Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 173

Search results for: hatching rhythm

173 Hatching Rhythm, Larval Release of the Rocky Intertidal Crab Leptoduis exaratus (Brachyura: Xanthidae) in Kuwait, Arabian Gulf

Authors: Zainab Al-Wazzan, Luis Gimenez, Lewis Le Vay, Manaf Behbehani

Abstract:

The hatching rhythm and larval release patterns of the rocky shore crab Leptoduis exaratus was investigated in relation to the tidal cycle, the time of the day, and lunar cycle. Ovigerous females were collected from rocky shores at six sites along the Kuwait coastline between April and July of 2014. The females were kept separated in aquaria under a natural photoperiod cycle and the pattern of larval release was monitored in relation to local tidal and dial cycles. Larval release occurred mostly during the night time, and was highly synchronized with neap tides that followed full moon; at the end of the hatching period, significant larval release occurred also during spring tides. Time series analysis showed a highly significant autocorrelation and the periodicity at a peak of 14-15 days. The cross-correlation analysis between hatching and the daily low tide level suggests that larvae are released about a day before neap tide. Hatching during neap tides occurred early in the night at times of the expected ebb tide. During spring tide period (late in the season), larval release occurred later during night at tides of the ebb tide. The results of this study indicated a strong relationship between the tidal cycle, time of the day and the hatching rhythm of L. exaratus. In addition, the results suggest that water level in the intertidal zone is also playing a very important role in determining the time of the hatching. Hatching and larval release synchronize with the preferred larval environmental conditions to prevent exposing larvae to physiological or environmental stress during their early larval stages. It is also an important factor in determining the larval dispersal.

Keywords: brachyura, hatching rhythm, larvae, Kuwait

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172 Use of Personal Rhythm to Authenticate Encrypted Messages

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez

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When communicating using private and secure keys, there is always the doubt as to the identity of the message creator. We introduce an algorithm that uses the personal typing rhythm (keystroke dynamics) of the message originator to increase the trust of the authenticity of the message originator by the message recipient. The methodology proposes the use of a Rhythm Certificate Authority (RCA) to validate rhythm information. An illustrative example of the communication between Bob and Alice and the RCA is included. An algorithm of how to communicate with the RCA is presented. This RCA can be an independent authority or an enhanced Certificate Authority like the one used in public key infrastructure (PKI).

Keywords: authentication, digital signature, keystroke dynamics, personal rhythm, public-key encryption

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171 Influence of IL-1β on Hamster Blastocyst Hatching via Regulation of Hatching Associated Proteases

Authors: Madhulika Pathak, Polani Seshagiri, Vani Venkatappa

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Blastocyst hatching is an indispensable process for successful implantation. One of the major reasons for implantation failure in IVF clinic is poor quality of embryo, which are not development/hatching-competent. Therefore, attempts are required to develop or enhance the culture system with a molecule recapitulating the autocrine/paracrine factors containing the environment of in-vivo endometrial milieu. We have tried to explore the functional molecules involved in the hamster hatching phenomenon. Blastocyst hatching is governed by several molecules that are entwined and regulate this process, among which cytokines are known to be expressed and are still least explored. Two of such cytokines we have used for our study are IL-1β and its natural antagonist IL-1ra to understand the functional dynamics of cytokines involved in the hatching process. Using hamster, an intriguing experimental model for hatching behavior, we have shown the mRNA (qPCR) and protein (ICC) expression of IL-1β, IL-1ra and IL-1 receptor type 1 throughout all the stages of morula, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst. Post-asserting the expression, the functional role is shown by supplementation studies, where IL-1β supplementation showed enhancement in hatching level (IL-1β treated: 84.1 ± 4.2% vs control: 63.7 ± 3.1 %, N=11), further confirmed by the diminishing effect of IL-1ra on hatching rate (IL-1ra treated: 27.5 ± 11.1% vs control: 67.9 ± 3.1%). The exogenous supplementation of IL-1ra decreased the survival rate of embryos and affected the viability in dose-dependent manner, establishing the importance of IL-1β in blastocyst cell survival. Previously, the cathepsin L and B were established as the proteases that were involved in the hamster hatching process. The inducing effect of IL-1β was correlated with enhanced mRNA level, as analyzed by qPCR, for both CAT L (by 1.9 ± 0.5 fold) and CAT B (by 3.5 ± 0.1) fold which was diminished in presence of IL-1ra (Cat L by 88 percent and Cat B by 94 percent. Moreover, using a specific fluorescent substrate-based assay kit, the enzymatic activity of these proteases was found to be increased in presence of IL-1β (Cat L by 2.1 ± 0.1 fold and CAT B by 2.3 ± 0.7 fold) and was curtailed in presence of IL-1ra. These observations provide functional insights with respect to the involvement of cytokines in the hatching process. This has implications in understanding the hatching biology and improving the embryo development quality in IVF clinics.

Keywords: Blastocyst, Cytokines, Hatching, Interleukin

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170 Speech Rhythm Variation in Languages and Dialects: F0, Natural and Inverted Speech

Authors: Imen Ben Abda

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Languages have been classified into different rhythm classes. 'Stress-timed' languages are exemplified by English, 'syllable-timed' languages by French and 'mora-timed' languages by Japanese. However, to our best knowledge, acoustic studies have not been unanimous in strictly establishing which rhythm category a given language belongs to and failed to show empirical evidence for isochrony. Perception seems to be a good approach to categorize languages into different rhythm classes. This study, within the scope of experimental phonetics, includes an account of different perceptual experiments using cues from natural and inverted speech, as well as pitch extracted from speech data. It is an attempt to categorize speech rhythm over a large set of Arabic (Tunisian, Algerian, Lebanese and Moroccan) and English dialects (Welsh, Irish, Scottish and Texan) as well as other languages such as Chinese, Japanese, French, and German. Listeners managed to classify the different languages and dialects into different rhythm classes using suprasegmental cues mainly rhythm and pitch (F0). They also perceived rhythmic differences even among languages and dialects belonging to the same rhythm class. This may show that there are different subclasses within very broad rhythmic typologies.

Keywords: F0, inverted speech, mora-timing, rhythm variation, stress-timing, syllable-timing

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169 Circadian Rhythm and Demographic Incidence

Authors: Behnaz Farahani, Abbas Mirzaei

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This study explores association between circadian rhythm pattern and some demographic incidences. The participants targeting 193 (97 females and 96 males between the ages of 20-30 years) Iranian bachelor students from Islamic Azad University who completed the self-reported over the 2nd semester 2011-2012 university year. The questionnaire has been tailored amalgamation of Horn & Östberg Questionnaire (MEQ) and Demographic Incidences Questionnaire in order to measure the students circadian rhythm pattern and their Demographic Incidences. The finding of this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis confirmed the hypothesis in that 'circadian rhythm pattern' was positively associated with the demographic indices like age, marital status, gender, day in week and month of the birth time, and parent’s age and educational level at the time of the birth of the samples.

Keywords: circadian rhythm pattern, demographic incidences, morning type, evening type

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168 Post-Hatching Development of the Cloacal Bursa in Chicken

Authors: Fatimah A. Alhomaid

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A total of 40 one day-old LSL chicks (Lohman Selected Loghorn) were used in this study. In 20 days-old chicks, the bursa was formed of mucosa, musculosa and serosa. Its lamina propria was lymphoid in nature. After hatching, the bursa continued to grow and became fully developed at the 30th day post- hatching. It appeared as a blind sac. Its lumen was occupied by 12-13 mucosal folds. Each fold was lined by tall columnar or pseudo- stratified columnar epithelium. Its core was made of lamina propria infiltrated by a large number of lymphoid follicles. Most follicles possessed an outer corona surrounding a germinal center. At the age of 6 weeks physiological regression of the bursa was observed. The lymphoid follicles were decreased in size, the lymphocytes were depleted and the interfollicular stroma became obvious, thicker and more fibrous. Fibrosis of the lymphoid follicles was frequently seen in some sections at the age of 30 weeks.

Keywords: Bursa of fabricius, lymphocytes, cloacal Bursa

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167 Sunshine Hour as a Factor to Maintain the Circadian Rhythm of Heart Rate: Analysis of Ambulatory ECG and Weather Big Data

Authors: Emi Yuda, Yutaka Yoshida, Junichiro Hayano

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Distinct circadian rhythm of activity, i.e., high activity during the day and deep rest at night are a typical feature of a healthy lifestyle. Exposure to the skylight is thought to be an important factor to increase arousal level and maintain normal circadian rhythm. To examine whether sunshine hours influence the day-night contract of activity, we analyzed the relationship between 24-hour heart rate (HR) and weather data of the recording day. We analyzed data in 36,500 males and 49,854 females of Allostatic State Mapping by Ambulatory ECG Repository (ALLSTAR) database in Japan. Median (IQR) sunshine duration was 5.3 (2.8-7.9) hr. While sunshine hours had only modest effects of increasing 24-hour average HR in either gender (P=0.0282 and 0.0248 for male and female) and no significant effects on nighttime HR in either gender, it increased daytime HR (P = 0.0007 and 0.0015) and day-night HF difference in both genders (P < 0.0001 for both) even after adjusting for the effects of average temperature, atmospheric pressure, and humidity. Our observations support for the hypothesis that longer sunshine hours enhance circadian rhythm of activity.

Keywords: big data, circadian rhythm, heart rate, sunshine

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166 Predictors of Survival of Therapeutic Hypothermia Based on Analysis of a Consecutive American Inner City Population over 4 Years

Authors: Jorge Martinez, Brandon Roberts, Holly Payton Toca

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Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the international standard of care for all comatose patients after cardiac arrest, but criticism focuses on poor outcomes. We sought to develop criteria to identify American urban patients more likely to benefit from TH. Methods: Retrospective chart review of 107 consecutive adults undergoing TH in downtown New Orleans from 2010-2014 yielded records for 99 patients with all 44 survivors or families contacted up to four years. Results: 69 males and 38 females with a mean age of 60.2 showed 63 dead (58%) and 44 survivors (42%). Presenting cardiac rhythm was divided into shockable (Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia, Ventricular Fibrillation) and non-shockable (Pulseless Electrical Activity, Asystole). Presenting in shockable rhythms with ROSC <20 minutes were 21 patients with 15 (71%) survivors (p=.001). Time >20 minutes until ROSC in shockable rhythms had 5 patients with 3 survivors (78%, p=0.001). Presenting in non-shockable rhythms with ROSC <20 minutes were 54 patients with 18 survivors (33%, p=.001). ROSC >20 minutes in non-shockable rhythms had 19 patients with 2 survivors (8%, p=.001). Survivors of shockable rhythms showed 19 (100%) living post TH. 15 survivors (79%, n=19, p=.001) had CPC score 1 or 2 with 4 survivors (21%, n=19) having a CPC score of 3. A total of 25 survived non-shockable rhythm. Acute survival of patients with non-shockable rhythm showed 18 expired <72 hours (72%, n=25) with long-term survival of 4 patients (5%, n=74) and CPC scores of 1 or 2 (p=.001). Interestingly, patients with time to ROSC <20 minutes exhibiting more than one loss of sustained ROSC showed 100% mortality (p=.001). Patients presenting with shockable >20 minutes ROSC had overall survival of 70% (p=.001), but those undergoing >3 cardiac rhythm changes had 100% mortality (p=.001). Conclusion: Patients presenting with shockable rhythms undergoing TH had overall acute survival of 70% followed by long-term survival of 100% after 4 years. In contrast, patients presenting with non-shockable rhythm had long-term survival of 5%. TH is not recommended for patients presenting with non-shockable rhythm and requiring greater than 20 minutes for restoration of ROSC.

Keywords: cardiac rhythm changes, Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA), Therapeutic Hypothermia (TH)

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165 Beak Size and Asynchronous Hatch in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Mariana Thimotheo, Gabriel Carvalho Ripamonte, Marina De Almeida Nogueira, Silvia Camila Da Costa Aguiar, Marcelo Henrique Santana Ulian, Euclides Braga Malheiros, Isabel Cristina Boleli

Abstract:

Beak plays a fundamental role in the hatching process of the chicks, since it is used for internal and external pipping. The present study examined whether the size of the beak influences the birth period of the broiler chicks in the hatching window. It was analyzed the beak size (length, height and width) of one-hundred twenty nine newly hatched chicks from light eggs (56.22-61.05g) and one-hundred twenty six chicks from heavy eggs (64.95-70.90g), produced by 38 and 45 weeks old broiler breeders (Cobb 500®), respectively. Egg incubation occurred at 37.5°C and 60% RH, with egg turning every hour. Length, height and width of the beaks were measured using a digital caliper (Zaas precision - digital caliper 6", 0.01mm) and the data expressed in millimeters. The beak length corresponded to distance between the tip of the beak and the rictus. The height of the beak was measured in the region of the culmen and its width in the region of the nostrils. Data were analyzed following a 3x2 factorial experimental design, being three birth periods within the hatching window (early: 471.78 to 485.42h, intermediate: 485.43 to 512.27h, and late: 512.28 to 528.72h) and two egg weights (light and heavy). There was a significant interaction between birth period and egg weight for beak height (P < 0.05), which was higher in the intermediate chicks from heavy eggs than in the other chicks from the same egg weight and chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05), that did not differ (P > 0.05). The beak length was influenced only for a birth period, and decreased through the hatch window (early < intermediate < late) (P < 0.05). The width of the beaks was influenced by both main factors, birth period and egg weight (P < 0.05). Early and intermediate chicks had similar beak width, but greater than late chicks, and chicks from heavy eggs presented greater beak width than chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05). In sum, the results show that chicks with longer beak hatch first and that beak length is an important variable for hatch period determination mainly for light eggs.

Keywords: beak dimensions, egg weight, hatching period, hatching window

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164 Egg Hatching Inhibition Activity of Volatile Oils Extracted from Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants against Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne hapla

Authors: Anil F. Felek, Mehmet M. Ozcan, Faruk Akyazi

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Volatile oils of medicinal and aromatic plants are important for managing nematological problems in agriculture. In present study, volatile oils extracted from five medicinal and aromatic plants including Origanum onites (flower+steam+leaf), Salvia officinalis (leaf), Lippia citriodora (leaf+seed), Mentha spicata (leaf) and Mentha longifolia (leaf) were tested for egg hatching inhibition activity against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under laboratory conditions. The essential oils were extracted using water distillation method with a Clevenger system. For the homogenisation process of the oils, 2% gum arabic solution was used and 4 µl oils was added into 1ml filtered gum arabic solution to prepare the last stock solution. 5 ml of stock solution and 1 ml of M. hapla egg suspension (about 100 eggs) were added into petri dishes. Gum arabic solution was used as control. Seven days after exposure to oils at room temperature (26±2 °C), the cumulative hatched and unhatched eggs were counted under 40X inverted light microscope and Abbott’s formula was used to calculate egg hatching inhibition rates. As a result, the highest inhibition rate was found as 54% for O. onites. In addition, the other inhibition rates varied as 31.4%, 21.6%, 23.8%, 25.67% for the other plants, S. officinalis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and L. citriodora, respectively. Carvacrol was found as the main component (68.8%) of O. onites followed by Thujone 27.77% for S. officinalis, I-Menthone 76.92% for M. longifolia, Carvone 27.05% for M. spicata and Citral 19.32% for L. citriodora.

Keywords: egg hatching, Meloidogyne hapla, medicinal and aromatic plants, root-knot nematodes, volatile oils

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163 Ecotoxicity Evaluation and Suggestion of Remediation Method of ZnO Nanoparticles in Aqueous Phase

Authors: Hyunsang Kim, Younghun Kim, Younghee Kim, Sangku Lee

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We investigated ecotoxicity and performed an experiment for removing ZnO nanoparticles in water. Short-term exposure of hatching test using fertilized eggs (O. latipes) showed deformity in 5 ppm of ZnO nanoparticles solution, and in 10ppm ZnO nanoparticles solution delayed hatching was observed. Herein, chemical precipitation method was suggested for removing ZnO nanoparticles in water. The precipitated ZnO nanoparticles showed the form of ZnS after addition of Na2S, and the form of Zn3(PO4)2 for Na2HPO4. The removal efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in water was closed to 100% for two case. In ecotoxicity evaluation of as-precipitated ZnS and Zn3(PO4)2, they did not cause any acute toxicity for D. magna. It is noted that this precipitation treatment of ZnO is effective to reduce the potential cytotoxicity.

Keywords: ZnO nanopraticles, ZnS, Zn3(PO4)2, ecotoxicity evaluation, chemical precipitation

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162 The Effect of Acute Toxicity and Thyroid Hormone Treatments on Hormonal Changes during Embryogenesis of Acipenser persicus

Authors: Samaneh Nazeri, Bagher Mojazi Amiri, Hamid Farahmand

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Production of high quality fish eggs with reasonable hatching rate makes a success in aquaculture industries. It is influenced by the environmental stimulators and inhibitors. Diazinon is a widely-used pesticide in Golestan province (Southern Caspian Sea, North of Iran) which is washed to the aquatic environment (3 mg/L in the river). It is little known about the effect of this pesticide on the embryogenesis of sturgeon fish, the valuable species of the Caspian Sea. Hormonal content of the egg is an important factor to guaranty the successful passes of embryonic stages. In this study, the fate of Persian sturgeon embryo to 24, 48, 72, and 96-hours exposure of diazinon (LC50 dose) was tested. Also, the effect of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) on these embryos was tested concurrently or separately with diazinon LC 50 dose. Fertilized eggs are exposed to T3 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml), T4 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml). Six eggs were randomly selected from each treatment (with three replicates) in five developmental stages (two cell- division, neural, heart present, heart beaten, and hatched larvae). The possibility of changing T3, T4, and cortisol contents of the embryos were determined in all treated groups and in every mentioned embryonic stage. The hatching rate in treated groups was assayed at the end of the embryogenesis to clarify the effect of thyroid hormones and diazinon. The results indicated significant differences in thyroid hormone contents, but no significant differences were recognized in cortisol levels at various early life stages of embryos. There was also significant difference in thyroid hormones in (T3, T4) + diazinon treated embryos (P˂0.05), while no significant difference between control and treatments in cortisol levels was observed. The highest hatching rate was recorded in HT3 treatment, while the lowest hatching rate was recorded for diazinon LC50 treatment. The result confirmed that Persian sturgeon embryo is less sensitive to diazinon compared to teleost embryos, and thyroid hormones may increase hatching rate even in the presence of diazinon.

Keywords: Persian sturgeon, diazinon, thyroid hormones, cortisol, embryo

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161 Application of the Best Technique for Estimating the Rest-Activity Rhythm Period in Shift Workers

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Soni

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Under free living conditions, human biological clocks show a periodicity of 24 hour for numerous physiological, behavioral and biochemical variables. However, this period is not the original period; rather it merely exhibits synchronization with the solar clock. It is, therefore, most important to investigate characteristics of human circadian clock, essentially in shift workers, who normally confront with contrasting social clocks. Aim of the present study was to investigate rest-activity rhythm and to vouch for the best technique for the computation of periods in this rhythm in subjects randomly selected from different groups of shift workers. The rest-activity rhythm was studied in forty-eight shift workers from three different organizations, namely Newspaper Printing Press (NPP), Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) and Raipur Alloys (RA). Shift workers of NPP (N = 20) were working on a permanent night shift schedule (NS; 20:00-04:00). However, in CSEB (N = 14) and RA (N = 14), shift workers were working in a 3-shift system comprising of rotations from night (NS; 22:00-06:00) to afternoon (AS; 14:00-22:00) and to morning shift (MS; 06:00-14:00). Each subject wore an Actiwatch (AW64, Mini Mitter Co. Inc., USA) for 7 and/or 21 consecutive days, only after furnishing a certificate of consent. One-minute epoch length was chosen for the collection of wrist activity data. Period was determined by using Actiware sleep software (Periodogram), Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) and Spectral analysis software (Spectre). Other statistical techniques, such as ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test were also used whenever required. A statistically significant circadian rhythm in rest-activity, gauged by cosinor, was documented in all shift workers, irrespective of shift work. Results indicate that the efficiency of the technique to determine the period (τ) depended upon the clipping limits of the τs. It appears that the technique of spectre is more reliable.

Keywords: biological clock, rest activity rhythm, spectre, periodogram

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160 Absence of Developmental Change in Epenthetic Vowel Duration in Japanese Speakers’ English

Authors: Takayuki Konishi, Kakeru Yazawa, Mariko Kondo

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This study examines developmental change in the production of epenthetic vowels by Japanese learners of English in relation to acquisition of L2 English speech rhythm. Seventy-two Japanese learners of English in the J-AESOP corpus were divided into lower- and higher-level learners according to their proficiency score and the frequency of vowel epenthesis. Three learners were excluded because no vowel epenthesis was observed in their utterances. The analysis of their read English speech data showed no statistical difference between lower- and higher-level learners, implying the absence of any developmental change in durations of epenthetic vowels. This result, together with the findings of previous studies, will be discussed in relation to the transfer of L1 phonology and manifestation of L2 English rhythm.

Keywords: vowel epenthesis, Japanese learners of English, L2 speech corpus, speech rhythm

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159 Rhythm-Reading Success Using Conversational Solfege

Authors: Kelly Jo Hollingsworth

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Conversational Solfege, a research-based, 12-step music literacy instructional method using the sound-before-sight approach, was used to teach rhythm-reading to 128-second grade students at a public school in the southeastern United States. For each step, multiple scripted techniques are supplied to teach each skill. Unit one was the focus of this study, which is quarter note and barred eighth note rhythms. During regular weekly music instruction, students completed method steps one through five, which includes aural discrimination, decoding familiar and unfamiliar rhythm patterns, and improvising rhythmic phrases using quarter notes and barred eighth notes. Intact classes were randomly assigned to two treatment groups for teaching steps six through eight, which was the visual presentation and identification of quarter notes and barred eighth notes, visually presenting and decoding familiar patterns, and visually presenting and decoding unfamiliar patterns using said notation. For three weeks, students practiced steps six through eight during regular weekly music class. One group spent five-minutes of class time on steps six through eight technique work, while the other group spends ten-minutes of class time practicing the same techniques. A pretest and posttest were administered, and ANOVA results reveal both the five-minute (p < .001) and ten-minute group (p < .001) reached statistical significance suggesting Conversational Solfege is an efficient, effective approach to teach rhythm-reading to second grade students. After two weeks of no instruction, students were retested to measure retention. Using a repeated-measures ANOVA, both groups reached statistical significance (p < .001) on the second posttest, suggesting both the five-minute and ten-minute group retained rhythm-reading skill after two weeks of no instruction. Statistical significance was not reached between groups (p=.252), suggesting five-minutes is equally as effective as ten-minutes of rhythm-reading practice using Conversational Solfege techniques. Future research includes replicating the study with other grades and units in the text.

Keywords: conversational solfege, length of instructional time, rhythm-reading, rhythm instruction

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158 The Relationship between Rhythmic Complexity and Listening Engagement as a Proxy for Perceptual Interest

Authors: Noah R. Fram

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Although it has been confirmed by multiple studies, the inverted-U relationship between stimulus complexity and preference (liking) remains contentious. Research aimed at substantiating the model are largely reliant upon anecdotal self-assessments of subjects and basic measures of complexity, leaving potential confounds unresolved. This study attempts to address the topic by assessing listening time as a behavioral correlate of liking (with the assumption that engagement prolongs listening time) and by looking for latent factors underlying several measures of rhythmic complexity. Participants listened to groups of rhythms, stopping each one when they started to lose interest and were asked to rate each rhythm in each group in terms of interest, complexity, and preference. Subjects were not informed that the time spent listening to each rhythm was the primary measure of interest. The hypothesis that listening time does demonstrate the same inverted-U relationship with complexity as verbal reports of liking was confirmed using a variety of metrics for rhythmic complexity, including meter-dependent measures of syncopation and meter-independent measures of entropy.

Keywords: complexity, entropy, rhythm, syncopation

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157 Tetraploid Induction in the Yellowtail Tetra Astyanax altiparanae

Authors: Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Matheus Pereira-Santos, Nycolas Levy-Pereira, José Augusto Senhorini, George Shigueki Yasui, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi

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Tetraploid individuals, which could produce diploid gametes, can be used for production of 100% triploid fish. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a tetraploidization protocol for A. altiparanae. We tested the effect of heat shock (40 °C; 2 min) at 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 and 26 minutes post fertilization (mpf). Untreated eggs were used as control. After hatching, ploidy status of the larvae was checked by flow cytometry. No difference were observed for the hatching rate between all treatments (P = 0.5974). However, we observed an increase in the larval abnormality in the heat shock treatments, in special at 22 (82.17 ± 6.66%) 24 (78.31 ±7.28%) and 26 mpf (79.01 ± 7.85%) in comparison with the control group (12.87 ± 4.46%). No tetraploid was observed at 16 and 18 mpf. The higher number of tetraploid individuals (52/55) was observed at 26 mpf. Our results showed that high percentages of tetraploids are obtained by heat shock (40°C; 2min) at 26 mpf, which could enable the mass production of triploid individuals in A. altiparanae.

Keywords: chromosome manipulation, polyploidy, flow cytometry, tetraploidization

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156 Impact of Propolis on Cryopreservation of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Sperm

Authors: K. A. El-Battawy, E. Brannas

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Cryopreservation of sperm causes damages and adversely affected sperm motility and viability resulting in lower hatching rates. The aim of this study is to determine whether propolis has potential protective effect on cryopreservation and fertilization ability of spermatozoa of Salvelinusalpinus. The extenders were prepared by using simple glucose solution (0.3 M glucose) to which 10% Me2SO added with different levels of propolis (0.4, 0.8 and 1 mg/ ml) and 10% egg yolk (as a control without propolis). The pooled semen samples diluted at the ratio of 1:3 by the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. The percentage and duration of motility and fertilization tests of cryopreserved sperm samples have been done immediately after thawing and compared with control and fresh semen. The extenders containing propolis showed higher percentage motility and motility duration than control group (P < 0.05). Especially the group II (0.8 mg/ ml propolis) and the group III (1 mg/ ml propolis) showed significant positive effects on both post thaw motility and hatching ability. In conclusion, this study confirms that the propolis is an appropriate cryoptrotective agent in fish semen and it maintained the integrity of the spermatozoa during the cryopreservation process.

Keywords: propolis, arctic charr, semen, cryopreservation

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155 Effects of Gamma Radiation on Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Authors: Akın Kuyulu, Hanife Genç

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In present study, it was aimed to evaluate the gamma radiation impacts on tomato leaf miner at different biological stages. The laboratory colony of tomato leaf miner was used to set up the experiments. Different biological stages of the insects (eggs, 4th instars and pupae) were irradiated using Cobalt-60 at doses of 0 (control), 100 Gray (Gy), 200 Gy, 300 Gy and 400 Gy in Cos-44HH-N source, at dose rate of 480 Gy/h. After irradiation, the eggs were incubated until hatching; the mature larvae were reared to complete their developments. Adult emergences from irradiated pupae were also evaluated. The results showed that there were no egg hatching at all tested irradiation doses. Although, the pupal percentages of irradiated mature larvae were 54%, 15% and 8% at doses of 100 Gy, 200 Gy and 300 Gy respectively, there were no adult emergences from irradiated mature larvae. On the other hand, the adult emergences were observed from irradiated pupae, decreased as radiation doses increased along with malformed adult appearance. Male and female individuals were out crossed with laboratory reared adults. Fecundity was correlated with radiation doses.

Keywords: irradiation, tomato, tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
154 Evaluation of Cardiac Rhythm Patterns after Open Surgical Maze-Procedures from Three Years' Experiences in a Single Heart Center

Authors: J. Yan, B. Pieper, B. Bucsky, H. H. Sievers, B. Nasseri, S. A. Mohamed

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In order to optimize the efficacy of medications, the regular follow-up with long-term continuous monitoring of heart rhythmic patterns has been facilitated since clinical introduction of cardiac implantable electronic monitoring devices (CIMD). Extensive analysis of rhythmic circadian properties is capable to disclose the distributions of arrhythmic events, which may support appropriate medication according rate-/rhythm-control strategy and minimize consequent afflictions. 348 patients (69 ± 0.5ys, male 61.8%) with predisposed atrial fibrillation (AF), undergoing primary ablating therapies combined to coronary or valve operations and secondary implantation of CIMDs, were involved and divided into 3 groups such as PAAF (paroxysmal AF) (n=99, male 68.7%), PEAF (persistent AF) (n=94, male 62.8%), and LSPEAF (long-standing persistent AF) (n=155, male 56.8%). All patients participated in three-year ambulant follow-up (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months). Burdens of atrial fibrillation recurrence were assessed using cardiac monitor devices, whereby attacks frequencies and their circadian patterns were systemically analyzed. Anticoagulants and regular anti-arrhythmic medications were evaluated and the last were listed in terms of anti-rate and anti-rhythm regimens. Patients in the PEAF-group showed the least AF-burden after surgical ablating procedures compared to both of the other subtypes (p < 0.05). The AF-recurrences predominantly performed such attacks’ property as shorter than one hour, namely within 10 minutes (p < 0.05), regardless of AF-subtypes. Concerning circadian distribution of the recurrence attacks, frequent AF-attacks were mostly recorded in the morning in the PAAF-group (p < 0.05), while the patients with predisposed PEAF complained less attack-induced discomforts in the latter half of the night and the ones with LSPEAF only if they were not physically active after primary surgical ablations. Different AF-subtypes presented distinct therapeutic efficacies after appropriate surgical ablating procedures and recurrence properties in sense of circadian distribution. An optimization of medical regimen and drug dosages to maintain the therapeutic success needs more attention to detailed assessment of the long-term follow-up. Rate-control strategy plays a much more important role than rhythm-control in the ongoing follow-up examinations.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, CIMD, MAZE, rate-control, rhythm-control, rhythm patterns

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153 Morphometric Study of the Eggs of Pheasant Eggs Phasianus colchicus (Aves, Phasianidae)

Authors: S. Zenia, A. Menasseria, A. E. Kheidous, F. Larinouna, A. Smai, H. Saadi, F. Haddadj, A. Milla, F. Marniche

Abstract:

Pheasant, is a bird of great ornamental value through the beauty of its form and colors, it is among the most popular birds. The present study was conducted in an experimental breeding. The objective of this work is to know the quality of the eggs of this bird. A total of 938 eggs were collected. To deepen the knowledge about the characteristics of external shell quality, biometric parameters were studied, among them we find the weight with a mean value of 29.2± 2, 24 g. Egg length (mm) and egg width (mm) mean value are respectively 43.01 ± 1,84 cm and 34.05 ± 1,44cm. The volume and shape index of eggs obtained are respectively 25,63±2,88cm3 and 79.00 ± 3%, shell index which recorded an average of 68%. Water loss recorded is 13%. Note that all these parameters and others may influence hatching. The analysis of variance applied for the comparison of egg weight shows that there is no significant difference in the same form factor (P> 0.05). Otherwise, the comparison test used shows a significant difference with P <0.05 for length, width, volume, density, indices of shell and water loss of eggs between the different. Indeed, several factors may explain the difference as the absence of sorting eggs during incubation and other factors that will be exposing later.

Keywords: analysis of variance, egg, hatching, morphometry of eggs Phaisan (Phasianus colchicus.L.)

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152 A Discourse on the Rhythmic Pattern Employed in Yoruba Sakara Music of Nigeria

Authors: Oludare Olupemi Ezekiel

Abstract:

This research examines the rhythmic structure of Sakara music by tracing its roots and analyzing the various rhythmic patterns of this neo-traditional genre, as well as the contributions of the major exponents and contemporary practitioners, using these as a model for understanding and establishing African rhythms. Biography of the major exponents and contemporary practitioners, interviews and participant observational methods were used to elicit information. Samples of the genre which were chosen at random were transcribed, notated and analyzed for academic use and documentation. The research affirmed that rhythms such as the Hemiola, Cross-rhythm, Clave or Bell rhythm, Percussive, Speech and Melodic rhythm and other relevant rhythmic theories were prevalent and applicable to Sakara music, while making important contributions to musical scholarship through its analysis of the music. The analysis and discussions carried out in the research pointed towards a conclusion that the Yoruba musicians are guided by some preconceptions and sound musical considerations in making their rhythmic patterns, used as compositional techniques and not mere incidental occurrence. These rhythmic patterns, with its consequential socio-cultural connotations, enhance musical values and national identity in Nigeria. The study concludes by recommending that musicologists need to carry out more research into this and other neo-traditional genres in order to advance the globalisation of African music.

Keywords: compositional techniques, globalisation, identity, neo-traditional, rhythmic theory, Sakara music

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151 Histogenesis of the Stomach of Pre-Hatching Quail: A Light and Electron Microscopic Study

Authors: Soha A Soliman, Yasser A Ahmed, Mohamed A Khalaf

Abstract:

Although the enormous literature describing the histology of the stomach of different avian species during the posthatching development, the available literature on the pre-hatching development of quail stomach development is scanty. Thus, the current study was undertaken to provide a careful description of the main histological events during the embryonic development of quail stomach. To achieve this aim, daily histological specimens from the stomach of quail of 4 days post-incubation till the day 17 (few hours before hatching) were examined with light microscopy. The current study showed that the primitive gut tube of the embryonic quail appeared at the 4th day post incubation, and both parts of stomach (proventriculus and gizzard) were similar in structure and composed of endodermal epithelium of pseudostratified type surrounded by undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue. The sequences of the developmental events in the gut tube were preceded in a cranio-caudal pattern. By the 5th day, the endodermal covering of the primitive proventriculus gave rise to sac-like invaginations. The primitive gizzard was distinguished into thick-walled bodies and thin-walled sacs. In the 6th day, the prospective proventricular glandular epithelium became canalized and the muscular layer was developed in the cranial part of the proventriculus, whereas the primitive muscular coat of the gizzard was represented by a layer of condensed mesenchyme. In the 7th day, the proventricular glandular epithelial invaginations increased in depth and number, while, the muscularis mucosa and the muscular layer began to be distinguished. In the 8th day, the myoblasts differentiated into spindle shaped smooth muscle fibers. In the 10th day, branching of the proventricular glands began. The branching continued later on. The surface and the glandular epithelium were transformed into simple columnar type in the 12th day. The epithelial covering of the gizzard gave rise to tubular invaginations lined by simple cuboidal epithelium and the surface epithelium became simple columnar. Canalization of the tubular glands was recognized in the 14th day. In the 15th day, the proventricular surface epithelium invaginated in an concentric manner around a central cavity to form immature secretory units. The central cavity was lined by eosinophilic cells which form the ductal epithelia. The peripheral lamellae were lined by basophilic cells; the undifferentiated oxyntico-peptic cells. Entero-endocrine cells stained positive for silver impregnation in the proventricular glands. The mucosal folding in the gizzard appeared in the 15th day to form the plicae and the sulci. The wall of the proventriculus and gizzard in the 17th day acquired the main histological features of post-hatching birds, but neither the surface nor the ductal epithelium were differentiated to mucous producing cells. The current results shoed be considered in the molecular developmental studies.

Keywords: quail, proventriculus, gizzard, pre-hatching, histology

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150 Defense Priming from Egg to Larvae in Litopenaeus vannamei with Non-Pathogenic and Pathogenic Bacteria Strains

Authors: Angelica Alvarez-Lee, Sergio Martinez-Diaz, Jose Luis Garcia-Corona, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza

Abstract:

World aquaculture is always looking for improvements to achieve productions with high yields avoiding the infection by pathogenic agents. The best way to achieve this is to know the biological model to create alternative treatments that could be applied in the hatcheries, which results in greater economic gains and improvements in human public health. In the last decade, immunomodulation in shrimp culture with probiotics, organic acids and different carbon sources has gained great interest, mainly in larval and juvenile stages. Immune priming is associated with a strong protective effect against a later pathogen challenge. This work provides another perspective about immunostimulation from spawning until hatching. The stimulation happens during development embryos and generates resistance to infection by pathogenic bacteria. Massive spawnings of white shrimp L. vannamei were obtained and placed in experimental units with 700 mL of sterile seawater at 30 °C, salinity of 28 ppm and continuous aeration at a density of 8 embryos.mL⁻¹. The immunostimulating effect of three death strains of non-pathogenic bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and a pathogenic strain for white shrimp (Vibrio parahaemolyticus) was evaluated. The strains killed by heat were adjusted to O.D. 0.5, at A 600 nm, and directly added to the seawater of each unit at a ratio of 1/100 (v/v). A control group of embryos without inoculum of dead bacteria was kept under the same physicochemical conditions as the rest of the treatments throughout the experiment and used as reference. The duration of the stimulus was 12 hours, then, the larvae that hatched were collected, counted and transferred to a new experimental unit (same physicochemical conditions but at a salinity of 28 ppm) to carry out a challenge of infection against the pathogen V. parahaemolyticus, adding directly to seawater an amount 1/100 (v/v) of the live strain adjusted to an OD 0.5; at A 600 nm. Subsequently, 24 hrs after infection, nauplii survival was evaluated. The results of this work shows that, after 24 hrs, the hatching rates of immunostimulated shrimp embryos with the dead strains of B. subtillis and V. parahaemolyticus are significantly higher compared to the rest of the treatments and the control. Furthermore, survival of L. vanammei after a challenge of infection of 24 hrs against the live strain of V. parahaemolyticus is greater (P < 0.05) in the larvae immunostimulated during the embryonic development with the dead strains B. subtillis and V. parahaemolyticus, followed by those that were treated with E. coli. In summary superficial antigens can stimulate the development cells to promote hatching and can have normal development in agreeing with the optical observations, plus exist a differential response effect between each treatment post-infection. This research provides evidence of the immunostimulant effect of death pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial strains in the rate of hatching and oversight of shrimp L. vannamei during embryonic and larval development. This research continues evaluating the effect of these death strains on the expression of genes related to the defense priming in larvae of L. vannamei that come from massive spawning in hatcheries before and after the infection challenge against V. parahaemolyticus.

Keywords: immunostimulation, L. vannamei, hatching, survival

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149 Diagnosis of the Heart Rhythm Disorders by Using Hybrid Classifiers

Authors: Sule Yucelbas, Gulay Tezel, Cuneyt Yucelbas, Seral Ozsen

Abstract:

In this study, it was tried to identify some heart rhythm disorders by electrocardiography (ECG) data that is taken from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database by subtracting the required features, presenting to artificial neural networks (ANN), artificial immune systems (AIS), artificial neural network based on artificial immune system (AIS-ANN) and particle swarm optimization based artificial neural network (PSO-NN) classifier systems. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of hybrid AIS-ANN and PSO-ANN classifiers with regard to the ANN and AIS. For this purpose, the normal sinus rhythm (NSR), atrial premature contraction (APC), sinus arrhythmia (SA), ventricular trigeminy (VTI), ventricular tachycardia (VTK) and atrial fibrillation (AF) data for each of the RR intervals were found. Then these data in the form of pairs (NSR-APC, NSR-SA, NSR-VTI, NSR-VTK and NSR-AF) is created by combining discrete wavelet transform which is applied to each of these two groups of data and two different data sets with 9 and 27 features were obtained from each of them after data reduction. Afterwards, the data randomly was firstly mixed within themselves, and then 4-fold cross validation method was applied to create the training and testing data. The training and testing accuracy rates and training time are compared with each other. As a result, performances of the hybrid classification systems, AIS-ANN and PSO-ANN were seen to be close to the performance of the ANN system. Also, the results of the hybrid systems were much better than AIS, too. However, ANN had much shorter period of training time than other systems. In terms of training times, ANN was followed by PSO-ANN, AIS-ANN and AIS systems respectively. Also, the features that extracted from the data affected the classification results significantly.

Keywords: AIS, ANN, ECG, hybrid classifiers, PSO

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148 Effect of Pristine Graphene on Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos: Cardiovascular Defects, Apoptosis, and Globin Expression Analysis

Authors: Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Lee Sang Joon

Abstract:

Recently, graphene-related nanomaterials are receiving fast-increasing attention with augmented applications in various fields. Especially, graphene-related materials have been widely applied to the biomedical field in the past years. In the present study, we evaluated the adverse effects of pristine graphene (pG) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in various aspects, such as mortality rate, heart rate, hatching rate, cardiotoxicity, cardiovascular defect, cardiac looping, apoptosis, and globin expression. For various trace concentrations of pG (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 μg/L), early life-stage parameters were observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hpf. As a result, pG induces significant developmental defects including yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, embryonic mortality, delayed hatching, heartbeat, several morphological defects, pericardial toxicity, and bradycardia. Moreover, the exposure to pG was found to be a potential risk factor to the cardiovascular system of zebrafish embryos. However, further study on their properties which vary according to production methods and surface functionalization is essentially required. In addition, the possible risks of pG flakes to aquatic animals, and public health should be evaluated before releasing them to the surrounding environment.

Keywords: apoptosis, cardiovascular toxicity, globin expression, pristine graphene, zebrafish embryos

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147 Comparative Effects of Homoplastic and Synthetic Pituitary Extracts on Induced Breeding of Heterobranchus longifilis (Valenciennes, 1840) in Indoor Hatchery Tanks in Owerri South East Nigeria

Authors: I. R. Keke, C. S. Nwigwe, O. S. Nwanjo, A. S. Egeruoh

Abstract:

An experiment was carried out at Urban Farm and Fisheries Nigeria Ltd, Owerri Imo State South East Nigeria between February and June 2014 to induce Brood stock of Heterobranchus longifilis (mean wt 1.3kg) in concrete tanks (1.0 x 2.0 x 1.5m) in dimension using a synthetic hormone (Ovaprim) and pituitary extract from Heterobranchus longifilis. Brood stock males were selected as pituitary donors and their weights matched those of females to be injected at 1ml/kg body weight of Fish. Ovaprim, was injected at 0.5ml/kg body weight of female fish. A latency period of 12 hours was allowed after injection of the Brood stock females before stripping the egg and incubation at 23 °C. While incubating the eggs, samples were drawn and the rate of fertilization was determined. Hatching occurred within 33 hours and hatchability rate (%) was determined by counting the active hatchings. The result showed that Ovaprim injected Brood stock eggs fertilized up to 80% while the pituitary from the Heterobranchus longifilis had low fertilization and hatching success 20%. Ovaprim is imported and costly, so more effort is required to enhance the procedures for homoplastic hypophysation.

Keywords: heterobranchus longifilis, ovaprim, hypophysation, latency period, pituitary

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146 The Relationship between Amplitude and Stability of Circadian Rhythm with Sleep Quality and Sleepiness: A Population Study, Kerman 2018

Authors: Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi, Farzaneh Akbari, Vafa Feyzi, Zahra Zare, Zohreh Foroozanfar

Abstract:

Introduction: Circadian rhythm or sleep-awake cycle in 24 hours is one of the important factors affecting the physiological and psychological characteristics in humans that contribute to biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes and helps people to set up brain and body for sleep or active awakening during certain hours. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the characteristics of circadian rhythms on the sleep quality and sleepiness according to their demographic characteristics such as age. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was carried out among the general population of Kerman, aged 15-84 years. After dividing the age groups into 10-year demographic characteristics questionnaire, the type of circadian questionnaire, Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire and Euporth sleepiness questionnaire were completed in equal numbers between men and women of that age group. Using cluster sampling with effect design equal 2, 1300 questionnaires were distributed during the various hours of 24 hours in public places in Kerman city. Data analysis was done using SPSS software and univariate tests and linear regressions at a significance level of 0.05. Results: In this study, 1147 subjects were included in the study, 584 (50.9%) were male and the rest were women. The mean age was 39.50 ± 15.38. 133 (11.60%) subjects from the study participants had sleepiness and 308 (26.90%) subjects had undesirable sleep quality. Using linear regression test, sleep quality was the significant correlation with sex, hours needed for sleep at 24 hours, chronic illness, sleepiness, and circadian rhythm amplitude. Sleepiness was the meaningful relationship with marital status, sleep-wake schedule of other family members and the stability of circadian rhythm. Both women and men, with age, decrease the quality of sleep and increase the rate of sleepiness. Conclusion: Age, sex, and type of circadian people, the need for sleep at 24 hours, marital status, sleep-wake schedule of other family members are significant factors related to the sleep quality and sleepiness and their adaptation to night shift work.

Keywords: circadian type, sleep quality, sleepiness, age, shift work

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145 The Formation of Mutual Understanding in Conversation: An Embodied Approach

Authors: Haruo Okabayashi

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The mutual understanding in conversation is very important for human relations. This study investigates the mental function of the formation of mutual understanding between two people in conversation using the embodied approach. Forty people participated in this study. They are divided into pairs randomly. Four conversation situations between two (make/listen to fun or pleasant talk, make/listen to regrettable talk) are set for four minutes each, and the finger plethysmogram (200 Hz) of each participant is measured. As a result, the attractors of the participants who reported “I did not understand my partner” show the collapsed shape, which means the fluctuation of their rhythm is too small to match their partner’s rhythm, and their cross correlation is low. The autonomic balance of both persons tends to resonate during conversation, and both LLEs tend to resonate, too. In human history, in order for human beings as weak mammals to live, they may have been with others; that is, they have brought about resonating characteristics, which is called self-organization. However, the resonant feature sometimes collapses, depending on the lifestyle that the person was formed by himself after birth. It is difficult for people who do not have a lifestyle of mutual gaze to resonate their biological signal waves with others’. These people have features such as anxiety, fatigue, and confusion tendency. Mutual understanding is thought to be formed as a result of cooperation between the features of self-organization of the persons who are talking and the lifestyle indicated by mutual gaze. Such an entanglement phenomenon is called a nonlinear relation. By this research, it is found that the formation of mutual understanding is expressed by the rhythm of a biological signal showing a nonlinear relationship.

Keywords: embodied approach, finger plethysmogram, mutual understanding, nonlinear phenomenon

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144 Conservation of Sea Turtle in Cox’s Bazar- Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) of Bangladesh

Authors: Pronob Kumar Mozumder M. Nazrul Islam, M. Abdur Rob Mollah

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This study was conducted in Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island Ecologically Critical Areas during the period of October, 2011 to June, 2013. Six species of marine turtle are found in the Indian Ocean. Among them, olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) listed as endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Marine turtle populations in the Indian Ocean have been depleted through long-term exploitation of eggs and adults, incidental capture (fisheries bycatch) and many other sources of mortality. The specific objective of the study was to conserve the sea turtles specially the olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) with a view to contribute towards protection of the turtle species from extinction and to facilitate hatching of eggs through providing protection to turtle eggs or nest through ex-situ conservation efforts. In order to achieve the desired outputs and success, a total of five turtle hatcheries were established at Pechardwip, Khurermukh, Hazompara, Bodormokam, and Sonadia Eastpara sites. In total, 31,853 eggs were collected from 260 nests and were transferred to five hatcheries. The number of eggs/nest varied from 38 to 190 with an average clutch size of 122 eggs/ nest. Hatching of eggs took place during January to June with a peak in April. Sea turtle eggs were incubated by metabolic heat and the heat of the sun. The incubation period of turtle eggs in Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island ECAs extended from 54 to 75 days depending on the month with an average of 66 days. During study period the temperature in the ECAs varied between 10.5-34.5°C. A total of 27,937 hatchlings of turtle were produced from the five hatcheries and all the hatchlings produced were released into the sea. Hatching rates varied from 74-98 % depending on the location and months with an average of 88 %. Sea turtles spend the majority of their lives in the sea, only emerging on beaches to nest. Despite the intense conservation efforts on the beaches, some populations have still declined to the edge of extinction. So proper conservation and awareness measure should be taken for prevention of turtle extinction.

Keywords: conservation of sea turtle, Bangladesh, ecologically critical area, ECA, Lepidochelys olivacea

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