Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: E. Mare

17 Medical and Dietary Potentials of Mare's Milk in Liver Diseases

Authors: Bakytzhan Bimbetov, Abay Zhangabilov, Saule Aitbaeva, Galymzhan Meirambekov

Abstract:

Mare’s milk (saumal) contains in total about 40 biological components necessary for the human body. The most significant among them are amino acids, fats, carbohydrates, enzymes (lysozyme, amylase), more minerals and vitamins which are well balanced with each other. In Kazakhstan, Company "Eurasia Invest Ltd.” produces a freeze-dried saumal in form of powder by the use of modern German innovative technology by means of evaporating at low temperature (-35°C) with an appropriate pasteurization. Research of freeze-dried biomilk for the qualitative content showed that main ingredients of freshly drown milk are being preserved. We are currently studying medical and dietary properties of freeze-dried mare's milk for diseases of the digestive system, including for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver cirrhosis (LC) viral etiology. The studied group consisted of 14 patients with NASH, and 7 patients with LC viral etiology of Class A severity degree as per Child-Pugh. Patients took freeze-dried saumal, preliminary dissolved in boiled warm water (24 g. powder per 200 ml water) 3-4 times a day for a month in conjunction with basic therapy. The results were compared to a control group (11 patients with NASH and LC) who received only basic therapy without mare’s milk. Results of preliminary research showed an improvement of subjective and objective conditions of all patients, but more significant improvement of clinical symptoms and syndromes were observed in the treatment group compared to the control one. Patients with NASH significantly over time compared to the beginning of therapy decreased asthenic and dyspeptic syndromes (p<0,01). Hepatomegaly, identified on the basis of ultrasound prior to treatment was observed in 92,8±2,4% of patients, and after combination therapy hepatomegaly the rate decreased by 14,3%, amounting to 78,5±2,8%. Patients with LC also noted the improvement of asthenic (p<0,01) and dyspeptic (p<0,05) syndromes and hemorrhagic syndrome (nosebleeds and bleeding gums when brushing your teeth, p<0,05), and jaundice. Laboratory study also showed improvement in the research group, but more significant changes were observed in the experimental group. Group of patients with NASH showed a significant improvement of index in cytolysis in conjunction with a combination therapy (p<0,05). In the control group, these indicators were also improved, but they were not statistically reliable (p>0,05). Markers of liver failure were additionally studied during the study of laboratory parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis, in particular, bilirubin, albumin and prothrombin index (PTI). Combined therapy with the use of basic treatment and mare's milk showed a significant improvement in cytolysis and bilirubin (p<0,05). In our opinion, a very important and interesting fact is that, in conjunction with basic therapy, the use of mare's milk revealed an improvement of liver function in the form of normalized PTI and albumin in patients with liver cirrhosis viral etiology. Results of this work have shown therapeutic efficiency of the use of mare's milk in complex treatment of patients with liver disease and require further in-depth study.

Keywords: liver cirrhosis, non-alcohol steatohepatitis, saumal, mare’s milk

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16 Some Studies on Endometritis in Pure Arabian Mares

Authors: Khairi El Battawy, Monika Skalicki

Abstract:

The present investigation has been done on pure Egyptian Arabian mares that reared in private horse studs. Fifty non-pregnant mares were selected and examined to classify them as either being reproductively healthy or subfertile mares including clinical endometritis, early embryonic death, granulosa cell tumor, repeat breeder (post-breeding endometritis), and anoestrus mares. The purpose of the study was to assess oxidative/antioxidant biochemical metabolites, lipogram, trace elements and reproductive hormones throughout reproductive conditions in mares during regular estrous, anestrum, early pregnancy, granulose cell tumor, ovulation failure, and endometritis. Results showed intensification of the free radical-dependent process in the blood of infertile mare, especially mares with endometritis. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool diagnosis of endometritis in mares was an important step as it revealed much information concerning infertility problem.

Keywords: endometritis, ovulation, oxidative, mare

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15 A Regression Model for Predicting Sugar Crystal Size in a Fed-Batch Vacuum Evaporative Crystallizer

Authors: Sunday B. Alabi, Edikan P. Felix, Aniediong M. Umo

Abstract:

Crystal size distribution is of great importance in the sugar factories. It determines the market value of granulated sugar and also influences the cost of production of sugar crystals. Typically, sugar is produced using fed-batch vacuum evaporative crystallizer. The crystallization quality is examined by crystal size distribution at the end of the process which is quantified by two parameters: the average crystal size of the distribution in the mean aperture (MA) and the width of the distribution of the coefficient of variation (CV). Lack of real-time measurement of the sugar crystal size hinders its feedback control and eventual optimisation of the crystallization process. An attractive alternative is to use a soft sensor (model-based method) for online estimation of the sugar crystal size. Unfortunately, the available models for sugar crystallization process are not suitable as they do not contain variables that can be measured easily online. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a regression model for estimating the sugar crystal size as a function of input variables which are easy to measure online. This has the potential to provide real-time estimates of crystal size for its effective feedback control. Using 7 input variables namely: initial crystal size (Lo), temperature (T), vacuum pressure (P), feed flowrate (Ff), steam flowrate (Fs), initial super-saturation (S0) and crystallization time (t), preliminary studies were carried out using Minitab 14 statistical software. Based on the existing sugar crystallizer models, and the typical ranges of these 7 input variables, 128 datasets were obtained from a 2-level factorial experimental design. These datasets were used to obtain a simple but online-implementable 6-input crystal size model. It seems the initial crystal size (Lₒ) does not play a significant role. The goodness of the resulting regression model was evaluated. The coefficient of determination, R² was obtained as 0.994, and the maximum absolute relative error (MARE) was obtained as 4.6%. The high R² (~1.0) and the reasonably low MARE values are an indication that the model is able to predict sugar crystal size accurately as a function of the 6 easy-to-measure online variables. Thus, the model can be used as a soft sensor to provide real-time estimates of sugar crystal size during sugar crystallization process in a fed-batch vacuum evaporative crystallizer.

Keywords: crystal size, regression model, soft sensor, sugar, vacuum evaporative crystallizer

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14 The Democratization of 3D Capturing: An Application Investigating Google Tango Potentials

Authors: Carlo Bianchini, Lorenzo Catena

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The appearance of 3D scanners and then, more recently, of image-based systems that generate point clouds directly from common digital images have deeply affected the survey process in terms of both capturing and 2D/3D modelling. In this context, low cost and mobile systems are increasingly playing a key role and actually paving the way to the democratization of what in the past was the realm of few specialized technicians and expensive equipment. The application of Google Tango on the ancient church of Santa Maria delle Vigne in Pratica di Mare – Rome presented in this paper is one of these examples.

Keywords: the architectural survey, augmented/mixed/virtual reality, Google Tango project, image-based 3D capturing

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13 Lie Symmetry Treatment for Pricing Options with Transactions Costs under the Fractional Black-Scholes Model

Authors: B. F. Nteumagne, E. Pindza, E. Mare

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We apply Lie symmetries analysis to price and hedge options in the fractional Brownian framework. The reputation of Lie groups is well spread in the area of Mathematical sciences and lately, in Finance. In the presence of transactions costs and under fractional Brownian motions, analytical solutions become difficult to obtain. Lie symmetries analysis allows us to simplify the problem and obtain new analytical solution. In this paper, we investigate the use of symmetries to reduce the partial differential equation obtained and obtain the analytical solution. We then proposed a hedging procedure and calibration technique for these types of options, and test the model on real market data. We show the robustness of our methodology by its application to the pricing of digital options.

Keywords: fractional brownian model, symmetry, transaction cost, option pricing

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12 The Effect of Dose of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) on Reproductive Efficiency in Ouled Djellal Ewes

Authors: Ameur Ameur Abdelkader, Boukherrouba Hadjira

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate different doses of PMSG on reproductive performance in Ouled Djellal ewes synchronized during the breeding season period. A total of 200 ewes were used in this experiment, were divided in two groups, 100 uniparous (A) and 100 multiparous (B). All animals in both groups were divided equally into four groups homogeneous lots of then a single intramuscular (IM) injection of PMSG, Lot T1, A1 (400 IU), A2 (500 IU), A3 (600 IU) and (lot T2, B1 (400 IU), B2 (500UI), B3 (600UI), T1, and T2 are batch control groups received a single injection of progestin treatment without PMSG. The results showed that the fertility rate ranges from 79.16% to 92% with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between uniparous and multiparous ewes. The prolificity rate varies from 100% to 140% in uniparous ewes with the respective doses of 0 IU for the control group and 600 IU for lot A3. A significant difference between multiparous ewes prolificacy and uniparous receiving 500UI PMSG (respectively 142% vs 109%). The productivity rate has increased significantly among uniparous ewes with 82% for lot A1 to 112.5% for lot A3, as in multiparous ewes 66.66% for lot B1 to 133.33% for lot B3. At the same we recorded a positive correlation between the number of born products and increasing the dose of PMSG injected into the two categories of ewes (112.5% to 133.33% for multiparous uniparous VS 83% for and 66.66 uniparous % for multiparous).

Keywords: Ouled djellal ewe, PMSG, reproductive performance, Fertility

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11 Reflectance Imaging Spectroscopy Data (Hyperspectral) for Mineral Mapping in the Orientale Basin Region on the Moon Surface

Authors: V. Sivakumar, R. Neelakantan

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Mineral mapping on the Moon surface provides the clue to understand the origin, evolution, stratigraphy and geological history of the Moon. Recently, reflectance imaging spectroscopy plays a significant role in identifying minerals on the planetary surface in the Visible to NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard Chandrayaan-1 provides unprecedented spectral data of lunar surface to study about the Moon surface. Here we used the M3 sensor data (hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy) for analysing mineralogy of Orientale basin region on the Moon surface. Reflectance spectrums were sampled from different locations of the basin and continuum was removed using ENvironment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software. Reflectance spectra of unknown mineral composition were compared with known Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) spectra for discriminating mineralogy. Minerals like olivine, Low-Ca Pyroxene (LCP), High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) and plagioclase were identified. In addition to these minerals, an unusual type of spectral signature was identified, which indicates the probable Fe-Mg-spinel lithology in the basin region.

Keywords: chandryaan-1, moon mineralogy mapper, mineral, mare orientale, moon

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10 Nursing Students Assessment to the Clinical Learning Environment and Mentoring in Children Nursing

Authors: Lily Parm, Irma Nool, Liina Männiksaar, Mare Tupits, Ivi Prits, Merilin Kuhi, Valentina Raudsepp

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Background: The results of previous clinical satisfaction surveys show that nursing students swhounderw entinternships in the pediatricwardhadthelowestsatisfactioncomparedtootherwards, but the quality of students' practicaltrainingexperienceisanimportant determinant in nursing education. The aim of theresearchwastodescribenursingstudents` assessment to the clinical learning environment and supervision in pediatric wards Method: Theresearchisquantitative. All studentswhohadpracticaltraining in the pediatric ward participated in the study (N = 39). FordatacollectionClinicalLearningEnvironment, Supervision, and NurseTeacher (CLES + T) evaluationscalewasused, wherethescalewasanswered on a 5-point Likert scale. In addition, 10 backgroundvariableswereused in the questionnaire. IBM SPSS Statistics 28.0 wasusedfordataanalysis. Descriptive statistics and Spearmanncorrelationanalysiswasusedtofindcorrelatinsbetweenbackgroundvariables and satisfaction with supervision.Permissiontoconductthestudy (No 695) hasbeenobtainedbytheEthicsCommittee of theInstituteforHealthDevelopment. Results: Of therespondents, 28 (71.8%) werefirst-year, 9 (23.1%) second-year and 2 (5.1%) fourth-yearstudents. Thelargestshare of the last practicaltrainigwas in nursing, with 27 (69.2%) respondents. Mainlythementorswerenursesfor 32 (82,1%) of students.Satisfactionwiththementoring (4.4 ± 0.83) and wardnursemanager`sleaderhiostyle (4.4 ± 0.7), ratedthehighest and therole of thenurseteacherwasratedthelowest (3,7 ± 0.83.In Spearmann'scorrelationanalysis, therewas a statisticallystrongcorrelationbetween a positiveattitudetowardsthesupervisor'ssupervision and receivingfeedbackfromthesupervisor (r =0.755; p <0.001), studentsatisfactionwithsupervision (r = 0.742; p <0.001), supervisionbased on cooperation (r = 0.77) and instructionbased on theprinciple of equalitythatpromotedlearning (r = 0.755; p <0.001). Conclusions: Theresults of theresearchshowedhighsatisfactionwiththesupervisionand therole of wardmanager. Stillbettercooperationisneededbetweenpracticalplacement and nursingschooltoenhancethestudents`satisfactionwithsupervision.

Keywords: CLES+T, clinical environment, nurse teacher, statisfaction, pediatric ward, mentorship

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9 Musicals in Film Adaptation in Bollywood with Special Reference to Basu Bhattacharya's Film Teesari Kasam

Authors: Gokul G. Kshirsagar

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Native folk theatre and folk songs have a significant influence on the origin and development of Indian cinema. Therefore, the presence of songs and music has been an integral part and special characteristics of Indian cinema which is popularly known as Bollywood. An Indian cinema without songs, either in Hindi or other regional languages, is simply unimaginable. The present paper, in the first part, attempts to explain the use and need of musical songs and also the psychology of Indian audience in this respect with reference to some of the films which give primary importance to songs. In the second part, the paper tries to situate the present study in the context by referring to the Hindi language drama film Teesari Kasam directed by Basu Bhattacharys. The film is based on the Hindi novelist Phanishwarnath Renu’s short story Teesari Kasam (Mare Gaye Gulfam) in this adapted film, the director has made use of eight songs, but these songs are the extensive versions of the songs as used in the original story. Thus, the main aim of the paper is to underscore the fact that through artistic use of the musical, the director has succeeded in transforming the central feelings conveyed in the original story. Eventually, through the present study of the film adaptation, the relevance of songs in films will be illustrated and understood.

Keywords: Bollywood, folk theatre, folk songs, film adaptation

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8 International Counseling Learning: The Need for Suitable Training within Counselor Education and Counseling Students

Authors: Paula Lazarim

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As global mobility thrives, researchers emphasize the urgency of global literacy through training qualified counselors to serve internationally in a culturally competent manner. However, the focus thus far has been on how counselors’ preparation to approach international populations fuses with study abroad experiential learning short-term immersions. Looking for better solutions for cultural competency and skills learning related to international counseling, the author of this manuscript examines international counseling's current status, learning scope and goals, and educational opportunities. A guiding framework grounded on relational pedagogy (Reeves & Le Mare, 2017), relational cultural theory (Jordan, 2017), and intercultural education (Nastasi et al., 2020) is applied with four long-term educational modality projects designed to benefit cultural competence, attitude, relational skills development, and learning an intercultural counseling approach. Suggestions that encourage innovative instruction in counselor education and counseling programs at master and doctoral levels, stimulate self-learning, and educate in intercultural relational competence are linked to strategies for engaging in international counseling based on findings of a literature review and training-projects implementation. Ultimately, the author highlights theoretical and practical implications of suitable training to improve counselors' performance and discusses long-term teaching-learning opportunities that positively impact the international counseling community by sending out internationally culturally competent counselors.

Keywords: international counseling, counselor education, counseling, relational pedagogy, intercultural education, counselors’ training

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7 Supplementation of Annatto (Bixa orellana)-Derived δ-Tocotrienol Produced High Number of Morula through Increased Expression of 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1) in Mice

Authors: S. M. M. Syairah, M. H. Rajikin, A. R. Sharaniza

Abstract:

Several embryonic cellular mechanism including cell cycle, growth and apoptosis are regulated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. The goal of present study is to determine the effects of annatto (Bixa orellana)-derived δ-tocotrienol (δ-TCT) on the regulations of PI3K/Akt genes in murine morula. Twenty four 6-8 week old (23-25g) female balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (G1-G4; n=6). Those groups were subjected to the following treatments for 7 consecutive days: G1 (control) received tocopherol stripped corn oil, G2 was given 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture (contains 90% delta & 10% gamma isomers), G3 was given 60 mg/kg/day of pure δ-TCT (>98% purity) and G4 received 60 mg/kg/day α-TOC. On Day 8, females were superovulated with 5 IU Pregnant Mare’s Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) for 48 hours followed with 5 IU human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) before mated with males at the ratio of 1:1. Females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation for embryo collection 48 hours post-coitum. About fifty morula from each group were used in the gene expression analyses using Affymetrix QuantiGene Plex 2.0 Assay. Present data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the average number (mean + SEM) of morula produced in G2 (26.0 + 0.45), G3 (23.0 + 0.63) and G4 (25.0 + 0.73) compared to control group (G1 – 16.0 + 0.63). This is parallel with the high expression of PDK1 gene with increase of 2.75-fold (G2), 3.07-fold (G3) and 3.59-fold (G4) compared to G1 (1.78-fold). From the present data, it can be concluded that supplementation with δ-TCT(s) and α-TOC induced high expression of PDK1 in G2-G4 which enhanced the PI3K/Akt signaling activity, resulting in the increased number of morula.

Keywords: delta-tocotrienol, embryonic development, nicotine, vitamin E

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6 Dynamics of Follicle Vascular Perfusion, Dimensions, Antrum Growth, Circulating Angiogenic Mediators from Deviation to Ovulation

Authors: Elshymaa A. Abdelnaby, Amal M. Abo El-Maaty

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This study aimed to investigate dynamics of dominant and subordinate follicles change in dimensions, vascularity and angiogenic hormones after completing deviation till ovulation. Five cyclic mares were subjected to daily blood sampling and rectal Doppler ultrasonographic examination along two estrous cycles. Using electronic calipers, three diameters were recorded for each follicle to estimate area and volume. Leptin, Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), nitric oxide (NO) and estradiol (E2) were measured. Area of color- and power- Doppler modes with area and circumference of the first (preovulatory) and subordinate follicles were measured in pixels. Follicles were classified into F1O (preovulatory), F2O (subordinate), F3O (third ovulatory) on the dominant ovary and F1C (first contra) and F2C (second contra) on the contralateral ovary. Days before ovulation significantly (P < 0.0001) affected diameter, circumference, area, volume, area/pixel and antrum area of the preovulatory follicle. With the increase of diameter, area, volume area/pixel, antrum area/pixel and circumference of F1O, those of all subordinates were decreasing. The blue blood flow area, power and power minus red blood flow area of F1O increased from day -6 till day of ovulation (day 0), but red blood flow area significantly decreased. F1O had the lowest percent of colored pixels and percent of the colored pixels without antrum. Estradiol and leptin increased from day -6 till day 0 but IGF-1 decreased till day -1 but NO achieved a peak on day -3 then decreased till day 0. In conclusion, antrum growth, blood flow and angiogenic hormones play a role in maturation and ovulation of the dominant follicle in mares.

Keywords: angiogenic hormones, blood flow, mare, preovulatory follicle

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5 Effects of Supplementation with Annatto (Bixa Orellana)-Derived δ-Tocotrienol on the Nicotine-Induced Reduction in Body Weight and 8-Cell Preimplantation Embryonic Development in Mice

Authors: M. H. Rajikin, S. M. M. Syairah, A. R. Sharaniza

Abstract:

Effects of nicotine on pre-partum body weight and preimplantation embryonic development has been reported previously. Present study was conducted to determine the effects of annatto (Bixa orellana)-derived delta-tocotrienol (TCT) (with presence of 10% gamma-TCT isomer) on the nicotine-induced reduction in body weight and 8-cell embryonic growth in mice. Twenty four 6-8 weeks old (23-25g) female balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (G1-G4; n=6). Those groups were subjected to the following treatments for 7 consecutive days: G1 (control) were gavaged with 0.1 ml tocopherol stripped corn oil, G2 was subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with 3 mg/kg/day of nicotine, G3 received concurrent treatment of nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) and 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture (contains 90% delta & 10% gamma isomers) and G4 was given 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture alone. Body weights were recorded daily during the treatment. On Day 8, females were superovulated with 5 IU Pregnant Mare’s Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) for 48 hours followed with 5 IU human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) before mated with males at the ratio of 1:1. Females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation for embryo collection 48 hours post-coitum. Collected embryos were cultured in vitro. Results showed that throughout Day 1 to Day 7, the body weight of nicotine treated group (G2) was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of G1, G3 and G4. Intervention with δ-TCT mixture (G3) managed to increase the body weight close to the control group. This is also observed in the group treated with δ-TCT mixture alone (G4). The development of 8-cell embryos following in vitro culture (IVC) was totally inhibited in G2. Intervention with δ-TCT mixture (G3) resulted in the production of 8-cell embryos, although it was not up to that of the control group. Treatment with δ-TCT mixture alone (G4) caused significant increase in the average number of produced 8-cell embryo compared to G1. Present data indicated that δ-TCT mixture was able to reverse the body weight loss in nicotine treated mice and the development of 8-cell embryos was also improved.

Keywords: δ-tocotrienol, body weight, nicotine, preimplantation embryonic development

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4 Comparison of hCG and GnRH in Enhancing Pregnancy Rate of Non-Lactating Cycling Brood Mares

Authors: Sanan Raza, Muhammad Younus, Ahmad Yar Qamar, Tariq Abbas, Hamayun Khan, Amanullah Khan

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Mares are considered to be seasonally polyestrous animals. The breeding season of mare ranges from March to May in Pakistan. However, fertility problems of mares have been trifling the horse breeders and stud owners since long, and it comes out that the fertility status of mares in Pakistan is relatively lower than the world average. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of hCG and GnRH in improving pregnancy rate of mares in a transition period of month March and April. A total of n=66 mares showing normal estrus cycles with age ranging 5-12 y, weighing between 400-600 kg, BCS 6 ± 0.5 (1-9) and lactation varied from first to 5th were included in the experiment. These mares were administered PGF2α (75 μg; Dalmazine®, Fatro, Italy; 1 ml; i.m.) and divided into 3 groups. Mares of group 1 (n=22) were administered GnRH (100 μg; Dalmarelin®, Fatro, Italy; 4ml; im) while group 2 (n=22) mares were given hCG (5000 IU; IVF-C, LG Pharma; 1ml; iv). Likewise, mares of group 3 (n=22) were injected normal saline. Each treatment was given, when follicle attained the size of 35mm, keeping in view, the maturity of ovulating follicle at 35mm size and response to each treatment after routine ultrasound examination. All the mares of three groups were bred at 12 and 36 hours of treatment when the follicle reached the size of 35mm measured by ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography on day 18th and 42nd mating. On day 18th, pregnancy rate was 81.8% for hCG followed by 54.5% for GnRH and 45.5% for control. On day 42nd, pregnancy rate was (47.4%) for hCG which is significantly high (p<0.05) followed by GnRH (31.6%) and control (21.1%). Additionally the pregnancy loss was (25%, 20% respectively) in control and GnRH treated groups; whereas, hCG treated group showed no pregnancy loss (0.00%). Since no embryonic loss has been observed with hCG treatment during current study. Also hCG treated mares were 7.87 times more likely to conceive than controls. There were two times more chances of pregnancy in hCG treated mares than GnRH treated mares Therefore, it is concluded that the use of hCG in breeding season can improve pregnancy rate at a significant level when compared with GnRH hormone.

Keywords: mares, ovulation, hCG, pregnancy rate

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3 The Experiences and Needs of Mothers’ of Children With Cancer in Coping With the Child's Disease

Authors: Maarja Karbus, Elsbet Lippmaa, Kadri Kööp, Mare Tupits

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Aim: The aim is to describe the experiences and needs of mothers of children with cancer in coping with the child's illness. Background: Cancer affects different life areas. Especially if it is a child, in this case the whole family is involved. Loved ones are mentally affected, there are limitations, and life changes need to be made to make the whole treatment regimen and recovery as comfortable as possible. Also, the whole process is expensive and time consuming. The research is part of a larger project that covers the experiences and needs of parents of children with chronic illness and coping strategies related to the child's illness. Design: Qualitative, empirical, descriptive research. Method: Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data and inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. The interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2020, 5 respondents participated in the research. Results and Conclusions: The research revealed that the mothers' experiences of coping with a child's disease included health-related experiences, material aspects, changes in lifestyle, support systems and contact with professionals. Regarding the organizational and material aspects of life, the subjects presented experiences with economic problems, adaptation of changes in lifestyle, access to information and changes in the treatment process. With regard to health, the respondents identified experiences with the mother's physical and mental health and experiences with the health of an ill child. The experience of different support systems was related to the support of family, friends, acquaintances, various organizations and specialists. Experiences with specialist support included experiences with family relationships and positive and negatiive experiences with staff. The mothers' needs in dealing with the child's disease included the mother's emotional needs, the support of other family members, and the need for various support systems and services. The needs of coping with the child were the need for understanding, support, confidence, the need to be strong and courageous, the need to ignore one's own needs, and the need for personal time and rest. The needs of other family members included the needs of an ill child and the need to pay attention to other children in the family. The needs of different supporters and services were related to different helpers and different services.

Keywords: cancer, mother, coping, child, need, experience, illness

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2 The Experiences and Needs of Fathers’ of Children With Cancer in Coping With the Child's Illness

Authors: Karina Lõbus, Silver Muld, Kadri Kööp, Mare Tupits

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Aim: The aim of the research is to describe the experiences and needs of fathers’ of children with cancer in coping with the child's disease. Background: Today, about 80% of children diagnosed with malignancy in developed countries survive. Despite the positive statistics, recovery is not always certain, treatment is often very intensive and long-term. Cancer is affecting an increasing number of the population, which is increasing the demand for quality care, but the nature of expected care is currently unclear. This topic is important for the development of professional practice, as nurses complain that their knowledge to deal with the relatives of a patient with a difficult diagnosis is limited and would therefore like additional information to deal with the situation. Design: Qualitative, empirical, descriptive research. Method: The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed by inductive content analysis method. Interviews were conducted during Autumn 2020. 4 subjects participated in the research. Results and Conclusions: The thesis revealed that fathers had different experiences and needs in dealing with the child's illness. Fathers' experiences of coping with child's diseases encompassed experiences with information, social relationships, healthcare, changes in personal health and experiences regarding the child. Regarding information, the respondents pointed out bad experiences with the availability of information and the ability to convey the necessary information. Experiences regarding social relationships included experiences with relatives and strangers. Regarding healthcare, fathers mentioned experiences related to the child's health and healthcare professionals. In regards to personal health, fathers pointed out negative changes in their mental and physical health. In relation to the child, the subjects revealed experiences regarding changed values, way of life and raising the child. According to the research, fathers’ needs in relation to dealing with child's cancer included material, social, and spiritual needs. In regard to material needs, fathers pointed out the need for state assistance and the needs related to the surrounding environment. The needs concerning social belonging involved needs for a driving force and involvement in the treatment process. Regarding spiritual needs, fathers expressed mixed feelings towards the need for outside and professional help.

Keywords: father, coping, cancer, child, experience, need

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1 Effects of Different Load on Physiological, Hematological, Biochemical, Cytokines Indices of Zanskar Ponies at High Altitude

Authors: Prince Vivek, Vijay Kumar Bharti, Deepak Kumar, Rohit Kumar, Kapil Nehra, Dhananjay Singh, Om Prakash Chaurasia, Bhuvnesh Kumar

Abstract:

High altitude native people still rely heavily on animal transport for logistic support at eastern and northern Himalayas regions. The prevalent mountainous terrains and rugged region are not suitable for the motorized vehicle to use in logistic transport. Therefore, people required high endurance pack animals for load carrying and riding. So far to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been taken to evaluate the effect of loads on the physiology of ponies in high altitude region. So, in this view, we evaluated variation in physiological, hematological, biochemical, and cytokines indices of Zanskar ponies during load carrying at high altitude. Total twelve (12) of Zanskar ponies, mare, age 4-6 years selected for this study, Feed was offered at 2% of body weight, and water ad libitum. Ponies were divided into three groups; group-A (without load), group-B (60 kg), and group-C (80 kg) of backpack loads. The track was very narrow and slippery with gravel, uneven with a rocky surface and has a steep gradient of 4 km uphill at altitude 3291 to 3500m. When we evaluate these parameters, it is understood that the heart rate, pulse rate, and respiration rate was significantly increased in 80 kg group among the three groups. The hematology parameters viz. hemoglobin significantly increased in 80 kg group on 1st day after load carrying among the three groups which was followed by control and 60 kg whereas, PCV, lymphocytes, monocytes percentage significantly increased however, ESR and eosinophil % significantly decreased in 80 kg group after load carrying on 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. In biochemical parameters viz. LA, LDH, TP, hexokinase (HK), cortisol (CORT), T3, GPx, FRAP and IL-6 significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. The ALT, ALB, GLB, UR, and UA significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 7th day before and after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. The CRT, AST, and CK-MB were significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 1st and 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. It has been concluded that, heart rate, respiration rate, hematological indices like PCV, lymphocytes, monocytes, Hb and ESR, biochemical indices like lactic acid, LDH, TP, HK, CORT, T3, ALT, AST and CRT, ALB, GLB, UR, UA, GPx, FRAP and IL-6 are important biomarkers to assess effect of load on animal physiology and endurance. Further, this result has revealed the strong correlation of change in biomarkers level with performance in ponies during load carry. Hence, these parameters might be used for the performance of endurance of Zanskar ponies in the high mountain region.

Keywords: biochemical, endurance, high altitude, load, ponies

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