Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1094

Search results for: head trauma

1094 Optic Nerve Sheath Measurement in Children with Head Trauma

Authors: Sabiha Sahin, Kursad Bora Carman, Coskun Yarar

Abstract:

Introduction: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is a noninvasive and easy to use imaging technique to predict intracranial pressure in children and adults. The aim was to measure the diameter of the optic nerve sheath in pediatric head trauma. Methods: The study group consisted of 40 children with healthy and 40 patients with head trauma. Transorbital sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter was performed. Conclusion: The mean diameters of the optic nerve sheath of right and left eyes were 0.408 ± 0.064 mm and 0.417 ± 0.065 mm, respectively, in the trauma group. These results were higher in patients than in control group. There was a negative correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and Glasgow Coma Scales in patients with head trauma (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and positive CT findings, systolic blood pressure in patients with head trauma. The clinical status of the patients at admission, blood pH and lactate level were related to the optic nerve sheath diameter. Conclusion: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is not an invasive technique and can be easily used to predict increased intracranial pressure and to prevent secondary brain injury.

Keywords: head trauma, intracranial pressure, optic nerve, sonography

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1093 Analysis of Brain Specific Creatine Kinase of Postmortem Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum in Blunt Head Trauma Cases

Authors: Rika Susanti, Eryati Darwin, Dedi Afandi, Yanwirasti, Syahruddin Said, Noverika Windasari, Zelly Dia Rofinda

Abstract:

Introduction: Blunt head trauma is one of the leading causes of death associated with murders and other deaths involved in criminal acts. Creatine kinase (CKBB) levels have been used as a biomarker for blunt head trauma. Therefore, it is now used as an alternative to an autopsy. The aim of this study is to investigate CKBB levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and post-mortem serum in order to deduce the cause and time of death. Method: This investigation was conducted through post-test–only group design involving deaths caused by blunt head trauma, which was compared to deaths caused by ketamine poisoning. Results: There were eight treatment groups, each consisting of six adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague-Dawley strain. Examinations were done at 0 hours, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours post-mortem, which followed by brain tissue observation. Data were then analyzed statistically with a repeated-measures general linear model. Conclusion: There were increases in the level of CKBB in CSF and postmortem serum in both blunt head trauma and ketamine poisoning treatment groups. However, there were no significant differences between these two groups.

Keywords: blunt head trauma, CKBB, the cause of death, estimated time of death

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1092 The Bicycle-Related Traumatic Situations That Consulted Our Hospital

Authors: Yoshitaka Ooya, Daishuke Furuya, Manabu Nemoto

Abstract:

Some countries such as Canada and Australia have mandatory bicycle helmet laws for all citizens and age groups. As of 2008 Japan has also adopted a helmet law but it is restricted to people 13 years old and under. People over 13 years of age are not required to wear helmets in Japan. Currently, the rate that people 0-13 years old actually wear helmets is low. In 2013 a number of patients came to Saitama University Hospital International Medical Center for treatment due to bicycle-related trauma. The total number of patients was 89 (55 male and 34 female). The average age of the patients was 40.9 years old (eldest; 83 y/o, median; 40 y/o, youngest; 1 y/o with a standard deviation ± 2.8). 54 of these patients (61%) experienced head trauma as well as some experiencing multiple injuries associated with their accident. 13 patients were wearing helmets, 50 patients were not wearing helmets and it is unknown if the remaining 26 patients were wearing helmets. This information was acquired from the patient`s medical charts. Only one patient who was wearing a helmet had a severe head injury, and this patient also experienced other multiple injuries. 17 patients who were not wearing helmets had severe head injuries and out of the 17, two had multiple injuries. The mechanism for injury varied. 12 patients were injured in an accident with a vehicle, only one of which was wearing a helmet. This patient also had multiple injuries. Of the other 11 patients, two had multiple injuries. The remaining patient`s injuries were caused by other accidents (3; fell over while riding, 2; crashed into an inanimate object, 1; collided with a motorcycle). The ladder of which had a severe head injury. All of these patients had light energy accidents and were all over 13 years of age. In Japan it is not mandatory for people over the age of 13 years to wear a bicycle helmet. Research shows that light energy accidents were mostly present in people over the age of 13, to which the law does not require the wearing of helmets. It is important that all people in all age groups be required to wear helmets when operating a bicycle to reduce the rate of light energy severe head injuries.

Keywords: bicycle helmet, head trauma, hospital, traumatic situation

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1091 Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Trauma Patients: Clinical Presentation and Risk Factor Analysis

Authors: Inkyong Yi

Abstract:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) in trauma patients is known to be associated with multiple factors, especially shock and consequent inadequate renal perfusion, yet its clinical presentation is little known in severe trauma patients. Our aim was to investigate the clinical presentation of acute kidney injury and its outcome in severe trauma patients at a level I trauma center. A total of 93 consecutive adult trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of more than 15 were analyzed retrospectively from our Level I trauma center data base. Patients with direct renal injury were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into two groups, according to the presence of AKI. Various clinical parameters were compared between two groups, with Student’s T test and Mann-Whitney’s U test. The AKI group was further dichotomized into patients who recovered within seven days, and those who required more than 7days for recovery or those who did not recover at all. Various clinical parameters associated with outcome were further analyzed. Patients with AKI (n=33, 35%) presented with significantly higher age (61.4±17.3 vs. 45.4±17.3, p < 0.0001), incidence of comorbidities (hypertension; 51.5% vs. 13.3%, OR 6.906 95%CI 2.515-18.967, diabetes; 27.3% vs. 6.7%, OR 5.250, 95%CI 1.472-18.722), odds of head and neck trauma (69.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 3.220, 95%CI 1.306-7.942) and presence of shock during emergency room care (66.7% vs 21.7% OR 7.231, 95%CI, 2.798-18.687). Among AKI patients, patients who recovered within 1 week showed lower peak lactate (4.7mmol/L, 95%CI 2.9-6.5 vs 7.3mmol/L, 95%CI 5.0-9.6, p < 0.0287), lesser units of transfusion during first 24 hours (pRBC; 20.4unit, 95%CI 12.5-28.3 vs. 58.9unit, 95%CI 39.4-78.5, p=0.0003, FFP; 16.6unit, 95%CI 6.8-26.4 vs. 56.1unit, 95%CI 26.9-85.2, p=0.0027). In severe trauma patients, patients with AKI showed different clinical presentations and worse outcomes. Initial presence of shock and higher DIC profiles may be important risk factors for AKI in severe trauma patients. In patients with AKI, peak lactate level and amounts of transfusion are related to recovery.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, lactate, transfusion, trauma

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1090 Risking Injury: Exploring the Relationship between Risk Propensity and Injuries among an Australian Rules Football Team

Authors: Sarah A. Harris, Fleur L. McIntyre, Paola T. Chivers, Benjamin G. Piggott, Fiona H. Farringdon

Abstract:

Australian Rules Football (ARF) is an invasion based, contact field sport with over one million participants. The contact nature of the game increases exposure to all injuries, including head trauma. Evidence suggests that both concussion and sub-concussive traumas such as head knocks may damage the brain, in particular the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex may not reach full maturity until a person is in their early twenties with males taking longer to mature than females. Repeated trauma to the pre-frontal cortex during maturation may lead to negative social, cognitive and emotional effects. It is also during this period that males exhibit high levels of risk taking behaviours. Risk propensity and the incidence of injury is an unexplored area of research. Little research has considered if the level of player’s (especially younger players) risk propensity in everyday life places them at an increased risk of injury. Hence the current study, investigated if a relationship exists between risk propensity and self-reported injuries including diagnosed concussion and head knocks, among male ARF players aged 18 to 31 years. Method: The study was conducted over 22 weeks with one West Australian Football League (WAFL) club during the 2015 competition. Pre-season risk propensity was measured using the 7-item self-report Risk Propensity Scale. Possible scores ranged from 9 to 63, with higher scores indicating higher risk propensity. Players reported their self-perceived injuries (concussion, head knocks, upper body and lower body injuries) fortnightly using the WAFL Injury Report Survey (WIRS). A unique ID code was used to ensure player anonymity, which also enabled linkage of survey responses and injury data tracking over the season. A General Linear Model (GLM) was used to analyse whether there was a relationship between risk propensity score and total number of injuries for each injury type. Results: Seventy one players (N=71) with an age range of 18.40 to 30.48 years and a mean age of 21.92 years (±2.96 years) participated in the study. Player’s mean risk propensity score was 32.73, SD ±8.38. Four hundred and ninety five (495) injuries were reported. The most frequently reported injury was head knocks representing 39.19% of total reported injuries. The GLM identified a significant relationship between risk propensity and head knocks (F=4.17, p=.046). No other injury types were significantly related to risk propensity. Discussion: A positive relationship between risk propensity and head trauma in contact sports (specifically WAFL) was discovered. Assessing player’s risk propensity therefore, may identify those more at risk of head injuries. Potentially leading to greater monitoring and education of these players throughout the season, regarding self-identification of head knocks and symptoms that may indicate trauma to the brain. This is important because many players involved in WAFL are in their late teens or early 20’s hence, may be at greater risk of negative outcomes if they experience repeated head trauma. Continued education and research into the risks associated with head injuries has the potential to improve player well-being.

Keywords: football, head injuries, injury identification, risk

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1089 Reflections from Participants and Researchers on a Trauma-Sensitive Yoga Program

Authors: Jessica Gladden

Abstract:

This study explored the perceived benefits of trauma-sensitive yoga programs. Participants attended one of two six-week trauma-sensitive yoga programs utilizing the G.R.A.C.E model, a format developed based on Emerson’s trauma-sensitive yoga guidelines and modified by the instructors. Participants in this study completed surveys on their experiences. The results of the surveys indicated that participants perceived improvements in self-care, embodiment, and mood. These results show that trauma-sensitive yoga may have benefits beyond the treatment of specific diagnoses that could be applied to a variety of populations. Reflections from one of the researchers who teaches in this program, as well as qualitative statements from the participants, will be shared to support the continued use of this method.

Keywords: yoga, trauma-sensitive, yoga therapy, trauma

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1088 Insufficiency Fracture of Femoral Head in Patients Treated With Intramedullary Nailing for Proximal Femur Fracture

Authors: Jai Hyung Park, Eugene Kim, Jin Hun Park, Min Joon Oh

Abstract:

Introduction: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head (SIF) is a rare complication; however, it has been recognized to cause femoral head collapse. Subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is caused by normal or physiological stress without any trauma. It has been reported in osteoporotic patients after the fixation of the proximal femur with an Intramedullary nail. Case presentation: We reported 5 cases with SIF of the femoral head after proximal femur fracture fixation with Intra-medullary nail. All patients had osteoporosis as an underlying disease. Good reduction was achieved in all 5 patients. SIF was found from about 3 months to 4 years after the initial operation, and all the fractures were solidly united at the final diagnosis. We investigated retrospectively the feature of those cases and several factors that affected the occurrence of SIF. Discussion: There are a few discussions regarding the SIF of the femoral head. These discussions may include the predisposing risk factors, how to diagnose the SIF in osteoporotic patients, and the peri-operative factors to prevent SIF. Conclusion: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head is a considerable complication after the internal fixation of the proximal femur. There are several factors that can be modified. If they could be controlled in the peri-operative period, SIF could be prevented or handled in advance. Other options related to arthroplasty can be considered in old osteoporotic patients.

Keywords: insufficiency fracture of femoral head, intra-medullary nail, osteoporosis, proximal femur fracture

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1087 Trauma in the Unconsoled: A Crisis of the Self

Authors: Assil Ghariri

Abstract:

This article studies the process of rewriting the self through memory in Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel, the Unconsoled (1995). It deals with the journey that the protagonist Mr. Ryder takes through the unconscious, in search for his real self, in which trauma stands as an obstacle. The article uses Carl Jung’s theory of archetypes. Trauma, in this article, is discussed as one of the true obstacles of the unconscious that prevent people from realizing the truth about their selves.

Keywords: Carl Jung, Kazuo Ishiguro, memory, trauma

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1086 Assessing the Efficiency of Pre-Hospital Scoring System with Conventional Coagulation Tests Based Definition of Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy

Authors: Venencia Albert, Arulselvi Subramanian, Hara Prasad Pati, Asok K. Mukhophadhyay

Abstract:

Acute traumatic coagulopathy in an endogenous dysregulation of the intrinsic coagulation system in response to the injury, associated with three-fold risk of poor outcome, and is more amenable to corrective interventions, subsequent to early identification and management. Multiple definitions for stratification of the patients' risk for early acute coagulopathy have been proposed, with considerable variations in the defining criteria, including several trauma-scoring systems based on prehospital data. We aimed to develop a clinically relevant definition for acute coagulopathy of trauma based on conventional coagulation assays and to assess its efficacy in comparison to recently established prehospital prediction models. Methodology: Retrospective data of all trauma patients (n = 490) presented to our level I trauma center, in 2014, was extracted. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was done to establish cut-offs for conventional coagulation assays for identification of patients with acute traumatic coagulopathy was done. Prospectively data of (n = 100) adult trauma patients was collected and cohort was stratified by the established definition and classified as "coagulopathic" or "non-coagulopathic" and correlated with the Prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score and Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy Clinical Score for identifying trauma coagulopathy and subsequent risk for mortality. Results: Data of 490 trauma patients (average age 31.85±9.04; 86.7% males) was extracted. 53.3% had head injury, 26.6% had fractures, 7.5% had chest and abdominal injury. Acute traumatic coagulopathy was defined as international normalized ratio ≥ 1.19; prothrombin time ≥ 15.5 s; activated partial thromboplastin time ≥ 29 s. Of the 100 adult trauma patients (average age 36.5±14.2; 94% males), 63% had early coagulopathy based on our conventional coagulation assay definition. Overall prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score was 118.7±58.5 and trauma-induced coagulopathy clinical score was 3(0-8). Both the scores were higher in coagulopathic than non-coagulopathic patients (prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score 123.2±8.3 vs. 110.9±6.8, p-value = 0.31; trauma-induced coagulopathy clinical score 4(3-8) vs. 3(0-8), p-value = 0.89), but not statistically significant. Overall mortality was 41%. Mortality rate was significantly higher in coagulopathic than non-coagulopathic patients (75.5% vs. 54.2%, p-value = 0.04). High prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score also significantly associated with mortality (134.2±9.95 vs. 107.8±6.82, p-value = 0.02), whereas trauma-induced coagulopathy clinical score did not vary be survivors and non-survivors. Conclusion: Early coagulopathy was seen in 63% of trauma patients, which was significantly associated with mortality. Acute traumatic coagulopathy defined by conventional coagulation assays (international normalized ratio ≥ 1.19; prothrombin time ≥ 15.5 s; activated partial thromboplastin time ≥ 29 s) demonstrated good ability to identify coagulopathy and subsequent mortality, in comparison to the prehospital parameter-based scoring systems. Prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score may be more suited for predicting mortality rather than early coagulopathy. In emergency trauma situations, where immediate corrective measures need to be taken, complex multivariable scoring algorithms may cause delay, whereas coagulation parameters and conventional coagulation tests will give highly specific results.

Keywords: trauma, coagulopathy, prediction, model

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1085 Transmission of Intergenerational Trauma: Protecting Those who Still Suffer from Pain of their Ancestors’ Trauma

Authors: Bonnie Pollak

Abstract:

As the world continues to suffer grievous injuries, future generations will suffer from trauma that was inflicted on innocent victims. Trauma can result from refugees fleeing their homes, exposure to warfare, loss of loved ones, and lack of shelter and basic necessities. The Holocaust continues to cause pain even though WWII ended nearly 80 years ago. One cannot forget the inhumane treatment and murder of relatives. The pain and trauma may continue for generations. The purpose of the Final Solution was to eliminate Jews in totality. Though Hitler’s plan was not successful, he managed to cause trauma that will continue with no end date in sight. “The Effects of Trauma and Secondary Trauma,” Trauma can cause life-long challenges, eating disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, sleeping difficulties, fear of going outside, guilt, separation problems, and epigenetic changes. Secondary Trauma, witnessing a loved one in danger or hearing about the danger, can cause similar symptoms as seen in primary trauma. The transmission of trauma was demonstrated in children of Holocaust survivors and in communities where oppression was commonplace. We are witnessing a repeat of widescale death and horrific injuries today in Ukraine and in other parts of the world, where concern for pain and trauma is not acknowledged by perpetrators. Lessons from the Holocaust can be applied to help others who have been traumatized by widescale terrorism resulting in death of loved ones, loss of home and shelter, food and other life-sustaining measures. The world must help victims by providing basic necessities but also by using trauma-informed care, focusing on strength and resilience, and helping individuals to feel pride in their identity.

Keywords: transmission of intergenerational trauma, impact on religious beliefs and practices, 2nd generation, identity

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1084 Trauma-Informed Leadership: Educational Leadership Practices in a Global Pandemic

Authors: Kyna Elliott

Abstract:

The COVID-19 global pandemic has changed the shape, design, and delivery of education. As communities continue to fight the pandemic, research suggests the coronavirus is leaving an indelible mark on education which will last long after the pandemic has ended. Faculty and students bring more than their textbooks into the classroom. They bring their lived experiences into the classroom, and it is through these lived experiences that interactions and learning filter through. The COVID-19 pandemic has proved to be a traumatic experience for many. Leaders will need to have the tools and skills to mitigate trauma's impact on faculty and students. This presentation will explore research-based trauma-informed leadership practices, pedagogy, and mitigation strategies within secondary school environments.

Keywords: COVID-19, compassion fatigue, educational leadership, the science of trauma, trauma-informed leadership, trauma-informed pedagogy

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1083 Perpetrator Trauma in Current World Cinema

Authors: Raya Morag

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new paradigm for cinema/trauma studies - the trauma of the perpetrator. Canonical trauma research from Freud’s Aetiology of Hysteria to the present has been carried out from the perspective of identification with the victim, as have cinema trauma research and contemporary humanities-based trauma studies, climaxing during the 1990s in widespread interest in the victim vis-à-vis the Holocaust, war, and domestic violence. Breaking over 100 years of repression of the abhorrent and rejected concept of the perpetrator in psychoanalytic-based research proposes an uncanny shift in our conception of psychoanalysis' trajectory from women's 'hysteria' to 'post-traumatic stress disorder'. This new paradigm is driven by the global emergence of new waves of films (2007-2015) representing trauma suffered by perpetrators involved in the new style of war entailing deliberate targeting of non-combatants. Analyzing prominent examples from Israeli post-second Intifada documentaries (e.g., Ari Folman’s Waltz with Bashir), and post post-Iraq (and Afghanistan) War American documentaries (e.g., Errol Morris' Standard Operating Procedure), the paper discusses the limitations of victim trauma by the firm boundaries it (rightly) set in order to defend such victims of nineteenth and especially twentieth-century catastrophes; the epistemological processes needed in order to consider perpetrators’ trauma as an inevitable part of psychiatric-psychological and cultural perspectives on trauma, and, thus, the definition of perpetrators' trauma in contrast to victims'. It also analyzes the perpetrator's figure in order to go beyond the limitation of current trauma theory's relation to the Real, thus transgressing the 'unspeakableness' of the trauma itself. The paper seeks an exploration of what perpetrator trauma teaches us not only as a counter-paradigm to victim trauma, but as a reflection on the complex intertwining of the two paradigms in the twenty-first century collective new war unconscious, and on what psychoanalysis might offer us in the first decade of this terrorized-ethnicized century.

Keywords: American war documentaries, Israeli war documentaries, 'new war', perpetrator trauma

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1082 Impact of Mucormycosis Infection In Limb Salvage for Trauma Patients

Authors: Katie-Beth Webster

Abstract:

Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that, if left untreated, can cause large scale tissue necrosis and death. There are a number of cases of this in the literature, most commonly in the head and neck region arising from sinuses. It is also usually found in immunocompromised patient subgroups. This study reviewed a number of cases of mucormycosis in previously fit and healthy young trauma patients to assess predisposing factors for infection and adequacy of current treatment paradigms. These trauma patients likely contracted the fungal infection from the soil at the site of the incident. Despite early washout and debridement of the wounds at the scene of the injury and on arrival in hospital, both these patients contracted mucormycosis. It was suspected that inadequate early debridement of soil contaminated limbs was one of the major factors that can lead to catastrophic tissue necrosis. In both cases, this resulted in the patients having a higher level of amputation than would have initially been required based on the level of their injury. This was secondary to cutaneous and soft tissue necrosis secondary to the fungal infiltration leading to osteomyelitis and systemic sepsis. In the literature, it appears diagnosis is often protracted in this condition secondary to inadequate early treatment and long processing times for fungal cultures. If fungal cultures were sent at the time of first assessment and adequate debridements are performed aggressively early, it could lead to these critically unwell trauma patients receiving appropriate antifungal and surgical treatment earlier in their episode of care. This is likely to improve long term outcomes for these patients.

Keywords: mucormycosis, plastic surgery, osteomyelitis, trauma

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1081 Self Determination Theory and Trauma Informed Approach in Women's Shelters: A Common Ground

Authors: Gamze Dogan Birer

Abstract:

Women’s shelters provide service to women who had been subjected to physical, psychological, economical, and sexual violence. It is proposed that adopting a trauma-informed approach in these shelters would contribute to the ‘woman-defined’ success of the service. This includes reshaping the physical qualities of the shelter, contacts, and interventions that women face during their stay in a way that accepts and addresses their traumatic experiences. It is stated in this paper that the trauma-informed approach has commonalities with the basic psychological needs that are proposed by self-determination theory. Therefore, it is proposed that self-determination theory can be used as a theoretical background for trauma-informed approach

Keywords: self determination theory, trauma informed approach, violence against women, women's shelters

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1080 An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Head Movement on Engagement within a Telepresence Environment

Authors: B. S. Bamoallem, A. J. Wodehouse, G. M. Mair

Abstract:

Communication takes place not only through speech, but also by means of gestures such as facial expressions, gaze, head movements, hand movements and body posture, and though there has been rapid development, communication platforms still lack this type of behavior. We believe communication platforms need to fully achieve this verbal and non-verbal behavior in order to make interactions more engaging and more efficient. In this study we decided to focus our research on the head rather than any other body part as it is a rich source of information for speech-related movement Thus we aim to investigate the value of incorporating head movements into the use of telepresence robots as communication platforms; this will be done by investigating a system that reproduces head movement manually as closely as possible.

Keywords: engagement, nonverbal behaviours, head movements, face-to-face interaction, telepresence robot

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1079 Development of a Paediatric Head Model for the Computational Analysis of Head Impact Interactions

Authors: G. A. Khalid, M. D. Jones, R. Prabhu, A. Mason-Jones, W. Whittington, H. Bakhtiarydavijani, P. S. Theobald

Abstract:

Head injury in childhood is a common cause of death or permanent disability from injury. However, despite its frequency and significance, there is little understanding of how a child’s head responds during injurious loading. Whilst Infant Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) experimentation is a logical approach to understand injury biomechanics, it is the authors’ opinion that a lack of subject availability is hindering potential progress. Computer modelling adds great value when considering adult populations; however, its potential remains largely untapped for infant surrogates. The complexities of child growth and development, which result in age dependent changes in anatomy, geometry and physical response characteristics, present new challenges for computational simulation. Further geometric challenges are presented by the intricate infant cranial bones, which are separated by sutures and fontanelles and demonstrate a visible fibre orientation. This study presents an FE model of a newborn infant’s head, developed from high-resolution computer tomography scans, informed by published tissue material properties. To mimic the fibre orientation of immature cranial bone, anisotropic properties were applied to the FE cranial bone model, with elastic moduli representing the bone response both parallel and perpendicular to the fibre orientation. Biofiedility of the computational model was confirmed by global validation against published PMHS data, by replicating experimental impact tests with a series of computational simulations, in terms of head kinematic responses. Numerical results confirm that the FE head model’s mechanical response is in favourable agreement with the PMHS drop test results.

Keywords: finite element analysis, impact simulation, infant head trauma, material properties, post mortem human subjects

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1078 Assessing the Effects of Sub-Concussive Head Impacts on Clinical Measures of Neurologic Function

Authors: Gianluca Del Rossi

Abstract:

Sub-concussive impacts occur frequently in collision sports such as American tackle football. Sub-concussive level impacts are defined as hits to the head that do not result in the clinical manifestation of concussion injury. Presently, there is limited information known about the short-term effects of repeated sub-concussive blows to the head. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine if standard clinical measures could detect acute impairments in neurologic function resulting from the accumulation of sub-concussive impacts throughout a season of high school American tackle football. Simple reaction time using the ruler-drop test, and oculomotor performance using the King-Devick (KD) test, were assessed in 15 athletes prior to the start of the athletic season, then repeated each week of the season, and once following its completion. The mean reaction times and fastest KD scores that were recorded or calculated from each study participant and from each test session were analyzed to assess for change in reaction time and oculomotor performance over the course of the American tackle football season. Analyses of KD data revealed improvements in oculomotor performance from baseline measurements (i.e., decreased time), with most weekly comparisons to baseline being significantly different. Statistical tests performed on the mean reaction times obtained via the ruler-drop test throughout the season revealed statistically significant declines (i.e., increased time) between baseline and weeks 3, 4, 10, and 12 of the athletic season. The inconsistent and contrasting findings between KD data and reaction time demonstrate the need to identify more robust clinical measures to definitively assess if repeated sub-concussive impacts to the head are acutely detrimental to patients.

Keywords: head injury, mTBI and sport, subclinical head trauma, sub-concussive impacts

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1077 Implementation of an Accessible State-Wide Trauma Education Program

Authors: Christine Lassen, Elizabeth Leonard, Matthew Oliver

Abstract:

The management of trauma is often complex and outcomes dependent on clinical expertise, effective teamwork, and a supported trauma system. The implementation of a statewide trauma education program should be accessible to all clinicians who manage trauma, but this can be challenging due to diverse individual needs, trauma service needs and geography. The NSW Institute of Trauma and Injury Management (ITIM) is a government funded body, responsible for coordinating and supporting the NSW Trauma System. The aim of this presentation is to describe how education initiatives have been implemented across the state. Simulation: In 2006, ITIM developed a Trauma Team Training Course - aimed to educate clinicians on the technical and non-technical skills required to manage trauma. The course is now independently coordinated by trauma services across the state at major trauma centres as well as in regional and rural hospitals. ITIM is currently in the process of re-evaluating and updating the Trauma Team Training Course to allow for the development of new resources and simulation scenarios. Trauma Education Evenings: In 2013, ITIM supported major trauma services to develop trauma education evenings which allowed the provision of free education to staff within the area health service and local area. The success of these local events expanded to regional hospitals. A total of 75 trauma education evenings have been conducted within NSW, with over 10,000 attendees. Wed-Based Resources: Recently, ITIM commenced free live streaming of the trauma education evenings which have now had over 3000 live views. The Trauma App developed in 2015 provides trauma clinicians with a centralised portal for trauma information and works on smartphones and tablets that integrate with the ITIM website. This supports pre-hospital and bedside clinical decisions and allows for trauma care to be more standardised, evidence-based, timely, and appropriate. Online e-Learning modules have been developed to assist clinicians, reduce unwarranted clinical variation and provide up to date evidence based education. The modules incorporate clinically focused education content with summative and formative assessments. Conclusion: Since 2005, ITIM has helped to facilitate the development of trauma education programs for doctors, nurses, pre-hospital and allied health clinicians. ITIM has been actively involved in more than 100 specialized trauma education programs, seminars and clinical workshops - attended by over 12,000 staff. The provision of state-wide trauma education is a challenging task requiring collaboration amongst numerous agencies working towards a common goal – to provide easily accessible trauma education.

Keywords: education, simulation, team-training, trauma

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1076 Predicting the Relationship Between Childhood Trauma on the Formation of Defense Mechanisms with the Mediating Role of Object Relations in Traders

Authors: Ahmadreza Jabalameli, Mohammad Ebrahimpour Borujeni

Abstract:

According to psychodynamic theories, the major personality structure of individuals is formed in the first years of life. Trauma is an inseparable and undeniable part of everyone's life and they inevitably struggle with many traumas that can have a very significant impact on their lives. The present study deals with the relationship between childhood trauma on the formation of defense mechanisms and the role of object relations. The present descriptive study is a correlation with structural equation modeling (SEM). Sample selection is available and consists of 200 knowledgeable traders in Jabalameli Information Technology Company. The results indicate that the experience of childhood trauma with a demographic moderating effect, through the mediating role of object relations can lead to vulnerability to ego reality functionality and immature and psychically disturbed defense mechanisms. In this regard, there is a significant negative relationship between childhood trauma and object relations with mature defense mechanisms.

Keywords: childhood trauma, defense mechanisms, object relations, trade

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1075 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

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Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, autopsy, histological examination

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1074 Voice in Music Therapy and Adult Trauma Research: Presenting a Meta-Synthesis of Lived Experience Perspectives

Authors: Kirsten B. Hillman

Abstract:

There is a growing body of qualitative research in adult mental health and music therapy contexts which highlights user perspectives; however, only a very small sub-section of this literature pertains to people with lived experiences of psychological trauma. This paper will provide a meta-synthesis of this existing body of research, with the intention to present a cohesive overview of salient themes in this research and a platform for the under-represented voices of those with lived experience. This synthesis will be contextualised within a broader discussion of ‘Voice’ in trauma and music therapy research, considering its layered meanings: including literal expressive vocalising and musical expression, voicing after experiences of silencing, and the possibilities of experiencing self-determination and agency in therapy after trauma.

Keywords: lived experience, music therapy, trauma, user perspectives

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1073 Clinical Outcomes of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Acute Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage on Initial Emergency Ward Neuroimaging

Authors: S. Shafiee Ardestani, A. Najafi, N. Valizadeh, E. Payani, H. Karimian

Abstract:

Objectives: Treatment of mild traumatic brain injury in emergency ward patients with any type of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage is flexible. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical outcomes of mild traumatic brain injury patients who had acute traumatic intracranial hemorrhage on initial emergency ward neuroimaging. Materials-Methods: From March 2011 to November 2012 in a retrospective cohort study we enrolled emergency ward patients with mild traumatic brain injury with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15 and who had stable vital signs. Patients who had any type of intracranial hemorrhage on first head CT and repeat head CT within 24 hours were included. Patients with initial GCS < 14, injury > 24 hours old, pregnancy, concomitant non-minor injuries, and coagulopathy were excluded. Primary endpoints were neurosurgical procedures and/or death and for discharged patients, return to the emergency ward during one week. Results: Among 755 patients who were referred to the emergency ward and underwent two head CTs during first 24 hours, 302 (40%) were included. The median interval between CT scans was 6 hours (ranging 4 to 8 hours). Consequently, 135 (45%) patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage, 124 (41%) patients had subdural hemorrhage, 15 (5%) patients had epidural hemorrhage, 28 (9%) patients had cerebral contusions, and 54 (18%) patients had intra-parenchymal hemorrhage. Six of 302 patients died within 15 days of injury. 200 patients (66%) have been discharged from the emergency ward, 25 (12%) of whom returned to the emergency ward after one week. Conclusion: Discharge of the head trauma patients after a repeat head CT and brief period of observation in the emergency ward lead to early discharge of mild traumatic brain injury patients with traumatic ICH without adverse events.

Keywords: clinical outcomes, emergency ward, mild traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)

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1072 High Temperature Creep Analysis for Lower Head of Reactor Pressure Vessel

Authors: Dongchuan Su, Hai Xie, Naibin Jiang

Abstract:

Under severe accident cases, the nuclear reactor core may meltdown inside the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Retaining the melt pool inside the RPV is an important strategy of severe accident management. During this process, the inner wall of the lower head will be heated to high temperature of a thousand centigrade, and the outer wall is immersed in a large amount of cooling water. The material of the lower head will have serious creep damage under the high temperature and the temperature difference, and this produces a great threat to the integrity of the RPV. In this paper, the ANSYS program is employed to build the finite element method (FEM) model of the lower head, the creep phenomena is simulated under the severe accident case, the time dependent strain and stress distribution is obtained, the creep damage of the lower head is investigated, the integrity of the RPV is evaluated and the theoretical basis is provided for the optimized design and safety assessment of the RPV.

Keywords: severe accident, lower head of RPV, creep, FEM

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1071 Understanding the Coping Experience of Mothers with Childhood Trauma Histories: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Chan Yan Nok

Abstract:

The present study is a qualitative study based on the coping experiences of six Hong Kong Chinese mothers who had childhood trauma from their first-person perspective. Expanding the perspective beyond the dominant discourse of “inter-generation transmission of trauma”, this study explores the experiences and meanings of child trauma embedded in their narratives through the process of thematic analysis and narrative analysis. The interviewees painted a nuanced picture of their process of coping and trauma resolution. First, acknowledgement; second, feel safe and start to tell the story of trauma; third, feel the feelings and expression of emotions; fourth, clarifying and coping with the impacts of trauma; fifth, integration and transformation; and sixth, using their new understanding of experience to have a better life. It was seen that there was no “end” within the process of trauma resolution. Instead, this is an ongoing process with positive healing trajectory. Analysis of the stories of the mothers revealed recurrent themes around continuous self-reflective awareness in the process of trauma coping. Rather than being necessarily negative and detrimental, childhood trauma could highlight the meanings of being a mother and reveal opportunities for continuous personal growth and self-enhancement. Utilizing the sense of inadequacy as a core driver in the trauma recovery process while developing a heightened awareness of the unfinished business embedded in their “automatic pattern” of behaviors, emotions, and thoughts can help these mothers become more flexible to formulate new methods in facing future predicaments. Future social work and parent education practices should help mothers deal with unresolved trauma, make sense of their impacts of childhood trauma and discover the growth embedded in the past traumatic experience. They should be facilitated in “acknowledging the reality of the trauma”, including understanding their complicated emotions arising from the traumatic experiences and voicing their struggles. In addition, helping these mothers to be aware of short-term and long-term trauma impacts (i.e., secondary responses to the trauma) and explore their effective coping strategies in “overcoming secondary responses to the trauma” are crucial for their future positive adjustment and transformation. Through affirming their coping abilities and lessons learnt from past experiences, mothers can reduce feelings of shame and powerlessness and enhance their parental capacity.

Keywords: childhood trauma, coping, mothers, self-awareness, self-reflection, trauma resolution

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1070 Paucity of Trauma Literature from a Highly Burdened Developing Country

Authors: Rizwan Sultan, Hasnain Zafar

Abstract:

Trauma is the leading cause of death among young population not only in USA but Pakistan as well. The high prevalence of disease should result in larger amount of data and larger number of publications resulting in exploring room for improvement in the field. We aimed to review trauma literature generated from Pakistan in journals indexed with PubMed from January 2010 to December 2014. Search using term “Trauma AND Pakistan” filtering for relevant dates and species human was done on Pubmed. The abstracts and articles were reviewed by the authors to collect data on a preformed performa. 114 articles were published from Pakistan during these 5 years. 64% articles were published in international journals. 63% articles were published in journals with impact factor less than 1. 54% articles were published from one of the four provinces of Pakistan. 64% of articles provided level 4 while 14% articles provided level 5 evidence on the topic. 55% articles discussed epidemiology in non-representative populations. Trauma literature from Pakistan is not only lacking significantly but is also of poor quality and is unable to offer conclusions on this particular subject. There is a lot of space for improvement in the upcoming years.

Keywords: trauma, literature, Pakistan, level of evidence

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1069 Optimum Flight Altitude

Authors: Ravi Nandu, Anmol Taploo

Abstract:

As per current scenario, commercial aircrafts have been very well functioning with higher efficiency, but there is something that affects it. Every aircraft runs with the combustion produced by mixture of fuel and air. For example: A flight to travel from Mumbai to Kolkata it takes 2h: 30 min and from Kolkata to Mumbai it takes 2h: 45 min. It happens due to head and tail wind. Due to head wind air craft travels faster than its usual velocity and it takes 2h: 30 min to reach to Kolkata, while it takes 2h;45min vis versa. This lag in time is caused due to head wind that increases the drag and reduces the relative velocity of the plane. So in order to reduce this wastage of fuel there is an optimal flight altitude at which the head and tail wind action is reduced compared to the present scenario.

Keywords: drag, head wind, tail wind, aircraft

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1068 Autopsy-Based Study of Abdominal Traffic Trauma Death after Emergency Room Arrival

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

Abstract:

We experience the autopsy cases that the deceased was alive in emergency room on arrival. Bleeding is the leading cause of preventable death after injury. This retrospective study aimed to characterize opportunities for performance improvement identified in patients who died from traffic trauma and were considered by the quality improvement of education system. The Japan Advanced Trauma Evaluation and Care (JATEC) education program was introduced in 2002. We focused the abdominal traffic trauma injury. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 41 post-mortems of road traffic accident between April 1999 and March 2014 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science. 16 patients (39.0%) were abdominal trauma injury. The mean period of survival after meet with accident was 13.5 hours, compared abdominal trauma death was 27.4 hours longer. In road traffic accidents, the most injured abdominal organs were liver followed by mesentery. We thought delayed treatment was associated with immediate diagnostic imaging, and so expected to expand trauma management examination.

Keywords: abdominal traffic trauma, preventable death, autopsy, emergency medicine

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1067 Mike Hat: Coloured-Tape-in-Hat as a Head Circumference Measuring Instrument for Early Detection of Hydrocephalus in an Infant

Authors: Nyimas Annissa Mutiara Andini

Abstract:

Every year, children develop hydrocephalus during the first year of life. If it is not treated, hydrocephalus can lead to brain damage, a loss in mental and physical abilities, and even death. To be treated, first, we have to do a proper diagnosis using some examinations especially to detect hydrocephalus earlier. One of the examination that could be done is using a head circumference measurement. Increased head circumference is a first and main sign of hydrocephalus, especially in infant (0-1 year age). Head circumference is a measurement of a child's head largest area. In this measurement, we want to get the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head using a measurement tape. If the head circumference of an infant is larger than normal, this infant might potentially suffer hydrocephalus. If early diagnosis and timely treatment of hydrocephalus could be done most children can recover successfully. There are some problems with early detection of hydrocephalus using regular tape for head circumference measurement. One of the problem is the infant’s comfort. We need to make the infant feel comfort along the head circumference measurement to get a proper result of the examination. For that, we can use a helpful stuff, like a hat. This paper is aimed to describe the possibility of using a head circumference measuring instrument for early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant with a mike hat, coloured-tape-in-hat. In the first life, infants’ head size is about 35 centimeters. First three months after that infants will gain 2 centimeters each month. The second three months, infant’s head circumference will increase 1 cm each month. And for the six months later, the rate is 0.5 cm per month, and end up with an average of 47 centimeters. This formula is compared to the WHO’s head circumference growth chart. The shape of this tape-in-hat is alike an upper arm measurement. This tape-in-hat diameter is about 47 centimeters. It contains twelve different colours range by age. If it is out of the normal colour, the infant potentially suffers hydrocephalus. This examination should be done monthly. If in two times of measurement there still in the same range abnormal of head circumference, or a rapid growth of the head circumference size, the infant should be referred to a pediatrician. There are the pink hat for girls and blue hat for boys. Based on this paper, we know that this measurement can be used to help early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant.

Keywords: head circumference, hydrocephalus, infant, mike hat

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1066 Structural Analysis of Hydro-Turbine Head Cover Using Ansys

Authors: Surjit Angra, Manisha Kumari, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

The objective of the Hydro Turbine Head Cover is to support the guide bearing, guide vane regulating mechanism and even in some design for generator thrust bearing support. Mechanical design of head cover deals with high static as well as fluctuating load acting on the structure. In the present work structural analysis of hydro turbine Head-cover using ANSYS software is carried out. Finite element method is used to calculate stresses on head cover. These calculations were done for the maximum possible loading under operating condition “LCI Quick Shut Down”. The results for equivalent Von-Mises stress, total deformation and directional deformation have been plotted and compared with the existing results whether the design is safe or not.

Keywords: ANSYS, head cover, hydro-turbine, structural analysis, total deformation, Von-Mises stress

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1065 Documentation of Verbal and Written Head Injury Advice Given to All Adults Presenting Following a Head Injury

Authors: Rania Mustafa, Anfal Gadour

Abstract:

Specialty area: Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Wythenshawe Hospital Accident and Emergency Department. About, Documentation of verbal and written head injury advice given to all adults presenting following a head injury. Our aim was to assess verbal & written head injury advice for an adult patient attending ED in Wythenshawe hospital during the period from January 2022 to May 2022, with a view to evaluating the NICE head injury guidelines concerning discharge advice and also to review the clinical notes to ensure that all adult patients presenting with a head injury are documented to have received both verbal & written head injury advice as per the NICE guidelines. Here we collected data from a random sample over a 1 month period. This data was furtherly filtered to include the adult patient >16 years and resulted in 54 patients with head injuries attending ED during this time period; then patient’s age, sex and hospital number were used to identify the discharge advice for the purpose of chart review and to assess the documentation of head injuries compliance with recommendation for NICE assessment. Data were checked between January 2022 up to May 2022 to allow more intervals for better assessment. Our finding indicates that documentation of verbal advice, 26% of patients were not recorded to have received this in January compared to only 3% in May & Written advice was not recorded in 44% of patients studied in January compared to 1% in May.

Keywords: head, injuries, advice, leaflets

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