirect corrective feedback, error correction, error treatment, frequent English writing errors

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14555 Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment: The Case of Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tool for data collection includes 4 writing tests of short texts. The research findings disclose that frequent English writing errors found in this course comprise 7 types of grammatical errors, namely Fragment sentence, Subject-verb agreement, Wrong form of verb tense, Singular or plural noun endings, Run-ons sentence, Wrong form of verb pattern and Lack of parallel structure. Moreover, it is found that the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and error treatment reveal the overall reduction of the frequent English writing errors and the increase of students’ achievement in the writing of short texts with the significance at .05.

Keywords: coded indirect corrective feedback, error correction, error treatment, English writing

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14554 Co-Integration and Error Correction Mechanism of Supply Response of Sugarcane in Pakistan (1980-2012)

Authors: Himayatullah Khan

Abstract:

This study estimates supply response function of sugarcane in Pakistan from 1980-81 to 2012-13. The study uses co-integration approach and error correction mechanism. Sugarcane production, area and price series were tested for unit root using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF). The study found that these series were stationary at their first differenced level. Using the Augmented Engle-Granger test and Cointegrating Regression Durbin-Watson (CRDW) test, the study found that “production and price” and “area and price” were co-integrated suggesting that the two sets of time series had long-run or equilibrium relationship. The results of the error correction models for the two sets of series showed that there was disequilibrium in the short run there may be disequilibrium. The Engle-Granger residual may be thought of as the equilibrium error which can be used to tie the short-run behavior of the dependent variable to its long-run value. The Granger-Causality test results showed that log of price granger caused both the long of production and log of area whereas, the log of production and log of area Granger caused each other.

Keywords: co-integration, error correction mechanism, Granger-causality, sugarcane, supply response

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14553 Correction Factors for Soil-Structure Interaction Predicted by Simplified Models: Axisymmetric 3D Model versus Fully 3D Model

Authors: Fu Jia

Abstract:

The effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) are often studied using axial-symmetric three-dimensional (3D) models to avoid the high computational cost of the more realistic, fully 3D models, which require 2-3 orders of magnitude more computer time and storage. This paper analyzes the error and presents correction factors for system frequency, system damping, and peak amplitude of structural response computed by axisymmetric models, embedded in uniform or layered half-space. The results are compared with those for fully 3D rectangular foundations of different aspect ratios. Correction factors are presented for a range of the model parameters, such as fixed-base frequency, structure mass, height and length-to-width ratio, foundation embedment, soil-layer stiffness and thickness. It is shown that the errors are larger for stiffer, taller and heavier structures, deeper foundations and deeper soil layer. For example, for a stiff structure like Millikan Library (NS response; length-to-width ratio 1), the error is 6.5% in system frequency, 49% in system damping and 180% in peak amplitude. Analysis of a case study shows that the NEHRP-2015 provisions for reduction of base shear force due to SSI effects may be unsafe for some structures and need revision. The presented correction factor diagrams can be used in practical design and other applications.

Keywords: 3D soil-structure interaction, correction factors for axisymmetric models, length-to-width ratio, NEHRP-2015 provisions for reduction of base shear force, rectangular embedded foundations, SSI system frequency, SSI system damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
14552 Influence of Error Correction Codes on the Quality of Optical Broadband Connections

Authors: Mouna Hemdi, Jamel bel Hadj Tahar

Abstract:

The increasing development of multimedia applications requiring the simultaneous transport of several different services contributes to the evolution of the need for very high-speed network. In this paper, we propose an effective solution to achieve the very high speed while retaining elements of the optical transmission channel. So our study focuses on error correcting codes that aim for quality improvement on duty. We present a comparison of the quality of service for single channels and integrating the code BCH, RS and LDPC in order to find the best code in the different conditions of the transmission.

Keywords: code error correction, high speed broadband, optical transmission, information systems security

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14551 The Link between Money Market and Economic Growth in Nigeria: Vector Error Correction Model Approach

Authors: Uyi Kizito Ehigiamusoe

Abstract:

The paper examines the impact of money market on economic growth in Nigeria using data for the period 1980-2012. Econometrics techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares Method, Johanson’s Co-integration Test and Vector Error Correction Model were used to examine both the long-run and short-run relationship. Evidence from the study suggest that though a long-run relationship exists between money market and economic growth, but the present state of the Nigerian money market is significantly and negatively related to economic growth. The link between the money market and the real sector of the economy remains very weak. This implies that the market is not yet developed enough to produce the needed growth that will propel the Nigerian economy because of several challenges. It was therefore recommended that government should create the appropriate macroeconomic policies, legal framework and sustain the present reforms with a view to developing the market so as to promote productive activities, investments, and ultimately economic growth.

Keywords: economic growth, investments, money market, money market challenges, money market instruments

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
14550 Optimization of Heat Insulation Structure and Heat Flux Calculation Method of Slug Calorimeter

Authors: Zhu Xinxin, Wang Hui, Yang Kai

Abstract:

Heat flux is one of the most important test parameters in the ground thermal protection test. Slug calorimeter is selected as the main sensor measuring heat flux in arc wind tunnel test due to the convenience and low cost. However, because of excessive lateral heat transfer and the disadvantage of the calculation method, the heat flux measurement error of the slug calorimeter is large. In order to enhance measurement accuracy, the heat insulation structure and heat flux calculation method of slug calorimeter were improved. The heat transfer model of the slug calorimeter was built according to the energy conservation principle. Based on the heat transfer model, the insulating sleeve of the hollow structure was designed, which helped to greatly decrease lateral heat transfer. And the slug with insulating sleeve of hollow structure was encapsulated using a package shell. The improved insulation structure reduced heat loss and ensured that the heat transfer characteristics were almost the same when calibrated and tested. The heat flux calibration test was carried out in arc lamp system for heat flux sensor calibration, and the results show that test accuracy and precision of slug calorimeter are improved greatly. In the meantime, the simulation model of the slug calorimeter was built. The heat flux values in different temperature rise time periods were calculated by the simulation model. The results show that extracting the data of the temperature rise rate as soon as possible can result in a smaller heat flux calculation error. Then the different thermal contact resistance affecting calculation error was analyzed by the simulation model. The contact resistance between the slug and the insulating sleeve was identified as the main influencing factor. The direct comparison calibration correction method was proposed based on only heat flux calibration. The numerical calculation correction method was proposed based on the heat flux calibration and simulation model of slug calorimeter after the simulation model was solved by solving the contact resistance between the slug and the insulating sleeve. The simulation and test results show that two methods can greatly reduce the heat flux measurement error. Finally, the improved slug calorimeter was tested in the arc wind tunnel. And test results show that the repeatability accuracy of improved slug calorimeter is less than 3%. The deviation of measurement value from different slug calorimeters is less than 3% in the same fluid field. The deviation of measurement value between slug calorimeter and Gordon Gage is less than 4% in the same fluid field.

Keywords: correction method, heat flux calculation, heat insulation structure, heat transfer model, slug calorimeter

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14549 Major Factors That Enhance Economic Growth in South Africa: A Re-Examination Using a Vector Error Correction Mechanism

Authors: Temitope L. A. Leshoro

Abstract:

This study explored several variables that enhance economic growth in South Africa, based on different growth theories while using the vector error correction model (VECM) technique. The impacts and contributions of each of these variables on GDP in South Africa were investigated. The motivation for this study was as a result of the weak economic growth that the country has been experiencing lately, as well as the continuous increase in unemployment rate and deteriorating health care system. Annual data spanning over the period 1974 to 2013 was employed. The results showed that the major determinants of GDP are trade openness, government spending, and health indicator; as these variables are not only economically significant but also statistically significant in explaining the changes in GDP in South Africa. Policy recommendations for economic growth enhancement are suggested based on the findings of this study.

Keywords: economic growth, GDP, investment, health indicator, VECM

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14548 External Sector and Its Impact on Economic Growth of Pakistan (1990-2010)

Authors: Rizwan Fazal

Abstract:

This study investigates the behavior of external sector of Pakistan economy and its impact on economic growth, using quarterly data for the period 1990:01-2010:04. External sector indices used in this study are financial integration, net foreign assets and trade integration. Augmented Ducky fuller confirms that all variables of external sector are non-stationary at level, but at first difference it becomes stationary. The co-integration test suggests one co-integrating variables in the study. The analysis is based on Vector Auto Regression model followed by Vector Error Correction Model. The empirical findings show that financial integration play important role in increasing economic growth in Pakistan economy while trade integration has negative effect on economic growth of Pakistan in the long run. However, the short run confirms that output lag accounts for error correction. The estimated CUSUM and CUSUMQ stability test provide information that the period of the study equation remains stable.

Keywords: financial integration, trade integration, net foreign assets, gross domestic product

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14547 Student Attendance System Applying Reed Solomon ECC

Authors: Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Armandurni Abd Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal, Md Rizal Md Hendry

Abstract:

The article reports an automated student attendance system modeled and developed for use at a Vocational school. This project focuses on developing an application using a QR code utilizing the Reed-Solomon error correction code using a smartphone scanned through a webcam. This system enables us to speed up the process of taking attendance and would save us valuable teaching time. This is planned to help students avoid consequences that may result from poor attendances which will eventually penalize them from sitting their final examination as required.

Keywords: QR code, Reed-Solomon, error correction, system design.

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
14546 Determinants of Aggregate Electricity Consumption in Ghana: A Multivariate Time Series Analysis

Authors: Renata Konadu

Abstract:

In Ghana, electricity has become the main form of energy which all sectors of the economy rely on for their businesses. Therefore, as the economy grows, the demand and consumption of electricity also grow alongside due to the heavy dependence on it. However, since the supply of electricity has not increased to match the demand, there has been frequent power outages and load shedding affecting business performances. To solve this problem and advance policies to secure electricity in Ghana, it is imperative that those factors that cause consumption to increase be analysed by considering the three classes of consumers; residential, industrial and non-residential. The main argument, however, is that, export of electricity to other neighbouring countries should be included in the electricity consumption model and considered as one of the significant factors which can decrease or increase consumption. The author made use of multivariate time series data from 1980-2010 and econometric models such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Vector Error Correction Model. Findings show that GDP growth, urban population growth, electricity exports and industry value added to GDP were cointegrated. The results also showed that there is unidirectional causality from electricity export and GDP growth and Industry value added to GDP to electricity consumption in the long run. However, in the short run, there was found to be a directional causality among all the variables and electricity consumption. The results have useful implication for energy policy makers especially with regards to electricity consumption, demand, and supply.

Keywords: electricity consumption, energy policy, GDP growth, vector error correction model

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14545 An Improved Model of Estimation Global Solar Irradiation from in situ Data: Case of Oran Algeria Region

Authors: Houcine Naim, Abdelatif Hassini, Noureddine Benabadji, Alex Van Den Bossche

Abstract:

In this paper, two models to estimate the overall monthly average daily radiation on a horizontal surface were applied to the site of Oran (35.38 ° N, 0.37 °W). We present a comparison between the first one is a regression equation of the Angstrom type and the second model is developed by the present authors some modifications were suggested using as input parameters: the astronomical parameters as (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and meteorological parameters as (relative humidity). The comparisons are made using the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean percentage error (MPE), and mean absolute bias error (MABE). This comparison shows that the second model is closer to the experimental values that the model of Angstrom.

Keywords: meteorology, global radiation, Angstrom model, Oran

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
14544 Feedback in the Language Class: An Action Research Process

Authors: Arash Golzari Koloor

Abstract:

Feedback seems to be an inseparable part of teaching a second/foreign language. One type of feedback is corrective feedback which is one type of error treatment in second language classrooms. This study is a report on the types of corrective feedback employed in an IELTS preparation course. The types of feedback, their frequencies, and their effectiveness are enlisted, enumerated, and interpreted. The results showed that explicit correction and recast were the most frequent types of feedback while repetition and elicitation were the least. The results also revealed that metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, and explicit correction were the most effective types of feedback and affected learners performance greatly.

Keywords: classroom interaction, corrective feedback, error treatment, oral performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
14543 The Effect Analysis of Monetary Instruments through Islamic Banking Financing Channel toward Economic Growth in Indonesia, Period January 2008-December 2015

Authors: Sobar M. Johari, Ida Putri Anjarsari

Abstract:

In the transmission of monetary instrument towards real sector of the economy, Bank Indonesia as monetary authority has developed Islamic Bank Indonesia Certificate (abbreviated as SBIS) as an instrument in Islamic open market operation. One of the monetary transmission channels could take place through financing channel from which the fund is used as the source of banking financing. This study aims to analyse the impact of Islamic monetary instrument towards output or economic growth. Data used in this research is taken from Bank Indonesia and Central Board of Statistics for the period of January 2008 until December 2015. The study employs Granger Causality Test, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), Impulse Response Function (IRF) technique and Forecast Error Variance Decomposition (FEVD) as its analytical methods. The results show that, first, the transmission mechanism of banking financing channel are not linked to output. Second, estimation results of VECM show that SBIS, PUAS, and FIN have significant impact in the long term towards output. When there is monetary shock, output or economic growth could be recovered and stabilized in the short term. FEVD results show that Islamic banking financing contributes 1.33 percent to increase economic growth.

Keywords: Islamic monetary instrument, Islamic banking financing channel, economic growth, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
14542 A Comparative Study on the Dimensional Error of 3D CAD Model and SLS RP Model for Reconstruction of Cranial Defect

Authors: L. Siva Rama Krishna, Sriram Venkatesh, M. Sastish Kumar, M. Uma Maheswara Chary

Abstract:

Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technology that produces models and prototype parts from 3D CAD model data, CT/MRI scan data, and model data created from 3D object digitizing systems. There are several RP process like Stereolithography (SLA), Solid Ground Curing (SGC), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), 3D Printing (3DP) among them SLS and FDM RP processes are used to fabricate pattern of custom cranial implant. RP technology is useful in engineering and biomedical application. This is helpful in engineering for product design, tooling and manufacture etc. RP biomedical applications are design and development of medical devices, instruments, prosthetics and implantation; it is also helpful in planning complex surgical operation. The traditional approach limits the full appreciation of various bony structure movements and therefore the custom implants produced are difficult to measure the anatomy of parts and analyse the changes in facial appearances accurately. Cranioplasty surgery is a surgical correction of a defect in cranial bone by implanting a metal or plastic replacement to restore the missing part. This paper aims to do a comparative study on the dimensional error of CAD and SLS RP Models for reconstruction of cranial defect by comparing the virtual CAD with the physical RP model of a cranial defect.

Keywords: rapid prototyping, selective laser sintering, cranial defect, dimensional error

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14541 A Comparative Analysis of ARIMA and Threshold Autoregressive Models on Exchange Rate

Authors: Diteboho Xaba, Kolentino Mpeta, Tlotliso Qejoe

Abstract:

This paper assesses the in-sample forecasting of the South African exchange rates comparing a linear ARIMA model and a SETAR model. The study uses a monthly adjusted data of South African exchange rates with 420 observations. Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Schwarz information criteria (SIC) are used for model selection. Mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) are error metrics used to evaluate forecast capability of the models. The Diebold –Mariano (DM) test is employed in the study to check forecast accuracy in order to distinguish the forecasting performance between the two models (ARIMA and SETAR). The results indicate that both models perform well when modelling and forecasting the exchange rates, but SETAR seemed to outperform ARIMA.

Keywords: ARIMA, error metrices, model selection, SETAR

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14540 The Per Capita Income, Energy production and Environmental Degradation: A Comprehensive Assessment of the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Bangladesh

Authors: Ashique Mahmud, MD. Ataul Gani Osmani, Shoria Sharmin

Abstract:

In the first quarter of the twenty-first century, the most substantial global concern is environmental contamination, and it has gained the prioritization of both the national and international community. Keeping in mind this crucial fact, this study conducted different statistical and econometrical methods to identify whether the gross national income of the country has a significant impact on electricity production from nonrenewable sources and different air pollutants like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions. Besides, the primary objective of this research was to analyze whether the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis holds for the examined variables. After analyzing different statistical properties of the variables, this study came to the conclusion that the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis holds for gross national income and carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh in the short run as well as the long run. This study comes to this conclusion based on the findings of ordinary least square estimations, ARDL bound tests, short-run causality analysis, the Error Correction Model, and other pre-diagnostic and post-diagnostic tests that have been employed in the structural model. Moreover, this study wants to demonstrate that the outline of gross national income and carbon dioxide emissions is in its initial stage of development and will increase up to the optimal peak. The compositional effect will then force the emission to decrease, and the environmental quality will be restored in the long run.

Keywords: environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh, gross national income in Bangladesh, autoregressive distributed lag model, granger causality, error correction model

Procedia PDF Downloads 47