Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 593

Search results for: impedance band-width

593 Load Characteristics of Improved Howland Current Pump for Bio-Impedance Measurement

Authors: Zhao Weijie, Lin Xinjian, Liu Xiaojuan, Li Lihua


The Howland current pump is widely used in bio-impedance measurement. Much attention has been focused on the output impedance of the Howland circuit. Here we focus on the maximum load of the Howland source and discuss the relationship between the circuit parameters at maximum load. We conclude that the signal input terminal of the feedback resistor should be as large as possible, but that the current-limiting resistor should be smaller. The op-amp saturation voltage should also be high. The bandwidth of the circuit is proportional to the bandwidth of the op-amp. The Howland current pump was simulated using multisim12. When the AD8066AR was selected as the op-amp, the maximum load was 11.5 kΩ, and the Howland current pump had a stable output ipp to 2mAp up to 200 kHz. However, with an OPA847 op-amp and a load of 6.3 kΩ, the output current was also stable, and the frequency was as high as 3 MHz.

Keywords: bio-impedance, improved Howland current pump, load characteristics, bioengineering

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592 Design of Broadband W-Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna

Authors: Neeraj G. Nahata, K. S. Bhagat


Microstrip patch antenna widely used in communication area because it offers low profile, narrow bandwidth, high gain, and compact in size. It has big disadvantage of narrow bandwidth. To improve the bandwidth a W-slot technique is used, it is efficient to enhance the bandwidth of antenna. The feeding point of antenna is very important for efficient operation, so coaxial feeding technique is applied to microstrip patch antenna for impedance matching. A broadband W-slot microstrip patch antenna is designed successfully which attains a bandwidth of 22.74% at 10dB return loss with centre frequency of 4.5GHz and also it attains maximum directivity 8.78dBi. It is designed by cutting a W-slot into the patch of antenna, because of this resonant slot, the antenna gives broad bandwidth. This antenna is best suitable for C-band frequency spectrum. The proposed antenna is designed and simulated using IE3D software.

Keywords: broadband, microstrip antenna, VSWR, W-slotted patch

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591 The Design of Broadband 8x2 Phased Array 5G Antenna MIMO 28 GHz for Base Station

Authors: Muhammad Saiful Fadhil Reyhan, Yusnita Rahayu, Fadhel Muhammadsyah


This paper proposed a design of 16 elements, 8x2 linear fed patch antenna array with 16 ports, for 28 GHz, mm-wave band 5G for base station. The phased array covers along the azimuth plane to provide the coverage to the users in omnidirectional. The proposed antenna is designed RT Duroid 5880 substrate with the overall size of 85x35.6x0.787 mm3. The array is operating from 27.43 GHz to 28.34 GHz with a 910 MHz impedance bandwidth. The gain of the array is 18.3 dB, while the suppression of the side lobes is -1.0 dB. The main lobe direction of the array is 15 deg. The array shows a high array gain throughout the impedance bandwidth with overall of VSWR is below 1.12. The design will be proposed in single element and 16 elements antenna.

Keywords: 5G antenna, 28 GHz, MIMO, omnidirectional, phased array, base station, broadband

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
590 An Electrically Small Silver Ink Printed FR4 Antenna for RF Transceiver Chip CC1101

Authors: F. Majeed, D. V. Thiel, M. Shahpari


An electrically small meander line antenna is designed for impedance matching with RF transceiver chip CC1101. The design provides the flexibility of tuning the reactance of the antenna over a wide range of values: highly capacitive to highly inductive. The antenna was printed with silver ink on FR4 substrate using the screen printing design process. The antenna impedance was perfectly matched to CC1101 at 433 MHz. The measured radiation efficiency of the antenna was 81.3% at resonance. The 3 dB and 10 dB fractional bandwidth of the antenna was 14.5% and 4.78%, respectively. The read range of the antenna was compared with a copper wire monopole antenna over a distance of five meters. The antenna, with a perfect impedance match with RF transceiver chip CC1101, shows improvement in the read range compared to a monopole antenna over the specified distance.

Keywords: meander line antenna, RFID, silver ink printing, impedance matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
589 A Design of Beam-Steerable Antenna Array for Use in Future Mobile Handsets

Authors: Naser Ojaroudi Parchin, Atta Ullah, Haleh Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed, Peter S. Excell


A design of beam-steerable antenna array for the future cellular communication (5G) is presented. The proposed design contains eight elements of compact end-fire antennas arranged on the top edge of smartphone printed circuit board (PCB). Configuration of the antenna element consists of the conductive patterns on the top and bottom copper foil layers and a substrate layer with a via-hole. The simulated results including input-impedance and also fundamental radiation properties have been presented and discussed. The impedance bandwidth (S11 ≤ -10 dB) of the antenna spans from 17.5 to 21 GHz (more than 3 GHz bandwidth) with a resonance at 19 GHz. The antenna exhibits end-fire (directional) radiation beams with wide-angle scanning property and could be used for the future 5G beam-forming. Furthermore, the characteristics of the array design in the vicinity of user-hand are studied.

Keywords: beam-steering, end-fire radiation mode, mobile-phone antenna, phased array

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588 CPW-Fed Broadband Circularly Polarized Planar Antenna with Improved Ground

Authors: Gnanadeep Gudapati, V. Annie Grace


A broadband circular polarization (CP) feature is designed for a CPW-fed planar printed monopole antenna. A rectangle patch and an improved ground plane make up the antenna. The antenna's impedance bandwidth can be increased by adding a vertical stub and a horizontal slit in the ground plane. The measured results show that the proposed antenna has a wide 10-dB return loss bandwidth of 70.2% (4.35GHz, 3.7-8.1GHz) centered at 4.2 GHz.

Keywords: CPW-fed, circular polarised, FR4 epoxy, slit and stub

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587 Design and Parametric Analysis of Pentaband Meander Line Antenna for Mobile Handset Applications

Authors: Shrinivas P. Mahajan, Aarti C. Kshirsagar


Wireless communication technology is rapidly changing with recent developments in portable devices and communication protocols. This has generated demand for more advanced and compact antenna structures and therefore, proposed work focuses on Meander Line Antenna (MLA) design. Here, Pentaband MLA is designed on a FR4 substrate (85 mm x 40 mm) with dielectric constant (ϵr) 4.4, loss tangent (tan ) 0.018 and height 1.6 mm with coplanar feed and open stub structure. It can be operated in LTE (0.670 GHz-0.696 GHz) GPS (1.564 GHz-1.579 GHz), WCDMA (1.920 GHz-2.135 GHz), LTE UL frequency band 23 (2-2.020 GHz) and 5G (3.10 GHz-3.550 GHz) application bands. Also, it gives good performance in terms of Return Loss (RL) which is < -10 dB, impedance bandwidth with maximum Bandwidth (BW) up to 0.21 GHz and realized gains with maximum gain up to 3.28 dBi. Antenna is simulated with open stub and without open stub structures to see the effect on impedance BW coverage. In addition to this, it is checked with human hand and head phantoms to assure that it falls within specified Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) limits.

Keywords: coplanar feed, L shaped ground, Meander Line Antenna, MLA, Phantom, Specific Absorption Rate, SAR

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586 A Low-Cost Long-Range 60 GHz Backhaul Wireless Communication System

Authors: Atabak Rashidian


In duplex backhaul wireless communication systems, two separate transmit and receive high-gain antennas are required if an antenna switch is not implemented. Although the switch loss, which is considerable and in the order of 1.5 dB at 60 GHz, is avoided, the large separate antenna systems make the design bulky and not cost-effective. To avoid two large reflectors for such a system, transmit and receive antenna feeds with a common phase center are required. The phase center should coincide with the focal point of the reflector to maximize the efficiency and gain. In this work, we present an ultra-compact design in which stacked patch antennas are used as the feeds for a 12-inch reflector. The transmit antenna is a 1 × 2 array and the receive antenna is a single element located in the middle of the transmit antenna elements. Antenna elements are designed as stacked patches to provide the required impedance bandwidth for four standard channels of WiGigTM applications. The design includes three metallic layers and three dielectric layers, in which the top dielectric layer is a 100 µm-thick protective layer. The top two metallic layers are specified to the main and parasitic patches. The bottom layer is basically ground plane with two circular openings (0.7 mm in diameter) having a center through via which connects the antennas to a single input/output Si-Ge Bi-CMOS transceiver chip. The reflection coefficient of the stacked patch antenna is fully investigated. The -10 dB impedance bandwidth is about 11%. Although the gap between transmit and receive antenna is very small (g = 0.525 mm), the mutual coupling is less than -12 dB over the desired frequency band. The three dimensional radiation patterns of the transmit and receive reflector antennas at 60 GHz is investigated over the impedance bandwidth. About 39 dBi realized gain is achieved. Considering over 15 dBm of output power of the silicon chip in the transmit side, the EIRP should be over 54 dBm, which is good enough for over one kilometer multi Gbps data communications. The performance of the reflector antenna over the bandwidth shows the peak gain is 39 dBi and 40 dBi for the reflector antenna with 2-element and single element feed, respectively. This type of the system design is cost-effective and efficient.

Keywords: Antenna, integrated circuit, millimeter-wave, phase center

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585 Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Mohamed Adel Sennouni, Jamal Zbitou, Benaissa Abboud, Abdelwahed Tribak, Hamid Bennis, Mohamed Latrach


A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design is composed of a rectangular patch with symmetric L-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875

Keywords: UWB planar antenna, L-shaped slots, wireless applications, impedance band-width, radiation pattern, CST

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584 Miniaturized and Compact Monopole Corner Antenna with a Periodic Slot Truncated and T-Inverted Stub-Tuning for Ultra Wideband Applications

Authors: R. Dakir, J. Zbitou, Ahmed Mouhsen, A. Errkik, A. Tajmouati, M. Latrach


The design and analysis of a new compact and miniaturized monopole antenna structure for ultra wideband (UWB) wireless applications are presented and suggested in this paper. The proposed antenna structure is based on corner radiator patch with T-shaped slot and fed by mictostrip feed line with a partial ground plane combined a periodic rectangular slot and inverted T-stub tuning to increase the bandwidth. The design parameters and the performance of the suggested antenna are investigated by using 'CST Microwave Studio' and Advanced Design System. The final prototype of the proposed antenna operates from 3GHZ to 25GHz, corresponding to wide input impedance bandwidth around (157.14%) with a size of 16*24mm2 and can be easily integrated with radio-frequency or microwave circuits with low cost manufacturing. Details of the UWB antenna design and both simulated and measured results are described and discussed.

Keywords: UWB, T-shaped slots, improvement, bandwidth, stub tuning

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583 Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers

Authors: Ahmad Al-Omari, Osama Khreis, Ahmad M. K. Dagamseh, Abdullah Ababneh, Kevin Lear


High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.

Keywords: current density, high-speed VCSELs, modulation bandwidth, small-signal characteristics, thermal impedance, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

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582 Modified Step Size Patch Array Antenna for UWB Wireless Applications

Authors: Hamid Aslani, Ahmed Radwan


In this paper, a single element microstrip antenna is presented for UWB applications by using techniques as partial ground plane and modified the shape of the patch. The antenna is properly designed to have a compact size and constant gain against frequency. The simulated results have done using two EM software and show good agreement with the measured results for the fabricated antenna. Then a designing of two elements patch antenna array for UWB in the frequency band of 3.1-10 GHz is presented in this paper. The array is constructed by means of feeding two omni-directional modified circular patch elements with a modified power divider. Experimental results show that the array has a stable radiation pattern and low return loss over a broad bandwidth of 64% (3.1–10 GHz). Due to its planar profile, physically compact size, wide impedance bandwidth, directive performance over a wide bandwidth proposed antenna is a good candidate for portable UWB applications and other UWB integrated circuits.

Keywords: ultra wide band, radiation performance, microstrip antenna, size miniaturized antenna

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581 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad


In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: wearable electronics, slot Antenna, LTE, WLAN

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580 Polarization Insensitive Absorber with Increased Bandwidth Using Multilayer Metamaterial

Authors: Srilaxmi Gangula, MahaLakshmi Vinukonda, Neeraj Rao


A wide band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with bandwidth enhancement in X and C band is proposed. The structure proposed here consists of a periodic unit cell of resonator arrangements in double layer. The proposed structure shows near unity absorption at frequencies of 6.21 GHz and 10.372 GHz spreading over a bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6.21 GHz respectively in X and C bands. The proposed metamaterial absorber is designed so as to increase the bandwidth. The proposed structure is also independent for TE and TM polarization. Because of its simple implementation, near unity absorption and wide bandwidth this dual band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber can be used for EMI/EMC applications.

Keywords: absorber, C-band, metamaterial, multilayer, X-band

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579 Synthesis, Characterization and Impedance Analysis of Polypyrrole/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites

Authors: M. G. Smitha, M. V. Murugendrappa


Perovskite manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was synthesized by Sol-gel method. Polymerization of pyrrole was carried by in-situ polymerization method. The composite of pyrrole (Py)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 composite in the presence of oxidizing agent ammonium per sulphate to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCM) composite was carried out by the same in-situ polymerization method. The PPy/LCM composites were synthesized with varying compositions like 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% of LCM in Py. The surface morphologies of these composites were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images show that LCM particles are embedded in PPy chain. The impedance measurement of PPy/LCM at different temperature ranges from 30 to 180 °C was studied using impedance analyzer. The study shows that impedance is frequency and temperature dependent and it is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature.

Keywords: polypyrrole, sol gel, impedance, composites

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578 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Networks

Authors: Eman I. Raslan, Haitham S. Hamza, Reda A. El-Khoribi


Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks are a promising candidate for future broadband access networks. These networks combine the optical network as the back end where different passive optical network (PON) technologies are realized and the wireless network as the front end where different wireless technologies are adopted, e.g. LTE, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). The convergence of both optical and wireless technologies requires designing architectures with robust efficient and effective bandwidth allocation schemes. Different bandwidth allocation algorithms have been proposed in FiWi networks aiming to enhance the different segments of FiWi networks including wireless and optical subnetworks. In this survey, we focus on the differentiating between the different bandwidth allocation algorithms according to their enhancement segment of FiWi networks. We classify these techniques into wireless, optical and Hybrid bandwidth allocation techniques.

Keywords: fiber-wireless (FiWi), dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA), passive optical networks (PON), media access control (MAC)

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577 Symbolic Analysis of Input Impedance of CMOS Floating Active Inductors with Application in Fully Differential Bandpass Amplifier

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch


This paper proposes studies of input impedance of two types of the CMOS active inductor. It derives two input impedance formulas. The first formula is the input impedance of a grounded active inductor. The second formula is an input impedance of floating active inductor. After that, these formulas can be used to simulate magnitude and phase response of input impedance as a function of current consumption with MATLAB. Common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of a fully differential bandpass amplifier is derived based on superposition principle. CMRR as a function of input frequency is plotted as a function of current consumption

Keywords: grounded active inductor, floating active inductor, fully differential bandpass amplifier

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576 Using Electrical Impedance Tomography to Control a Robot

Authors: Shayan Rezvanigilkolaei, Shayesteh Vefaghnematollahi


Electrical impedance tomography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique suitable for medical applications. This paper describes an electrical impedance tomography device with the ability to navigate a robotic arm to manipulate a target object. The design of the device includes various hardware and software sections to perform medical imaging and control the robotic arm. In its hardware section an image is formed by 16 electrodes which are located around a container. This image is used to navigate a 3DOF robotic arm to reach the exact location of the target object. The data set to form the impedance imaging is obtained by having repeated current injections and voltage measurements between all electrode pairs. After performing the necessary calculations to obtain the impedance, information is transmitted to the computer. This data is fed and then executed in MATLAB which is interfaced with EIDORS (Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction Software) to reconstruct the image based on the acquired data. In the next step, the coordinates of the center of the target object are calculated by image processing toolbox of MATLAB (IPT). Finally, these coordinates are used to calculate the angles of each joint of the robotic arm. The robotic arm moves to the desired tissue with the user command.

Keywords: electrical impedance tomography, EIT, surgeon robot, image processing of electrical impedance tomography

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575 A CPW Fed Bowtie Microstrip Slot Antenna for Wireless Applications

Authors: Amandeep Singh, Surinder Singh


A slotted Bow-Tie microstrip patch antenna utilizing input of coplanar waveguide for high frequency wireless applications is proposed and analyzed in this work. RT/Duroid 5880 with its dielectric constant 2.2 is opted for the experimentation to analyze the proposed microstrip slot antenna. This antenna is exclusively designed for the frequency range of 10 GHz to 11 GHz and modelling parameters are obtained from the already existing data and dimensions of antenna are adjusted by employing some corrugated slots in the Bowtie shape to obtain the required bandwidth so that it can radiate within the specified range. The characteristics of proposed antenna are measured by a FEM electromagnetic field solver and it is found that the reflection coefficient, voltage standing wave ratio, radiated gain, feed point impedance, radiation efficiency are in a good agreement. This antenna is also exhibiting an absolute bandwidth of 1000 MHz. The validated results indicate that the proposed bowtie microstrip slot antenna comes under the wideband category and utilized in the wireless application ranges between the 10 GHz – 11 GHz.

Keywords: CPW, bowtie, FEM, corrugated

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574 Study of the Transport of Multivalent Metal Cations Through Cation-Exchange Membranes by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: V. Pérez-Herranz, M. Pinel, E. M. Ortega, M. García-Gabaldón


In the present work, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrocopy (EIS) is applied to study the transport of different metal cations through a cation-exchange membrane. This technique enables the identification of the ionic-transport characteristics and to distinguish between different transport mechanisms occurring at different current density ranges. The impedance spectra are dependent on the applied dc current density, on the type of cation and on the concentration. When the applied dc current density increases, the diameter of the impedance spectra loops increases because all the components of membrane system resistance increase. The diameter of the impedance plots decreases in the order of Na(I), Ni(II) and Cr(III) due to the increased interactions between the negatively charged sulfonic groups of the membrane and the cations with greater charge. Nyquist plots are shifted towards lower values of the real impedance, and its diameter decreases with the increase of concentration due to the decrease of the solution resistance.

Keywords: ion-exchange membranes, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrocopy, multivalent metal cations, membrane system

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573 Designing of a Micromechanical Gyroscope with Enhanced Bandwidth

Authors: Bator Shagdyrov, Elena Zorina, Tamara Nesterenko


The aim of the research was to develop a design of micromechanical gyroscope, which will be used in the automotive industry, safety systems and anti-lock braking system. The research resulted in improvement of one of the technical parameters – bandwidth. In the process of mass production of micromechanical sensors, problems occurred with their use. One of the problems was a narrow bandwidth typical for the gyroscopes with a high-quality factor. A constructive way of increasing bandwidth is to use multimass systems via secondary oscillations axis. When constructing, the main task was to choose the frequency - phases and antiphases as close to each other as possible, and set the frequency of the primary oscillation evenly between them. Investigations are carried out using the T-Flex CAD finite element program and T-Flex ANALYSIS support package. The results obtained are planned to use in the future for the production of an experimental model of development and testing in practice of characteristics derived by theoretical means.

Keywords: bandwidth, inertial mass, mathematical model, micromechanical gyroscope, micromechanics

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572 The System for Root Canal Length Measurement Based on Multifrequency Impedance Method

Authors: Zheng Zhang, Xin Chen, Guoqing Ding


Electronic apex locators (EAL) has been widely used clinically for measuring root canal working length with high accuracy, which is crucial for successful endodontic treatment. In order to maintain high accuracy in different measurement environments, this study presented a system for root canal length measurement based on multifrequency impedance method. This measuring system can generate a sweep current with frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz through a direct digital synthesizer. Multiple impedance ratios with different combinations of frequencies were obtained and transmitted by an analog-to-digital converter and several of them with representatives will be selected after data process. The system analyzed the functional relationship between these impedance ratios and the distance between the file and the apex with statistics by measuring plenty of teeth. The position of the apical foramen can be determined by the statistical model using these impedance ratios. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy of the system based on multifrequency impedance ratios method to determine the position of the apical foramen was higher than the dual-frequency impedance ratio method. Besides that, for more complex measurement environments, the performance of the system was more stable.

Keywords: root canal length, apex locator, multifrequency impedance, sweep frequency

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571 Impedance Based Biosensor for Agricultural Pathogen Detection

Authors: Rhea Patel, Madhuri Vinchurkar, Rajul Patkar, Gopal Pranjale, Maryam Shojaei Baghini


One of the major limitations on food resources worldwide is the deterioration of plant products due to pathogenic infections. Early screening of plants for pathogenic infections can serve as a boon in the Agricultural sector. The standard microbiology techniques has not kept pace with the rapid enumeration and automated methods for bacteria detection. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) serves as a label free bio sensing technique to monitor pathogens in real time. The changes in the electrical impedance of a growing bacterial culture can be monitored to detect activity of microorganisms. In this study, we demonstrate development of a gold interdigitated electrode (gold IDE) based impedance biosensor to detect bacterial cells in real on-field crop samples. To calibrate our impedance measurement system, nutrient broth suspended Escherichia coli cells were used. We extended this calibrated protocol to identify the agricultural pathogens in real potato tuber samples. Distinct difference was seen in the impedance recorded for the healthy and infected potato samples. Our results support the potential application of this Impedance based biosensor in Agricultural pathogen detection.

Keywords: agriculture, biosensor, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, microelectrode, pathogen detection

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570 Low Profile Wide-Band Broad Side RMSA Suitable for On-Board Applications

Authors: Qaisar Fraz, H. M. Jafar, Mojeeb Bin Ihsan


This paper presents simulation and experimen-tal results for wide band U-shaped side slots loaded linearly polarized rectangular microstrip antenna with broad side radiation characteristics suitable for onboard applications. The structure has been evolved in rugged and compact form to make it suitable for on-board applications. In addition to U-shaped central slot, pair of parallel narrow slots has been embedded close to non-radiating edges. The size and shape of these side slots have been optimized to improve the matching at upper frequency of the band. The impedance bandwidth of 34.8% as compared to 2-5% bandwidth of conventional microstrip antenna has been achieved. The frequency ratio of the two well-matched operating sections is found to be f2 / f1=1.33. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results.

Keywords: low profile antennas, u-slot antennas, broad band antennas, broad-side radiation pattern, high gain antennas

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569 Study of Superconducting Patch Printed on Electric-Magnetic Substrates Materials

Authors: Fortaki Tarek, S. Bedra


In this paper, the effects of both uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate and high Tc superconducting patch on the resonant frequency, half-power bandwidth, and radiation patterns are investigated using an electric field integral equation and the spectral domain Green’s function. The analysis has been based on a full electromagnetic wave model with London’s equations and the Gorter-Casimir two-fluid model has been improved to investigate the resonant and radiation characteristics of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch in the case where the patch is printed on electric-magnetic uniaxially anisotropic substrate materials. The stationary phase technique has been used for computing the radiation electric field. The obtained results demonstrate a considerable improvement in the half-power bandwidth, of the rectangular microstrip patch, by using a superconductor patch instead of a perfect conductor one. Further results show that high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch on the uniaxial substrate with properly selected electric and magnetic anisotropy ratios is more advantageous than the one on the isotropic substrate by exhibiting wider bandwidth and radiation characteristic. This behavior agrees with that discovered experimentally for superconducting patches on isotropic substrates. The calculated results have been compared with measured one available in the literature and excellent agreement has been found.

Keywords: high Tc superconducting microstrip patch, electric-magnetic anisotropic substrate, Galerkin method, surface complex impedance with boundary conditions, radiation patterns

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568 Seismic Inversion to Improve the Reservoir Characterization: Case Study in Central Blue Nile Basin, Sudan

Authors: Safwat E. Musa, Nuha E. Mohamed, Nuha A. Bagi


In this study, several crossplots of the P-impedance with the lithology logs (gamma ray, neutron porosity, deep resistivity, water saturation and Vp/Vs curves) were made in three available wells, which were drilled in central part of the Blue Nile basin in depths varies from 1460 m to 1600 m. These crossplots were successful to discriminate between sand and shale when using P-Impedance values, and between the wet sand and the pay sand when using both P-impedance and Vp/Vs together. Also, some impedance sections were converted to porosity sections using linear formula to characterize the reservoir in terms of porosity. The used crossplots were created on log resolution, while the seismic resolution can identify only the reservoir, unless a 3D seismic angle stacks were available; then it would be easier to identify the pay sand with great confidence; through high resolution seismic inversion and geostatistical approach when using P-impedance and Vp/Vs volumes.

Keywords: basin, Blue Nile, inversion, seismic

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567 Complementary Split Ring Resonator-Loaded Microstrip Patch Antenna Useful for Microwave Communication

Authors: Subal Kar, Madhuja Ghosh, Amitesh Kumar, Arijit Majumder


Complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) loaded microstrip square patch antenna has been optimally designed with the help of high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). The antenna has been fabricated on the basis of the simulation design data and experimentally tested in anechoic chamber to evaluate its gain, bandwidth, efficiency and polarization characteristics. The CSRR loaded microstrip patch antenna has been found to realize significant size miniaturization (to the extent of 24%) compared to the conventional-type microstrip patch antenna both operating at the same frequency (5.2 GHz). The fabricated antenna could realize a maximum gain of 4.17 dB, 10 dB impedance bandwidth of 34 MHz, efficiency 50.73% and with maximum cross-pol of 10.56 dB down at the operating frequency. This practically designed antenna with its miniaturized size is expected to be useful for airborne and space borne applications at microwave frequency.

Keywords: split ring resonator, metamaterial, CSRR loaded patch antenna, microstrip patch antenna, LC resonator

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566 Impedance Matching of Axial Mode Helical Antennas

Authors: Hossein Mardani, Neil Buchanan, Robert Cahill, Vincent Fusco


In this paper, we study the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas to find an effective way for matching it to 50 Ω. The study is done on the important matching parameters such as like wire diameter and helix to the ground plane gap. It is intended that these parameters control the matching without detrimentally affecting the radiation pattern. Using transmission line theory, a simple broadband technique is proposed, which is applicable for perfect matching of antennas with similar design parameters. We provide design curves to help to choose the proper dimensions of the matching section based on the antenna’s unmatched input impedance. Finally, using the proposed technique, a 4-turn axial mode helix is designed at 2.5 GHz center frequency and the measurement results of the manufactured antenna will be included. This parametric study gives a good insight into the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas and the proposed impedance matching approach provides a simple, useful method for matching these types of antennas.

Keywords: antenna, helix, helical, axial mode, wireless power transfer, impedance matching

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565 Characterization of Graphene Oxide Coated Gold Electrodes for Bioimpedance Measurements

Authors: Fatma Gülden Şi̇mşek, Osman Meli̇h Can, Mehmet Yumak, Bora Gari̇pcan, Yekta Ülgen


In this study, the impedance spectroscopy is used as a detection tool in order to characterize surface coating with graphene oxide. Gold electrodes are produced by standard lithography procedures and then coated with graphene oxide using self-assembly method. The impedance of redox solution through bare gold electrodes and graphene oxide coated gold electrodes is measured in the low and high frequency range. The graphene oxide coating reduces the impedance value of the gold electrode and this reduction is distinguishable in the low-frequency range.

Keywords: bioimpedance, electrode characterization, graphene oxide, gold electrodes, impedance spectroscopy

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564 Design of S-Shape GPS Application Electrically Small Antenna

Authors: Riki H. Patel, Arpan Desai, Trushit Upadhyaya, Shobhit K. Patel


The micro strip antennas area has seen some inventive work in recent years and is now one of the most dynamic fields of antenna theory. A novel and simple printed wideband monopole antenna is presented. Printed on a single dielectric substrate and easily fed by using a 50 ohm microstip line, low-profile antenna structure with two parallel S-shaped meandered line of same size. In this research, S–form micro strip patch antenna is designed from measuring the prototypes of the proposed antenna one available bands with 10db return loss bandwidths of about GPS application (GPS L2 1490 MHz) and covering the 1400 to 1580 MHz frequency band at 1.5 GHz The simulated results for main parameters such as return loss, impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gains are also discussed herein. The modeling study shows that such antennas, in simplicity design and supply, and can satisfy GPS application. Two parallel slots are incorporated to disturb the surface flow path, introducing local inductive effect. This antenna is fed by a coaxial feeding tube.

Keywords: bandwidth, electrically small antenna, microstrip, patch antenna, GPS

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