Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 108

Search results for: broadband

108 How Does Improving the Existing DSL Infrastructure Influences the Expansion of Fiber Technology?

Authors: Peter Winzer, Erik Massarczyk


Experts, enterprises and operators expect that the bandwidth request will increase up to rates of 100 to 1,000 Mbps within several years. Therefore the most important question is, which technology shall satisfy the future consumer broadband demands. Currently the consensus is, that the fiber technology has the best technical characteristics to achieve such the high bandwidth rates. But fiber technology is so far very cost-intensive and resource consuming. To avoid these investments, operators are concentrating to upgrade the existing copper and hybrid fiber coax infrastructures. This work presents a comparison of the copper and fiber technologies including an overview about the current German broadband market. Both technologies are reviewed in the terms of demand, willingness to pay and economic efficiency in connection with the technical characteristics.

Keywords: broadband customer demand, fiber development,, vectoring, willingness to pay for broadband services

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107 Design of Broadband Power Divider for 3G and 4G Applications

Authors: A. M. El-Akhdar, A. M. El-Tager, H. M. El-Hennawy


This paper presents a broadband power divider with equal power division ratio. Two sections of transmission line transformers based on coupled microstrip lines are applied to obtain broadband performance. In addition, design methodology is proposed for the novel structure. A prototype is designed, simulated to operate in the band from 2.1 to 3.8 GHz to fulfill the requirements of 3G and 4G applications. The proposed structure features reduced size and less resistors than other conventional techniques. Simulation verifies the proposed idea and design methodology.

Keywords: power dividers, coupled lines, microstrip, 4G applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
106 Mobile WiMAX Network based Wireless Communication on Rail: An Analysis

Authors: Vinod Kumar Jatav, Dr. Vrijendra Singh


WiMAX is an emerging wireless technology designed by WiMAX forum. WiMAX technology delivers broadband internet access with QoS, mobility and robust security. WiMAX is among the prominent mobile broadband wireless technology which laid the foundation for the next generation networks (NGN). The next-generation communication system for railway should facilitate high level network availability, fast mobility for high speed trains with reliability, high handover rate, the firmness of train operations, and high QoS. The system should also be capable to provide various railway services by transmitting big data efficiently. One of the most promising technologies for the next generation railway wireless communication is Mobile WiMAX. This paper analyses some of the network architectures for railway wireless communication and considers the elementary concepts to facilitate the users with broadband internet access on trains. The paper aims to recognize the suitability of Mobile WiMAX technology for the special requirements of broadband internet facilities and wireless telecommunication services of Railways.

Keywords: Broadband internet, IEEE 802.16e, mobile WiMAX, Railway wireless communication

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105 Varieties of State Role: Through the Case of East Asia's Broadband Policy

Authors: Heesu Kim


This paper determines the varieties of state roles played in East Asia’s telecommunication market, regarding broadband industry. Technological capacity and the relationship between state and market affect the varieties of state role. In explaining the state’s engagement in the market, technology has always been considered as a necessary and sufficient condition. However technology variable has been useful in only explaining the extent of state’s involvement. This paper contributes by bringing in the political-economic factor, which is the relationship between state and market. This factor aids in distinguishing the varieties of state role played in emerging industries. Interaction between these two variables distinguishes 4 types of state roles played in the broadband industry. These roles are distinguished and characterized by the intensity of state’s intervention and the existence of technological capacity. This paper classifies four types of state role through the case of Singapore, China, Taiwan and Korea’s broadband industrial policy.

Keywords: East Asia, entrpreneurial state, industrial policy, regulatory state, technological capacity

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104 High Gain Broadband Plasmonic Slot Nano-Antenna

Authors: H. S. Haroyan, V. R. Tadevosyan


High gain broadband plasmonic slot nano-antenna has been considered. The theory of plasmonic slot nano-antenna (PSNA) has been developed. The analytical model takes into account also the electrical field inside the metal due to imperfectness of metal in optical range, as well as numerical investigation based on FEM method has been realized. It should be mentioned that Yagi-Uda configuration improves directivity in the plane of structure. In contrast, in this paper the possibility of directivity improvement of proposed PSNA in perpendicular plane of structure by using reflection metallic surface placed under the slot in fixed distance has been demonstrated. It is well known that a directivity improvement brings to the antenna gain increasing. This method of diagram improving is also well known from RF antenna design theory. Moreover the improvement of directivity in the perpendicular plane gives more flexibility in such application as improving the light and atom, ion, molecule interactions by using such type of plasmonic slot antenna. By the analogy of dipole type optical antennas the widening of working wavelengths has been realized by using bowtie geometry of slots, which made the antenna broadband.

Keywords: broadband antenna, high gain, slot nano-antenna, plasmonics.

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103 Design of Broadband W-Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna

Authors: Neeraj G. Nahata, K. S. Bhagat


Microstrip patch antenna widely used in communication area because it offers low profile, narrow bandwidth, high gain, and compact in size. It has big disadvantage of narrow bandwidth. To improve the bandwidth a W-slot technique is used, it is efficient to enhance the bandwidth of antenna. The feeding point of antenna is very important for efficient operation, so coaxial feeding technique is applied to microstrip patch antenna for impedance matching. A broadband W-slot microstrip patch antenna is designed successfully which attains a bandwidth of 22.74% at 10dB return loss with centre frequency of 4.5GHz and also it attains maximum directivity 8.78dBi. It is designed by cutting a W-slot into the patch of antenna, because of this resonant slot, the antenna gives broad bandwidth. This antenna is best suitable for C-band frequency spectrum. The proposed antenna is designed and simulated using IE3D software.

Keywords: broadband, microstrip antenna, VSWR, W-slotted patch

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102 CPW-Fed Broadband Circularly Polarized Planar Antenna with Improved Ground

Authors: Gnanadeep Gudapati, V. Annie Grace


A broadband circular polarization (CP) feature is designed for a CPW-fed planar printed monopole antenna. A rectangle patch and an improved ground plane make up the antenna. The antenna's impedance bandwidth can be increased by adding a vertical stub and a horizontal slit in the ground plane. The measured results show that the proposed antenna has a wide 10-dB return loss bandwidth of 70.2% (4.35GHz, 3.7-8.1GHz) centered at 4.2 GHz.

Keywords: CPW-fed, circular polarised, FR4 epoxy, slit and stub

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101 New Design of a Broadband Microwave Zero Bias Power Limiter

Authors: K. Echchakhaoui, E. Abdelmounim, J. Zbitou, H. Bennis, N. Ababssi, M. Latrach


In this paper a new design of a broadband microwave power limiter is presented and validated into simulation by using ADS software (Advanced Design System) from Agilent technologies. The final circuit is built on microstrip lines by using identical Zero Bias Schottky diodes. The power limiter is designed by Associating 3 stages Schottky diodes. The obtained simulation results permit to validate this circuit with a threshold input power level of 0 dBm until a maximum input power of 30 dBm.

Keywords: Limiter, microstrip, zero-biais, ADS

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
100 Network Coding with Buffer Scheme in Multicast for Broadband Wireless Network

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy


Broadband Wireless Network (BWN) is the promising technology nowadays due to the increased number of smartphones. Buffering scheme using network coding considers the reliability and proper degree distribution in Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) multi-hop network. Using network coding, a secure way of transmission is performed which helps in improving throughput and reduces the packet loss in the multicast network. At the outset, improved network coding is proposed in multicast wireless mesh network. Considering the problem of performance overhead, degree distribution makes a decision while performing buffer in the encoding / decoding process. Consequently, BuS (Buffer Scheme) based on network coding is proposed in the multi-hop network. Here the encoding process introduces buffer for temporary storage to transmit packets with proper degree distribution. The simulation results depend on the number of packets received in the encoding/decoding with proper degree distribution using buffering scheme.

Keywords: encoding and decoding, buffer, network coding, degree distribution, broadband wireless networks, multicast

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
99 Advantages of Multispectral Imaging for Accurate Gas Temperature Profile Retrieval from Fire Combustion Reactions

Authors: Jean-Philippe Gagnon, Benjamin Saute, Stéphane Boubanga-Tombet


Infrared thermal imaging is used for a wide range of applications, especially in the combustion domain. However, it is well known that most combustion gases such as carbon dioxide (CO₂), water vapor (H₂O), and carbon monoxide (CO) selectively absorb/emit infrared radiation at discrete energies, i.e., over a very narrow spectral range. Therefore, temperature profiles of most combustion processes derived from conventional broadband imaging are inaccurate without prior knowledge or assumptions about the spectral emissivity properties of the combustion gases. Using spectral filters allows estimating these critical emissivity parameters in addition to providing selectivity regarding the chemical nature of the combustion gases. However, due to the turbulent nature of most flames, it is crucial that such information be obtained without sacrificing temporal resolution. For this reason, Telops has developed a time-resolved multispectral imaging system which combines a high-performance broadband camera synchronized with a rotating spectral filter wheel. In order to illustrate the benefits of using this system to characterize combustion experiments, measurements were carried out using a Telops MS-IR MW on a very simple combustion system: a wood fire. The temperature profiles calculated using the spectral information from the different channels were compared with corresponding temperature profiles obtained with conventional broadband imaging. The results illustrate the benefits of the Telops MS-IR cameras for the characterization of laminar and turbulent combustion systems at a high temporal resolution.

Keywords: infrared, multispectral, fire, broadband, gas temperature, IR camera

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98 Influence of Error Correction Codes on the Quality of Optical Broadband Connections

Authors: Mouna Hemdi, Jamel bel Hadj Tahar


The increasing development of multimedia applications requiring the simultaneous transport of several different services contributes to the evolution of the need for very high-speed network. In this paper, we propose an effective solution to achieve the very high speed while retaining elements of the optical transmission channel. So our study focuses on error correcting codes that aim for quality improvement on duty. We present a comparison of the quality of service for single channels and integrating the code BCH, RS and LDPC in order to find the best code in the different conditions of the transmission.

Keywords: code error correction, high speed broadband, optical transmission, information systems security

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97 The Design of Broadband 8x2 Phased Array 5G Antenna MIMO 28 GHz for Base Station

Authors: Muhammad Saiful Fadhil Reyhan, Yusnita Rahayu, Fadhel Muhammadsyah


This paper proposed a design of 16 elements, 8x2 linear fed patch antenna array with 16 ports, for 28 GHz, mm-wave band 5G for base station. The phased array covers along the azimuth plane to provide the coverage to the users in omnidirectional. The proposed antenna is designed RT Duroid 5880 substrate with the overall size of 85x35.6x0.787 mm3. The array is operating from 27.43 GHz to 28.34 GHz with a 910 MHz impedance bandwidth. The gain of the array is 18.3 dB, while the suppression of the side lobes is -1.0 dB. The main lobe direction of the array is 15 deg. The array shows a high array gain throughout the impedance bandwidth with overall of VSWR is below 1.12. The design will be proposed in single element and 16 elements antenna.

Keywords: 5G antenna, 28 GHz, MIMO, omnidirectional, phased array, base station, broadband

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96 The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Bilateral Trade in Goods

Authors: Christina Tay


This paper investigates the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on bilateral trade in goods. Empirical analysis is performed on the United States and 34 partnering countries from 2000 to 2013. Our econometric model fits the data well, explaining 52% of the variation in trade flows for goods trade, 53.2% of the variation in trade flows for goods export and 48% of the variation in trade flows for goods import. For every 10% increase in fixed broadband Internet subscribers per 100 people increases, goods trade by 7.9% and for every 5% increase in fixed broadband Internet subscribers per 100 people, goods export increases by 11%. For every 1% increase in fixed telephone line penetration per 100 people, goods trade increases by 26.3%, goods export increases by 24.4% and goods import increases by 24.8%. For every 1% increase in mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions, goods trade decreases by 29.6% and goods export decreases by 27.1%, whilst for every 0.01% increase in mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions, goods import decreases by 34.3%. For every 1% increase in the percentage of population who used the Internet from any location in the last 12 months Internet, goods trade increases by 32.5%, goods export increases by 38.9%, goods import increases by 33%. All our trade determinants as well as our ICT variables have significances on goods exports for the US. We can also draw from our study that the US relies more rather heavily on ICT for its goods export compared to goods import.

Keywords: bilateral trade, fixed broadband, fixed telephone, goods trade, information and communicative technologies, Internet, mobile-cellular phone

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95 Semiconductor Device of Tapered Waveguide for Broadband Optical Communications

Authors: Keita Iwai, Isao Tomita


To expand the optical spectrum for use in broadband optical communications, we study the properties of a semiconductor waveguide device with a tapered structure including its third-order optical nonlinearity. Spectral-broadened output by the tapered structure has the potential to create a compact, built-in device for optical communications. Here we deal with a compound semiconductor waveguide, the material of which is the same as that of laser diodes used in the communication systems, i.e., InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ, which has large optical nonlinearity. We confirm that our structure widens the output spectrum sufficiently by controlling its taper form factor while utilizing the large nonlinear refraction of InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ. We also examine the taper effect for nonlinear optical loss.

Keywords: InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ, waveguide, nonlinear refraction, spectral spreading, taper device

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94 Experimental Demonstration of Broadband Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier

Authors: Belloui Bouzid


In this paper, broadband design of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated and proved experimentally. High and broad gain is covered in C and L bands. The used technique combines, in one configuration, two double passes with split band structure for the amplification of two traveled signals one for the C band and the other for L band. This new topology is to investigate the trends of high gain and wide amplification at different status of pumping power, input wavelength, and input signal power. The presented paper is to explore the performance of EDFA gain using what it can be called double pass double branch wide band amplification configuration. The obtained results show high gain and wide broadening range of 44.24 dB and 80 nm amplification respectively.

Keywords: erbium doped fiber amplifier, erbium doped fiber laser, optical amplification, fiber laser

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93 Optimal Parameters of Two-Color Ionizing Laser Pulses for Terahertz Generation

Authors: I. D. Laryushin, V. A. Kostin, A. A. Silaev, N. V. Vvedenskii


Generation of broadband intense terahertz (THz) radiation attracts reasonable interest due to various applications, such as the THz time-domain spectroscopy, the probing and control of various ultrafast processes, the THz imaging with subwavelength resolution, and many others. One of the most promising methods for generating powerful and broadband terahertz pulses is based on focusing two-color femtosecond ionizing laser pulses in gases, including ambient air. For this method, the amplitudes of terahertz pulses are determined by the free-electron current density remaining in a formed plasma after the passage of the laser pulse. The excitation of this residual current density can be treated as multi-wave mixing: Аn effective generation of terahertz radiation is possible only when the frequency ratio of one-color components in the two-color pulse is close to irreducible rational fraction a/b with small odd sum a + b. This work focuses on the optimal parameters (polarizations and intensities) of laser components for the strongest THz generation. The optimal values of parameters are found numerically and analytically with the use of semiclassical approach for calculating the residual current density. For frequency ratios close to a/(a ± 1) with natural a, the strongest THz generation is shown to take place when the both laser components have circular polarizations and equal intensities. For this optimal case, an analytical formula for the residual current density was derived. For the frequency ratios such as 2/5, the two-color ionizing pulses with circularly polarized components practically do not excite the residual current density. However, the optimal parameters correspond generally to specific elliptical (not linear) polarizations of the components and intensity ratios close to unity.

Keywords: broadband terahertz radiation, ionization, laser plasma, ultrashort two-color pulses

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92 The Impact of an Improved Strategic Partnership Programme on Organisational Performance and Growth of Firms in the Internet Protocol Television and Hybrid Fibre-Coaxial Broadband Industry

Authors: Collen T. Masilo, Brane Semolic, Pieter Steyn


The Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and Hybrid Fibre-Coaxial (HFC) Broadband industrial sector landscape are rapidly changing and organisations within the industry need to stay competitive by exploring new business models so that they can be able to offer new services and products to customers. The business challenge in this industrial sector is meeting or exceeding high customer expectations across multiple content delivery modes. The increasing challenges in the IPTV and HFC broadband industrial sector encourage service providers to form strategic partnerships with key suppliers, marketing partners, advertisers, and technology partners. The need to form enterprise collaborative networks poses a challenge for any organisation in this sector, in selecting the right strategic partners who will ensure that the organisation’s services and products are marketed in new markets. Partners who will ensure that customers are efficiently supported by meeting and exceeding their expectations. Lastly, selecting cooperation partners who will represent the organisation in a positive manner, and contribute to improving the performance of the organisation. Companies in the IPTV and HFC broadband industrial sector tend to form informal partnerships with suppliers, vendors, system integrators and technology partners. Generally, partnerships are formed without thorough analysis of the real reason a company is forming collaborations, without proper evaluations of prospective partners using specific selection criteria, and with ineffective performance monitoring of partners to ensure that a firm gains real long term benefits from its partners and gains competitive advantage. Similar tendencies are illustrated in the research case study and are based on Skyline Communications, a global leader in end-to-end, multi-vendor network management and operational support systems (OSS) solutions. The organisation’s flagship product is the DataMiner network management platform used by many operators across multiple industries and can be referred to as a smart system that intelligently manages complex technology ecosystems for its customers in the IPTV and HFC broadband industry. The approach of the research is to develop the most efficient business model that can be deployed to improve a strategic partnership programme in order to significantly improve the performance and growth of organisations participating in a collaborative network in the IPTV and HFC broadband industrial sector. This involves proposing and implementing a new strategic partnership model and its main features within the industry which should bring about significant benefits for all involved companies to achieve value add and an optimal growth strategy. The proposed business model has been developed based on the research of existing relationships, value chains and business requirements in this industrial sector and validated in 'Skyline Communications'. The outputs of the business model have been demonstrated and evaluated in the research business case study the IPTV and HFC broadband service provider 'Skyline Communications'.

Keywords: growth, partnership, selection criteria, value chain

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91 Broadband Ultrasonic and Rheological Characterization of Liquids Using Longitudinal Waves

Authors: M. Abderrahmane Mograne, Didier Laux, Jean-Yves Ferrandis


Rheological characterizations of complex liquids like polymer solutions present an important scientific interest for a lot of researchers in many fields as biology, food industry, chemistry. In order to establish master curves (elastic moduli vs frequency) which can give information about microstructure, classical rheometers or viscometers (such as Couette systems) are used. For broadband characterization of the sample, temperature is modified in a very large range leading to equivalent frequency modifications applying the Time Temperature Superposition principle. For many liquids undergoing phase transitions, this approach is not applicable. That is the reason, why the development of broadband spectroscopic methods around room temperature becomes a major concern. In literature many solutions have been proposed but, to our knowledge, there is no experimental bench giving the whole rheological characterization for frequencies about a few Hz (Hertz) to many MHz (Mega Hertz). Consequently, our goal is to investigate in a nondestructive way in very broadband frequency (A few Hz – Hundreds of MHz) rheological properties using longitudinal ultrasonic waves (L waves), a unique experimental bench and a specific container for the liquid: a test tube. More specifically, we aim to estimate the three viscosities (longitudinal, shear and bulk) and the complex elastic moduli (M*, G* and K*) respectively longitudinal, shear and bulk moduli. We have decided to use only L waves conditioned in two ways: bulk L wave in the liquid or guided L waves in the tube test walls. In this paper, we will present first results for very low frequencies using the ultrasonic tracking of a falling ball in the test tube. This will lead to the estimation of shear viscosity from a few mPa.s to a few Pa.s (Pascal second). Corrections due to the small dimensions of the tube will be applied and discussed regarding the size of the falling ball. Then the use of bulk L wave’s propagation in the liquid and the development of a specific signal processing in order to assess longitudinal velocity and attenuation will conduct to the longitudinal viscosity evaluation in the MHz frequency range. At last, the first results concerning the propagation, the generation and the processing of guided compressional waves in the test tube walls will be discussed. All these approaches and results will be compared to standard methods available and already validated in our lab.

Keywords: nondestructive measurement for liquid, piezoelectric transducer, ultrasonic longitudinal waves, viscosities

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90 LTE Performance Analysis in the City of Bogota Northern Zone for Two Different Mobile Broadband Operators over Qualipoc

Authors: Víctor D. Rodríguez, Edith P. Estupiñán, Juan C. Martínez


The evolution in mobile broadband technologies has allowed to increase the download rates in users considering the current services. The evaluation of technical parameters at the link level is of vital importance to validate the quality and veracity of the connection, thus avoiding large losses of data, time and productivity. Some of these failures may occur between the eNodeB (Evolved Node B) and the user equipment (UE), so the link between the end device and the base station can be observed. LTE (Long Term Evolution) is considered one of the IP-oriented mobile broadband technologies that work stably for data and VoIP (Voice Over IP) for those devices that have that feature. This research presents a technical analysis of the connection and channeling processes between UE and eNodeB with the TAC (Tracking Area Code) variables, and analysis of performance variables (Throughput, Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR)). Three measurement scenarios were proposed in the city of Bogotá using QualiPoc, where two operators were evaluated (Operator 1 and Operator 2). Once the data were obtained, an analysis of the variables was performed determining that the data obtained in transmission modes vary depending on the parameters BLER (Block Error Rate), performance and SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio). In the case of both operators, differences in transmission modes are detected and this is reflected in the quality of the signal. In addition, due to the fact that both operators work in different frequencies, it can be seen that Operator 1, despite having spectrum in Band 7 (2600 MHz), together with Operator 2, is reassigning to another frequency, a lower band, which is AWS (1700 MHz), but the difference in signal quality with respect to the establishment with data by the provider Operator 2 and the difference found in the transmission modes determined by the eNodeB in Operator 1 is remarkable.

Keywords: BLER, LTE, network, qualipoc, SNR.

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89 Monitoring Cellular Networks Performance Using Crowd Sourced IoT System: My Operator Coverage (MOC)

Authors: Bassem Boshra Thabet, Mohammed Ibrahim Elsabagh, Mohammad Adly Talaat


The number of cellular mobile phone users has increased enormously worldwide over the last two decades. Consequently, the monitoring of the performance of the Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) in terms of network coverage and broadband signal strength has become vital for both of the MNOs and regulators. This monitoring helps telecommunications operators and regulators keeping the market playing fair and most beneficial for users. However, the adopted methodologies to facilitate this continuous monitoring process are still problematic regarding cost, effort, and reliability. This paper introduces My Operator Coverage (MOC) system that is using Internet of Things (IoT) concepts and tools to monitor the MNOs performance using a crowd-sourced real-time methodology. MOC produces robust and reliable geographical maps for the user-perceived quality of the MNOs performance. MOC is also meant to enrich the telecommunications regulators with concrete, and up-to-date information that allows for adequate mobile market management strategies as well as appropriate decision making.

Keywords: mobile performance monitoring, crowd-sourced applications, mobile broadband performance, cellular networks monitoring

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88 Impact of Customer Experience Quality on Loyalty of Mobile and Fixed Broadband Services: Case Study of Telecom Egypt Group

Authors: Nawal Alawad, Passent Ibrahim Tantawi, Mohamed Abdel Salam Ragheb


Providing customers with quality experiences has been confirmed to be a sustainable, competitive advantage with a distinct financial impact for companies. The success of service providers now relies on their ability to provide customer-centric services. The importance of perceived service quality and customer experience is widely recognized. The focus of this research is in the area of mobile and fixed broadband services. This study is of dual importance both academically and practically. Academically, this research applies a new model investigating the impact of customer experience quality on loyalty based on modifying the multiple-item scale for measuring customers’ service experience in a new area and did not depend on the traditional models. The integrated scale embraces four dimensions: service experience, outcome focus, moments of truth and peace of mind. In addition, it gives a scientific explanation for this relationship so this research fill the gap in such relations in which no one correlate or give explanations for these relations before using such integrated model and this is the first time to apply such modified and integrated new model in telecom field. Practically, this research gives insights to marketers and practitioners to improve customer loyalty through evolving the experience quality of broadband customers which is interpreted to suggested outcomes: purchase, commitment, repeat purchase and word-of-mouth, this approach is one of the emerging topics in service marketing. Data were collected through 412 questionnaires and analyzed by using structural equation modeling.Findings revealed that both outcome focus and moments of truth have a significant impact on loyalty while both service experience and peace of mind have insignificant impact on loyalty.In addition, it was found that 72% of the variation occurring in loyalty is explained by the model. The researcher also measured the net prompters score and gave explanation for the results. Furthermore, assessed customer’s priorities of broadband services. The researcher recommends that the findings of this research will extend to be considered in the future plans of Telecom Egypt Group. In addition, to be applied in the same industry especially in the developing countries that have the same circumstances with similar service settings. This research is a positive contribution in service marketing, particularly in telecom industry for making marketing more reliable as managers can relate investments in service experience directly with the performance closest to income for instance, repurchasing behavior, positive word of mouth and, commitment. Finally, the researcher recommends that future studies should consider this model to explain significant marketing outcomes such as share of wallet and ultimately profitability.

Keywords: broadband services, customer experience quality, loyalty, net promoters score

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87 Performance Analysis in 5th Generation Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, Jean-Pierre Dubois, Georges El Soury


Fifth generation wireless networks guarantee significant capacity enhancement to suit more clients and services at higher information rates with better reliability while consuming less power. The deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output technology guarantees broadband wireless networks with the use of base station antenna arrays to serve a large number of users on the same frequency and time-slot channels. In this work, we evaluate the performance of massive multiple-input-multiple-output systems (MIMO) systems in 5th generation cellular networks in terms of capacity and bit error rate. Several cases were considered and analyzed to compare the performance of massive MIMO systems while varying the number of antennas at both transmitting and receiving ends. We found that, unlike classical MIMO systems, reducing the number of transmit antennas while increasing the number of antennas at the receiver end provides a better solution to performance enhancement. In addition, enhanced orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and beam division multiple access schemes further improve the performance of massive MIMO systems and make them more reliable.

Keywords: beam division multiple access, D2D communication, enhanced OFDM, fifth generation broadband, massive MIMO

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86 Blood Oxygen Saturation Measurement System Using Broad-Band Light Source with LabVIEW Program

Authors: Myoung Ah Kim, Dong Ho Sin, Chul Gyu Song


Blood oxygen saturation system is a well-established, noninvasive photoplethysmographic method to monitor vital signs. Conventional blood oxygen saturation measurements for the two LED light source is the ambiguity of the oxygen saturation measurement principle and the measurement results greatly influenced and heat and motion artifact. A high accuracy in order to solve these problems blood oxygen saturation measuring method has been proposed using a broadband light source that can be easily understood by the algorithm. The measurement of blood oxygen saturation based on broad-band light source has advantage of simple testing facility and easy understanding. Broadband light source based on blood oxygen saturation measuring program proposed in this paper is a combination of LabVIEW and MATLAB. Using the wavelength range of 450 nm-750 nm using a floating light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to measure the blood oxygen saturation. Hand movement is to fix the probe to the motor stage in order to prevent oxygen saturation measurement that affect the sample and probe kept constant interval. Experimental results show that the proposed method noticeably increases the accuracy and saves time compared with the conventional methods.

Keywords: oxygen saturation, broad-band light source, CCD, light reflectance theory

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85 A Broadband Tri-Cantilever Vibration Energy Harvester with Magnetic Oscillator

Authors: Xiaobo Rui, Zhoumo Zeng, Yibo Li


A novel tri-cantilever energy harvester with magnetic oscillator was presented, which could convert the ambient vibration into electrical energy to power the low-power devices such as wireless sensor networks. The most common way to harvest vibration energy is based on the use of linear resonant devices such as cantilever beam, since this structure creates the highest strain for a given force. The highest efficiency will be achieved when the resonance frequency of the harvester matches the vibration frequency. The limitation of the structure is the narrow effective bandwidth. To overcome this limitation, this article introduces a broadband tri-cantilever harvester with nonlinear stiffness. This energy harvester typically consists of three thin cantilever beams vertically arranged with Neodymium Magnets ( NdFeB)magnetics at its free end and a fixed base at the other end. The three cantilevers have different resonant frequencies by designed in different thicknesses. It is obviously that a similar advantage of multiple resonant frequencies as piezoelectric cantilevers array structure is built. To achieve broadband energy harvesting, magnetic interaction is used to introduce the nonlinear system stiffness to tune the resonant frequency to match the excitation. Since the three cantilever tips are all free and the magnetic force is distance dependent, the resonant frequencies will be complexly changed with the vertical vibration of the free end. Both model and experiment are built. The electromechanically coupled lumped-parameter model is presented. An electromechanical formulation and analytical expressions for the coupled nonlinear vibration response and voltage response are given. The entire structure is fabricated and mechanically attached to a electromagnetic shaker as a vibrating body via the fixed base, in order to couple the vibrations to the cantilever. The cantilevers are bonded with piezoelectric macro-fiber composite (MFC) materials (Model: M8514P2). The size of the cantilevers is 120*20mm2 and the thicknesses are separately 1mm, 0.8mm, 0.6mm. The prototype generator has a measured performance of 160.98 mW effective electrical power and 7.93 DC output voltage via the excitation level of 10m/s2. The 130% increase in the operating bandwidth is achieved. This device is promising to support low-power devices, peer-to-peer wireless nodes, and small-scale wireless sensor networks in ambient vibration environment.

Keywords: tri-cantilever, ambient vibration, energy harvesting, magnetic oscillator

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84 Design of Ka-Band Satellite Links in Indonesia

Authors: Zulfajri Basri Hasanuddin


There is an increasing demand for broadband services in Indonesia. Therefore, the answer is the use of Ka-Band which has some advantages such as wider bandwidth, the higher transmission speeds, and smaller size of antenna in the ground. However, rain attenuation is the primary factor in the degradation of signal at the Kaband. In this paper, the author will determine whether the Ka-band frequency can be implemented in Indonesia which has high intensity of rainfall.

Keywords: Ka-band, link budget, link availability, BER, Eb/No, C/N

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83 DWDM Network Implementation in the Honduran Telecommunications Company "Hondutel"

Authors: Tannia Vindel, Carlos Mejia, Damaris Araujo, Carlos Velasquez, Darlin Trejo


The DWDM (Dense Wavelenght Division Multiplexing) is in constant growth around the world by consumer demand to meet their needs. Since its inception in this operation arises the need for a system which enable us to expand the communication of an entire nation to improve the computing trends of their societies according to their customs and geographical location. The Honduran Company of Telecommunications (HONDUTEL), provides the internet services and data transport technology with a PDH and SDH, which represents in the Republic of Honduras C. A., the option of viability for the consumer in terms of purchase value and its ease of acquisition; but does not have the efficiency in terms of technological advance and represents an obstacle that limits the long-term socio-economic development in comparison with other countries in the region and to be able to establish a competition between telecommunications companies that are engaged in this heading. For that reason we propose to establish a new technological trend implemented in Europe and that is applied in our country that allows us to provide a data transfer in broadband as it is DWDM, in this way we will have a stable service and quality that will allow us to compete in this globalized world, and that must be replaced by one that would provide a better service and which must be in the forefront. Once implemented the DWDM is build upon the existing resources, such as the equipment used, and you will be given life to a new stage providing a business image to the Republic of Honduras C,A, as a nation, to ensure the data transport and broadband internet to a meaningful relationship. Same benefits in the first instance to existing customers and to all the institutions were bidden to these public and private need of such services.

Keywords: demultiplexers, light detectors, multiplexers, optical amplifiers, optical fibers, PDH, SDH

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82 Creation of Ultrafast Ultra-Broadband High Energy Laser Pulses

Authors: Walid Tawfik


The interaction of high intensity ultrashort laser pulses with plasma generates many significant applications, including soft x-ray lasers, time-resolved laser induced plasma spectroscopy LIPS, and laser-driven accelerators. The development in producing of femtosecond down to ten femtosecond optical pulses has facilitates scientists with a vital tool in a variety of ultrashort phenomena, such as high field physics, femtochemistry and high harmonic generation HHG. In this research, we generate a two-octave-wide ultrashort supercontinuum pulses with an optical spectrum extending from 3.5 eV (ultraviolet) to 1.3 eV (near-infrared) using a capillary fiber filled with neon gas. These pulses are formed according to nonlinear self-phase modulation in the neon gas as a nonlinear medium. The investigations of the created pulses were made using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER). A complete description of the output pulses was considered. The observed characterization of the produced pulses includes the beam profile, the pulse width, and the spectral bandwidth. After reaching optimization conditions, the intensity of the reconstructed pulse autocorrelation function was applied for the shorts pulse duration to achieve transform limited ultrashort pulses with durations below 6-fs energies up to 600μJ. Moreover, the effect of neon pressure variation on the pulse width was examined. The nonlinear self-phase modulation realized to be increased with the pressure of the neon gas. The observed results may lead to an advanced method to control and monitor ultrashort transit interaction in femtochemistry.

Keywords: supercontinuum, ultrafast, SPIDER, ultra-broadband

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81 A High-Throughput Enzyme Screening Method Using Broadband Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: Ruolan Zhang, Ryo Imai, Naoko Senda, Tomoyuki Sakai


Enzymes have attracted increasing attentions in industrial manufacturing for their applicability in catalyzing complex chemical reactions under mild conditions. Directed evolution has become a powerful approach to optimize enzymes and exploit their full potentials under the circumstance of insufficient structure-function knowledge. With the incorporation of cell-free synthetic biotechnology, rapid enzyme synthesis can be realized because no cloning procedure such as transfection is needed. Its open environment also enables direct enzyme measurement. These properties of cell-free biotechnology lead to excellent throughput of enzymes generation. However, the capabilities of current screening methods have limitations. Fluorescence-based assay needs applicable fluorescent label, and the reliability of acquired enzymatic activity is influenced by fluorescent label’s binding affinity and photostability. To acquire the natural activity of an enzyme, another method is to combine pre-screening step and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement. But its throughput is limited by necessary time investment. Hundreds of variants are selected from libraries, and their enzymatic activities are then identified one by one by HPLC. The turn-around-time is 30 minutes for one sample by HPLC, which limits the acquirable enzyme improvement within reasonable time. To achieve the real high-throughput enzyme screening, i.e., obtain reliable enzyme improvement within reasonable time, a widely applicable high-throughput measurement of enzymatic reactions is highly demanded. Here, a high-throughput screening method using broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was proposed. CARS is one of coherent Raman spectroscopy, which can identify label-free chemical components specifically from their inherent molecular vibration. These characteristic vibrational signals are generated from different vibrational modes of chemical bonds. With the broadband CARS, chemicals in one sample can be identified from their signals in one broadband CARS spectrum. Moreover, it can magnify the signal levels to several orders of magnitude greater than spontaneous Raman systems, and therefore has the potential to evaluate chemical's concentration rapidly. As a demonstration of screening with CARS, alcohol dehydrogenase, which converts ethanol and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidized form (NAD+) to acetaldehyde and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH), was used. The signal of NADH at 1660 cm⁻¹, which is generated from nicotinamide in NADH, was utilized to measure the concentration of it. The evaluation time for CARS signal of NADH was determined to be as short as 0.33 seconds while having a system sensitivity of 2.5 mM. The time course of alcohol dehydrogenase reaction was successfully measured from increasing signal intensity of NADH. This measurement result of CARS was consistent with the result of a conventional method, UV-Vis. CARS is expected to have application in high-throughput enzyme screening and realize more reliable enzyme improvement within reasonable time.

Keywords: Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy, CARS, directed evolution, enzyme screening, Raman spectroscopy

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80 Raman Scattering Broadband Spectrum Generation in Compact Yb-Doped Fiber Laser

Authors: Yanrong Song, Zikai Dong, Runqin Xu, Jinrong Tian, Kexuan Li


Nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique has become one of the main techniques to achieve mode-locked fiber lasers for its compactness, implementation, and low cost. In this paper, we demonstrate a compact mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on NPR technique in the all normal dispersion (ANDi) regime. In the laser cavity, there are no physical filter and polarization controller in laser cavity. Mode-locked pulse train is achieved in ANDi regime based on NPR technique. The fiber birefringence induced filtering effect is the mainly reason for mode-locking. After that, an extra 20 m long single-mode fiber is inserted in two different positions, dissipative soliton operation and noise like pulse operations are achieved correspondingly. The nonlinear effect is obviously enhanced in the noise like pulse regime and broadband spectrum generated owing to enhanced stimulated Raman scattering effect. When the pump power is 210 mW, the central wavelength is 1030 nm, and the corresponding 1st order Raman scattering stokes wave generates and locates at 1075 nm. When the pump power is 370 mW, the 1st and 2nd order Raman scattering stokes wave generate and locate at 1080 nm, 1126 nm respectively. When the pump power is 600 mW, the Raman continuum is generated with cascaded multi-order stokes waves, and the spectrum extends to 1188 nm. The total flat spectrum is from 1000nm to 1200nm. The maximum output average power and pulse energy are 18.0W and 14.75nJ, respectively.

Keywords: fiber laser, mode-locking, nonlinear polarization rotation, Raman scattering

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79 Electronic Government around the World: Key Information and Communication Technology Indicators

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah


Governments around the world are adopting Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) because of the important opportunities it provides through E-government (EG) to modernize government public administration processes and delivery of quality and efficient public services. Almost every country in the world is adopting ICT in its public sector administration (EG) to modernize and change the traditional process of government, increase citizen engagement and participation in governance, as well as the provision of timely information to citizens. This paper, therefore, seeks to present the adoption, development and implementation of EG in regions globally, as well as the ICT indicators around the world, which are making EG initiatives successful. Europe leads the world in its EG adoption and development index, followed by the Americas, Asia, Oceania and Africa. There is a gradual growth in ICT indicators in terms of the increase in Internet access and usage, increase in broadband penetration, an increase of individuals using the Internet at home and a decline in fixed telephone use, while the mobile cellular phone has been on the increase year-on-year. Though the lack of ICT infrastructure is a major challenge to EG adoption and implementation around the world, in Africa it is very pervasive, hampering the expansion of Internet access and provision of broadband, and hence is a barrier to the successful adoption, development, and implementation of EG initiatives in countries on the continent. But with the general improvement and increase in ICT indicators around the world, it provides countries in Europe, Americas, Asia, Arab States, Oceania and Africa with the huge opportunity to enhance public service delivery through the adoption of EG. Countries within these regions cannot fail their citizens who desire to enjoy an enhanced and efficient public service delivery from government and its many state institutions.

Keywords: e-government development index, e-government, indicators, information and communication technologies (ICTs)

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