Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 91

Search results for: Jakub Marek

91 Nanofibrous Ion Exchangers

Authors: Jaromír Marek, Jakub Wiener, Yan Wang

Abstract:

The main goal of this study was to find simple and industrially applicable production of ion exchangers based on nanofibrous polystyrene matrix and characterization of prepared material. Starting polystyrene nanofibers were sulfonated and crosslinked under appropriate conditions at the same time by sulfuric acid. Strongly acidic cation exchanger was obtained in such a way. The polymer matrix was made from polystyrene nanofibers prepared by Nanospider technology. Various types postpolymerization reactions and other methods of crosslinking were studied. Greatly different behavior between nano and microsize materials was observed. The final nanofibrous material was characterized and compared to common granular ion exchangers and available microfibrous ion exchangers. The sorption properties of nanofibrous ion exchangers were compared with the granular ion exchangers. For nanofibrous ion exchangers of comparable ion exchange capacity was observed considerably faster adsorption kinetics.

Keywords: electrospinning, ion exchangers, nanofibers, polystyrene

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90 The Impact of the Length of Time Spent on the Street on Adjustment to Homelessness

Authors: Jakub Marek, Marie Vagnerova, Ladislav Csemy

Abstract:

Background: The length of time spent on the street influences the degree of adjustment to homelessness. Over the years spent sleeping rough, homeless people gradually lose the ability to control their lives and their return to mainstream society becomes less and less likely. Goals: The aim of the study was to discover whether and how men who have been sleeping rough for more than ten years differ from those who have been homeless for four years or less. Methods: The research was based on a narrative analysis of in-depth interviews focused on the respondent’s entire life story, i.e. their childhood, adolescence, and the period of adulthood preceding homelessness. It also asked the respondents about how they envisaged the future. The group under examination comprised 51 homeless men aged 37 – 54. The first subgroup contained 29 men who have been sleeping rough for 10 – 21 years, the second group contained 22 men who have been homeless for four years or less. Results: Men who have been sleeping rough for more than ten years had problems adapting as children. They grew up in a problematic family or in an institution and acquired only a rudimentary education. From the start they had problems at work, found it difficult to apply themselves, and found it difficult to hold down a job. They tend to have high-risk personality traits and often a personality disorder. Early in life they had problems with alcohol or drugs and their relationships were unsuccessful. If they have children, they do not look after them. They are reckless even in respect of the law and often commit crime. They usually ended up on the street in their thirties. Most of this subgroup of homeless people lack motivation and the will to make any fundamental change to their lives. They identify with the homeless community and have no other contacts. Men who have been sleeping rough for four years or less form two subgroups. There are those who had a normal childhood, attended school and found work. They started a family but began to drink, and as a consequence lost their family and their job. Such men end up on the street between the ages of 35 and 40. And then there are men who become homeless after the age of 40 because of an inability to cope with a difficult situation, e.g. divorce or indebtedness. They are not substance abusers and do not have a criminal record. Such people can be offered effective assistance to return to mainstream society by the social services because they have not yet fully self-identified with the homeless community and most of them have retained the necessary abilities and skills. Conclusion: The length of time a person has been homeless is an important factor in respect of social prevention. It is clear that the longer a person is homeless, the worse are their chances of being reintegrated into mainstream society.

Keywords: risk factors, homelessness, chronicity, narrative analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
89 New Evaluation Methodology for Solidification Product Durability Assessment

Authors: Bozena Dohnalkova, Jakub Hodul, Rostislav Drochytka, Jana Kosikova

Abstract:

This paper deals with a proposal of a new methodology for durability assessment of solidification product for its safe further use. The new methodology is based on a review of the current state of assessment of treated waste in Czech Republic and abroad. The aim of the paper is to propose an optimal evaluation methodology for verifying properties of solidification product to ensure its safe further use in building industry.

Keywords: solidification, stabilization, durability, waste

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88 The Tasks and Operation of the Municipal Executive Organ in a Smart City

Authors: Jakub Bryla

Abstract:

Cities are now seen as business entities, and their executive body is similar to a chief executive officer. However, it is not enough for the legal system to provide a strong role for the executive branch. It seems that the authority must take the form of a managerial body. This solution answers the demands of smart governance, which in such a regulated relation between the unit head and the city see a guarantee of reliable implementation of the municipal strategy proposed during the recruitment and of the motivation to carry out statutory tasks to communes and their residents.

Keywords: smart cities, local government, executive organ, municipality, city management

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87 The New Approach to Airport Emergency Plans

Authors: Jakub Kraus, Vladimír Plos, Peter Vittek

Abstract:

This article deals with a new approach to the airport emergency plans, which are the basic documents and manuals for dealing with events with impact on safety or security. The article describes the identified parts in which the current airport emergency plans do not fulfill their role and which should therefore be considered in the creation of corrective measures. All these issues have been identified at airports in the Czech Republic and confirmed at airports in neighboring countries.

Keywords: airport emergency plan, aviation safety, aviation security, comprehensive management system

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
86 Fragile States as the Fertile Ground for Non-State Actors: Colombia and Somalia

Authors: Giorgi Goguadze, Jakub Zajączkowski

Abstract:

This paper is written due to overview the connection between fragile states and non-state actors, we should take into account that fragile states may vary from weak, failing and failed. In this paper we will discuss about two countries, one of them is weak (Colombia/ second one is already failed- Somalia. We will try to understand what feeds ill non-state actors such as: terrorist organizations, criminal entities and other cells in these countries, what threats are they representing and how to eliminate these dangers in both national and international scope. This paper is mainly based on literature overview and personal attitude and doesn’t claim to be in scientific chain.

Keywords: fragile States, terrorism, tribalism, Somalia

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85 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Fe and Ni-TCNQ on Graphene

Authors: A. Shahsavar, Z. Jakub

Abstract:

Due to the outstanding properties of the 2D metal-organic frameworks (MOF), intensive computational and experimental studies have been done. However, the lack of fundamental studies of MOFs on the graphene backbone is observed. This work studies Fe and Ni as metal and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) with a high electron affinity as an organic linker functionalized on graphene. Here we present DFT calculations results to unveil the electronic and magnetic properties of iron and nickel-TCNQ physisorbed on graphene. Adsorption and Fermi energies, structural, and magnetic properties will be reported. Our experimental observations prove Fe- and [email protected]/Ir(111) are thermally highly stable up to 500 and 250°C, respectively, making them promising materials for single-atom catalysts or high-density storage media.

Keywords: DFT, graphene, MTCNQ, self-assembly

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84 Investigation of the GFR2400 Reactivity Control System

Authors: Ján Haščík, Štefan Čerba, Jakub Lüley, Branislav Vrban

Abstract:

The presented paper is related to the design methods and neutronic characterization of the reactivity control system in the large power unit of Generation IV Gas cooled Fast Reactor – GFR2400. The reactor core is based on carbide pin fuel type with the application of refractory metallic liners used to enhance the fission product retention of the SiC cladding. The heterogeneous design optimization of control rod is presented and the results of rods worth and their interferences in a core are evaluated. In addition, the idea of reflector removal as an additive reactivity management option is investigated and briefly described.

Keywords: control rods design, GFR2400, hot spot, movable reflector, reactivity

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83 “Friction Surfaces” of Airport Emergency Plan

Authors: Jakub Kraus, Vladimír Plos, Peter Vittek

Abstract:

This article focuses on the issue of airport emergency plans, which are documents describing reactions to events with impact on aviation safety or aviation security. The article specifically focuses on the use and creation of emergency plans, where could be found a number of disagreements between different stakeholders, for which the airport emergency plan applies. Those are the friction surfaces of interfaces, which is necessary to identify and ensure them smooth process to avoid dangerous situations or delay.

Keywords: airport emergency plan, aviation safety, aviation security, comprehensive management system, friction surfaces of airport emergency plan, interfaces of processes

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82 Control Algorithm for Home Automation Systems

Authors: Marek Długosz, Paweł Skruch

Abstract:

One of purposes of home automation systems is to provide appropriate comfort to the users by suitable air temperature control and stabilization inside the rooms. The control of temperature level is not a simple task and the basic difficulty results from the fact that accurate parameters of the object of control, that is a building, remain unknown. Whereas the structure of the model is known, the identification of model parameters is a difficult task. In this paper, a control algorithm allowing the present temperature to be reached inside the building within the specified time without the need to know accurate parameters of the building itself is presented.

Keywords: control, home automation system, wireless networking, automation engineering

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81 Numerical Calculation of Heat Transfer in Water Heater

Authors: Michal Spilacek, Martin Lisy, Marek Balas, Zdenek Skala

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This article is trying to determine the status of flue gas that is entering the KWH heat exchanger from combustion chamber in order to calculate the heat transfer ratio of the heat exchanger. Combination of measurement, calculation, and computer simulation was used to create a useful way to approximate the heat transfer rate. The measurements were taken by a number of sensors that are mounted on the experimental device and by a thermal imaging camera. The results of the numerical calculation are in a good correspondence with the real power output of the experimental device. Results show that the research has a good direction and can be used to propose changes in the construction of the heat exchanger, but still needs enhancements.

Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer rate, numerical calculation, thermal images

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80 Optimization of Cutting Parameters during Machining of Fine Grained Cemented Carbides

Authors: Josef Brychta, Jiri Kratochvil, Marek Pagac

Abstract:

The group of progressive cutting materials can include non-traditional, emerging and less-used materials that can be an efficient use of cutting their lead to a quantum leap in the field of machining. This is essentially a “superhard” materials (STM) based on polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) cutting performance ceramics and development is constantly "perfecting" fine coated cemented carbides. The latter cutting materials are broken down by two parameters, toughness and hardness. A variation of alloying elements is always possible to improve only one of each parameter. Reducing the size of the core on the other hand doing achieves "contradictory" properties, namely to increase both hardness and toughness.

Keywords: grained cutting materials difficult to machine materials, optimum utilization, mechanic, manufacturing

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79 Brain-Motor Disablement: Using Virtual Reality-Based Therapeutic Simulations

Authors: Vince Macri, Jakub Petioky, Paul Zilber

Abstract:

Virtual-reality-based technology, i.e. video-game-like simulations (collectively, VRSims) are used in therapy for a variety of medical conditions. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a discussion on criteria for selecting VRSims to augment treatment of survivors of acquired brain injury. Specifically, for treatments to improve or restore brain motor function in upper extremities affected by paresis or paralysis. Six uses of virtual reality are reviewed video games for entertainment, training simulations, unassisted or device-assisted movements of affected or unaffected extremities displayed in virtual environments and virtual anatomical interactivity.

Keywords: acquired brain injury, brain-motor function, virtual anatomical interactivity, therapeutic simulations

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78 Crushing Analysis of Foam-Filled Thin-Walled Aluminum Profiles Subjected to Axial Loading

Authors: Michał Rogala, Jakub Gajewski

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As the automotive industry develops, passive safety is becoming an increasingly important aspect when designing motor vehicles. A commonly used solution is energy absorption by thin-walled construction. One such structure is a closed thin-walled profile fixed to the vehicle stringers. The article presents numerical tests of conical thin-walled profiles filled with aluminum foam. The columns were loaded axially with constant energy. On the basis of the results obtained, efficiency indicators were calculated. The efficiency of the foam filling was evaluated. Artificial neural networks were used for data analysis. The application of regression analysis was used as a tool to study the relationship between the quantities characteristic of the dynamic crush.

Keywords: aluminium foam, crashworthiness, neural networks, thin-walled structure

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77 SEC-MALLS Study of Hyaluronic Acid and BSA Thermal Degradation in Powder and in Solution

Authors: Vasile Simulescu, Jakub Mondek, Miloslav Pekař

Abstract:

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic glycosaminoglycan distributed throughout connective, epithelial and neural tissues. The importance of hyaluronic acid increased in the last decades. It has many applications in medicine and cosmetics. Hyaluronic acid has been used in attempts to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via injecting it into the joint. Bovine serum albumin (also known as BSA) is a protein derived from cows, which has many biochemical applications. The aim of our research work was to compare the thermal degradation of hyaluronic acid and BSA in powder and in solution, by determining changes in molar mass and conformation, by using SEC-MALLS (size exclusion chromatography -multi angle laser light scattering). The aim of our research work was to observe the degradation in powder and in solution of different molar mass hyaluronic acid samples, at different temperatures for certain periods. The degradation of the analyzed samples was mainly observed by modifications in molar mass.

Keywords: thermal degradation, hyaluronic acid, BSA, SEC-MALLS

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76 The Effect of Biochar, Inoculated Biochar and Compost Biological Component of the Soil

Authors: Helena Dvořáčková, Mikajlo Irina, Záhora Jaroslav, Elbl Jakub

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Biochar can be produced from the waste matter and its application has been associated with returning of carbon in large amounts into the soil. The impacts of this material on physical and chemical properties of soil have been described. The biggest part of the research work is dedicated to the hypothesis of this material’s toxic effects on the soil life regarding its effect on the soil biological component. At present, it has been worked on methods which could eliminate these undesirable properties of biochar. One of the possibilities is to mix biochar with organic material, such as compost, or focusing on the natural processes acceleration in the soil. In the experiment has been used as the addition of compost as well as the elimination of toxic substances by promoting microbial activity in aerated water environment. Biochar was aerated for 7 days in a container with a volume of 20 l. This way modified biochar had six times higher biomass production and reduce mineral nitrogen leaching. Better results have been achieved by mixing biochar with compost.

Keywords: leaching of nitrogen, soil, biochar, compost

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75 Cutting Tool-Life Test of Ceramic Insert for Engine Sleeve

Authors: Adam Janásek, Marek Pagáč

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The article is looking for an experimental determination of tool life tests for ceramic cutting inserts. Mentioned experimental determination should provide an added information about cutting process. The mechanism of tool wear, cutting temperature in machining, quality machined surface and machining process itself is the information, which are important for whole manufacturing process. Mainly, the roughness plays very important role in determining how a real object will interact with its environment. The main aim was to determine the number of machined inserts, tool life and micro-geometry, as well. On the basis of previous tests the tool-wear was measured at constant cutting parameter which is more typical for high volume manufacturing processes.

Keywords: ceramic, insert, machining, surface roughness, tool-life, tool-wear

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74 Effect of Superabsorbent for the Improvement of Car Seat's Thermal Comfort

Authors: Funda Buyuk Mazari, Adnan Mazari, Antonin Havelka, Jakub Wiener, Jawad Naeem

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The use of super absorbent polymers (SAP) for moisture absorption and comfort is still unexplored. In this research the efficiency of different SAP fibrous webs are determined under different moisture percentage to examine the sorption and desorption efficiency. The SAP fibrous web with low thickness and high moisture absorption are tested with multilayer sandwich structure of car seat cover to determine the moisture absorption through cover material. Sweating guarded hot plate (SGHP) from company Atlas is used to determine the moisture permeability of different car seat cover with superabsorbent layer closed with impermeable polyurethane foam. It is observed that the SAP fibrous layers are very effective in absorbing and desorbing water vapor under extreme high and low moisture percentages respectively. In extreme humid condition (95 %RH) the 20g of SAP layer absorbs nearly 3g of water vapor per hour and reaches the maximum absorption capacity in 6 hours.

Keywords: car seat, comfort, SAF, superabsorbent

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73 The Ratio of Second-to-Fourth Digit Length (2D:4D) and the Physical Ability in Men and Women

Authors: Marek Kociuba, Jarosław Kurek

Abstract:

Introduction: The digit length ratio (2D:4D) is generally higher in women compared to men. Lower 2D:4D is linked with greater physical ability, strength, and better sporting performance. Second-to-fourth digit lengths ratio (2D:4D) is an indicator of PT exposure. Lower 2D:4D indicates higher PT exposure and vice versa. Methods: The objectives of this paper were to investigate the relationship of 2D:4D with physical fitness in men and women. The study compared 137 female and 174 male students from Wrocław. Besides calculating 2D:4D for each hand, height and weight were also recorded. Assessment of physical fitness and endurance were performed through Eurofit tests. Handgrip strength was measured by a standardized isometric dynamometer. Results: Male participants had significantly lower 2D:4D than females on each hand. A weak relationship between 2D:4D and the results of strength tests was found.

Keywords: 2D:4D, physical fitness, prenatal testosterone, sexual dimorphism

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72 Influence of Replacement used Reference Coordinate System for Georeferencing of the Old Map of Europe

Authors: Jakub Havlicek, Jiri Cajthaml

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The article describes the effect of the replacement of the used reference coordinate system in the georeferencing of an old map of Europe. In particular, it was the map entitled “Europe, the Map of Rivers and Mountains on a 1 : 12 000 000 Scale”, elaborated by professor D. Cipera and Dr. J. Metelka for Otto’s Geographic Atlas of 1924. The work was most likely produced using the equal-area conic (Albers) projection. The map was georeferenced into three types of projection – the equal-area conic, cylindrical Plate Carrée and cylindrical Mercator map projection. The map was georeferenced by means of the affine and the second-order polynomial transformation. The resulting georeferenced raster datasets from the Plate Carrée and Mercator projection were projected into the equal-area conic projection by means of projection equations. The output is the comparison of drawn graphics, the magnitude of standard deviations for individual projections and types of transformation.

Keywords: georeferencing, reference coordinate system, transformation, standard deviation

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71 Plastic Deformation of Mg-Gd Solid Solutions between 4K and 298K

Authors: Anna Kula, Raja K. Mishra, Marek Niewczas

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Deformation behavior of Mg-Gd solid solutions have been studied by a combination of measurements of mechanical response, texture and dislocation substructure. Increase in Gd content strongly influences the work-hardening behavior and flow characteristics in tension and compression. Adiabatic instabilities have been observed in all alloys at 4K under both tension and compression. The frequency and the amplitude of adiabatic stress oscillations increase with Gd content. Profuse mechanical twinning has been observed under compression, resulting in a texture dominated by basal component parallel to the compression axis. Under tension, twining is less active and the texture evolution is affected mostly by slip. Increasing Gd concentration leads to the reduction of the tension and compression asymmetry due to weakening of the texture and stabilizing more homogenous twinning and slip, involving basal and non-basal slip systems.

Keywords: Mg-Gd alloys, mechanical properties, work hardening, twinning

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70 Lego Mindstorms as a Simulation of Robotic Systems

Authors: Miroslav Popelka, Jakub Nožička

Abstract:

In this paper we deal with using Lego Mindstorms in simulation of robotic systems with respect to cost reduction. Lego Mindstorms kit contains broad variety of hardware components which are required to simulate, program and test the robotics systems in practice. Algorithm programming went in development environment supplied together with Lego kit as in programming language C# as well. Algorithm following the line, which we dealt with in this paper, uses theoretical findings from area of controlling circuits. PID controller has been chosen as controlling circuit whose individual components were experimentally adjusted for optimal motion of robot tracking the line. Data which are determined to process by algorithm are collected by sensors which scan the interface between black and white surfaces followed by robot. Based on discovered facts Lego Mindstorms can be considered for low-cost and capable kit to simulate real robotics systems.

Keywords: LEGO Mindstorms, PID controller, low-cost robotics systems, line follower, sensors, programming language C#, EV3 Home Edition Software

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69 Application of Terminal Sliding Mode Control to the Stabilization of the Indoor Temperature in Buildings

Authors: Pawel Skruch, Marek Dlugosz

Abstract:

The paper starts with a general model of the temperature dynamics in buildings. The modelling approach relies on thermodynamics, in particular heat transfer, principles. The model considers heat loses by conduction and ventilation and internal heat gains. The parameters of the model can be determined uniquely from the geometry of the building and from thermal properties of construction materials. The model is presented using state space notation and this form is used in the control design procedure. A sliding surface is defined by the system output and the desired trajectory. The control law is designed to force the trajectory of the system from any initial condition to the sliding surface in finite time. The trajectory of the system after reaching the sliding surface remains on it. A simulation example is included to verify the approach and to demonstrate the achievable performance improvement by the proposed solution in the temperature control in buildings.

Keywords: modelling, building, temperature dynamics, sliding-mode control, sliding surface

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68 Pressure Losses on Realistic Geometry of Tracheobronchial Tree

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Jakub Elcner

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Real bronchial tree is very complicated piping system. Analysis of flow and pressure losses in this system is very difficult. Due to the complex geometry and the very small size in the lower generations is examination by CFD possible only in the central part of bronchial tree. For specify the pressure losses of lower generations is necessary to provide a mathematical equation. Determination of mathematical formulas for calculating the pressure losses in the real lungs is due to its complexity and diversity lengthy and inefficient process. For these calculations is necessary the lungs to slightly simplify (same cross-section over the length of individual generation) or use one of the models of lungs. The simplification could cause deviations from real values. The article compares the values of pressure losses obtained from CFD simulation of air flow in the central part of the real bronchial tree with the values calculated in a slightly simplified real lungs by using a mathematical relationship derived from the Bernoulli equation and continuity equation. Then, evaluate the desirability of using this formula to determine the pressure loss across the bronchial tree.

Keywords: pressure gradient, airways resistance, real geometry of bronchial tree, breathing

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67 2D-Modeling with Lego Mindstorms

Authors: Miroslav Popelka, Jakub Nozicka

Abstract:

The whole work is based on possibility to use Lego Mindstorms robotics systems to reduce costs. Lego Mindstorms consists of a wide variety of hardware components necessary to simulate, programme and test of robotics systems in practice. To programme algorithm, which simulates space using the ultrasonic sensor, was used development environment supplied with kit. Software Matlab was used to render values afterwards they were measured by ultrasonic sensor. The algorithm created for this paper uses theoretical knowledge from area of signal processing. Data being processed by algorithm are collected by ultrasonic sensor that scans 2D space in front of it. Ultrasonic sensor is placed on moving arm of robot which provides horizontal moving of sensor. Vertical movement of sensor is provided by wheel drive. The robot follows map in order to get correct positioning of measured data. Based on discovered facts it is possible to consider Lego Mindstorm for low-cost and capable kit for real-time modelling.

Keywords: LEGO Mindstorms, ultrasonic sensor, real-time modeling, 2D object, low-cost robotics systems, sensors, Matlab, EV3 Home Edition Software

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66 New Possibilities for Testing UX and UI Design on Mobile Devices

Authors: Jakub Berčík, Anna Mravcová, Jana Gálová, Katarína Neomániová

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In an era when everything is increasingly digital, consumers are always looking for new options in solutions to their everyday needs. In this context, mobile apps are developing at an exponential pace. One of the fastest growing segments of mobile technologies is, obviously, e-commerce. It can be predicted that mobile commerce will record nearly three times the global growth of e-commerce across all platforms, which indicates its importance in the given segment. The current coronavirus pandemic is also changing many of the existing paradigms both socially, economically, and technologically, which has a major impact on changing consumer behaviour and the emphasis on simplification and clarity of mobile solutions. This is the area that user experience (UX) and user interface (UI) designers deal with. Their task is to design a sufficiently attractive and interesting solution that will be available on all mobile devices and at the same time will be easy enough for the customer/visitor to get to the destination or to get the necessary information in a few clicks. The basis for changes in UX design can now be obtained not only through online analytical tools but also through neuromarketing, especially in the case of mobile devices. The paper highlights new possibilities for testing UX design applications on mobile devices using a special platform that combines a stationary eye camera (eye tracking) and facial analysis (facial coding).

Keywords: emotions, mobile design, user experience, visual attention

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65 Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Inducing Coastal Upwelling in the Baltic Sea

Authors: Ewa Bednorz, Marek Polrolniczak, Bartosz Czernecki, Arkadiusz Marek Tomczyk

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This study is meant as a contribution to the research of the upwelling phenomenon, which is one of the most pronounced examples of the sea-atmosphere coupling. The aim is to confirm the atmospheric forcing of the sea waters circulation and sea surface temperature along the variously oriented Baltic Sea coasts and to find out macroscale and regional circulation patterns triggering upwelling along different sections of this relatively small and semi-closed sea basin. The mean daily sea surface temperature data from the summer seasons (June–August) of the years 1982–2017 made the basis for the detection of upwelling cases. For the atmospheric part of the analysis, monthly indices of the Northern Hemisphere macroscale circulation patterns were used. Besides, in order to identify the local direction of airflow, the daily zonal and meridional regional circulation indices were constructed and introduced to the analysis. Finally, daily regional circulation patterns over the Baltic Sea region were distinguished by applying the principal component analysis to the gridded mean daily sea level pressure data. Within the Baltic Sea, upwelling is the most frequent along the zonally oriented northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, southern coasts of Sweden, and along the middle part of the western Gulf of Bothnia coast. Among the macroscale circulation patterns, the Scandinavian type (SCAND), with a primary circulation center located over Scandinavia, has the strongest impact on the horizontal flow of surface sea waters in the Baltic Sea, which triggers upwelling. An anticyclone center over Scandinavia in the positive phase of SCAND enhances the eastern airflow, which increases upwelling frequency along southeastern Baltic coasts. It was proved in the study that the zonal circulation has a stronger impact on upwelling occurrence than the meridional one, and it could increase/decrease a chance of upwelling formation by more than 70% in some coastal sections. Positive and negative phases of six distinguished regional daily circulation patterns made 12 different synoptic situations which were analyzed in the terms of their influence on the upwelling formation. Each of them revealed some impact on the frequency of upwelling in some coastal section of the Baltic Sea; however, two kinds of synoptic situations seemed to have the strongest influence, namely, the first kind representing pressure patterns enhancing the zonal flow and the second kind representing synoptic patterns with a cyclone/anticyclone centers over southern Scandinavia. Upwelling occurrence appeared to be particularly strongly reliant on the atmospheric conditions in some specific coastal sections, namely: the Gulf of Finland, the south eastern Baltic coasts (Polish and Latvian-Lithuanian section), and the western part of the Gulf of Bothnia. Concluding, it can be stated that atmospheric conditions strongly control the occurrence of upwelling within the Baltic Sea basin. Both local and macroscale circulation patterns expressed by the location of the pressure centers influence the frequency of this phenomenon; however, the impact strength varies, depending on the coastal region. Acknowledgment: This research was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland, grant number 2016/21/B/ST10/01440.

Keywords: Baltic Sea, circulation patterns, coastal upwelling, synoptic conditions

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64 Analyzing the Use of Augmented Reality and Image Recognition in Cultural Education: Use Case of Sintra Palace Treasure Hunt Application

Authors: Marek Maruszczak

Abstract:

Gamified applications have been used successfully in education for years. The rapid development of technologies such as augmented reality and image recognition increases their availability and reduces their prices. Thus, there is an increasing possibility and need for a wide use of such applications in education. The main purpose of this article is to present the effects of work on a mobile application with augmented reality, the aim of which is to motivate tourists to pay more attention to the attractions and increase the likelihood of moving from one attraction to the next while visiting the Palácio Nacional de Sintra in Portugal. Work on the application was carried out together with the employees of Parques de Sintra from 2019 to 2021. Their effect was the preparation of a mobile application using augmented reality and image recognition. The application was tested on the palace premises by both Parques de Sintra employees and tourists visiting Palácio Nacional de Sintra. The collected conclusions allowed for the formulation of good practices and guidelines that can be used when designing gamified apps for the purpose of cultural education.

Keywords: augmented reality, cultural education, gamification, image recognition, mobile games

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63 Effect of PGPB Inoculation, Addition of Biochar and Mineral N Fertilization on Mycorrhizal Colonization

Authors: Irina Mikajlo, Jaroslav Záhora, Helena Dvořáčková, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jakub Elbl

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Strong anthropogenic impact has uncontrolled consequences on the nature of the soil. Hence, up-to-date sustainable methods of soil state improvement are essential. Investigators provide the evidence that biochar can positively effects physical, chemical and biological soil properties and the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi which are in the focus of this study. The main aim of the present investigation is to demonstrate the effect of two types of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) inoculums along with the beech wood biochar and mineral N additives on mycorrhizal colonization. Experiment has been set up in laboratory conditions with containers filled with arable soil from the protection zone of the main water source ‘Brezova nad Svitavou’. Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been selected as a model plant. Based on the obtained data, it can be concluded that mycorrhizal colonization increased as the result of combined influence of biochar and PGPB inoculums amendment. In addition, correlation analyses showed that the numbers of main groups of cultivated bacteria were dependent on the degree of mycorrhizal colonization.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza, biochar, PGPB inoculum, soil microorganisms

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62 Atmospheric Fluid Bed Gasification of Different Biomass Fuels

Authors: Martin Lisý, Marek Baláš, Michal Špiláček, Zdeněk Skála

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This paper shortly describes biomass types and growing amount in the Czech Republic. The considerable part of this paper deals with energy parameters of the most frequent utilizing biomass types and results of their gasification testing. There was chosen sixteen the most exploited "Czech" woody plants and grasses. There were determinated raw, element and biochemical analysis, basic calorimetric values, ash composition and ash characteristic temperatures. After that, each biofuel was tested by fluid bed gasification. The essential part of this paper yields results of chosen biomass types gasification experiments. Partly, there are described an operating conditions in detail with accentuation of individual fuels particularities partly, there is summarized gas composition and impurities content. The essential difference was determined mainly between woody plants and grasses both from point of view of the operating conditions and gas quality. The woody plants was evaluated as more suitable fuels for fluid bed gasifiers. This results will be able to significantly help with decision which energy plants are suitable for growing or with optimal biomass-treatment technology selection.

Keywords: biomass growing, biomass types, gasification, biomass fuels

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