Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: L-shaped slots

45 Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Mohamed Adel Sennouni, Jamal Zbitou, Benaissa Abboud, Abdelwahed Tribak, Hamid Bennis, Mohamed Latrach


A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design is composed of a rectangular patch with symmetric L-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875

Keywords: UWB planar antenna, L-shaped slots, wireless applications, impedance band-width, radiation pattern, CST

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
44 Low Profile Wide-Band Broad Side RMSA Suitable for On-Board Applications

Authors: Qaisar Fraz, H. M. Jafar, Mojeeb Bin Ihsan


This paper presents simulation and experimen-tal results for wide band U-shaped side slots loaded linearly polarized rectangular microstrip antenna with broad side radiation characteristics suitable for onboard applications. The structure has been evolved in rugged and compact form to make it suitable for on-board applications. In addition to U-shaped central slot, pair of parallel narrow slots has been embedded close to non-radiating edges. The size and shape of these side slots have been optimized to improve the matching at upper frequency of the band. The impedance bandwidth of 34.8% as compared to 2-5% bandwidth of conventional microstrip antenna has been achieved. The frequency ratio of the two well-matched operating sections is found to be f2 / f1=1.33. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results.

Keywords: low profile antennas, u-slot antennas, broad band antennas, broad-side radiation pattern, high gain antennas

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
43 Wideband Planar Antenna Based on Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission-Line (CRLH-TL) for Operation across UHF/L/S-Bands

Authors: Mohammad Alibakhshikenari, Ernesto Limiti, Bal S. Virdee


The paper presents a miniature wideband antenna using composite right/left-handed transmission-line (CRLH-TL) metamaterial. The proposed planar antenna has a fractional bandwidth of 100% and is designed to operate in several frequency bands from 800MHz to 2.40GHz. The antenna is constructed using just two CRLH-TL unit cells comprising of two T-shaped slots that are inverted. The slots contribute towards generating the series left-handed (LH) capacitance CL. The rectangular patch on which the slots are created is grounded with spiral shaped high impedance stubs that contribute towards LH inductance LL. The antenna has a size of 14×6×1.6mm3 (0.037λ0×0.016λ0× 0.004λ0, where λ0 is free space wavelength at 800MHz). The peak gain and efficiency of the antenna are 1.5 dBi and ~75%, respectively, at 1.6GHz. Proposed antenna is suitable for use in wireless systems working at UHF/L/S-bands, in particular, AMPS, GSM, WCDMA, UMTS, PCS, cellular, DCS, IMT-2000, JCDMA, KPCS, GPS, lower band of WiMAX.

Keywords: miniature antenna, composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL), wideband antenna, communication transceiver, metamaterials

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
42 Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array

Authors: Badar Muneer, Waseem Shabir, Faisal Karim Shaikh


Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.

Keywords: feeding network, laminated waveguide, PIFA, transverse slots

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
41 A Petri Net Model to Obtain the Throughput of Unreliable Production Lines in the Buffer Allocation Problem

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Alexandr Karelin, Ana Tarasenko, Juan Carlos Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Eva Selene Hernandez-Gress


A production line designer faces with several challenges in manufacturing system design. One of them is the assignment of buffer slots in between every machine of the production line in order to maximize the throughput of the whole line, which is known as the Buffer Allocation Problem (BAP). The BAP is a combinatorial problem that depends on the number of machines and the total number of slots to be distributed on the production line. In this paper, we are proposing a Petri Net (PN) Model to obtain the throughput in unreliable production lines, based on PN mathematical tools and the decomposition method. The results obtained by this methodology are similar to those presented in previous works, and the number of machines is not a hard restriction.

Keywords: buffer allocation problem, Petri Nets, throughput, production lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
40 Performance Evaluation of One and Two Dimensional Prime Codes for Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Neena Gupta


In this paper, we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension, i.e. time slots, whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research, we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system on a single platform. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes, but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
39 Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving Evaluation of a Combined System in an Office Room Using Displacement Ventilation

Authors: A. Q. Ahmed, S. Gao


In this paper, the energy saving and human thermal comfort in a typical office room are investigated. The impact of a combined system of exhaust inlet air with light slots located at the ceiling level in a room served by displacement ventilation system is numerically modelled. Previous experimental data are used to validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. A case study of simulated office room includes two seating occupants, two computers, two data loggers and four lamps. The combined system is located at the ceiling level above the heat sources. A new method of calculation for the cooling coil load in stratified air distribution (STRAD) system is used in this study. The results show that 47.4 % energy saving of space cooling load can be achieved by combing the exhaust inlet air with light slots at the ceiling level above the heat sources.

Keywords: air conditioning, displacement ventilation, energy saving, thermal comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
38 Performance Analysis and Comparison of Various 1-D and 2-D Prime Codes for OCDMA Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Shashank Johri, Arpit Mehrotra


In this paper we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension i.e. time slots whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for OCDMA system on a single platform. Results shows that 1D Extended Prime Code (EPC) can support more number of active users compared to other codes but at the expense of larger code length which further increases the complexity of the code. Modified Prime Code (MPC) supports lesser number of active users at λc=2 but it has a lesser code length as compared to 1D prime code. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
37 Analysis and Design of Dual-Polarization Antennas for Wireless Communication Systems

Authors: Vladimir Veremey


The paper describes the design and simulation of dual-polarization antennas that use the resonance and radiating properties of the H00 mode of metal open waveguides. The proposed antennas are formed by two orthogonal slots in a finite conducting ground plane. The slots are backed by metal screens connected to the ground plane forming open waveguides. It has been shown that the antenna designs can be efficiently used in mm-wave bands. The antenna single mode operational bandwidth is higher than 10%. The antenna designs are very simple and low-cost. They allow flush installation and can be efficiently used in various communication and remote sensing devices on fast moving carriers. Mutual coupling between antennas of the proposed design is very low. Thus, multiple antenna structures with proposed antennas can be efficiently employed in multi-band and in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems.

Keywords: antenna, antenna arrays, Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO), millimeter wave bands, slot antenna, flush installation, directivity, open waveguide, conformal antennas

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
36 Liquid Crystal Based Reconfigurable Reflectarray Antenna Design

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam


This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with slot embedded patch element configurations within X-band frequency range. The slots are shown to modify the surface current distribution on the patch element of reflectarray which causes the resonant patch element to provide different resonant frequencies depending on the slot dimensions. The simulated results are supported and verified by waveguide scattering parameter measurements of different reflectarray unit cells. Different rectangular slots on patch element have been fabricated and a change in resonant frequency from 10.46GHz to 8.78GHz has been demonstrated as the width of the rectangular slot is varied from 0.2W to 0.6W. The rectangular slot in the center of the patch element has also been utilized for the frequency tunable reflectarray antenna design based on K-15 Nematic LC. For the active reflectarray antenna design, a frequency tunability of 1.2% from 10GHz to 9.88GHz has been demonstrated with a dynamic phase range of 103° provided by the measured scattering parameter results. Time consumed by liquid crystals for reconfiguration, which is one of the drawback of LC based design, has also been disused in this paper.

Keywords: liquid crystal, tunable reflectarray, frequency tunability, dynamic phase range

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
35 The Virtual Container Yard: Identifying the Persuasive Factors in Container Interchange

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, Zhihong Jin, A. W. Wijeratne, R. Mudunkotuwa


The virtual container yard is an effective solution to the container inventory imbalance problem which is a global issue. It causes substantial cost to carriers, which inadvertently adds to the prices of consumer goods. The virtual container yard is rooted in the fundamentals of container interchange between carriers. If carriers opt to interchange their excess containers with those who are deficit, a substantial part of the empty reposition cost could be eliminated. Unlike in other types of ships, cargo cannot be directly loaded to a container ship. Slots and containers are supplementary components; thus, without containers, a carrier cannot ship cargo if the containers are not available and vice versa. Few decades ago, carriers recognized slot (the unit of space in a container ship) interchange as a viable solution for the imbalance of shipping space. Carriers interchange slots among them and it also increases the advantage of scale of economies in container shipping. Some of these service agreements between mega carriers have provisions to interchange containers too. However, the interchange mechanism is still not popular among carriers for containers. This is the paradox that prevails in the liner shipping industry. At present, carriers reposition their excess empty containers to areas where they are in demand. This research applied factor analysis statistical method. The paper reveals that five major components may influence the virtual container yard namely organisation, practice and culture, legal and environment, international nature, and marketing. There are 12 variables that may impact the virtual container yard, and these are explained in the paper.

Keywords: virtual container yard, shipping, imbalance, management, inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
34 Comparative Investigation of Miniaturized Antennas Based on Chiral Slotted Ground Plane

Authors: Oussema Tabbabi, Mondher Laabidi, Fethi Choubani, J. David


This study presents a miniaturized antenna based on chiral metamaterials slotted ground plane. To decrease resonant frequency while keeping the antennas physical dimensions the same, we propose a two novel patch antennas with double Z and cross slots on the ground plane. The length of the each type of slot are also altered to investigate the effect on miniaturization performance. Resonance frequency reduction has been achieved nearly to 30% and 23% as well as size reduction of almost 28% and 22% for the double Z and the cross shape respectively.

Keywords: chiral metamaterials, miniaturized antenna, miniaturization, resonance frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
33 Incidence of Vulval, Vaginal and Cervical Disease in Rapid Access Clinic in a London Tertiary Hospital Setting

Authors: Kieren Wilson, Gulnaz Majeed


NHS constitution gives rights to the patient with suspected cancer to be seen by a cancer specialist within 2 weeks of referral. Guys and St Thomas Hospital (GSTT) is one of the largest cancer centres in London. NICE guidelines have provided guidance for health professionals to refer patients appropriately to RAC. In GSTT suspected gynae cancer referrals are mostly by NHS e-Referral Service with some fax, emails as well as paper referrals. The objective of this study was to evaluate compliance with 2-week referral pathway with emphasis on one stop diagnostic service with supporting efficient pathways. A prospective evaluation over 3 months (1 Jan 2017 to 31 Mar 2017) was undertaken. There were 26 clinics, 761 patients were booked in the clinics with a DNA rate of 13% (n=101) hence 606 patients were seen. Majority of referrals were for post menopausal bleeding (PMB) 25% (n=194) followed by cervical, vaginal, vulval reasons 23% (n=179) (abnormal cytology excluded as patients directly referred to colposcopy unit in GSTT), ovarian 7% (n=54) and endometrial 5% (n=41). Women with new or previous established diagnosis of cancer were 24, cervical (n=17), vulva (n=6) and vagina (n=1). Multifocal preinvasive disease vulva (VIN), vagina (VAIN) and cervix (CIN) was confirmed in twenty-six patients 4% (high prevalence in HIV patients). Majority of cervical referrals: PCB (n=14), cervical erosion (n=7), polyps (n=9) and cervical cyst were benign. However, two women with PMB had cervical cancer. Only 2 out of 13 referrals with vaginal concerns had VAIN. One case with non-cervical glandular cytology was confirmed to have endometrial cancer. One stop service based on the diagnostic support of ultrasound, colposcopy and hysteroscopy was achieved in 54% (n=359). Patients were discharged to GP, benign gynaecology, endometriosis, combined vulval/dermatology clinic or gynae oncology. 33% (n=202) required a second visit, 12% (n=70) third visit, 3% (n=19) fourth visit, 1% (n=4) fifth visit and 1% (n=6) sixth visit. Main reasons for follow ups were the unavailability of diagnostic slots, patient choice, need for interpreters, the discussion following gynae MDM review for triage to benign gynae, delay in availability of diagnostic results like histology/MRI/CT. Recommendations following this study are multi disciplinary review of pathways with the availability of additional diagnostic procedure slots to aim for one stop service. Furthermore, establishment of virtual and telephone consultations to reduce follow ups.

Keywords: multifocal disease, post menopausal bleeding, preinvasive disease, rapid access clinic

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
32 Modelling of Induction Motor Including Skew Effect Using MWFA for Performance Improvement

Authors: M. Harir, A. Bendiabdellah, A. Chaouch, N. Benouzza


This paper deals with the modelling and simulation of the squirrel cage induction motor by taking into account all space harmonic components, as well as the introduction of the bars skew, in the calculation of the linear evolution of the magnetomotive force (MMF) between the slots extremities. The model used is based on multiple coupled circuits and the modified winding function approach (MWFA). The effect of skewing is included in the calculation of motors inductances with an axial asymmetry in the rotor. The simulation results in both time and spectral domains show the effectiveness and merits of the model and the error that may be caused if the skew of the bars is neglected.

Keywords: modeling, MWFA, skew effect, squirrel cage induction motor, spectral domain

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
31 Optimization of Dual Band Antenna on Silicon Substrate

Authors: Syrine lahmadi, Jamel Bel Hadj Tahar


In this paper, a rectangular antenna with slots integrated on silicon substrate operating in 60GHz, is studied and optimized. The effect of different parameter of the antenna (width, length, the position of the microstrip-feed line...) and the parameter of the substrate (the thickness, the dielectric constant) on gain, frequency is presented. Also, the paper presents a solution to ameliorate the bandwidth. The maximum simulated radiation gain of this rectangular dual band antenna is 5, 38 dB around 60GHz. The simulation studied id developed based on advanced design system tools. It is found that the designed antenna is 19 % smaller than a rectangular antenna with the same dimensions. This antenna with dual band can function for many communication systems as automobile or radar.

Keywords: dual band, enlargement of bandwidth, miniaturized antennas, printed antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
30 Magnetic Field Analysis of External Rotor Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors with Non Magnetic Rotor Core

Authors: Mabrak Samir


The motor performance created by permanent magnetic in a slotless air-gap of a surface mounted permanent-magnet synchronous motor with non magnetic rotor and either sinusoidal or mixed (quasi-Halbatch) magnetization is presented in this paper using polar coordinates. The analysis works for both internal and external rotor motor topologies, The effect of stator slots is introduced by modulating the magnetic field distribution in the slotless stator by the complex relative air-gap permeance, calculated from the conformal transformation of the slot geometry. We compare predicted results of flux density distribution and cogging torque with those obtained by finite-element analysis.

Keywords: air-cored, cogging torque, finite element magnetic field, permanent-magnet

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
29 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi


In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: antenna, array, reconfigurable, vehicular

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
28 A CPW Fed Bowtie Microstrip Slot Antenna for Wireless Applications

Authors: Amandeep Singh, Surinder Singh


A slotted Bow-Tie microstrip patch antenna utilizing input of coplanar waveguide for high frequency wireless applications is proposed and analyzed in this work. RT/Duroid 5880 with its dielectric constant 2.2 is opted for the experimentation to analyze the proposed microstrip slot antenna. This antenna is exclusively designed for the frequency range of 10 GHz to 11 GHz and modelling parameters are obtained from the already existing data and dimensions of antenna are adjusted by employing some corrugated slots in the Bowtie shape to obtain the required bandwidth so that it can radiate within the specified range. The characteristics of proposed antenna are measured by a FEM electromagnetic field solver and it is found that the reflection coefficient, voltage standing wave ratio, radiated gain, feed point impedance, radiation efficiency are in a good agreement. This antenna is also exhibiting an absolute bandwidth of 1000 MHz. The validated results indicate that the proposed bowtie microstrip slot antenna comes under the wideband category and utilized in the wireless application ranges between the 10 GHz – 11 GHz.

Keywords: CPW, bowtie, FEM, corrugated

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
27 A Comprehensive Review of Axial Flux Machines and Its Applications

Authors: Shahbaz Amin, Sabir Hussain Shah, Sahib Khan


This paper presents a thorough review concerning the design types of axial flux permanent magnet machines (AFPM) in terms of different features such as construction, design, materials, and manufacturing. Particular emphasis is given on the design and performance analysis of AFPM machines. A comparison among different permanent magnet machines is also provided. First of all, early and modern axial flux machines are mentioned. Secondly, rotor construction of different axial flux machines is described, then different stator constructions are mentioned depending upon the presence of slots and stator back iron. Then according to the arrangement of the rotor stator structure the machines are classified into single, double and multi-stack arrangements. Advantages, disadvantages and applications of each type of rotor and stator are pointed out. Finally on the basis of the reviewed literature merits, demerits, features and application of different axial flux machines structures are explained and clarified. Thus, this paper provides connection between the machines that are currently being used in industry and the developments of AFPM throughout the years.

Keywords: axial flux machines, axial flux applications, coreless machines, PM machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
26 Numerical Investigation of Two Turbulence Models for Predicting the Temperature Separation in Conical Vortex Tube

Authors: M. Guen


A three-dimensional numerical study is used to analyze the behavior of the flow inside a vortex tube. The vortex tube or Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is a simple device which is capable of dividing compressed air from the inlet nozzle tangentially into two flow with different temperatures warm and cold. This phenomenon is known from literature by temperature separation. The K ω-SST and K-ε turbulence models are used to predict the turbulent flow behaviour inside the tube. The vortex tube is an Exair 708 slpm (25 scfm) commercial tube. The cold and hot exits areas are 30.2 and 95 mm2 respectively. The vortex nozzle consists of 6 straight slots; the height and the width of each slot are 0.97 mm and 1.41 mm. The total area normal to the flow associated with six nozzles is therefore 8.15 mm 2. The present study focuses on a comparison between two turbulence models K ω-SST, K-ε by using a new configuration of vortex tube (Conical Vortex Tube). The performance curves of the temperature separation versus cold outlet mass fraction were calculated and compared with experimental and numerical study of other researchers.

Keywords: conical vortex tube, temperature separation, cold mass fraction, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
25 BER of the Leaky Feeder under Rayleigh Fading Multichannel Reception with Imperfect Phase Estimation

Authors: Hasan Farahneh, Xavier Fernando


Leaky Feeder (LF) has been a proven technology for many decades and its promises broadband wireless access in short range but being overlooked until now. The LF is a natural MIMO transceiver ideal for micro and pico cells. In this work, the LF is considered as a linear antenna array MultiInput-Single-Output (MISO) and derive the average bit error rate (BER) in Rayleigh fading channel considering ideal and independent paths (iid) which consider there is no correlation and mutual coupling between transmit antennas (slots) or receiver antenna considering QPSK modulation with imperfect phase estimation. We consider maximal ratio transmission (MRT) at the transmit end and maximal ratio combining (MRC) at the receiving end. Analytical expressions are derived for the BER with radiating cable transmitters. The effects of slot spacing and carrier frequency on the BER are also studied. Numerical evaluations show the radiating cable transmitter offer much lower BER than a single antenna transmitter with same SNR.

Keywords: leaky feeder, BER, QPSK, rayleigh fading, channel gain, phase mismatch

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
24 Miniaturized and Compact Monopole Corner Antenna with a Periodic Slot Truncated and T-Inverted Stub-Tuning for Ultra Wideband Applications

Authors: R. Dakir, J. Zbitou, Ahmed Mouhsen, A. Errkik, A. Tajmouati, M. Latrach


The design and analysis of a new compact and miniaturized monopole antenna structure for ultra wideband (UWB) wireless applications are presented and suggested in this paper. The proposed antenna structure is based on corner radiator patch with T-shaped slot and fed by mictostrip feed line with a partial ground plane combined a periodic rectangular slot and inverted T-stub tuning to increase the bandwidth. The design parameters and the performance of the suggested antenna are investigated by using 'CST Microwave Studio' and Advanced Design System. The final prototype of the proposed antenna operates from 3GHZ to 25GHz, corresponding to wide input impedance bandwidth around (157.14%) with a size of 16*24mm2 and can be easily integrated with radio-frequency or microwave circuits with low cost manufacturing. Details of the UWB antenna design and both simulated and measured results are described and discussed.

Keywords: UWB, T-shaped slots, improvement, bandwidth, stub tuning

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
23 Design of S-Shape GPS Application Electrically Small Antenna

Authors: Riki H. Patel, Arpan Desai, Trushit Upadhyaya, Shobhit K. Patel


The micro strip antennas area has seen some inventive work in recent years and is now one of the most dynamic fields of antenna theory. A novel and simple printed wideband monopole antenna is presented. Printed on a single dielectric substrate and easily fed by using a 50 ohm microstip line, low-profile antenna structure with two parallel S-shaped meandered line of same size. In this research, S–form micro strip patch antenna is designed from measuring the prototypes of the proposed antenna one available bands with 10db return loss bandwidths of about GPS application (GPS L2 1490 MHz) and covering the 1400 to 1580 MHz frequency band at 1.5 GHz The simulated results for main parameters such as return loss, impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gains are also discussed herein. The modeling study shows that such antennas, in simplicity design and supply, and can satisfy GPS application. Two parallel slots are incorporated to disturb the surface flow path, introducing local inductive effect. This antenna is fed by a coaxial feeding tube.

Keywords: bandwidth, electrically small antenna, microstrip, patch antenna, GPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
22 Estimation of Fourier Coefficients of Flux Density for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) Generators by Direct Search Optimization

Authors: Ramakrishna Rao Mamidi


It is essential for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) generators to determine the performance prediction and analyze the magnet’s air gap flux density wave shape. The flux density wave shape is neither a pure sine wave or square wave nor a combination. This is due to the variation of air gap reluctance between the stator and permanent magnets. The stator slot openings and the number of slots make the wave shape highly complicated. To reduce the complexity of analysis, approximations are made to the wave shape using Fourier analysis. In contrast to the traditional integration method, the Fourier coefficients, an and bn, are obtained by direct search method optimization. The wave shape with optimized coefficients gives a wave shape close to the desired wave shape. Harmonics amplitudes are worked out and compared with initial values. It can be concluded that the direct search method can be used for estimating Fourier coefficients for irregular wave shapes.

Keywords: direct search, flux plot, fourier analysis, permanent magnets

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
21 Small Scale Mobile Robot Auto-Parking Using Deep Learning, Image Processing, and Kinematics-Based Target Prediction

Authors: Mingxin Li, Liya Ni


Autonomous parking is a valuable feature applicable to many robotics applications such as tour guide robots, UV sanitizing robots, food delivery robots, and warehouse robots. With auto-parking, the robot will be able to park at the charging zone and charge itself without human intervention. As compared to self-driving vehicles, auto-parking is more challenging for a small-scale mobile robot only equipped with a front camera due to the camera view limited by the robot’s height and the narrow Field of View (FOV) of the inexpensive camera. In this research, auto-parking of a small-scale mobile robot with a front camera only was achieved in a four-step process: Firstly, transfer learning was performed on the AlexNet, a popular pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN). It was trained with 150 pictures of empty parking slots and 150 pictures of occupied parking slots from the view angle of a small-scale robot. The dataset of images was divided into a group of 70% images for training and the remaining 30% images for validation. An average success rate of 95% was achieved. Secondly, the image of detected empty parking space was processed with edge detection followed by the computation of parametric representations of the boundary lines using the Hough Transform algorithm. Thirdly, the positions of the entrance point and center of available parking space were predicted based on the robot kinematic model as the robot was driving closer to the parking space because the boundary lines disappeared partially or completely from its camera view due to the height and FOV limitations. The robot used its wheel speeds to compute the positions of the parking space with respect to its changing local frame as it moved along, based on its kinematic model. Lastly, the predicted entrance point of the parking space was used as the reference for the motion control of the robot until it was replaced by the actual center when it became visible again by the robot. The linear and angular velocities of the robot chassis center were computed based on the error between the current chassis center and the reference point. Then the left and right wheel speeds were obtained using inverse kinematics and sent to the motor driver. The above-mentioned four subtasks were all successfully accomplished, with the transformed learning, image processing, and target prediction performed in MATLAB, while the motion control and image capture conducted on a self-built small scale differential drive mobile robot. The small-scale robot employs a Raspberry Pi board, a Pi camera, an L298N dual H-bridge motor driver, a USB power module, a power bank, four wheels, and a chassis. Future research includes three areas: the integration of all four subsystems into one hardware/software platform with the upgrade to an Nvidia Jetson Nano board that provides superior performance for deep learning and image processing; more testing and validation on the identification of available parking space and its boundary lines; improvement of performance after the hardware/software integration is completed.

Keywords: autonomous parking, convolutional neural network, image processing, kinematics-based prediction, transfer learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
20 High Gain Broadband Plasmonic Slot Nano-Antenna

Authors: H. S. Haroyan, V. R. Tadevosyan


High gain broadband plasmonic slot nano-antenna has been considered. The theory of plasmonic slot nano-antenna (PSNA) has been developed. The analytical model takes into account also the electrical field inside the metal due to imperfectness of metal in optical range, as well as numerical investigation based on FEM method has been realized. It should be mentioned that Yagi-Uda configuration improves directivity in the plane of structure. In contrast, in this paper the possibility of directivity improvement of proposed PSNA in perpendicular plane of structure by using reflection metallic surface placed under the slot in fixed distance has been demonstrated. It is well known that a directivity improvement brings to the antenna gain increasing. This method of diagram improving is also well known from RF antenna design theory. Moreover the improvement of directivity in the perpendicular plane gives more flexibility in such application as improving the light and atom, ion, molecule interactions by using such type of plasmonic slot antenna. By the analogy of dipole type optical antennas the widening of working wavelengths has been realized by using bowtie geometry of slots, which made the antenna broadband.

Keywords: broadband antenna, high gain, slot nano-antenna, plasmonics.

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
19 Gender and Advertisements: A Content Analysis of Pakistani Prime Time Advertisements

Authors: Aaminah Hassan


Advertisements carry a great potential to influence our lives because they are crafted to meet particular ends. Stereotypical representation in advertisements is capable of forming unconscious attitudes among people towards any gender and their abilities. This study focuses on gender representation in Pakistani prime time advertisements. For this purpose, 13 advertisements were selected from three different categories of foods and beverages, cosmetics, cell phones and cellular networks from the prime time slots of one of the leading Pakistani entertainment channel, ‘Urdu 1’. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are carried out for range of variables like gender, age, roles, activities, setting, appearance and voice overs. The results revealed that gender representation in advertisements is stereotypical. Moreover, in few instances, the portrayal of women is not only culturally inappropriate but is demeaning to the image of women as well. Their bodily charm is used to promote products. Comparing different entertainment channels for their prime time advertisements and broadening the scope of this research will yield greater implications for the researchers who want to carry out the similar research. It is hoped that the current study would help in the promotion of media literacy among the viewers and media authorities in Pakistan.

Keywords: Advertisements, Content Analysis, Gender, Prime time

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18 The Design and Analysis of a Novel Type High Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna System for the Satellite Communication

Authors: Shahid M. Ali, Zakiullah


An individual feed, smooth and smart, completely new shaped, dual band microstrip patch antenna has been proposed in this manuscript. Right here three triangular shape slots are usually presented in the 3 edges on the patch and along with a small feed line has utilized another edge on the patch to find out the dual band. The antenna carries a condensed framework wherever patch is around about 8.5mm by means of 7.96mm by means of 1.905mm leading to excellent bandwidths covering 13. 15 GHz to 13. 72 GHz in addition to 16.04 GHz to 16.58GHz. The return loss(RL) decrease in -19. 00dB and will be attained in the first resonant frequency at 13. 61 GHz and -28.69dB is at second resonance frequency at 16.33GHz. The stable average peak gain that may be observed along the operating band in lower and higher frequency is actually three. 53dB in addition to 5.562dB correspondingly. The radiation designs usually are omni directional along with moderate gain within equally most of these functioning bands. Accomplishment is proven within double frequencies at 13.62GHz since downlink in addition to 16.33GHz since uplink. This kind of low and simple configuration of the proposed antenna shows simplest fabrication and make it ensure that it is adaptable for your application within instant in satellite and as well as for the wireless communication system.

Keywords: dual band, microstrip patch antenna, HFSS, Ku band, satellite

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17 Experimental and Semi-Analytical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Schlenkhoff, R. Rousta, R. Abdelaziz


Vertical slotted walls can be used as permeable breakwaters to provide economical and environmental protection from undesirable waves and currents inside the port. The permeable breakwaters are partially protection and have been suggested to overcome the environmental disadvantages of fully protection breakwaters. For regular waves a semi-analytical model is based on an eigenfunction expansion method and utilizes a boundary condition at the surface of each wall are developed to detect the energy dissipation through the slots. Extensive laboratory tests are carried out to validate the semi-analytic models. The structure of the physical model contains two walls and it consists of impermeable upper and lower part, where the draft is based a decimal multiple of the total depth. The middle part is permeable with a porosity of 50%. The second barrier is located at a distant of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 times of the water depth from the first one. A comparison of the theoretical results with previous studies and experimental measurements of the present study show a good agreement and that, the semi-analytical model is able to adequately reproduce most the important features of the experiment.

Keywords: permeable breakwater, double vertical slotted walls, semi-analytical model, transmission coefficient, reflection coefficient, energy dissipation coefficient

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16 Design and Synthesis of Two Tunable Bandpass Filters Based on Varactors and Defected Ground Structure

Authors: M'Hamed Boulakroune, Mouloud Challal, Hassiba Louazene, Saida Fentiz


This paper presents a new ultra wideband (UWB) microstrip bandpass filter (BPF) at microwave frequencies. The first one is based on multiple-mode resonator (MMR) and rectangular-shaped defected ground structure (DGS). This filter, which is compact size of 25.2 x 3.8 mm2, provides in the pass band an insertion loss of 0.57 dB and a return loss greater than 12 dB. The second structure is a tunable bandpass filters using planar patch resonators based on diode varactor. This filter is formed by a triple mode circular patch resonator with two pairs of slots, in which the varactors are connected. Indeed, this filter is initially centered at 2.4 GHz, the center frequency of the tunable patch filter could be tuned up to 1.8 GHz simultaneously with the bandwidth, reaching high tuning ranges. Lossless simulations were compared to those considering the substrate dielectric, conductor losses, and the equivalent electrical circuit model of the tuning element in order to assess their effects. Within these variations, simulation results showed insertion loss better than 2 dB and return loss better than 10 dB over the passband. The proposed filters presents good performances and the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimentation ones reported elsewhere.

Keywords: defected ground structure, diode varactor, microstrip bandpass filter, multiple-mode resonator

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