Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 15264

Search results for: replacement time

15264 Comparisons of Individual and Group Replacement Policies for a Series Connection System with Two Machines

Authors: Wen Liang Chang, Mei Wei Wang, Ruey Huei Yeh


This paper studies the comparisons of individual and group replacement policies for a series connection system with two machines. Suppose that manufacturer’s production system is a series connection system which is combined by two machines. For two machines, when machines fail within the operating time, minimal repair is performed for machines by the manufacturer. The manufacturer plans to a preventive replacement for machines at a pre-specified time to maintain system normal operation. Under these maintenance policies, the maintenance cost rate models of individual and group replacement for a series connection system with two machines is derived and further, optimal preventive replacement time is obtained such that the expected total maintenance cost rate is minimized. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the influences of individual and group replacement policies to the maintenance cost rate.

Keywords: individual replacement, group replacement, replacement time, two machines, series connection system

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15263 Replacement Time and Number of Preventive Maintenance Actions for Second-Hand Device

Authors: Wen Liang Chang


In this study, the optimal replacement time and number of preventive maintenance (PM) actions were investigated for a second-hand device. Suppose that a user intends to use a second-hand device for manufacturing products, and that the device is replaced with a new one. Any device failure is rectified through minimal repair, thereby incurring a fixed repair cost to the user. If the new device fails within the FRW period, minimal repair is performed at no cost to the user. After the FRW expires, a failed device is repaired and the cost of repair is incurred by the user. In this study, two profit models were developed, and the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were determined to maximize profits. Finally, the influence of the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were elaborated on, using numerical examples.

Keywords: second-hand device, preventive maintenance, replacement time, device failure

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15262 Optimal Continuous Scheduled Time for a Cumulative Damage System with Age-Dependent Imperfect Maintenance

Authors: Chin-Chih Chang


Many manufacturing systems suffer failures due to complex degradation processes and various environment conditions such as random shocks. Consider an operating system is subject to random shocks and works at random times for successive jobs. When successive jobs often result in production losses and performance deterioration, it would be better to do maintenance or replacement at a planned time. A preventive replacement (PR) policy is presented to replace the system before a failure occurs at a continuous time T. In such a policy, the failure characteristics of the system are designed as follows. Each job would cause a random amount of additive damage to the system, and the system fails when the cumulative damage has exceeded a failure threshold. Suppose that the deteriorating system suffers one of the two types of shocks with age-dependent probabilities: type-I (minor) shock is rectified by a minimal repair, or type-II (catastrophic) shock causes the system to fail. A corrective replacement (CR) is performed immediately when the system fails. In summary, a generalized maintenance model to scheduling replacement plan for an operating system is presented below. PR is carried out at time T, whereas CR is carried out when any type-II shock occurs and the total damage exceeded a failure level. The main objective is to determine the optimal continuous schedule time of preventive replacement through minimizing the mean cost rate function. The existence and uniqueness of optimal replacement policy are derived analytically. It can be seen that the present model is a generalization of the previous models, and the policy with preventive replacement outperforms the one without preventive replacement.

Keywords: preventive replacement, working time, cumulative damage model, minimal repair, imperfect maintenance, optimization

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15261 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu


A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: A-3 soil, clay minerals, pozzolanic action, stabilization

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15260 Battery Replacement Strategy for Electric AGVs in an Automated Container Terminal

Authors: Jiheon Park, Taekwang Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu


Electric automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are becoming popular in many automated container terminals nowadays because they are pollution-free and environmentally friendly vehicles for transporting the containers within the terminal. Since efficient operation of AGVs is critical for the productivity of the container terminal, the replacement of batteries of the AGVs must be conducted in a strategic way to minimize undesirable transportation interruptions. While a too frequent replacement may lead to a loss of terminal productivity by delaying container deliveries, missing the right timing of battery replacement can result in a dead AGV that causes a severer productivity loss due to the extra efforts required to finish post treatment. In this paper, we propose a strategy for battery replacement based on a scoring function of multiple criteria taking into account the current battery level, the distances to different battery stations, and the progress of the terminal job operations. The strategy is optimized using a genetic algorithm with the objectives of minimizing the total time spent for battery replacement as well as maximizing the terminal productivity.

Keywords: AGV operation, automated container terminal, battery replacement, electric AGV, strategy optimization

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15259 Properties of Triadic Concrete Containing Rice Husk Ash and Wood Waste Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

Authors: Abdul Rahman Mohd. Sam, Olukotun Nathaniel, Dunu Williams


Concrete is one of the most popular materials used in construction industry. However, one of the setbacks is that concrete can degrade with time upon exposure to an aggressive environment that leads to decrease in strength. Thus, research works and innovative ways are needed to enhance the strength and durability of concrete. This work tries to look into the potential use of rice husk ash (RHA) and wood waste ash (WWA) as cement replacement material. These are waste materials that may not only enhance the properties of concrete but also can serves as a viable method of disposal of waste for sustainability. In addition, a substantial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with these pozzolans will mean reduction in CO₂ emissions and high energy requirement associated with the production of OPC. This study is aimed at assessing the properties of triadic concrete produced using RHA and WWA as a partial replacement of cement. The effects of partial replacement of OPC with 10% RHA and 5% WWA on compressive and tensile strength of concrete among other properties were investigated. Concrete was produced with nominal mix of 1:2:4 and 0.55 water-cement ratio, prepared, cured and subjected to compressive and tensile strength test at 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90days. The experimental data demonstrate that concrete containing RHA and WWA produced lighter weight in comparison with OPC sample. Results also show that combination of RHA and WWA help to prolong the initial and final setting time by about 10-30% compared to the control sample. Furthermore, compressive strength was increased by 15-30% with 10% RHA and 5% WWA replacement, respectively above the control, RHA and WWA samples. Tensile strength test at the ages of 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90 days reveals that a replacement of 15% RHA and 5% WWA produced samples with the highest tensile capacity compared to the control samples. Thus, it can be concluded that RHA and WWA can be used as partial cement replacement materials in concrete.

Keywords: concrete, rice husk ash, wood waste ash, ordinary Portland cement, compressive strength, tensile strength

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15258 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection

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15257 On Performance of Cache Replacement Schemes in NDN-IoT

Authors: Rasool Sadeghi, Sayed Mahdi Faghih Imani, Negar Najafi


The inherent features of Named Data Networking (NDN) provides a robust solution for Internet of Thing (IoT). Therefore, NDN-IoT has emerged as a combined architecture which exploits the benefits of NDN for interconnecting of the heterogeneous objects in IoT. In NDN-IoT, caching schemes are a key role to improve the network performance. In this paper, we consider the effectiveness of cache replacement schemes in NDN-IoT scenarios. We investigate the impact of replacement schemes on average delay, average hop count, and average interest retransmission when replacement schemes are Least Frequently Used (LFU), Least Recently Used (LRU), First-In-First-Out (FIFO) and Random. The simulation results demonstrate that LFU and LRU present a stable performance when the cache size changes. Moreover, the network performance improves when the number of consumers increases.

Keywords: NDN-IoT, cache replacement, performance, ndnSIM

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15256 Optimal Replacement Period for a One-Unit System with Double Repair Cost Limits

Authors: Min-Tsai Lai, Taqwa Hariguna


This paper presents a periodical replacement model for a system, considering the concept of single and cumulative repair cost limits simultaneously. The failures are divided into two types. Minor failure can be corrected by minimal repair and serious failure makes the system breakdown completely. When a minor failure occurs, if the repair cost is less than a single repair cost limit L1 and the accumulated repair cost is less than a cumulative repair cost limit L2, then minimal repair is executed, otherwise, the system is preventively replaced. The system is also replaced at time T or at serious failure. The optimal period T minimizing the long-run expected cost per unit time is verified to be finite and unique under some specific conditions.

Keywords: repair-cost limit, cumulative repair-cost limit, minimal repair, periodical replacement policy

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15255 Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

Authors: T. D. Gunneswara Rao, Mudimby Andal


Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, partial replacement to fine aggregates and admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in each one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conventional concrete. Studies on fly ash as partial replacement to cement gained momentum as such replacement makes the concrete economical. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the effects of fly ash on the workability characteristics and strength aspects of fly ash concretes. In India, major number of thermal power plants are producing low calcium fly ash. Hence, in the present investigation, low calcium fly ash has been used. Fly ash in concrete was considered for the partial replacement of cement. The percentage replacement of cement by fly ash varied from 0% to 40% at regular intervals of 10%. Moreover the fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio also has been varied as 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The workability tests revealed that up to 30% replacement of cement by fly ash in concrete mixes water demand for reduces and beyond 30% replacement of cement by fly ash demanded more water content for constant workability.

Keywords: cementing efficiency, compressive strength, low calcium fly ash, workability

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15254 Investigating the Effect of Using Amorphous Silica Ash Obtained from Rice Husk as a Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar

Authors: Aliyu Usman, Muhaammed Bello Ibrahim, Yusuf D. Amartey, Jibrin M. Kaura


This research is aimed at investigating the effect of using amorphous silica ash (ASA) obtained from rice husk as a partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the mechanical and microstructure properties of cement paste and mortar. ASA was used in partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement in the following percentages 3 percent, 5 percent, 8 percent and 10 percent. These partial replacements were used to produce Cement-ASA paste and Cement-ASA mortar. ASA was found to contain all the major chemical compounds found in cement with the exception of alumina, which are SiO2 (91.5%), CaO (2.84%), Fe2O3 (1.96%), and loss on ignition (LOI) was found to be 9.18%. It also contains other minor oxides found in cement. Consistency of Cement-ASA paste was found to increase with increase in ASA replacement. Likewise, the setting time and soundness of the Cement-ASA paste also increases with increase in ASA replacements. The test on hardened mortar were destructive in nature which include flexural strength test on prismatic beam (40mm x 40mm x 160mm) at 2, 7, 14 and 28 days curing and compressive strength test on the cube size (40mm x 40mm, by using the auxiliary steel platens) at 2,7,14 and 28 days curing. The Cement-ASA mortar flexural and compressive strengths were found to be increasing with curing time and decreases with cement replacement by ASA. It was observed that 5 percent replacement of cement with ASA attained the highest strength for all the curing ages and all the percentage replacements attained the targeted compressive strength of 6N/mm2 for 28 days. There is an increase in the drying shrinkage of Cement-ASA mortar with curing time, it was also observed that the drying shrinkages for all the curing ages were greater than the control specimen all of which were greater than the code recommendation of less than 0.03%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the Cement-ASA mortar microstructure and to also look for hydration product and morphology.

Keywords: amorphous silica ash, cement mortar, cement paste, scanning electron microscope

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15253 Optimal Opportunistic Maintenance Policy for a Two-Unit System

Authors: Nooshin Salari, Viliam Makis, Jane Doe


This paper presents a maintenance policy for a system consisting of two units. Unit 1 is gradually deteriorating and is subject to soft failure. Unit 2 has a general lifetime distribution and is subject to hard failure. Condition of unit 1 of the system is monitored periodically and it is considered as failed when its deterioration level reaches or exceeds a critical level N. At the failure time of unit 2 system is considered as failed, and unit 2 will be correctively replaced by the next inspection epoch. Unit 1 or 2 are preventively replaced when deterioration level of unit 1 or age of unit 2 exceeds the related preventive maintenance (PM) levels. At the time of corrective or preventive replacement of unit 2, there is an opportunity to replace unit 1 if its deterioration level reaches the opportunistic maintenance (OM) level. If unit 2 fails in an inspection interval, system stops operating although unit 1 has not failed. A mathematical model is derived to find the preventive and opportunistic replacement levels for unit 1 and preventive replacement age for unit 2, that minimize the long run expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and solved in the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework. Numerical example is provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed model and the comparison of the proposed model with an optimal policy without opportunistic maintenance level for unit 1 is carried out.

Keywords: condition-based maintenance, opportunistic maintenance, preventive maintenance, two-unit system

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15252 Preventative Maintenance, Impact on the Optimal Replacement Strategy of Secondhand Products

Authors: Pin-Wei Chiang, Wen-Liang Chang, Ruey-Huei Yeh


This paper investigates optimal replacement and preventative maintenance policies of secondhand products under a Finite Planning Horizon (FPH). Any consumer wishing to replace their product under FPH would have it undergo minimal repairs. The replacement provided would be required to undergo periodical preventive maintenance done to avoid product failure. Then, a mathematical formula for disbursement cost for products under FPH can be derived. Optimal policies are then obtained to minimize cost. In the first of two segments of the paper, a model for initial product purchase of either new or secondhand products is used. This model is built by analyzing product purchasing price, surplus value of product, as well as the minimal repair cost. The second segment uses a model for replacement products, which are also secondhand products with no limit on usage. This model analyzes the same components as the first as well as expected preventative maintenance cost. Using these two models, a formula for the expected final total cost can be developed. The formula requires four variables (optimal preventive maintenance level, preventive maintenance frequency, replacement timing, age of replacement product) to find minimal cost requirement. Based on analysis of the variables using the expected total final cost model, it was found that the purchasing price and length of ownership were directly related. Also, consumers should choose the secondhand product with the higher usage for replacement. Products with higher initial usage upon acquisition require an earlier replacement schedule. In this case, replacements should be made with a secondhand product with less usage. In addition, preventative maintenance also significantly reduces cost. Consumers that plan to use products for longer periods of time replace their products later. Hence these consumers should choose the secondhand product with lesser initial usage for replacement. Preventative maintenance also creates significant total cost savings in this case. This study provides consumers with a method of calculating both the ideal amount of usage of the products they should purchase as well as the frequency and level of preventative maintenance that should be conducted in order to minimize cost and maintain product function.

Keywords: finite planning horizon, second hand product, replacement, preventive maintenance, minimal repair

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15251 The Effect of Partially Replacing Cement with Metakaolin on the Properties of Concrete

Authors: Gashaw Abebaw


Concrete usage in Ethiopia is expanding at a faster rate than before. Cement is the most important and costly ingredient in this respect. The construction industry is currently challenged by cement scarcity and stock market inflation. Scholars' trays, on the other hand, will use natural pozzolan material to substitute cement. Apart from that, Metakaolin has pozzolanic characteristics. According to the industrial mineral occurrence map, Ethiopia kaolin may be found in abundance. Some of them include Debretabor, so it is good to utilize Metakaolin as cement replacement material. In this study, the capability of Ethiopian Metakaolin as a partial substitute for cement in C-25 concrete production with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% replacement of PPC by MA with 0.49 percent water to cement ratio is investigated. The study examines; the chemical properties of MA, Physical properties of cement paste, workability, compressive strength, water absorption, density and sulfate attack of concrete was investigated. The chemical composition of Metakaolin was examined and the summation of SiO₂, AlO₃, and FeO₃ is 86.25% and the ash was classified class N pozzolan. The normal consistency percent of water increases as the MA replacement amount increase and both initial and final setting time rang increase as the MA replacement amount increase. On the 28th day, the compressive strength of concrete with MA replacement of 5%, 10%, and 15% exceeds the goal mean strength (33.5Mpa) with compressive strength enhancements of 2.23 %, 4.05 %, and 2.23 %, respectively. Similarly, on the 56th day, 5 %, 10%, and 15% replacement enhance concrete strength by 2.06 %, 3.06 %, and 1.2 %, respectively. The MA mixed concrete has improved significantly in terms of water absorption and sulphate attack, with a 15% replacement level. MA content Metakaolin could possibly replace cement up to 15%, according to the studies. The study's findings will help to offset cement price increases while also boosting house affordability without significantly degrading.

Keywords: metakaolin, compressive strength, sulphate attack, water absorption, N pozzolan

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15250 Anaerobic Digestion of Coffee Wastewater from a Fast Inoculum Adaptation Stage: Replacement of Complex Substrate

Authors: D. Lepe-Cervantes, E. Leon-Becerril, J. Gomez-Romero, O. Garcia-Depraect, A. Lopez-Lopez


In this study, raw coffee wastewater (CWW) was used as a complex substrate for anaerobic digestion. The inoculum adaptation stage, microbial diversity analysis and biomethane potential (BMP) tests were performed. A fast inoculum adaptation stage was used by the replacement of vinasse to CWW in an anaerobic sequential batch reactor (AnSBR) operated at mesophilic conditions. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to analyze the microbial diversity. While, BMP tests using inoculum adapted to CWW were carried out at different inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1, on a VS basis). Results show that the adaptability percentage was increased gradually until it reaches the highest theoretical value in a short time of 10 d; with a methane yield of 359.10 NmL CH4/g COD-removed; Methanobacterium beijingense was the most abundant microbial (75%) and the greatest specific methane production was achieved at I/S ratio 4:1, whereas the lowest was obtained at 2:1, with BMP values of 320 NmL CH4/g VS and 151 NmL CH4/g VS, respectively. In conclusion, gradual replacement of substrate was a feasible method to adapt the inoculum in a short time even using complex raw substrates, whereas in the BMP tests, the specific methane production was proportional to the initial amount of inoculum.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biomethane potential test, coffee wastewater, fast inoculum adaptation

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15249 Study on Sintering System of Calcium Barium Sulphoaluminate by XRD Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Xiaopeng Shang, Xin YU, Jun CHANG


Calcium barium sulphoaluminate (CBSA), derived from calcium sulphoaluminate(CSA), has excellent cementitious properties. In this study, the sintering system of CBSA with a theoretical stoichiometric Ca3BaAl6SO16 was investigated. Rietveld refinement was performed using TOPAS 4.2 software to quantitatively calculate the content of CBSA and the actual ionic site occupancy of Ba2+. The results indicate that the contents of Ca4-xBaxAl6SO16 increases with increasing sintering temperature in the 1200℃-1400℃ ranges. When sintered at 1400℃ for 180min, the content of CBSA reaches 88.4%. However, CBSA begins to decompose at 1440℃ and the content of which decreases. The replacement rate of Ba2+ was also enlarged by increasing sintering temperature and prolonged sintering time. Sintering at 1400℃ for 180min is considered as the optimum when replacement rate of Ba2+ and the content of CBSA were taken into account. Ca3.2Ba0.8Al6SO16 with a content of 88.4% was synthesized.

Keywords: calcium barium sulphoaluminate, sintering system, Ba2+ replacement rate, Rietveld refinement

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15248 Study on Compressive Strength and Setting Time of Fly Ash Concrete after Slump Recovery Using Superplasticizer

Authors: Chaiyakrit Raoupatham, Ram Hari Dhakal, Chalermchai Wanichlamlert


Fresh concrete that is on bound to be rejected due to belated use either from delay construction process or unflavored traffic cause delay on concrete delivering can recover the slump and use once again by introduce second dose of superplasticizer(naphthalene based type F) into system. By adding superplasticizer as solution for recover unusable slump loss concrete may affects other concrete properties. Therefore, this paper was observed setting time and compressive strength of concrete after being re-dose with chemical admixture type F (superplasticizer, naphthalene based) for slump recovery. The concrete used in this study was fly ash concrete with fly ash replacement of 0%, 30% and 50% respectively. Concrete mix designed for test specimen was prepared with paste content (ratio of volume of cement to volume of void in the aggregate) of 1.2 and 1.3, water-to-binder ratio (w/b) range of 0.3 to 0.58, initial dose of superplasticizer (SP) range from 0.5 to 1.6%. The setting time of concrete were tested both before and after re-dosed with different amount of second dose and time of dosing. The research was concluded that addition of second dose of superplasticizer would increase both initial and final setting times accordingly to dosage of addition. As for fly ash concrete, the prolongation effect was higher as the replacement of fly ash is increase. The prolongation effect can reach up to maximum about 4 hours. In case of compressive strength, the re-dosed concrete has strength fluctuation within acceptable range of ±10%.

Keywords: compressive strength, fly ash concrete, second dose of superplasticizer, setting times

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15247 Geosynthetic Tubes in Coastal Structures a Better Substitute for Shorter Planning Horizon: A Case Study

Authors: A. Pietro Rimoldi, B. Anilkumar Gopinath, C. Minimol Korulla


Coastal engineering structure is conventionally designed for a shorter planning horizon usually 20 years. These structures are subjected to different offshore climatic externalities like waves, tides, tsunamis etc. during the design life period. The probability of occurrence of these different offshore climatic externalities varies. The impact frequently caused by these externalities on the structures is of concern because it has a significant bearing on the capital /operating cost of the project. There can also be repeated short time occurrence of these externalities in the assumed planning horizon which can cause heavy damage to the conventional coastal structure which are mainly made of rock. A replacement of the damaged portion to prevent complete collapse is time consuming and expensive when dealing with hard rock structures. But if coastal structures are made of Geo-synthetic containment systems such replacement is quickly possible in the time period between two successive occurrences. In order to have a better knowledge and to enhance the predictive capacity of these occurrences, this study estimates risk of encounter within the design life period of various externalities based on the concept of exponential distribution. This gives an idea of the frequency of occurrences which in turn gives an indication of whether replacement is necessary and if so at what time interval such replacements have to be effected. To validate this theoretical finding, a pilot project has been taken up in the field so that the impact of the externalities can be studied both for a hard rock and a Geosynthetic tube structure. The paper brings out the salient feature of a case study which pertains to a project in which Geosynthetic tubes have been used for reformation of a seawall adjacent to a conventional rock structure in Alappuzha coast, Kerala, India. The effectiveness of the Geosystem in combatting the impact of the short-term externalities has been brought out.

Keywords: climatic externalities, exponential distribution, geosystems, planning horizon

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15246 Equity Investment Restrictions and Pension Replacement Rates in Nigeria: A Ruin-Risk Analysis

Authors: Uche A. Ibekwe


Pension funds are pooled assets which are established to provide income for retirees. The funds are usually regulated to check excessive risk taking by fund managers. In Nigeria, the current defined contribution (DC) pension scheme appears to contain some overly stringent restrictions which might be hampering its successful implementation. Notable among these restrictions is the 25 percent maximum limit on investment in ordinary shares of quoted companies. This paper examines the extent to which these restrictions affect pension replacement rates at retirement. The study made use of both simulated and historical asset return distributions using mean-variance, regression analysis and ruin-risk analyses, the study found that the current equity investment restriction policy in Nigeria reduces replacement rates at retirement.

Keywords: equity investment, replacement rates, restrictions, ruin-risk

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15245 Design of Soil Replacement under Axial Centric Load Isolated Footing by Limit State Method

Authors: Emad A. M. Osman, Ahmed M. Abu-Bakr


Compacted granular fill under shallow foundation is one of the oldest, cheapest, and easiest techniques to improve the soil characteristics to increase the bearing capacity and decrease settlement under footing. There are three main factors affecting the design of soil replacement to gain these advantages. These factors are the type of replaced soil, characteristics, and thickness. The first two factors can be easily determined by laboratory and field control. This paper emphasizes on how to determine the thickness accurately for footing under centric axial load by limit state design method. The advantages of the method are the way of determining the thickness (independent of experience) and it takes into account the replaced and original or underneath soil characteristics and reaches the goals of replaced soils economically.

Keywords: design of soil replacement, LSD method, soil replacement, soil improvement

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15244 Performance Study of Geopolymer Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fly Ash with Cement and Full Replacement of River Sand by Crushed Sand

Authors: Asis Kumar Khan, Rajeev Kumar Goel


Recent infrastructure growth all around the world lead to increase in demand for concrete day by day. Cement being binding material for concrete the usage of cement also gone up significantly. Cement manufacturing utilizes abundant natural resources and causes environment pollution by releasing a huge quantity of CO₂ into the atmosphere. So, it is high time to look for alternates to reduce the cement consumption in concrete. Geopolymer concrete is one such material which utilizes the industrial waste such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and low-cost alkaline liquids such as sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate to produce the concrete. On the other side, river sand is becoming very expensive due to its large-scale depletion at source and the high cost of transportation. In this view, river sand is replaced by crushed sand in this study. In this work, an attempt has been made to understand the durability parameters of geopolymer concrete by partially replacing fly ash with cement. Fly ash is replaced by cement at various levels e.g., from 0 to 50%. Concrete cubes of 100x100x100mm were used for investigating different durability parameters. The various parameters studied includes compressive strength, split tensile strength, drying shrinkage, sodium sulphate attack resistance, sulphuric acid attack resistance and chloride permeability. Highest compressive strength & highest split tensile strength is observed in 30% replacement level. Least drying is observed with 30% replacement level. Very good resistance for sulphuric acid & sodium sulphate is found with 30% replacement. However, it was not possible to find out the chloride permeability due to the high conductivity of geopolymer samples of all replacement levels.

Keywords: crushed sand, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, geopolymer concrete, split tensile strength, sodium sulphate attack resistance, sulphuric acid attack resistance

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15243 Optimal Sequential Scheduling of Imperfect Maintenance Last Policy for a System Subject to Shocks

Authors: Yen-Luan Chen


Maintenance has a great impact on the capacity of production and on the quality of the products, and therefore, it deserves continuous improvement. Maintenance procedure done before a failure is called preventive maintenance (PM). Sequential PM, which specifies that a system should be maintained at a sequence of intervals with unequal lengths, is one of the commonly used PM policies. This article proposes a generalized sequential PM policy for a system subject to shocks with imperfect maintenance and random working time. The shocks arrive according to a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) with varied intensity function in each maintenance interval. As a shock occurs, the system suffers two types of failures with number-dependent probabilities: type-I (minor) failure, which is rectified by a minimal repair, and type-II (catastrophic) failure, which is removed by a corrective maintenance (CM). The imperfect maintenance is carried out to improve the system failure characteristic due to the altered shock process. The sequential preventive maintenance-last (PML) policy is defined as that the system is maintained before any CM occurs at a planned time Ti or at the completion of a working time in the i-th maintenance interval, whichever occurs last. At the N-th maintenance, the system is replaced rather than maintained. This article first takes up the sequential PML policy with random working time and imperfect maintenance in reliability engineering. The optimal preventive maintenance schedule that minimizes the mean cost rate of a replacement cycle is derived analytically and determined in terms of its existence and uniqueness. The proposed models provide a general framework for analyzing the maintenance policies in reliability theory.

Keywords: optimization, preventive maintenance, random working time, minimal repair, replacement, reliability

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15242 Prophylactic Replacement of Voice Prosthesis: A Study to Predict Prosthesis Lifetime

Authors: Anne Heirman, Vincent van der Noort, Rob van Son, Marije Petersen, Lisette van der Molen, Gyorgy Halmos, Richard Dirven, Michiel van den Brekel


Objective: Voice prosthesis leakage significantly impacts laryngectomies patients' quality of life, causing insecurity and frequent unplanned hospital visits and costs. In this study, the concept of prophylactic voice prosthesis replacement was explored to prevent leakages. Study Design: A retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary hospital. Methods: Device lifetimes and voice prosthesis replacements of a retrospective cohort, including all patients with laryngectomies between 2000 and 2012 in the Netherlands Cancer Institute, were used to calculate the number of needed voice prostheses per patient per year when preventing 70% of the leakages by prophylactic replacement. Various strategies for the timing of prophylactic replacement were considered: Adaptive strategies based on the individual patient’s history of replacement and fixed strategies based on the results of patients with similar voice prosthesis or treatment characteristics. Results: Patients used a median of 3.4 voice prostheses per year (range 0.1-48.1). We found a high inter-and intrapatient variability in device lifetime. When applying prophylactic replacement, this would become a median of 9.4 voice prostheses per year, which means replacement every 38 days, implying more than six additional voice prostheses per patient per year. The individual adaptive model showed that preventing 70% of the leakages was impossible for most patients, and only a median of 25% can be prevented. Monte-Carlo simulations showed that prophylactic replacement is not feasible due to the high Coefficient of Variation (Standard Deviation/Mean) in device lifetime. Conclusion: Based on our simulations, prophylactic replacement of voice prostheses is not feasible due to high inter-and intrapatient variation in device lifetime.

Keywords: voice prosthesis, voice rehabilitation, total laryngectomy, prosthetic leakage, device lifetime

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15241 Evaluation of Fresh, Strength and Durability Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Bagasse Ash

Authors: Abdul Haseeb Wani, Shruti Sharma, Rafat Siddique


Self-compacting concrete is an engineered concrete that flows and de-airs without additional energy input. Such concrete requires a high slump which can be achieved by the addition of superplasticizers to the concrete mix. In the present work, bagasse ash is utilised as a replacement of cement in self-compacting concrete. This serves the purpose of both land disposal and environmental concerns related to the disposal of bagasse ash. Further, an experimental program was carried out to study the fresh, strength, and durability properties of self-compacting concrete made with bagasse ash. The mixes were prepared with four percentages (0, 5, 10 and 15) of bagasse ash as partial replacement of cement. Properties investigated were; Slump-flow, V-funnel and L-box, Compressive strength, Splitting tensile strength, Chloride-ion penetration resistance and Water absorption. Compressive and splitting tensile strength tests were conducted at the age of 7 and 28 days. Rapid chloride-ion permeability test was carried at the age of 28 days and water absorption test was carried out at the age of 7 days after initial curing of 28 days. Test results showed that there is an increase in the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete specimens having up to 10% replacement level, however, there is a slight decrease at 15% level of replacement. Resistance to chloride-ion penetration of the specimens increased as the percentage of replacement was increased. The charge passed in all the specimens containing bagasse ash was lower than that of the specimen without bagasse ash. Water absorption of the specimens decreased up to 10% replacement level and increased at 15% level of replacement. Hence, it can be concluded that optimum level of replacement of cement with bagasse ash in self-compacting concrete comes out to be 10%; at which the self-compacting concrete has satisfactory flow characteristics (as per the European guidelines), improved compressive and splitting tensile strength and better durability properties as compared to the control mix.

Keywords: bagasse ash, compressive strength, self-compacting concrete, splitting tensile strength

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15240 Evaluating the Impact of Replacement Policies on the Cache Performance and Energy Consumption in Different Multicore Embedded Systems

Authors: Sajjad Rostami-Sani, Mojtaba Valinataj, Amir-Hossein Khojir-Angasi


The cache has an important role in the reduction of access delay between a processor and memory in high-performance embedded systems. In these systems, the energy consumption is one of the most important concerns, and it will become more important with smaller processor feature sizes and higher frequencies. Meanwhile, the cache system dissipates a significant portion of energy compared to the other components of a processor. There are some elements that can affect the energy consumption of the cache such as replacement policy and degree of associativity. Due to these points, it can be inferred that selecting an appropriate configuration for the cache is a crucial part of designing a system. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different cache replacement policies on both cache’s performance and energy consumption. Furthermore, the impact of different Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs) on cache’s performance and energy consumption has been investigated.

Keywords: energy consumption, replacement policy, instruction set architecture, multicore processor

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15239 Effect of Electric Arc Furnace Coarse Slag Aggregate And Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag on Mechanical and Durability Properties of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement

Authors: Amiya Kumar Thakur, Dinesh Ganvir, Prem Pal Bansal


Industrial by product utilization has been encouraged due to environment and economic factors. Since electric arc furnace slag aggregate is a by-product of steel industry and its storage is a major concern hence it can be used as a replacement of natural aggregate as its physical and mechanical property are comparable or better than the natural aggregates. The present study investigates the effect of partial and full replacement of natural coarse aggregate with coarse EAF slag aggregate and partial replacement of cement with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) on the mechanical and durability properties of roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP).The replacement level of EAF slag aggregate were at five levels (i.e. 0% ,25% ,50%,75% & 100%) and of GGBFS was (0 % & 30%).The EAF slag aggregate was stabilized by exposing to outdoor condition for several years and the volumetric expansion test using steam exposure device was done to check volume stability. Soil compaction method was used for mix proportioning of RCCP. The fresh properties of RCCP investigated were fresh density and modified vebe test was done to measure the consistency of concrete. For investigating the mechanical properties various tests were done at 7 and 28 days (i.e. Compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexure strength modulus of elasticity) and also non-destructive testing was done at 28 days (i.e. Ultra pulse velocity test (UPV) & rebound hammer test). The durability test done at 28 days were water absorption, skid resistance & abrasion resistance. The results showed that with the increase in slag aggregate percentage there was an increase in the fresh density of concrete and also slight increase in the vebe time but with the 30 % GGBFS replacement the vebe time decreased and the fresh density was comparable to 0% GGBFS mix. The compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexure strength & modulus of elasticity increased with the increase in slag aggregate percentage in concrete when compared to control mix. But with the 30 % GGBFS replacement there was slight decrease in mechanical properties when compared to 100 % cement concrete. In UPV test and rebound hammer test all the mixes showed excellent quality of concrete. With the increase in slag aggregate percentage in concrete there was an increase in water absorption, skid resistance and abrasion resistance but with the 30 % GGBFS percentage the skid resistance, water absorption and abrasion resistance decreased when compared to 100 % cement concrete. From the study it was found that the mix containing 30 % GGBFS with different percentages of EAF slag aggregate were having comparable results for all the mechanical and durability property when compared to 100 % cement mixes. Hence 30 % GGBFS can be used as cement replacement with 100 % EAF slag aggregate as natural coarse aggregate replacement.

Keywords: durability properties, electric arc furnace slag aggregate, GGBFS, mechanical properties, roller compacted concrete pavement, soil compaction method

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15238 Structural Strength Potentials of Nigerian Groundnut Husk Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Mortar

Authors: F. A. Olutoge, O.R. Olulope, M. O. Odelola


This study investigates the strength potentials of groundnut husk ash as partial cement replacement in mortar and also develops a predictive model using Artificial Neural Network. Groundnut husks sourced from Ogbomoso, Nigeria, was sun dried, calcined to ash in a furnace at a controlled temperature of 600⁰ C for a period of 6 hours, and sieved through the 75 microns. The ash was subjected to chemical analysis and setting time test. Fine aggregate (sand) for the mortar was sourced from Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. The cement: GHA constituents were blended in ratios 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 %. The sum of SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and Fe₂O₃ content in GHA is 26.98%. The compressive strength for mortars PC, GHA5, GHA10, GHA15, and GHA20 ranged from 6.3-10.2 N/mm² at 7days, 7.5-12.3 N/mm² at 14 days, 9.31-13.7 N/mm² at 28 days, 10.4-16.7 N/mm² at 56days and 13.35- 22.3 N/mm² at 90 days respectively, PC, GHA5 and GHA10 had competitive values up to 28 days, but GHA10 gave the highest values at 56 and 90 days while GHA20 had the lowest values at all ages due to dilution effect. Flexural strengths values at 28 days ranged from 1.08 to 1.87 N/mm² and increased to a range of 1.53-4.10 N/mm² at 90 days. The ANN model gave good prediction for compressive strength of the mortars. This study has shown that groundnut husk ash as partial cement replacement improves the strength properties of mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, groundnut husk ash, mortar, pozzolanic index

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15237 Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Metakaolin on the Compressive Strengths of Ternary Cement Mortars

Authors: Olubajo Olumide Olu


This paper studies the effect of Metakaolin (MK) and Rice husk ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of ternary cement mortar at replacement level up to 30%. The compressive strength test of the blended cement mortars were conducted using Tonic Technic compression and machine. Nineteen ternary cement mortars were prepared comprising of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Rice husk ash (RHA) and Metakaolin (MK) at different proportion. Ternary mortar prisms in which Portland cement was replaced by up to 30% were tested at various age; 2, 7, 28 and 60 days. Result showed that the compressive strength of the cement mortars increased as the curing days were lengthened for both OPC and the blended cement samples. The ternary cement’s compressive strengths showed significant improvement compared with the control especially beyond 28 days. This can be attributed to the slow pozzolanic reaction resulting from the formation of additional CSH from the interaction of the residual CH content and the silica available in the Metakaolin and Rice husk ash, thus providing significant strength gain at later age. Results indicated that the addition of metakaolin with rice husk ash kept constant was found to lead to an increment in the compressive strength. This can either be attributed to the high silica/alumina contribution to the matrix or the C/S ratio in the cement matrix. Whereas, increment in the rice husk ash content while metakaolin was held constant led to an increment in the compressive strength, which could be attributed to the reactivity of the rice husk ash followed by decrement owing to the presence of unburnt carbon in the RHA matrix. The best compressive strength results were obtained at 10% cement replacement (5% RHA, 5% MK); 15% cement replacement (10% MK and 5% RHA); 20% cement replacement (15% MK and 5% RHA); 25% cement replacement (20% MK and 5% RHA); 30% cement replacement (10%/20% MK and 20%/10% RHA). With the optimal combination of either 15% and 20% MK with 5% RHA giving the best compressive strength of 40.5MPa.

Keywords: metakaolin, rice husk ash, compressive strength, ternary mortar, curing days

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15236 Influence of Recycled Glass Content on the Properties of Concrete and Mortar

Authors: Bourmatte Nadjoua, Houari Hacène


The effect of replacement of fine aggregates with recycled glass on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete and mortar is studied. Percentages of replacement are 0–25% and 50% of aggregates with fine waste glass to produce concrete and percentage of replacement of 100% to produce mortar. As a result of the conducted study, the slump flow increased with the increase of recycled glass content. On the other hand, the compressive strength and tensile strength of recycled glass mixtures were decreased with the increase in the recycled glass content. The results showed that recycled glass aggregate can successfully be used with limited level for producing concrete. Mortar based on glass shows a compressive strength with 50% lower than that of control mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, mortar, recycled glass

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15235 The Relationship between Top Management Replacement and Risk, Sale and Cash Volatilities with Respect to Unqualified Audit Opinion

Authors: Mehdi Dasineh, Yadollah Tariverdi, Marzieh H. Takhti


This paper investigated the relationship between top management turnover with risk volatility, sale volatility and fluctuations in the company's cash depending on the unqualified audit report in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). In this study, we examined 104 firms over the period 2009-2014 which were selected from (TSE). There was 624 observed year-company data in this research. Hypotheses of this research have been evaluated by using regression tests for example F-statistical and Durbin-Watson. Based on our sample we found significant relationship between top management replacement and risk volatility, sale Volatility and cash volatility with tendency unqualified audit opinion.

Keywords: top management replacement, risk volatility, sale volatility, cash volatility, unqualified audit opinion

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