Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: K. S. Bhagat

14 Inclusive Education in Higher Education: Looking from the Lenses of Prospective Teachers

Authors: Kiran, Pooja Bhagat

Abstract:

Inclusion of diversities is much talked and discussed for school education, mainly at the elementary level. However, not enough discourse has taken place as far as the promulgation of diversities from school education to higher education in terms of guarantee of access, retention and success of students belonging to the diverse groups is concerned. In view of this, the present paper attempts to look at the phenomenon of inclusion of diversities in higher education from the perspective of the people, who themselves are the part of the present system of higher education and aspiring to take up teaching at higher education level as profession. The paper focuses on exploring the awareness of the group under study about the inclusion of diversities at higher education, their perception of diversities, and the mechanism which they consider effective to facilitate inclusion.

Keywords: inclusion, higher education, perception, belief, attitude

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13 Design of Broadband W-Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna

Authors: Neeraj G. Nahata, K. S. Bhagat

Abstract:

Microstrip patch antenna widely used in communication area because it offers low profile, narrow bandwidth, high gain, and compact in size. It has big disadvantage of narrow bandwidth. To improve the bandwidth a W-slot technique is used, it is efficient to enhance the bandwidth of antenna. The feeding point of antenna is very important for efficient operation, so coaxial feeding technique is applied to microstrip patch antenna for impedance matching. A broadband W-slot microstrip patch antenna is designed successfully which attains a bandwidth of 22.74% at 10dB return loss with centre frequency of 4.5GHz and also it attains maximum directivity 8.78dBi. It is designed by cutting a W-slot into the patch of antenna, because of this resonant slot, the antenna gives broad bandwidth. This antenna is best suitable for C-band frequency spectrum. The proposed antenna is designed and simulated using IE3D software.

Keywords: broadband, microstrip antenna, VSWR, W-slotted patch

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12 Fabrication of Hollow Germanium Spheres by Dropping Method

Authors: Kunal D. Bhagat, Truong V. Vu, John C. Wells, Hideyuki Takakura, Yu Kawano, Fumio Ogawa

Abstract:

Hollow germanium alloy quasi-spheres of diameters 1 to 2 mm with a relatively smooth inner and outer surface have been produced. The germanium was first melted at around 1273 K and then exuded from a coaxial nozzle into an inert atmosphere by argon gas supplied to the inner nozzle. The falling spheres were cooled by water spray and collected in a bucket. The spheres had a horn type of structure on the outer surface, which might be caused by volume expansion induced by the density difference between solid and gas phase. The frequency of the sphere formation was determined from the videos to be about 133 Hz. The outer diameter varied in the range of 1.3 to 1.8 mm with a wall thickness in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 mm. Solid silicon spheres are used for spherical silicon solar cells (S₃CS), which have various attractive features. Hollow S₃CS promise substantially higher energy conversion efficiency if their wall thickness can be kept to 0.1–0.2 mm and the inner surface can be passivated. Our production of hollow germanium spheres is a significant step towards the production of hollow S₃CS with, we hope, higher efficiency and lower material cost than solid S₃CS.

Keywords: hollow spheres, semiconductor, compound jet, dropping method

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11 Effects of Benzo(k)Fluoranthene, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, on DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Marine Gastropod Morula Granulata

Authors: Jacky Bhagat, Baban S Ingole

Abstract:

In this study, in vivo experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of a toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(k)fluoranthene (B[k]F), on marine gastropod, Morula granulata collected from Goa, west coast of India. Snails were exposed to different concentrations of B(k)F (1, 10, 25 and 50 µg/L) for 96 h. The genotoxic effects were evaluated by measuring DNA strand breaks using alkaline comet assay and oxidative stress were measured with the help of battery of biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Concentration-dependent increase in percentage tail DNA (TDNA) was observed in snails exposed to B(k)F. Exposure concentrations above 1 µg/L of B(k)F, showed significant increase in SOD activity and LPO value in snails. After 96 h, SOD activity were found to be doubled for 50 µg/L of B(k)F with reference to control. Significant increase in CAT and GST activity was observed at all exposure conditions at the end of the exposure time. Our study showed that B(k)F induces oxidative stress in snails which further lead to genotoxic damage.

Keywords: benzo(k)fluoranthene, comet assay, gastropod, oxidative stress

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10 Thermochemical and Biological Pretreatment Study for Efficient Sugar Release from Lignocellulosic Biomass (Deodar and Sal Wood Residues)

Authors: Neelu Raina, Parvez Singh Slathia, Deepali Bhagat, Preeti Sharma

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Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for generating suitable substrates (starch/ sugars) for conversion to bioethanol is the most crucial step. In present study waste from furniture industry i.e sawdust from softwood Cedrus deodara (deodar) and hardwood Shorea robusta (sal) was used as lignocellulosic biomass. Thermochemical pretreatment was given by autoclaving at 121°C temperature and 15 psi pressure. Acids (H2SO4,HCl,HNO3,H3PO4), alkali (NaOH,NH4OH,KOH,Ca(OH)2) and organic acids (C6H8O7,C2H2O4,C4H4O4) were used at 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% concentration without giving any residence time. 1% HCl gave maximum sugar yield of 3.6587g/L in deodar and 6.1539 g/L in sal. For biological pretreatment a fungi isolated from decaying wood was used , sawdust from deodar tree species was used as a lignocellulosic substrate and before thermochemical pretreatment sawdust was treated with fungal culture at 37°C under submerged conditions with a residence time of one week followed by a thermochemical pretreatment methodology. Higher sugar yields were obtained with sal tree species followed by deodar tree species, i.e., 6.0334g/L in deodar and 8.3605g/L in sal was obtained by a combined biological and thermochemical pretreatment. Use of acids along with biological pretreatment is a favourable factor for breaking the lignin seal and thus increasing the sugar yield. Sugar estimation was done using Dinitrosalicyclic assay method. Result validation is being done by statistical analysis.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, bioethanol, pretreatment, sawdust

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9 2.4 GHz 0.13µM Multi Biased Cascode Power Amplifier for ISM Band Wireless Applications

Authors: Udayan Patankar, Shashwati Bhagat, Vilas Nitneware, Ants Koel

Abstract:

An ISM band power amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier used to convert a low-power radio-frequency signal into a larger signal of significant power, typically used for driving the antenna of a transmitter. Due to drastic changes in telecommunication generations may lead to the requirements of improvements. Rapid changes in communication lead to the wide implementation of WLAN technology for its excellent characteristics, such as high transmission speed, long communication distance, and high reliability. Many applications such as WLAN, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, etc. were evolved with 2.4GHz to 5 GHz ISM Band, in which the power amplifier (PA) is a key building block of RF transmitters. There are many manufacturing processes available to manufacture a power amplifier for desired power output, but the major problem they have faced is about the power it consumed for its proper working, as many of them are fabricated on the GaN HEMT, Bi COMS process. In this paper we present a CMOS Base two stage cascode design of power amplifier working on 2.4GHz ISM frequency band. To lower the costs and allow full integration of a complete System-on-Chip (SoC) we have chosen 0.13µm low power CMOS technology for design. While designing a power amplifier, it is a real task to achieve higher power efficiency with minimum resources. This design showcase the Multi biased Cascode methodology to implement a two-stage CMOS power amplifier using ADS and LTSpice simulating tool. Main source is maximum of 2.4V which is internally distributed into different biasing point VB driving and VB driven as required for distinct stages of two stage RF power amplifier. It shows maximum power added efficiency near about 70.195% whereas its Power added efficiency calculated at 1 dB compression point is 44.669 %. Biased MOSFET is used to reduce total dc current as this circuit is designed for different wireless applications comes under 2.4GHz ISM Band.

Keywords: RFIC, PAE, RF CMOS, impedance matching

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8 Prevalence and Effect of Substance Use and Psychological Co-Morbidities in Medical and Dental Students of a Medical University of Nepal

Authors: Nidesh Sapkota, Garima Pudasaini, Dikshya Agrawal, Binav Baral, Umesh Bhagat, Dharanidhar Baral

Abstract:

Background: Medical and Dental students are vulnerable to higher levels of Psychological distress than other age matched peers. Many studies reveals that there is high prevalence of psychoactive substance use and Psychiatric co-morbidities among them. Objectives: -To study the prevalence of substance use among medical and dental students of a Medical University. -To study the prevalence of depression and anxiety in medical and dental students of a Medical University. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in which simple random sampling was done. Semi-structured questionnaire, AUDIT for alcohol use, Fagerstrom test for Nicotine dependence, Cannabis screening test (CAST), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used for the assessment. Results: Total sample size was 588 in which the mean age of participants was 22±2years. Among them the prevalence of alcohol users was 47.75%(281) in which 32%(90) were harmful users. Among 19.55%(115) nicotine users 56.5%(65), 37.4%(43), 6.1%(7) had low, low to moderate and moderate dependence respectively. The prevalence of cannabis users was 9%(53) with 45.3%(24), 18.9%(10) having low and high addiction respectively. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 25.3%(149) out of which 12.6%(74), 6.5%(38), 5.3%(31), 0.5%(3), 0.5%(3) had mild, borderline, moderate, severe and extreme depressive symptoms respectively. Similarly anxiety was recorded among 7.8%(46) students with 42 having moderate and 4 having severe anxiety symptoms. Among them 6.3%(37) had suicidal thoughts and 4(0.7%) of them had suicide attempt in last one year. Statistically significant association was noted with harmful alcohol users, Depression and suicidal attempts. Similar association was noted between Depression and suicide with moderate use of nicotine. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Psychoactive substance use and psychiatric co-morbidities noted in the studies sample. Statistically significant association was noted with Psychiatric co-morbidities and substance use.

Keywords: alcohol, cannabis, dependence, depression, medical students

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7 Molecular Characterization of Major Isolated Organism Involved in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

Authors: H. K. Ratre, M. Roy, S. Roy, M. S. Parmar, V. Bhagat

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Mastitis is a common problem of dairy industries. Reduction in milk production and an irreparable damage to the udder associated with the disease are common causes of culling of dairy cows. Milk from infected animals is not suitable for drinking and for making different milk products. So, it has a major economic importance in dairy cattle. The aims of this study were to investigate the bacteriological panorama in milk from udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and to carried out for the molecular characterization of the major isolated organisms, from subclinical mastitis-affected cows in and around Durg and Rajnandgaon district of Chhattisgarh. Isolation and identification of bacteria from the milk samples of subclinical mastitis-affected cows were done by standard and routine culture procedures. A total of 78 isolates were obtained from cows and among the various bacteria isolated, Staphylococcus spp. occupied prime position with occurrence rate of 51.282%. However, other bacteria isolated includeStreptococcus spp. (20.512%), Micrococcus spp. (14.102%), E. coli (8.974%), Klebsiela spp. (2.564%), Salmonella spp. (1.282%) and Proteus spp. (1.282%). Staphylococcus spp. was isolated as the major causative agent of subclinical mastitis in the studied area. Molecular characterization of Staphylococus aureusisolates was done for genetic expression of the virulence genes like ‘nuc’ encoding thermonucleaseexoenzyme, coa and spa by PCR amplification of the respective genes in 25 Staphylococcus isolates. In the present study, 15 isolates (77.27%) out of 20 coagulase positive isolates were found to be genotypically positive for ‘nuc’ where as 20 isolates (52.63%) out of 38 CNS expressed the presence of the same virulence gene. In the present study, three Staphylococcus isolates were found to be genotypically positive for coa gene. The Amplification of the coa gene yielded two different products of 627, 710 bp. The amplification of the gene segment encoding the IgG binding region of protein A (spa) revealed a size of 220 and 253bp in twostaphylococcus isolates. The X-region binding of the spa gene produced an amplicon of 315 bp in one Staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be major isolate (51.28%) responsible for causing subclinical mastitis in cows which also showed expression of virulence genesnuc, coa and spa.

Keywords: mastitis, bacteria, characterization, expression, gene

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6 Corneal Confocal Microscopy As a Surrogate Marker of Neuronal Pathology In Schizophrenia

Authors: Peter W. Woodruff, Georgios Ponirakis, Reem Ibrahim, Amani Ahmed, Hoda Gad, Ioannis N. Petropoulos, Adnan Khan, Ahmed Elsotouhy, Surjith Vattoth, Mahmoud K. M. Alshawwaf, Mohamed Adil Shah Khoodoruth, Marwan Ramadan, Anjushri Bhagat, James Currie, Ziyad Mahfoud, Hanadi Al Hamad, Ahmed Own, Peter Haddad, Majid Alabdulla, Rayaz A. Malik

Abstract:

Introduction:- We aimed to test the hypothesis that, using corneal confocal microscopy (a non-invasive method for assessing corneal nerve fibre integrity), patients with schizophrenia would show neuronal abnormalities compared with healthy participants. Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental and progressive neurodegenerative disease, for which there are no validated biomarkers. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a non-invasive ophthalmic imaging biomarker that can be used to detect neuronal abnormalities in neuropsychiatric syndromes. Methods:- Patients with schizophrenia (DSM-V criteria) without other causes of peripheral neuropathy and healthy controls underwent CCM, vibration perception threshold (VPT) and sudomotor function testing. The diagnostic accuracy of CCM in distinguishing patients from controls was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characterstics (ROC) curve. Findings:- Participants with schizophrenia (n=17) and controls (n=38) with comparable age (35.7±8.5 vs 35.6±12.2, P=0.96) were recruited. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher body weight (93.9±25.5 vs 77.1±10.1, P=0.02), lower Low Density Lipoproteins (2.6±1.0 vs 3.4±0.7, P=0.02), but comparable systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and High Density Lipoproteins were comparable with control participants. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD, fibers/mm2) (23.5±7.8 vs 35.6±6.5, p<0.0001), branch density (CNBD, branches/mm2) (34.4±26.9 vs 98.1±30.6, p<0.0001), and fiber length (CNFL, mm/mm2) (14.3±4.7 vs 24.2±3.9, p<0.0001) but no difference in VPT (6.1±3.1 vs 4.5±2.8, p=0.12) and electrochemical skin conductance (61.0±24.0 vs 68.9±12.3, p=0.23) compared with controls. The diagnostic accuracy of CNFD, CNBD and CNFL to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls were, according to the AUC, (95% CI): 87.0% (76.8-98.2), 93.2% (84.2-102.3), 93.2% (84.4-102.1), respectively. Conclusion:- In conclusion, CCM can be used to help identify neuronal changes and has a high diagnostic accuracy to distinguish subjects with schizophrenia from healthy controls.

Keywords:

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5 Reactions of 4-Aryl-1H-1,2,3-Triazoles with Cycloalkenones and Epoxides: Synthesis of 2,4- and 1,4-Disubstituted 1,2,3-Triazoles

Authors: Ujjawal Kumar Bhagat, Kamaluddin, Rama Krishna Peddinti

Abstract:

The Huisgen’s 1,3-dipolar [3+2] cycloaddition of organic azides and alkynes often give the mixtures of both the regioisomers 1,4- and 1,5- disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles. Later, in presence of metal salts (click chemistry) such as copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) was used for the synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles as a sole products regioselectively. Also, the ‘click reactions’ of Ruthenium-catalyzed azides-alkynes cycloaddition (RuAAC) is used for the synthesis of 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles as a single isomer. The synthesis of 1,4- and 1.5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles has become the gold standard of ‘click chemistry’ due to its reliability, specificity, and biocompatibility. The 1,4- and 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles have emerged as one of the most powerful entities in the varieties of biological properties like antibacterial, antitubercular, antitumor, antifungal and antiprotozoal activities. Some of the 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles exhibit Hsp90 inhibiting properties. The 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles also play a big role in the area of material sciences. The triazole-derived oligomeric, polymeric structures are the potential materials for the preparation of organic optoelectronics, silicon elastomers and unimolecular block copolymers. By the virtue of hydrogen bonding and dipole interactions, the 1,2,3-triazole moiety readily associates with the biological targets. Since, the 4-aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles are stable entities, they are chemically robust and very less reactive. In this regard, the addition of 4-aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles as nucleophiles to α,β-unsaturated carbonyls and nucleophilic substitution with the epoxides constitutes a powerful and challenging synthetic approach for the generation of disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles. Herein, we have developed aza-Michael addition of 4-aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles to 2-cycloalken-1-ones in the presence of an organic base (DABCO) in acetonotrile solvent leading to the formation of disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles. The reaction provides 1,4-disubstituted triazoles, 3-(4-aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)cycloalkanones in major amount along with 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles, minor regioisomers with excellent combined chemical yields (upto99%). The nucleophilic behavior of 4-aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles was also tested in the ring opening of meso-epoxides in the presence of organic bases (DABCO/Et3N) in acetonotrile solvent furnishing the two regioisomers1,4- and 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles. Thus, the novelty of this methodology is synthesis of diversified disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles under metal free condition.The results will be presented in detail.

Keywords: aza-Michael addition, cycloalkenones, epoxides, triazoles

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4 Management of Pressure Ulcer with a Locally Constructed Negative Pressure Device (NPD) in Traumatic Paraplegia Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Mukesh K. Dwivedi, Rajeshwar N. Srivastava, Amit K. Bhagat, Saloni Raj

Abstract:

Introduction: Management of Pressure Ulcer (PU) is an ongoing clinical challenge particularly in traumatic paraplegia patients in developing countries where socio economic conditions often dictate treatment modalities. When negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was introduced, there were a series of devices (V.A.C., KCI, San Antonio, TX) manufactured. These devices for NPWT are costly and hard to afford by patients in developing countries like India. Considering this limitation, this study was planned to design an RCT to compare NPWT by an indigenized locally constructed NPD and conventional gauze dressing for the treatment of PU. Material and Methods: This RCT (CTRI/2014/09/0050) was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at King George’s Medical University (KGMU), India. Thirty-four (34) subjects of traumatic paraplegia having PU of stage 3 or 4, were enrolled and randomized in two treatment groups (NPWT Group & Conventional dressing group). The outcome measures of this study were surface area and depth of PU, exudates, microorganisms and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) during 0 to 9 weeks follow-ups. Levels of MMP-8 were analyzed in the tissues of PU at week 0, 3, 6 and week 9 by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: Significantly reduced length of PU in NPWT group was observed at week 6 (p=0.04) which further reduced at week 9 (p=0.001) as compared to conventionally treated group. Similarly significant reduction of width and depth of PU was observed in NPWT at week 9 (p<0.05). The exudate became significantly (p=0.001) lower in NPWT group as compared with conventionally treated group from 6th to 9th week. Clearance and conversion of slough into red granulation tissue was significantly higher in NPWT group (p=0.001). At week 9, the wound culture was negative in all the subjects of NPWT group, while it was positive in 10 (41⋅6%) subjects of conventional group. Significantly lower level of MMP-8 was observed in subjects of NPWT group at week 6 (0.006**), and continually more reduction was observed at week 9 (<0.0001**) as compared to the conventional group. Conclusion: NPWT by locally constructed NPD is better wound care procedure for management of PU. Our device gave similar results as commercially available devices. Reduction of level of MMP-8 and increased rate of healing was achieved by negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) as compared to conventional dressing.

Keywords: NPWT, NPD, MMP8, ELISA

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3 The Convention of Culture: A Comprehensive Study on Dispute Resolution Pertaining to Heritage and Related Issues

Authors: Bhargavi G. Iyer, Ojaswi Bhagat

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In recent years, there has been a lot of discussion about ethnic imbalance and diversity in the international context. Arbitration is now subject to the hegemony of a small number of people who are constantly reappointed. When a court system becomes exclusionary, the quality of adjudication suffers significantly. In such a framework, there is a misalignment between adjudicators' preconceived views and the interests of the parties, resulting in a biased view of the proceedings. The world is currently witnessing a slew of intellectual property battles around cultural appropriation. The term "cultural appropriation" refers to the industrial west's theft of indigenous culture, usually for fashion, aesthetic, or dramatic purposes. Selena Gomez exemplifies cultural appropriation by commercially using the “bindi,” which is sacred to Hinduism, as a fashion symbol. In another case, Victoria's Secret insulted indigenous peoples' genocide by stealing native Indian headdresses. In the case of yoga, a similar process can be witnessed, with Vedic philosophy being reduced to a type of physical practice. Such a viewpoint is problematic since indigenous groups have worked hard for generations to ensure the survival of their culture, and its appropriation by the western world for purely aesthetic and theatrical purposes is upsetting to those who practise such cultures. Because such conflicts involve numerous jurisdictions, they must be resolved through international arbitration. However, these conflicts are already being litigated, and the aggrieved parties, namely developing nations, do not believe it prudent to use the World Intellectual Property Organization's (WIPO) already established arbitration procedure. This practise, it is suggested in this study, is the outcome of Europe's exclusionary arbitral system, which fails to recognise the non-legal and non-commercial nature of indigenous culture issues. This research paper proposes a more comprehensive, inclusive approach that recognises the non-legal and non-commercial aspects of IP disputes involving cultural appropriation, which can only be achieved through an ethnically balanced arbitration structure. This paper also aspires to expound upon the benefits of arbitration and other means of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the context of disputes pertaining to cultural issues; positing that inclusivity is a solution to the existing discord between international practices and localised cultural points of dispute. This paper also hopes to explicate measures that will facilitate ensuring inclusion and ideal practices in the domain of arbitration law, particularly pertaining to cultural heritage and indigenous expression.

Keywords: arbitration law, cultural appropriation, dispute resolution, heritage, intellectual property

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2 Novel Aspects of Merger Control Pertaining to Nascent Acquisition: An Analytical Legal Research

Authors: Bhargavi G. Iyer, Ojaswi Bhagat

Abstract:

It is often noted that the value of a novel idea lies in its successful implementation. However, successful implementation requires the nurturing and encouragement of innovation. Nascent competitors are a true representation of innovation in any given industry. A nascent competitor is an entity whose prospective innovation poses a future threat to an incumbent dominant competitor. While a nascent competitor benefits in several ways, it is also exposed significantly and is at greater risk of facing the brunt of exclusionary practises and abusive conduct by dominant incumbent competitors in the industry. This research paper aims to explore the risks and threats faced by nascent competitors and analyse the benefits they accrue as well as the advantages they proffer to the economy; through an analytical, critical study. In such competitive market environments, a rise of the acquisitions of nascent competitors by the incumbent dominants is observed. Therefore, this paper will examine the dynamics of nascent acquisition. Further, this paper hopes to specifically delve into the role of antitrust bodies in regulating nascent acquisition. This paper also aspires to deal with the question how to distinguish harmful from harmless acquisitions in order to facilitate ideal enforcement practice. This paper proposes mechanisms of scrutiny in order to ensure healthy market practises and efficient merger control in the context of nascent acquisitions. Taking into account the scope and nature of the topic, as well as the resources available and accessible, a combination of the methods of doctrinal research and analytical research were employed, utilising secondary sources in order to assess and analyse the subject of research. While legally evaluating the Killer Acquisition theory and the Nascent Potential Acquisition theory, this paper seeks to critically survey the precedents and instances of nascent acquisitions. In addition to affording a compendious account of the legislative framework and regulatory mechanisms in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the European Union; it hopes to suggest an internationally practicable legal foundation for domestic legislation and enforcement to adopt. This paper hopes to appreciate the complexities and uncertainties with respect to nascent acquisitions and attempts to suggest viable and plausible policy measures in antitrust law. It additionally attempts to examine the effects of such nascent acquisitions upon the consumer and the market economy. This paper weighs the argument of shifting the evidentiary burden on to the merging parties in order to improve merger control and regulation and expounds on its discovery of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. It is posited that an effective combination of factual, legal, and economic analysis of both the acquired and acquiring companies possesses the potential to improve ex post and ex ante merger review outcomes involving nascent companies; thus, preventing anti-competitive practises. This paper concludes with an analysis of the possibility and feasibility of industry-specific identification of anti-competitive nascent acquisitions and implementation of measures accordingly.

Keywords: acquisition, antitrust law, exclusionary practises merger control, nascent competitor

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1 Impact of the 2015 Drought on Rural Livelihood – a Case Study of Masurdi Village in Latur District of Maharashtra, India

Authors: Nitin Bhagat

Abstract:

Drought is a global phenomenon. It has a huge impact on agriculture and allied sector activities. Agriculture plays a substantial role in the economy of developing countries, which mainly depends on rainfall. The present study illustrates the drought conditions in Masurdi village of Latur district in the Marathwada region, Maharashtra. This paper is based on both primary as well as secondary data sources. The multistage sample method was used for primary data collection. The 100 households sample survey data has been collected from the village through a semi-structured questionnaire. The crop production data is collected from the Department of Agriculture, Government of Maharashtra. The rainfall data is obtained from the Department of Revenue, Office of Divisional Commissioner, Aurangabad for the period from 1988 to 2018. This paper examines the severity of drought consequences of the 2015 drought on domestic water supply, crop production, and the effect on children's schooling, livestock assets, bank credit, and migration. The study also analyzed climate variables' impact on the Latur district's total food grain production for 19 years from 2000 to 2018. This study applied multiple regression analysis to check the relationship between climatic variables and the Latur district's total food grain production. The climate variables are annual rainfall, maximum temperature and minimum temperature. The study considered that climatic variables are independent variables and total food grain as the dependent variable. It shows there is a significant relationship between rainfall and maximum temperature. The study also calculated rainfall deviations to find out the drought and normal years. According to drought manual 2016, the rainfall deviation calculated using the following formula. RF dev = {(RFi – RFn) / RFn}*100.Approximately 27.43 % of the workforce migrated from rural to urban areas for searching jobs, and crop production decreased tremendously due to inadequate rainfall in the drought year 2015. Many farm and non-farm labor, some marginal and small cultivators, migrated from rural to urban areas (like Pune, Mumbai, and Western Maharashtra).About 48 % of the households' children faced education difficulties; in the drought period, children were not going to school. They left their school and joined to bring water with their mother and fathers, sometimes they fetched water on their head or using a bicycle, near about 2 km from the village. In their school-going days, drinking water was not available in their schools, so the government declared holidays early in the academic education year 2015-16 compared to another academic year. Some college and 10th class students left their education due to financial problems. Many households benefited from state government schemes, like drought subsidies, crop insurance, and bank loans. Out of 100 households, about 50 (50 %) have obtained financial support from the state government’s subsidy scheme, 58 ( 58 %) have got crop insurance, and 41(41 %) irrigated households have got bank loans from national banks; besides that, only two families have obtained loans from their relatives and moneylenders.

Keywords: agriculture, drought, household, rainfall

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