Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Lucy Kimball

20 Optimal Hedging of a Portfolio of European Options in an Extended Binomial Model under Proportional Transaction Costs

Authors: Victoria Steblovskaya, Norm Josephy, Lucy Kimball

Abstract:

Hedging of a portfolio of European options under proportional transaction costs is considered. Our discrete time financial market model extends the binomial market model with transaction costs to the case where the underlying stock price ratios are distributed over a bounded interval rather than over a two-point set. An optimal hedging strategy is chosen from a set of admissible non-self-financing hedging strategies. Our approach to optimal hedging of a portfolio of options is based on theoretical foundation that includes determination of a no-arbitrage option price interval as well as on properties of the non-self-financing strategies and their residuals. A computational algorithm for optimizing an investor relevant criterion over the set of admissible non-self-financing hedging strategies is developed. Applicability of our approach is demonstrated using both simulated data and real market data.

Keywords: Optimization, extended binomial model, non-self-financing hedging, proportional transaction costs

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19 Business Intelligence for Profiling of Telecommunication Customer

Authors: Rokhmatul Insani, Hira Laksmiwati Soemitro

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Business Intelligence is a methodology that exploits the data to produce information and knowledge systematically, business intelligence can support the decision-making process. Some methods in business intelligence are data warehouse and data mining. A data warehouse can store historical data from transactional data. For data modelling in data warehouse, we apply dimensional modelling by Kimball. While data mining is used to extracting patterns from the data and get insight from the data. Data mining has many techniques, one of which is segmentation. For profiling of telecommunication customer, we use customer segmentation according to customer’s usage of services, customer invoice and customer payment. Customers can be grouped according to their characteristics and can be identified the profitable customers. We apply K-Means Clustering Algorithm for segmentation. The input variable for that algorithm we use RFM (Recency, Frequency and Monetary) model. All process in data mining, we use tools IBM SPSS modeller.

Keywords: Data Mining, Business Intelligence, data warehouse, customer segmentation

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18 Parameter Estimation with Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for the SARS Outbreak in Hong Kong

Authors: Afia Naheed, Manmohan Singh, David Lucy

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This work is based on a mathematical as well as statistical study of an SEIJTR deterministic model for the interpretation of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Based on the SARS epidemic in 2003, the parameters are estimated using Runge-Kutta (Dormand-Prince pairs) and least squares methods. Possible graphical and numerical techniques are used to validate the estimates. Then effect of the model parameters on the dynamics of the disease is examined using sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Sensitivity and uncertainty analytical techniques are used in order to analyze the affect of the uncertainty in the obtained parameter estimates and to determine which parameters have the largest impact on controlling the disease dynamics.

Keywords: Infectious Disease, Uncertainty analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, Parameter Estimation, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Runge-Kutta methods, Levenberg-Marquardt method

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17 Estimating Marine Tidal Power Potential in Kenya

Authors: Lucy Patricia Onundo, Wilfred Njoroge Mwema

Abstract:

The rapidly diminishing fossil fuel reserves, their exorbitant cost and the increasingly apparent negative effect of fossil fuels to climate changes is a wake-up call to explore renewable energy. Wind, bio-fuel and solar power have already become staples of Kenyan electricity mix. The potential of electric power generation from marine tidal currents is enormous, with oceans covering more than 70% of the earth. However, attempts to harness marine tidal energy in Kenya, has yet to be studied thoroughly due to its promising, cyclic, reliable and predictable nature and the vast energy contained within it. The high load factors resulting from the fluid properties and the predictable resource characteristics make marine currents particularly attractive for power generation and advantageous when compared to others. Global-level resource assessments and oceanographic literature and data have been compiled in an analysis of the technology-specific requirements for tidal energy technologies and the physical resources. Temporal variations in resource intensity as well as the differences between small-scale applications are considered.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Tidal Power, Energy Assessment, Kenya

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16 Detection of Image Blur and Its Restoration for Image Enhancement

Authors: M. Z. Kurian, M. V. Chidananda Murthy, H. S. Guruprasad

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Image restoration in the process of communication is one of the emerging fields in the image processing. The motion analysis processing is the simplest case to detect motion in an image. Applications of motion analysis widely spread in many areas such as surveillance, remote sensing, film industry, navigation of autonomous vehicles, etc. The scene may contain multiple moving objects, by using motion analysis techniques the blur caused by the movement of the objects can be enhanced by filling-in occluded regions and reconstruction of transparent objects, and it also removes the motion blurring. This paper presents the design and comparison of various motion detection and enhancement filters. Median filter, Linear image deconvolution, Inverse filter, Pseudoinverse filter, Wiener filter, Lucy Richardson filter and Blind deconvolution filters are used to remove the blur. In this work, we have considered different types and different amount of blur for the analysis. Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ration (PSNR) are used to evaluate the performance of the filters. The designed system has been implemented in Matlab software and tested for synthetic and real-time images.

Keywords: Motion Analysis, Motion Detection, Image Enhancement, Motion Estimation

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15 The Impact of Corporate Governance, Ownership Structure, and Cash Holdings on Firm Value with Profitability as Intervening Variable

Authors: Lucy Novianti

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The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of corporate governance, ownership structure, and cash holdings on firm value, either direct or indirect through profitability as an intervening variable for non-financial companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2014. Samples of 176 firms are chosen based on purposive sampling method. The results of this study conclude that profitability, the size of Audit Committee, audit quality, and cash flow have positive effects on firm value. This study also shows that the meeting frequency of the Board of Directors and free cash flow have negative effects on firm value. In addition, this study finds that the size of the Board of Directors, Independent Commissioner, and ownership structure do not have significant effects on firm value. In this study, the function of profitability as an intervening variable can only be done on the impact of the meeting frequency of the Board of Directors and cash flow on firm value. This study provides a reference for management in decision making concerning the application of corporate governance, cash holdings, and financial performance. Moreover, it can be used as additional information for investors in assessing the feasibility of an investment. Finally, it provides a suggestion for the government regarding the regulation of corporate governance.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Profitability, firm value, ownership structure, cash holdings

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14 Assessment of Tidal Current Energy Potential at LAMU and Mombasa in Kenya

Authors: Lucy Patricia Onundo, Wilfred Njoroge Mwema

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The tidal power potential available for electricity generation from Mombasa and Lamu sites in Kenya will be examined. Several African countries in the Western Indian Ocean endure insufficiencies in the power sector, including both generation and distribution. One important step towards increasing energy security and availability is to intensify the use of renewable energy sources. The access to cost-efficient hydropower is low in Mombasa and Lamu hence Ocean energy will play an important role. Global-Level resource assessments and oceanographic literature and data have been compiled in an analysis between technology-specific requirements for ocean energy technologies (salinity, tide, tidal current, wave, Ocean thermal energy conversion, wind and solar) and the physical resources in Lamu and Mombasa. The potential for tide and tidal current power is more restricted but may be of interest at some locations. The theoretical maximum power produced over a tidal cycle is determined by the product of the forcing tide and the undisturbed volumetric flow-rate. The extraction of the maximum power reduces the flow-rate, but a significant portion of the maximum power can be extracted with little change to the tidal dynamics. Two-dimensional finite-element, numerical simulations designed and developed agree with the theory. Temporal variations in resource intensity, as well as the differences between small-scale and large-scale applications, are considered.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy Assessment, marine tidal power, tidal dynamics

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13 The Design of Safe Spaces in Healthcare Facilities Vulnerable to Tornado Impact in Central US

Authors: Lucy Ampaw-Asiedu, Terri R. Norton

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In the wake of recent disasters happening around the world such as earthquake in Italy (January, 2017); hurricanes in the United States (US) (September 2016 and September 2017); and compounding disasters in Haiti (September 2010 and September 2016); to our best knowledge, never has the world seen the need to work on preemptive rather than reactionary measures to salvage this situation than now. Tornadoes are natural hazards that mostly affect mid-western and central states in the US. Tornadoes, like all natural hazards such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods and others, are very destructive and result in massive destruction to homes, cause billions of dollars in damage and claims many lives. Healthcare facilities in general are vulnerable to disasters, and therefore, the safety of patients, health workers and those who come in to seek shelter should be a priority. The focus of this study is to assess disaster management measures instituted by healthcare facilities. Thus, the sole aim of the study is to examine the vulnerabilities and the design of safe spaces in healthcare facilities in Central US. Objectives that guide the study are to primarily identify the impacts of tornadoes in hospitals and to assess the structural design or specifications of safe spaces. St. John’s Regional Medical Center, now Mercy Hospital in Joplin, is used as a case study. Preliminary results show that the lateral base shear of the proposed design to be 684.24 ton (1508.49kip) for the safe space. Findings from this work will be used to make recommendations about the design of safe spaces for health care facilities in Central US.

Keywords: Disaster Management, Structural Design, Vulnerability, tornado, safe spaces

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12 Women in Higher Education in Nigeria: A Panacea for Developmental Growth

Authors: Lucy Adesomon Okukpon, Margaret Omolara Akerele

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Higher Education in Nigeria is sought after by women, they believe that the economic power and growth lies in the attainment and pursuit of higher Education. No nation in the world can boast of developmental growth when the women are not fully empowered educationally. The attainment of higher education spurs women to contribute meaningfully towards the growth and development of the Nigerian workforce. Recent innovations and trends reveal that over fifty per cent of Nigerian women have attained higher education within and outside the country. Women in Nigeria have expressed their growing concern of what becomes of the remaining 50 per cent who are unable to attain basic education. This concern has brought about the issue of funding which is a practical challenge towards the attainment of education for these vulnerable women. Another challenging factor is that most women often seek the permission of their husbands, brothers, fathers and uncles to enable them attain educational pursuit, especially when the institution is miles away from their place of abode. The solution to this problems from research findings reveal that the umbrella body which co-ordinates education for women in Nigeria (The National Council of Women Societies, NCWS) have taken it upon itself to provide educational learning centres in all the states of the Federation including Abuja the Nations capital city. This is to stem the ugly trend and enable women gain access to educational facilities provided for their growth and development. This positive stride has brought succour to women who hitherto have no hope of attaining any form of education. Moreover, awareness creation concerning higher education is translated into different Nigerian languages so that the women at the grassroots can benefit immensely and contribute towards the growth and development of the Nation. Their educational progress attest to the fact that Nigerian Women are happy for the educational opportunities provided and have vowed to attain greater heights particularly where higher education is concerned.

Keywords: Higher Education, Nigeria, developmental growth, educational attainment, women in higher education

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11 Disclosing a Patriarchal Society: A Socio-Legal Study on the Indigenous Women's Involvement in Natural Resources Management in Kasepuhan Cirompang

Authors: Irena Lucy Ishimora, Eva Maria Putri Salsabila

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The constellation on Indonesian Legal System that varies shows a structural injustice – as a result of patriarchy – exists from the biggest range as a country to the smallest such as a family. Women in their lives, carry out excessive responsibilities in the community. However, the unequal positions between men and women in the society restrain women to fulfill their constructed role. Therefore, increasing the chance for women to become the victim of structural injustice. The lack of authority given to women and its effects can be seen through a case study of the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s involvement in natural resources management. The decision to make the Mount Halimun-Salak as a National Park and the expansion itself did not involve nor consider the existence of indigenous people (Kasepuhan Ciromopang) – especially the women’s experience regarding natural resources management – has been significantly impacting the fulfillment of the indigenous women’s rights. Moreover, the adat law that still reflects patriarchy, made matters worse because women are restricted from expressing their opinion. The writers explored the experience of Cirompang indigenous women through in-depth interviews with them and analyzed it with several theories such as ecofeminism, woman’s access to land and legal pluralism. This paper is important to show how the decision and expansion of the National Park reduced the rights of access to land, natural resources, expressing an opinion, and participating in development. Reflecting on the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s conditions on natural resources management, this paper aims to present the implications of the regulations that do not acknowledge Indigenous women’s experience and the proposed solutions. First, there should be an integration between the law regarding indigenous people and traditional rights in a regulation to align the understanding of indigenous people and their rights. Secondly, Indonesia as a country that’s rich with diversity should ratify the ILO Convention no 169 to reaffirm the protection of Indigenous people’s rights. Last, considering the position of indigenous women that still experienced unjustness in the community, the government and NGOs must collaborate to provide adequate assistance for them.

Keywords: Cirompang indigenous women, indigenous women’s rights, structural injustice, women access to land

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10 Predictive Relationship between Motivation Strategies and Musical Creativity of Secondary School Music Students

Authors: Lucy Lugo Mawang

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Educational Psychologists have highlighted the significance of creativity in education. Likewise, a fundamental objective of music education concern the development of students’ musical creativity potential. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between motivation strategies and musical creativity, and establish the prediction equation of musical creativity. The study used purposive sampling and census to select 201 fourth-form music students (139 females/ 62 males), mainly from public secondary schools in Kenya. The mean age of participants was 17.24 years (SD = .78). Framed upon self- determination theory and the dichotomous model of achievement motivation, the study adopted an ex post facto research design. A self-report measure, the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) was used in data collection for the independent variable. Musical creativity was based on a creative music composition task and measured by the Consensual Musical Creativity Assessment Scale (CMCAS). Data collected in two separate sessions within an interval of one month. The questionnaire was administered in the first session, lasting approximately 20 minutes. The second session was for notation of participants’ creative composition. The results indicated a positive correlation r(199) = .39, p ˂ .01 between musical creativity and intrinsic music motivation. Conversely, negative correlation r(199) = -.19, p < .01 was observed between musical creativity and extrinsic music motivation. The equation for predicting musical creativity from music motivation strategies was significant F(2, 198) = 20.8, p < .01, with R2 = .17. Motivation strategies accounted for approximately (17%) of the variance in participants’ musical creativity. Intrinsic music motivation had the highest significant predictive value (β = .38, p ˂ .01) on musical creativity. In the exploratory analysis, a significant mean difference t(118) = 4.59, p ˂ .01 in musical creativity for intrinsic and extrinsic music motivation was observed in favour of intrinsically motivated participants. Further, a significant gender difference t(93.47) = 4.31, p ˂ .01 in musical creativity was observed, with male participants scoring higher than females. However, there was no significant difference in participants’ musical creativity based on age. The study recommended that music educators should strive to enhance intrinsic music motivation among students. Specifically, schools should create conducive environments and have interventions for the development of intrinsic music motivation since it is the most facilitative motivation strategy in predicting musical creativity.

Keywords: music composition, extrinsic music motivation, intrinsic music motivation, musical creativity

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9 The Physical and Physiological Profile of Professional Muay Thai Boxers

Authors: Lucy Horrobin, Rebecca Fores

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Background: Muay Thai is an increasingly popular combat sport worldwide. Further academic research in the sport will contribute to its professional development. This research sought to produce normative data in relation to the physical and physiological characteristics of professional Muay Thai boxers, as, currently no such data exists. The ultimate aim being to inform appropriate training programs and to facilitate coaching. Methods: N = 9 professional, adult, male Muay Thai boxers were assessed for the following anthropometric, physical and physiological characteristics, using validated methods of assessment: body fat, hamstring flexibility, maximal dynamic upper body strength, lower limb peak power, upper body muscular endurance and aerobic capacity. Raw data scores were analysed for mean, range and SD and where applicable were expressed relative to body mass (BM). Results: Results showed similar characteristics to those found in other combat sports. Low percentages of body fat (mean±SD) 8.54 ± 1.16 allow for optimal power to weight ratios. Highly developed aerobic capacity (mean ±SD) 61.56 ± 5.13 ml.min.kg facilitate recovery and power maintenance throughout bouts. Lower limb peak power output values of (mean ± SD) 12.60 ± 2.09 W/kg indicate that Muay Thai boxers are amongst the most powerful of combat sport athletes. However, maximal dynamic upper body strength scores of (mean±SD) 1.14 kg/kg ± 0.18 were in only the 60th percentile of normative data for the general population and muscular endurance scores (mean±SD) 31.55 ± 11.95 and flexibility scores (mean±SD) 19.55 ± 11.89 cm expressed wide standard deviation. These results might suggest that these characteristics are insignificant in Muay Thai or under-developed, perhaps due to deficient training programs. Implications: This research provides the first normative data of physical and physiological characteristics of Muay Thai boxers. The findings of this study would aid trainers and coaches when designing effective evidence-based training programs. Furthermore, it provides a foundation for further research relating to physiology in Muay Thai. Areas of further study could be determining the physiological demands of a full rules bout and the effects of evidence-based training programs on performance.

Keywords: Physiology, Strength and Conditioning, Muay Thai, fitness testing

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8 Destigmatising Generalised Anxiety Disorder: The Differential Effects of Causal Explanations on Stigma

Authors: John McDowall, Lucy Lightfoot

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Stigma constitutes a significant barrier to the recovery and social integration of individuals affected by mental illness. Although there is some debate in the literature regarding the definition and utility of stigma as a concept, it is widely accepted that it comprises three components: stereotypical beliefs, prejudicial reactions, and discrimination. Stereotypical beliefs describe the cognitive knowledge-based component of stigma, referring to beliefs (often negative) about members of a group that is based on cultural and societal norms (e.g. ‘People with anxiety are just weak’). Prejudice refers to the affective/evaluative component of stigma and describes the endorsement of negative stereotypes and the resulting negative emotional reactions (e.g. ‘People with anxiety are just weak, and they frustrate me’). Discrimination refers to the behavioural component of stigma, which is arguably the most problematic, as it exerts a direct effect on the stigmatized person and may lead people to behave in a hostile or avoidant way towards them (i.e. refusal to hire them). Research exploring anti-stigma initiatives focus primarily on an educational approach, with the view that accurate information will replace misconceptions and decrease stigma. Many approaches take a biogenetic stance, emphasising brain and biochemical deficits - the idea being that ‘mental illness is an illness like any other.' While this approach tends to effectively reduce blame, it has also demonstrated negative effects such as increasing prognostic pessimism, the desire for social distance and perceptions of stereotypes. In the present study 144 participants were split into three groups and read one of three vignettes presenting causal explanations for Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD): One explanation emphasized biogenetic factors as being important in the etiology of GAD, another emphasised psychosocial factors (e.g. aversive life events, poverty, etc.), and a third stressed the adaptive features of the disorder from an evolutionary viewpoint. A variety of measures tapping the various components of stigma were administered following the vignettes. No difference in stigma measures as a function of causal explanation was found. People who had contact with mental illness in the past were significantly less stigmatising across a wide range of measures, but this did not interact with the type of causal explanation.

Keywords: Discrimination, Prejudice, stigma, generalised anxiety disorder

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7 A Service Evaluation Exploring the Effectiveness of a Tier 3 Weight Management Programme Offering Face-To-Face and Remote Dietetic Support

Authors: Rosemary E. Huntriss, Lucy Jones

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Obesity and excess weight continue to be significant health problems in England. Traditional weight management programmes offer face-to-face support or group education. Remote care is recognised as a viable means of support; however, its effectiveness has not previously been evaluated in a tier 3 weight management setting. This service evaluation explored the effectiveness of online coaching, telephone support, and face-to-face support as optional management strategies within a tier 3 weight management programme. Outcome data were collected for adults with a BMI ≥ 45 or ≥ 40 with complex comorbidity who were referred to a Tier 3 weight management programme from January 2018 and had been discharged before October 2018. Following an initial 45-minute consultation with a specialist weight management dietitian, patients were offered a choice of follow-up support in the form of online coaching supported by an app (8 x 15 minutes coaching), face-to-face or telephone appointments (4 x 30 minutes). All patients were invited to a final 30-minute face-to-face assessment. The planned intervention time was between 12 and 24 weeks. Patients were offered access to adjunct face-to-face or telephone psychological support. One hundred and thirty-nine patients were referred into the programme from January 2018 and discharged before October 2018. One hundred and twenty-four patients (89%) attended their initial assessment. Out of those who attended their initial assessment, 110 patients (88.0%) completed more than half of the programme and 77 patients (61.6%) completed all sessions. The average length of the completed programme (all sessions) was 17.2 (SD 4.2) weeks. Eighty-five (68.5%) patients were coached online, 28 (22.6%) patients were supported face-to-face support, and 11 (8.9%) chose telephone support. Two patients changed from online coaching to face-to-face support due to personal preference and were included in the face-to-face group for analysis. For those with data available (n=106), average weight loss across the programme was 4.85 (SD 3.49)%; average weight loss was 4.70 (SD 3.19)% for online coaching, 4.83 (SD 4.13)% for face-to-face support, and 6.28 (SD 4.15)% for telephone support. There was no significant difference between weight loss achieved with face-to-face vs. online coaching (4.83 (SD 4.13)% vs 4.70 (SD 3.19) (p=0.87) or face-to-face vs. remote support (online coaching and telephone support combined) (4.83 (SD 4.13)% vs 4.85 (SD 3.30)%) (p=0.98). Remote support has been shown to be as effective as face-to-face support provided by a dietitian in the short-term within a tier 3 weight management setting. The completion rates were high compared with another tier 3 weight management services suggesting that offering remote support as an option may improve completion rates within a weight management service.

Keywords: Obesity, Weight Management, Digital Health, dietitian

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6 Personalized Infectious Disease Risk Prediction System: A Knowledge Model

Authors: Retno A. Vinarti, Lucy M. Hederman

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This research describes a knowledge model for a system which give personalized alert to users about infectious disease risks in the context of weather, location and time. The knowledge model is based on established epidemiological concepts augmented by information gleaned from infection-related data repositories. The existing disease risk prediction research has more focuses on utilizing raw historical data and yield seasonal patterns of infectious disease risk emergence. This research incorporates both data and epidemiological concepts gathered from Atlas of Human Infectious Disease (AHID) and Centre of Disease Control (CDC) as basic reasoning of infectious disease risk prediction. Using CommonKADS methodology, the disease risk prediction task is an assignment synthetic task, starting from knowledge identification through specification, refinement to implementation. First, knowledge is gathered from AHID primarily from the epidemiology and risk group chapters for each infectious disease. The result of this stage is five major elements (Person, Infectious Disease, Weather, Location and Time) and their properties. At the knowledge specification stage, the initial tree model of each element and detailed relationships are produced. This research also includes a validation step as part of knowledge refinement: on the basis that the best model is formed using the most common features, Frequency-based Selection (FBS) is applied. The portion of the Infectious Disease risk model relating to Person comes out strongest, with Location next, and Weather weaker. For Person attribute, Age is the strongest, Activity and Habits are moderate, and Blood type is weakest. At the Location attribute, General category (e.g. continents, region, country, and island) results much stronger than Specific category (i.e. terrain feature). For Weather attribute, Less Precise category (i.e. season) comes out stronger than Precise category (i.e. exact temperature or humidity interval). However, given that some infectious diseases are significantly more serious than others, a frequency based metric may not be appropriate. Future work will incorporate epidemiological measurements of disease seriousness (e.g. odds ratio, hazard ratio and fatality rate) into the validation metrics. This research is limited to modelling existing knowledge about epidemiology and chain of infection concepts. Further step, verification in knowledge refinement stage, might cause some minor changes on the shape of tree.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Infectious Disease, Risk, knowledge modelling, prediction

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5 The Association between Prior Antibiotic Use and Subsequent Risk of Infectious Disease: A Systematic Review

Authors: Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White

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Introduction: The microbiota lining epithelial surfaces is thought to play an important role in many human physiological functions including defense against pathogens and modulation of immune response. The microbiota is susceptible to disruption from external influences such as exposure to antibiotic medication. It is thought that antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota could predispose to pathogen overgrowth and invasion. We hypothesized that antibiotic use would be associated with increased risk of future infections. We carried out a systematic review of evidence of associations between antibiotic use and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature for observational studies assessing the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection. Eligible studies were published before April 29th, 2016. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science and screened titles and abstracts using a predefined search strategy. Infections caused by Clostridium difficile, drug-resistant organisms and fungal organisms were excluded as their association with prior antibiotic use has been examined in previous systematic reviews. Results: Eighteen out of 21,518 retrieved studies met the inclusion criteria. The association between past antibiotic exposure and subsequent increased risk of infection was reported in 16 studies, including one study on Campylobacter jejuni infection (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.3), two on typhoid fever (ORs 5.7 and 12.2), one on Staphylococcus aureus skin infection (OR 2.9), one on invasive pneumococcal disease (OR 1.57), one on recurrent furunculosis (OR 16.6), one on recurrent boils and abscesses (Risk ratio 1.4), one on upper respiratory tract infection (OR 2.3) and urinary tract infection (OR 1.1), one on invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection (OR 1.51), one on infectious mastitis (OR 5.38), one on meningitis (OR 2.04) and five on Salmonella enteric infection (ORs 1.4, 1.59, 1.9, 2.3 and 3.8). The effect size in three studies on Salmonella enteric infection was of marginal statistical significance. A further two studies on Salmonella infection did not demonstrate a statistically significant association between prior antibiotic exposure and subsequent infection. Conclusion: We have found an association between past antibiotic exposure and subsequent risk of a diverse range of infections in the community setting. Our findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that prior antibiotic usage may predispose to future infection risk, possibly through antibiotic-induced alteration of the microbiota. The findings add further weight to calls to minimize inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions.

Keywords: Infection, Antibiotic, risk factor, side effect

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4 Exploring the Motivations That Drive Paper Use in Clinical Practice Post-Electronic Health Record Adoption: A Nursing Perspective

Authors: Sinead Impey, Gaye Stephens, Lucy Hederman, Declan O'Sullivan

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Continued paper use in the clinical area post-Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption is regularly linked to hardware and software usability challenges. Although paper is used as a workaround to circumvent challenges, including limited availability of a computer, this perspective does not consider the important role paper, such as the nurses’ handover sheet, play in practice. The purpose of this study is to confirm the hypothesis that paper use post-EHR adoption continues as paper provides both a cognitive tool (that assists with workflow) and a compensation tool (to circumvent usability challenges). Distinguishing the different motivations for continued paper-use could assist future evaluations of electronic record systems. Methods: Qualitative data were collected from three clinical care environments (ICU, general ward and specialist day-care) who used an electronic record for at least 12 months. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 22 nurses. Data were transcribed, themes extracted using an inductive bottom-up coding approach and a thematic index constructed. Findings: All nurses interviewed continued to use paper post-EHR adoption. While two distinct motivations for paper use post-EHR adoption were confirmed by the data - paper as a cognitive tool and paper as a compensation tool - further finding was that there was an overlap between the two uses. That is, paper used as a compensation tool could also be adapted to function as a cognitive aid due to its nature (easy to access and annotate) or vice versa. Rather than present paper persistence as having two distinctive motivations, it is more useful to describe it as presenting on a continuum with compensation tool and cognitive tool at either pole. Paper as a cognitive tool referred to pages such as nurses’ handover sheet. These did not form part of the patient’s record, although information could be transcribed from one to the other. Findings suggest that although the patient record was digitised, handover sheets did not fall within this remit. These personal pages continued to be useful post-EHR adoption for capturing personal notes or patient information and so continued to be incorporated into the nurses’ work. Comparatively, the paper used as a compensation tool, such as pre-printed care plans which were stored in the patient's record, appears to have been instigated in reaction to usability challenges. In these instances, it is expected that paper use could reduce or cease when the underlying problem is addressed. There is a danger that as paper affords nurses a temporary information platform that is mobile, easy to access and annotate, its use could become embedded in clinical practice. Conclusion: Paper presents a utility to nursing, either as a cognitive or compensation tool or combination of both. By fully understanding its utility and nuances, organisations can avoid evaluating all incidences of paper use (post-EHR adoption) as arising from usability challenges. Instead, suitable remedies for paper-persistence can be targeted at the root cause.

Keywords: nurse, electronic record, cognitive tool, compensation tool, handover sheet, paper persistence

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3 A Sustainable Training and Feedback Model for Developing the Teaching Capabilities of Sessional Academic Staff

Authors: Nirmani Wijenayake, Louise Lutze-Mann, Lucy Jo, John Wilson, Vivian Yeung, Dean Lovett, Kim Snepvangers

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Sessional academic staff at universities have the most influence and impact on student learning, engagement, and experience as they have the most direct contact with undergraduate students. A blended technology-enhanced program was created for the development and support of sessional staff to ensure adequate training is provided to deliver quality educational outcomes for the students. This program combines innovative mixed media educational modules, a peer-driven support forum, and face-to-face workshops to provide a comprehensive training and support package for staff. Additionally, the program encourages the development of learning communities and peer mentoring among the sessional staff to enhance their support system. In 2018, the program was piloted on 100 sessional staff in the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences to evaluate the effectiveness of this model. As part of the program, rotoscope animations were developed to showcase ‘typical’ interactions between staff and students. These were designed around communication, confidence building, consistency in grading, feedback, diversity awareness, and mental health and wellbeing. When surveyed, 86% of sessional staff found these animations to be helpful in their teaching. An online platform (Moodle) was set up to disseminate educational resources and teaching tips, to host a discussion forum for peer-to-peer communication and to increase critical thinking and problem-solving skills through scenario-based lessons. The learning analytics from these lessons were essential in identifying difficulties faced by sessional staff to further develop supporting workshops to improve outcomes related to teaching. The face-to-face professional development workshops were run by expert guest speakers on topics such as cultural diversity, stress and anxiety, LGBTIQ and student engagement. All the attendees of the workshops found them to be useful and 88% said they felt these workshops increase interaction with their peers and built a sense of community. The final component of the program was to use an adaptive e-learning platform to gather feedback from the students on sessional staff teaching twice during the semester. The initial feedback provides sessional staff with enough time to reflect on their teaching and adjust their performance if necessary, to improve the student experience. The feedback from students and the sessional staff on this model has been extremely positive. The training equips the sessional staff with knowledge and insights which can provide students with an exceptional learning environment. This program is designed in a flexible and scalable manner so that other faculties or institutions could adapt components for their own training. It is anticipated that the training and support would help to build the next generation of educators who will directly impact the educational experience of students.

Keywords: Professional Development, Implementing Effective Strategies, Designing Effective Instruction, enhancing student learning

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2 Preliminary Study Investigating Trunk Muscle Fatigue and Cognitive Function in Event Riders during a Simulated Jumping Test

Authors: Alice Carter, Lucy Dumbell, Lorna Cameron, Victoria Lewis

Abstract:

The Olympic discipline of eventing is the triathlon of equestrian sport, consisting of dressage, cross-country and show jumping. Falls on the cross-country are common and can be serious even causing death to rider. Research identifies an increased risk of a fall with an increasing number of obstacles and for jumping efforts later in the course suggesting fatigue maybe a contributing factor. Advice based on anecdotal evidence suggests riders undertake strength and conditioning programs to improve their ‘core’, thus improving their ability to maintain and control their riding position. There is little empirical evidence to support this advice. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate truck muscle fatigue and cognitive function during a simulated jumping test. Eight adult riders participated in a riding test on a Racewood Event simulator for 10 minutes, over a continuous jumping programme. The SEMG activity of six trunk muscles were bilaterally measured at every minute, and normalised root mean squares (RMS) and median frequencies (MDF) were computed from the EMG power spectra. Visual analogue scales (VAS) measuring Fatigue and Pain levels and Cognitive Function ‘tapping’ tests were performed before and after the riding test. Average MDF values for all muscles differed significantly between each sampled minute (p = 0.017), however a consistent decrease from Minute 1 and Minute 9 was not found, suggesting the trunk muscles fatigued and then recovered as other muscle groups important in maintaining the riding position during dynamic movement compensated. Differences between the MDF and RMS of different muscles were highly significant (H=213.01, DF=5, p < 0.001), supporting previous anecdotal evidence that different trunk muscles carry out different roles of posture maintenance during riding. RMS values were not significantly different between the sampled minutes or between riders, suggesting the riding test produced a consistent and repeatable effect on the trunk muscles. MDF values differed significantly between riders (H=50.8, DF = 5, p < 0.001), suggesting individuals may experience localised muscular fatigue of the same test differently, and that other parameters of physical fitness should be investigated to provide conclusions. Lumbar muscles were shown to be important in maintaining the position, therefore physical training program should focus on these areas. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-riding test VAS Pain and Fatigue scores or cognitive function test scores, suggesting the riding test was not significantly fatiguing for participants. However, a near significant correlation was found between time of riding test and VAS Pain score (p = 0.06), suggesting somatic pain may be a limiting factor to performance. No other correlations were found between the factors of participant riding test time, VAS Pain and Fatigue, however a larger sample needs to be tested to improve statistical analysis. The findings suggest the simulator riding test was not sufficient to provoke fatigue in the riders, however foundations for future studies have been laid to enable methodologies in realistic eventing settings.

Keywords: Fatigue, trunk muscles, eventing, horse-rider, surface EMG

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1 Lessons Learned through a Bicultural Approach to Tsunami Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

Authors: Lucy H. Kaiser, Kate Boersen

Abstract:

Kura Kaupapa Māori (kura) and bilingual schools are primary schools in Aotearoa/New Zealand which operate fully or partially under Māori custom and have curricula developed to include Te Reo Māori and Tikanga Māori (Māori language and cultural practices). These schools were established to support Māori children and their families through reinforcing cultural identity by enabling Māori language and culture to flourish in the field of education. Māori kaupapa (values), Mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) and Te Reo are crucial considerations for the development of educational resources developed for kura, bilingual and mainstream schools. The inclusion of hazard risk in education has become an important issue in New Zealand due to the vulnerability of communities to a plethora of different hazards. Māori have an extensive knowledge of their local area and the history of hazards which is often not appropriately recognised within mainstream hazard education resources. Researchers from the Joint Centre for Disaster Research, Massey University and East Coast LAB (Life at the Boundary) in Napier were funded to collaboratively develop a toolkit of tsunami risk reduction activities with schools located in Hawke’s Bay’s tsunami evacuation zones. A Māori-led bicultural approach to developing and running the education activities was taken, focusing on creating culturally and locally relevant materials for students and schools as well as giving students a proactive role in making their communities better prepared for a tsunami event. The community-based participatory research is Māori-centred, framed by qualitative and Kaupapa Maori research methodologies and utilizes a range of data collection methods including interviews, focus groups and surveys. Māori participants, stakeholders and the researchers collaborated through the duration of the project to ensure the programme would align with the wider school curricula and kaupapa values. The education programme applied a tuakana/teina, Māori teaching and learning approach in which high school aged students (tuakana) developed tsunami preparedness activities to run with primary school students (teina). At the end of the education programme, high school students were asked to reflect on their participation, what they had learned and what they had enjoyed during the activities. This paper draws on lessons learned throughout this research project. As an exemplar, retaining a bicultural and bilingual perspective resulted in a more inclusive project as there was variability across the students’ levels of confidence using Te Reo and Māori knowledge and cultural frameworks. Providing a range of different learning and experiential activities including waiata (Māori songs), pūrākau (traditional stories) and games was important to ensure students had the opportunity to participate and contribute using a range of different approaches that were appropriate to their individual learning needs. Inclusion of teachers in facilitation also proved beneficial in assisting classroom behavioral management. Lessons were framed by the tikanga and kawa (protocols) of the school to maintain cultural safety for the researchers and the students. Finally, the tuakana/teina component of the education activities became the crux of the programme, demonstrating a path for Rangatahi to support their whānau and communities through facilitating disaster preparedness, risk reduction and resilience.

Keywords: Education, Tsunami, Children, Indigenous, Disaster Preparedness, school safety

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