Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13149

Search results for: drying model

13149 Effect of Drying on the Concrete Structures

Authors: A. Brahma

Abstract:

The drying of hydraulics materials is unavoidable and conducted to important spontaneous deformations. In this study, we show that it is possible to describe the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete by a simple expression. A multiple regression model was developed for the prediction of the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete. The assessment of the proposed model has been done by a set of statistical tests. The model developed takes in consideration the main parameters of confection and conservation. There was a very good agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the multiple regression model and experimental results. The developed model adjusts easily to all hydraulic concrete types.

Keywords: hydraulic concretes, drying, shrinkage, prediction, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
13148 Drying Kinetics of Vacuum Dried Beef Meat Slices

Authors: Elif Aykin Dincer, Mustafa Erbas

Abstract:

The vacuum drying behavior of beef slices (10 x 4 x 0.2 cm3) was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C under 25 mbar ultimate vacuum pressure and the mathematical models (Lewis, Page, Midilli, Two-term, Wangh and Singh and Modified Henderson and Pabis) were used to fit the vacuum drying of beef slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. It took approximately 206, 180 and 157 min to dry beef slices from an initial moisture content to a final moisture content of 0.05 kg water/kg dry matter at 60, 70 and 80 °C of vacuum drying, respectively. It is also observed that the drying rate increased with increasing drying temperature. The coefficients (R2), the reduced chi-square (x²) and root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained by application of six models to the experimental drying data. The best model with the highest R2 and, the lowest x² and RMSE values was selected to describe the drying characteristics of beef slices. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivities of beef slices in the vacuum drying at 60 - 80 °C varied in the range of 1.05 – 1.09 x 10-10 m2/s. Consequently, this results can be used to simulate vacuum drying process of beef slices and improve efficiency of the drying process.

Keywords: beef slice, drying models, effective diffusivity, vacuum

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13147 Thin-Layer Drying Characteristics and Modelling of Instant Coffee Solution

Authors: Apolinar Picado, Ronald Solís, Rafael Gamero

Abstract:

The thin-layer drying characteristics of instant coffee solution were investigated in a laboratory tunnel dryer. Drying experiments were carried out at three temperatures (80, 100 and 120 °C) and an air velocity of 1.2 m/s. Drying experimental data obtained are fitted to six (6) thin-layer drying models using the non-linear least squares regression analysis. The acceptability of the thin-layer drying model has been based on a value of the correlation coefficient that should be close to one, and low values for root mean square error (RMSE) and chi-square (x²). According to this evaluation, the most suitable model for describing drying process of thin-layer instant coffee solution is the Page model. Further, the effective moisture diffusivity and the activation energy were computed employing the drying experimental data. The effective moisture diffusivity values varied from 1.6133 × 10⁻⁹ to 1.6224 × 10⁻⁹ m²/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 162.62 J/mol.

Keywords: activation energy, diffusivity, instant coffee, thin-layer models

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13146 Empirical Modeling of Air Dried Rubberwood Drying System

Authors: S. Khamtree, T. Ratanawilai, C. Nuntadusit

Abstract:

Rubberwood is a crucial commercial timber in Southern Thailand. All processes in a rubberwood production depend on the knowledge and expertise of the technicians, especially the drying process. This research aims to develop an empirical model for drying kinetics in rubberwood. During the experiment, the temperature of the hot air and the average air flow velocity were kept at 80-100 °C and 1.75 m/s, respectively. The moisture content in the samples was determined less than 12% in the achievement of drying basis. The drying kinetic was simulated using an empirical solver. The experimental results illustrated that the moisture content was reduced whereas the drying temperature and time were increased. The coefficient of the moisture ratio between the empirical and the experimental model was tested with three statistical parameters, R-square (), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Chi-square (χ²) to predict the accuracy of the parameters. The experimental moisture ratio had a good fit with the empirical model. Additionally, the results indicated that the drying of rubberwood using the Henderson and Pabis model revealed the suitable level of agreement. The result presented an excellent estimation (= 0.9963) for the moisture movement compared to the other models. Therefore, the empirical results were valid and can be implemented in the future experiments.

Keywords: empirical models, rubberwood, moisture ratio, hot air drying

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13145 Heat and Mass Transfer Modelling of Industrial Sludge Drying at Different Pressures and Temperatures

Authors: L. Al Ahmad, C. Latrille, D. Hainos, D. Blanc, M. Clausse

Abstract:

A two-dimensional finite volume axisymmetric model is developed to predict the simultaneous heat and mass transfers during the drying of industrial sludge. The simulations were run using COMSOL-Multiphysics 3.5a. The input parameters of the numerical model were acquired from a preliminary experimental work. Results permit to establish correlations describing the evolution of the various parameters as a function of the drying temperature and the sludge water content. The selection and coupling of the equation are validated based on the drying kinetics acquired experimentally at a temperature range of 45-65 °C and absolute pressure range of 200-1000 mbar. The model, incorporating the heat and mass transfer mechanisms at different operating conditions, shows simulated values of temperature and water content. Simulated results are found concordant with the experimental values, only at the first and last drying stages where sludge shrinkage is insignificant. Simulated and experimental results show that sludge drying is favored at high temperatures and low pressure. As experimentally observed, the drying time is reduced by 68% for drying at 65 °C compared to 45 °C under 1 atm. At 65 °C, a 200-mbar absolute pressure vacuum leads to an additional reduction in drying time estimated by 61%. However, the drying rate is underestimated in the intermediate stage. This rate underestimation could be improved in the model by considering the shrinkage phenomena that occurs during sludge drying.

Keywords: industrial sludge drying, heat transfer, mass transfer, mathematical modelling

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13144 Mathematical Modeling of Thin Layer Drying Behavior of Bhimkol (Musa balbisiana) Pulp

Authors: Ritesh Watharkar, Sourabh Chakraborty, Brijesh Srivastava

Abstract:

Reduction of water from the fruits and vegetables using different drying techniques is widely employed to prolong the shelf life of these food commodities. Heat transfer occurs inside the sample by conduction and mass transfer takes place by diffusion in accordance with temperature and moisture concentration gradient respectively during drying. This study was undertaken to study and model the thin layer drying behavior of Bhimkol pulp. The drying was conducted in a tray drier at 500c temperature with 5, 10 and 15 % concentrations of added maltodextrin. The drying experiments were performed at 5mm thickness of the thin layer and the constant air velocity of 0.5 m/s.Drying data were fitted to different thin layer drying models found in the literature. Comparison of fitted models was based on highest R2(0.9917), lowest RMSE (0.03201), and lowest SSE (0.01537) revealed Middle equation as the best-fitted model for thin layer drying with 10% concentration of maltodextrin. The effective diffusivity was estimated based on the solution of Fick’s law of diffusion which is found in the range of 3.0396 x10-09 to 5.0661 x 10-09. There was a reduction in drying time with the addition of maltodextrin as compare to the raw pulp.

Keywords: Bhimkol, diffusivity, maltodextrine, Midilli model

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
13143 The Use of Performance Indicators for Evaluating Models of Drying Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.): Page, Midilli, and Lewis

Authors: D. S. C. Soares, D. G. Costa, J. T. S., A. K. S. Abud, T. P. Nunes, A. M. Oliveira Júnior

Abstract:

Mathematical models of drying are used for the purpose of understanding the drying process in order to determine important parameters for design and operation of the dryer. The jackfruit is a fruit with high consumption in the Northeast and perishability. It is necessary to apply techniques to improve their conservation for longer in order to diffuse it by regions with low consumption. This study aimed to analyse several mathematical models (Page, Lewis, and Midilli) to indicate one that best fits the conditions of convective drying process using performance indicators associated with each model: accuracy (Af) and noise factors (Bf), mean square error (RMSE) and standard error of prediction (% SEP). Jackfruit drying was carried out in convective type tray dryer at a temperature of 50°C for 9 hours. It is observed that the model Midili was more accurate with Af: 1.39, Bf: 1.33, RMSE: 0.01%, and SEP: 5.34. However, the use of the Model Midilli is not appropriate for purposes of control process due to need four tuning parameters. With the performance indicators used in this paper, the Page model showed similar results with only two parameters. It is concluded that the best correlation between the experimental and estimated data is given by the Page’s model.

Keywords: drying, models, jackfruit, biotechnology

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13142 Prediction of Deformations of Concrete Structures

Authors: A. Brahma

Abstract:

Drying is a phenomenon that accompanies the hardening of hydraulic materials. It can, if it is not prevented, lead to significant spontaneous dimensional variations, which the cracking is one of events. In this context, cracking promotes the transport of aggressive agents in the material, which can affect the durability of concrete structures. Drying shrinkage develops over a long period almost 30 years although most occurred during the first three years. Drying shrinkage stabilizes when the material is water balance with the external environment. The drying shrinkage of cementitious materials is due to the formation of capillary tensions in the pores of the material, which has the consequences of bringing the solid walls of each other. Knowledge of the shrinkage characteristics of concrete is a necessary starting point in the design of structures for crack control. Such knowledge will enable the designer to estimate the probable shrinkage movement in reinforced or prestressed concrete and the appropriate steps can be taken in design to accommodate this movement. This study is concerned the modelling of drying shrinkage of the hydraulic materials and the prediction of the rate of spontaneous deformations of hydraulic materials during hardening. The model developed takes in consideration the main factors affecting drying shrinkage. There was agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the developed model and experimental results. In last we show that developed model describe the evolution of the drying shrinkage of high performances concretes correctly.

Keywords: drying, hydraulic concretes, shrinkage, modeling, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
13141 Long-Term Deformations of Concrete Structures

Authors: Abdelmalk Brahma

Abstract:

Drying is a phenomenon that accompanies the hardening of hydraulic materials. It can, if it is not prevented, lead to significant spontaneous dimensional variations, which the cracking is one of events. In this context, cracking promotes the transport of aggressive agents in the material, which can affect the durability of concrete structures. Drying shrinkage develops over a long period almost 30 years although most occurred during the first three years. Drying shrinkage stabilizes when the material is water balance with the external environment. The drying shrinkage of cementitious materials is due to the formation of capillary tensions in the pores of the material, which has the consequences of bringing the solid walls of each other. Knowledge of the shrinkage characteristics of concrete is a necessary starting point in the design of structures for crack control. Such knowledge will enable the designer to estimate the probable shrinkage movement in reinforced or prestressed concrete and the appropriate steps can be taken in design to accommodate this movement. This study is concerned the modelling of drying shrinkage of the hydraulic materials and the prediction of the rate of spontaneous deformations of hydraulic materials during hardening. The model developed takes in consideration the main factors affecting drying shrinkage. There was agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the developed model and experimental results. In last we show that developed model describe the evolution of the drying shrinkage of high performances concretes correctly.

Keywords: drying, hydraulic concretes, shrinkage, modeling, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
13140 Persian Pistachio Nut (Pistacia vera L.) Dehydration in Natural and Industrial Conditions

Authors: Hamid Tavakolipour, Mohsen Mokhtarian, Ahmad Kalbasi Ashtari

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of various drying methods (sun drying, shade drying and industrial drying) on final moisture content, shell splitting degree, shrinkage and color change were studied. Sun drying resulted higher degree of pistachio nuts shell splitting on pistachio nuts relative other drying methods. The ANOVA results showed that the different drying methods did not significantly effects on color change of dried pistachio nut. The results illustrated that pistachio nut dried by industrial drying had the lowest moisture content. After the end of drying process, initially, the experimental drying data were fitted with five famous drying models namely Newton, Page, Silva et al., Peleg and Henderson and Pabis. The results indicated that Peleg and Page models gave better results compared with other models to monitor the moisture ratio’s pistachio nut in industrial drying and open sun (or shade drying) methods, respectively.

Keywords: industrial drying, pistachio, quality properties, traditional drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
13139 Dimensioning of a Solar Dryer with Application of an Experiment Design Method for Drying Food Products

Authors: B. Touati, A. Saad, B. Lips, A. Abdenbi, M. Mokhtari.

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is an application of experiment design method for dimensioning of a solar drying system. NIMROD software was used to build up the matrix of experiments and to analyze the results. The software has the advantages of being easy to use and consists of a forced way, with some choices about the number and range of variation of the parameters, and the desired polynomial shape. The first design of experiments performed concern the drying with constant input characteristics of the hot air in the dryer and a second design of experiments in which the drying chamber is coupled with a solar collector. The first design of experiments allows us to study the influence of various parameters and get the studied answers in a polynomial form. The correspondence between the polynomial thus determined, and the model results were good. The results of the polynomials of the second design of experiments and those of the model are worse than the results in the case of drying with constant input conditions. This is due to the strong link between all the input parameters, especially, the surface of the sensor and the drying chamber, and the mass of the product.

Keywords: solar drying, experiment design method, NIMROD, mint leaves

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
13138 Drying Modeling of Banana Using Cellular Automata

Authors: M. Fathi, Z. Farhaninejad, M. Shahedi, M. Sadeghi

Abstract:

Drying is one of the oldest preservation methods for food and agriculture products. Appropriate control of operation can be obtained by modeling. Limitation of continues models for complex boundary condition and non-regular geometries leading to appearance of discrete novel methods such as cellular automata, which provides a platform for obtaining fast predictions by rule-based mathematics. In this research a one D dimensional CA was used for simulating thin layer drying of banana. Banana slices were dried with a convectional air dryer and experimental data were recorded for validating of final model. The model was programmed by MATLAB, run for 70000 iterations and von-Neumann neighborhood. The validation results showed a good accordance between experimental and predicted data (R=0.99). Cellular automata are capable to reproduce the expected pattern of drying and have a powerful potential for solving physical problems with reasonable accuracy and low calculating resources.

Keywords: banana, cellular automata, drying, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
13137 Effect of Blanching and Drying Methods on the Degradation Kinetics and Color Stability of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Leaves

Authors: K. Radha Krishnan, Mirajul Alom

Abstract:

Dehydrated powder prepared from fresh radish (Raphanus sativus) leaves were investigated for the color stability by different drying methods (tray, sun and solar). The effect of blanching conditions, drying methods as well as drying temperatures (50 – 90°C) were considered for studying the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll in the dehydrated powder. The hunter color parameters (L*, a*, b*) and total color difference (TCD) were determined in order to investigate the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll. Blanching conditions, drying method and drying temperature influenced the changes in L*, a*, b* and TCD values. The changes in color values during processing were described by a first order kinetic model. The temperature dependence of chlorophyll degradation was adequately modeled by Arrhenius equation. To predict the losses in green color, a mathematical model was developed from the steady state kinetic parameters. The results from this study indicated the protective effect of blanching conditions on the color stability of dehydrated radish powder.

Keywords: chlorophyll, color stability, degradation kinetics, drying

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13136 Determination of Natural Logarithm of Diffusion Coefficient and Activation Energy of Thin Layer Drying Process of Ginger Rhizome Slices

Authors: Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Sam Nna Omenyi, Sabuj Malli

Abstract:

This study is an extension of the previous work done with ARS-680 Environmental Chamber. Drying is a complex operation that demands much energy and time. Drying is essentially important for preservation of ginger rhizome. Drying of ginger was modeled, and then the effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy where determined. For this purpose, the experiments were done at six levels of varied temperature ranging from (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60°C). The average effective diffusion coefficient for their studies samples for temperature range of 40°C to 70°C was 4.48 x10-10m²/s, 4.96 x10-10m²/s, and 5.31 x10-10m²/s for 0.8, 1.5 and 3m/s drying air velocity respectively. These values closely agreed with the values of effective diffusion coefficients obtained in these studies for the variously treated ginger rhizomes and test conducted.

Keywords: activation energy, diffusion coefficients, drying model, drying time, ginger rhizomes, moisture ratio, thin layer

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13135 Comparative Survival Rates of Yeasts during Freeze-Drying, Traditional Drying and Spray Drying

Authors: Latifa Hamoudi-Belarbi, L'Hadi Nouri, Khaled Belkacemi

Abstract:

The effect of three methods of drying (traditional drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying) on the survival of concentrated cultures of Geotrichum fragrans and Wickerhamomyces anomalus was studied. The survival of yeast cultures was initially compared immediately after freeze-drying using HES 12%(w/v)+Sucrose 7% (w/v) as protectant, traditional drying in dry rice cakes and finally spray-drying with whey proteins. The survival of G. fragrans and W. anomalus was studied during 4 months of storage at 4°C and 25°C, in the darkness, under vacuum and at 0% relative humidity. The results demonstrated that high survival was obtained using traditional method of preservation in rice cakes (60% for G. fragrans and 65% for W. anomalus) and freeze-drying in (68% for G. fragrans and 74% for W. anomalus). However, poor survival was obtained by spray-drying method in whey protein with 20% for G. fragrans and 29% for W. anomalus. During storage at 25°C, yeast cultures of G. fragrans and W. anomalus preserved by traditional and freeze-drying methods showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 3 months of storage. Spray-dried yeast cultures had the greatest loss of viable count during the 4 months of storage at 25°C. During storage at 4°C, preservation of yeasts cultures using traditional method of preservation provided better survival than freeze-drying. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the traditional method to preserve yeasts cultures compared to the high cost methods like freeze-drying and spray-drying.

Keywords: freeze-drying, traditional drying, spray drying, yeasts

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
13134 Experimental Study on Drying Parameters of Freeze Drying Systems

Authors: Ali Osman Suiçmez, Emrah Deniz

Abstract:

In this study, control experiments were made on a freeze drying system of which were built a prototype. In experiments, apple slices in different geometrical shapes were dried and drying curves were gained. Then, the shapes which were the fastest for drying were determined. Twenty samples for each apple shapes were put in the prototype and dried. After the experiments, the humidity ratio of the samples and water activity values of the samples have been obtained. Obtained results show that the prototype is working and by comparing the results the shape which dried fastest was determined.

Keywords: freeze drying, vacuum, energy consumption, drying process, apple

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
13133 Drying Characteristics of Shrimp by Using the Traditional Method of Oven

Authors: I. A. Simsek, S. N. Dogan, A. S. Kipcak, E. Morodor Derun, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

In this study, the drying characteristics of shrimp are studied by using the traditional drying method of oven. Drying temperatures are selected between 60-80°C. Obtained experimental drying results are applied to eleven mathematical models of Alibas, Aghbashlo et al., Henderson and Pabis, Jena and Das, Lewis, Logaritmic, Midilli and Kucuk, Page, Parabolic, Wang and Singh and Weibull. The best model was selected as parabolic based on the highest coefficient of determination (R²) (0.999990 at 80°C) and the lowest χ² (0.000002 at 80°C), and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.000976 at 80°C) values are compared to other models. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values were calculated using the Fick’s second law’s cylindrical coordinate approximation and are found between 6.61×10⁻⁸ and 6.66×10⁻⁷ m²/s. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated using modified form of Arrhenius equation and is found as 18.315 kW/kg.

Keywords: activation energy, drying, effective moisture diffusivity, modelling, oven, shrimp

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
13132 Convective Hot Air Drying of Different Varieties of Blanched Sweet Potato Slices

Authors: M. O. Oke, T. S. Workneh

Abstract:

Drying behaviour of blanched sweet potato in a cabinet dryer using different five air temperatures (40-80oC) and ten sweet potato varieties sliced to 5 mm thickness were investigated. The drying data were fitted to eight models. The Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data obtained during the drying of all the varieties while Newton (Lewis) and Wang and Singh models gave the least fit. The values of Deff obtained for Bophelo variety (1.27 x 10-9 to 1.77 x 10-9 m2/s) was the least while that of S191 (1.93 x 10-9 to 2.47 x 10-9 m2/s) was the highest which indicates that moisture diffusivity in sweet potato is affected by the genetic factor. Activation energy values ranged from 0.27-6.54 kJ/mol. The lower activation energy indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method. The drying behavior of blanched sweet potato was investigated in a cabinet dryer. Drying time decreased considerably with increase in hot air temperature. Out of the eight models fitted, the Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data on all the varieties while Newton, Wang and Singh models gave the least. The lower activation energy (0.27-6.54 kJ/mol) obtained indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method.

Keywords: sweet potato slice, drying models, moisture ratio, moisture diffusivity, activation energy

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13131 Mathematical Modeling of Eggplant Slices Drying Using Microwave-Oven

Authors: M.H. Keshek, M.N. Omar, A.H. Amer

Abstract:

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is considered one of the most important crops in summer season, and it is grown in most cultivated area in Egypt. Eggplant has a very limited shelf life for freshness and physiological changes occur after harvest. Nowadays, microwave drying offers an alternative way to drying agricultural products. microwave drying is not only faster but also requiring less energy consumption than conventional drying. The main objective of this research was to evaluate using the microwave oven in Eggplant drying, to determine the optimum drying time of higher drying efficiency and lower energy consumption. The eggplants slices, having a thickness of about 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm, with diameter 50±2 mm was dried using microwave oven (KOR-9G2B) using three different levels were 450, 630, and 810 Watt (50%, 70%, and 90% of 900 Watt). The results show that, the initial moisture content of the eggplant slices was around 93 % wet basis (13.28 g water/g dry matter). The results indicated that, the moisture transfer within the sample was more rapidly during higher microwave power heating (810 watt) and lower thickness (5 mm) of the eggplant slices. In addition, the results show that, the drying efficiency increases by increasing slices thickness at power levels 450, 630 and 810 Watt. The higher drying efficiency was 83.13% occurred when drying the eggplant slices 20 mm thickness in microwave oven at power 630 Watt. the higher total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 1.275 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 5 mm thickness, and the lower total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 0.55 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 20 mm thickness.

Keywords: microwave drying, eggplant, drying rate, drying efficiency, energy consumption

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13130 Empirical Research to Improve Performances of Paddy Columnar Dryer

Authors: Duong Thi Hong, Nguyen Van Hung, Martin Gummert

Abstract:

Good practices of mechanical drying can reduce losses of grain quality. Recently, with demands of higher capacity for paddy drying in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam, columnar dryers have been introduced rapidly in this area. To improve the technology, this study was conducted to investigate and optimize the parameters for drying Jasmine paddy using an empirical cross-flow columnar dryer. The optimum parameters were resulted in air flow rate and drying temperature that are 1-1.5 m³ s-¹ t-¹ of paddy and 40-42°C, respectively. The investigation also addressed a solution of reversing drying air to achieve the uniformity of grain temperature and quality. Results of this study should be significant for developments of grain drying, contributing to reduce post harvest losses

Keywords: paddy drying, columnar dryer, air flow rate, drying temperature

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13129 Mathematical Modelling of Ultrasound Pre-Treatment in Microwave Dried Strawberry (Fragaria L.) Slices

Authors: Hilal Uslu, Salih Eroglu, Betul Ozkan, Ozcan Bulantekin, Alper Kuscu

Abstract:

In this study, the strawberry (Fragaria L.) fruits, which were pretreated with ultrasound (US), were worked on in the microwave by using 90W power. Then mathematical modelling was applied to dried fruits by using different experimental thin layer models. The sliced fruits were subjected to ultrasound treatment at a frequency of 40 kHz for 10, 20, and 30 minutes, in an ultrasonic water bath, with a ratio of 1:4 to fruit/water. They are then dried in the microwave (90W). The drying process continued until the product moisture was below 10%. By analyzing the moisture change of the products at a certain time, eight different thin-layer drying models, (Newton, page, modified page, Midilli, Henderson and Pabis, logarithmic, two-term, Wang and Singh) were tested for verification of experimental data. MATLAB R2015a statistical program was used for the modelling, and the best suitable model was determined with R²adj (coefficient of determination of compatibility), and root mean square error (RMSE) values. According to analysis, the drying model that best describes the drying behavior for both drying conditions was determined as the Midilli model by high R²adj and low RMSE values. Control, 10, 20, and 30 min US for groups R²adj and RMSE values was established as respectively; 0,9997- 0,005298; 0,9998- 0,004735; 0,9995- 0,007031; 0,9917-0,02773. In addition, effective diffusion coefficients were calculated for each group and were determined as 3,80x 10⁻⁸, 3,71 x 10⁻⁸, 3,26 x10⁻⁸ ve 3,5 x 10⁻⁸ m/s, respectively.

Keywords: mathematical modelling, microwave drying, strawberry, ultrasound

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13128 Optimization of Process Parameters and Modeling of Mass Transport during Hybrid Solar Drying of Paddy

Authors: Aprajeeta Jha, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy

Abstract:

Drying is one of the most critical unit operations for prolonging the shelf-life of food grains in order to ensure global food security. Photovoltaic integrated solar dryers can be a sustainable solution for replacing energy intensive thermal dryers as it is capable of drying in off-sunshine hours and provide better control over drying conditions. But, performance and reliability of PV based solar dryers depend hugely on climatic conditions thereby, drastically affecting process parameters. Therefore, to ensure quality and prolonged shelf-life of paddy, optimization of process parameters for solar dryers is critical. Proper moisture distribution within the grains is most detrimental factor to enhance the shelf-life of paddy therefore; modeling of mass transport can help in providing a better insight of moisture migration. Hence, present work aims at optimizing the process parameters and to develop a 3D finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture profile in paddy during solar drying. Optimization of process parameters (power level, air velocity and moisture content) was done using box Behnken model in Design expert software. Furthermore, COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to develop a 3D finite element model for predicting moisture profile. Optimized model for drying paddy was found to be 700W, 2.75 m/s and 13% wb with optimum temperature, milling yield and drying time of 42˚C, 62%, 86 min respectively, having desirability of 0.905. Furthermore, 3D finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture migration in single kernel for every time step has been developed. The mean absolute error (MAE), mean relative error (MRE) and standard error (SE) were found to be 0.003, 0.0531 and 0.0007, respectively, indicating close agreement of model with experimental results. Above optimized conditions can be successfully used to dry paddy in PV integrated solar dryer in order to attain maximum uniformity, quality and yield of product to achieve global food and energy security

Keywords: finite element modeling, hybrid solar drying, mass transport, paddy, process optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
13127 Influence of High Hydrostatic Pressure Application (HHP) and Osmotic Dehydration (DO) as a Pretreatment to Hot –Air Drying of Abalone (Haliotis Rufescens) Cubes

Authors: Teresa Roco, Mario Perez Won, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Sebastian Pizarro

Abstract:

This research presents the simultaneous application of high hydrostatic pressure application (HHP) and osmotic dehydration (DO) as a pretreatment to hot –air drying of abalone cubes. The drying time was reduced to 6 hours at 60ºC as compared to the abalone drying by only a 15% NaCl osmotic pretreatment and at an atmospheric pressure that took 10 hours to dry at the same temperature. This was due to the salt and HHP saturation since osmotic pressure increases as water loss increases, thus needing a more reduced time in a convective drying, so water effective diffusion in drying plays an important role in this research. Different working conditions as pressure (350-550 MPa), pressure time ( 5-10 min), salt concentration, NaCl 15% and drying temperature (40-60ºC) will be optimized according to kinetic parameters of each mathematical model (Table 1). The models used for drying experimental curves were those corresponding to Weibull, Logarithmic and Midilli-Kucuk, but the latest one was the best fitted to the experimental data (Figure 1). The values for water effective diffusivity varied from 4.54 – to 9.95x10-9 m2/s for the 8 curves (DO+HHP) whereas the control samples (neither DO nor HHP) varied among 4.35 and 5.60x10-9 m2/s, for 40 and 60°C, respectively and as to drying by osmotic pretreatment at 15% NaCl from 3.804 to 4.36x10-9 m2/s at the same temperatures. Finally as to energy and efficiency consumption values for drying process (control and pretreated samples) it was found that they would be within a range of 777-1815 KJ/Kg and 8.22–19.20% respectively. Therefore, a knowledge concerning the drying kinetic as well as the consumption energy, in addition to knowledge about the quality of abalones subjected to an osmotic pretreatment (DO) and a high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) are extremely important to an industrial level so that the drying process can be successful at different pretreatment conditions and/or variable processes.

Keywords: abalone, convective drying, high pressure hydrostatic, pretreatments, diffusion coefficient

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13126 Transparency Phenomenon in Kuew Teow

Authors: Muhammad Heikal Ismail, Law Chung Lim, Hii Ching Lik

Abstract:

In maintaining food quality and shelf life, drying is employed in food industry as the most reliable perseverance technique. In this way, heat pump drying and hot air drying of fresh rice noodles was deduced to freeze drying in achieving quality attributes of oil content Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, texture, and colour. Soxthlet analysis shows freeze dried noodles contain more than 10 times oil content, distinct pores of SEM images, higher hardness by more than three times, and wider colour changes by average more than two times to both methods to explain the less transparency physical outlook of freeze dried samples.

Keywords: freeze drying, heat pump drying, noodles, Soxthlet

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
13125 Eucalyptus camendulensis and Its Drying Effect on Water and Essential Oil Content

Authors: Mehani Mouna, Segni Ladjel

Abstract:

Medicinal and aromatic plants are promising and are characterized by the biosynthesis of odorous molecules that make up the so-called essential oils (EO), which have long been known for their antiseptic and therapeutic activity in folk medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying in the shade on the water content and on the content of essential oils extracted from leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis for better quality control of medicinal and aromatic plants. The water content of the Eucalyptus camendulensis plant material decreases during the drying process. It increased from 100 % to 0.006 % for the drying in the shade after ten days. The moisture content is practically constant at the end of the drying period. The drying in the shade increases the concentration of essential oils of Eucalyptus camendulensis. When the leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis plant are in the shade, the maximum of the essential oil content was obtained on the eighth days; the recorded value was 1.43% ± 0.01%. Beyond these periods, the content continuously drops in before stabilizing. The optimum drying time is between 6 and 9 days.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camendulensis, drying, essential oils, water, content

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13124 Influence of Drying Method in Parts of Alumina Obtained for Rapid Prototyping and Uniaxial Dry Pressing

Authors: N. O. Muniz, F. A. Vechietti, L. Treccani, K. Rezwan, Luis Alberto dos Santos

Abstract:

Developing new technologies in the manufacture of biomaterials is a major challenge for researchers in the tissue engineering area. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the significance of the porous structure of the biomaterials on the promotion of bone ingrowth. The use of Rapid Prototyping in the manufacture of ceramics in the biomedical area has increased in recent years and few studies are conducted on obtaining alumina pieces. The aim of this work was the study of alumina pieces obtained by 3D printing and uniaxial dry pressing (DP) in order to evaluate porosity achieved by this two different techniques. Also, the influence of the powder drying process was determined. The row alumina powders were drying by freeze drying and oven. Apparent porosity, apparent density, retraction after thermal treatment were evaluated. The porosity values obtained by DP, regardless of method of drying powders, were much lower than those obtained by RP as expected. And for the prototyped samples, the method of powder drying significantly influenced porosities, reached 48% for drying oven versus 65% for freeze-drying. Therefore, the method of 3D printing, using different powder drying, allows a better control over the porosity.

Keywords: rapid prototyping, freeze-drying, porosity, alumina

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
13123 Impact of Microwave and Air Velocity on Drying Kinetics and Rehydration of Potato Slices

Authors: Caiyun Liu, A. Hernandez-Manas, N. Grimi, E. Vorobiev

Abstract:

Drying is one of the most used methods for food preservation, which extend shelf life of food and makes their transportation, storage and packaging easier and more economic. The commonly dried method is hot air drying. However, its disadvantages are low energy efficiency and long drying times. Because of the high temperature during the hot air drying, the undesirable changes in pigments, vitamins and flavoring agents occur which result in degradation of the quality parameters of the product. Drying process can also cause shrinkage, case hardening, dark color, browning, loss of nutrients and others. Recently, new processes were developed in order to avoid these problems. For example, the application of pulsed electric field provokes cell membrane permeabilisation, which increases the drying kinetics and moisture diffusion coefficient. Microwave drying technology has also several advantages over conventional hot air drying, such as higher drying rates and thermal efficiency, shorter drying time, significantly improved product quality and nutritional value. Rehydration kinetics of dried product is a very important characteristic of dried products. Current research has indicated that the rehydration ratio and the coefficient of rehydration are dependent on the processing conditions of drying. The present study compares the efficiency of two processes (1: room temperature air drying, 2: microwave/air drying) in terms of drying rate, product quality and rehydration ratio. In this work, potato slices (≈2.2g) with a thickness of 2 mm and diameter of 33mm were placed in the microwave chamber and dried. Drying kinetics and drying rates of different methods were determined. The process parameters included inlet air velocity (1 m/s, 1.5 m/s, 2 m/s) and microwave power (50 W, 100 W, 200 W and 250 W) were studied. The evolution of temperature during microwave drying was measured. The drying power had a strong effect on drying rate, and the microwave-air drying resulted in 93% decrease in the drying time when the air velocity was 2 m/s and the power of microwave was 250 W. Based on Lewis model, drying rate constants (kDR) were determined. It was observed an increase from kDR=0.0002 s-1 to kDR=0.0032 s-1 of air velocity of 2 m/s and microwave/air (at 2m/s and 250W) respectively. The effective moisture diffusivity was calculated by using Fick's law. The results show an increase of effective moisture diffusivity from 7.52×10-11 to 2.64×10-9 m2.s-1 for air velocity of 2 m/s and microwave/air (at 2m/s and 250W) respectively. The temperature of the potato slices increased for higher microwaves power, but decreased for higher air velocity. The rehydration ratio, defined as the weight of the the sample after rehydration per the weight of dried sample, was determined at different water temperatures (25℃, 50℃, 75℃). The rehydration ratio increased with the water temperature and reached its maximum at the following conditions: 200 W for the microwave power, 2 m/s for the air velocity and 75°C for the water temperature. The present study shows the interest of microwave drying for the food preservation.

Keywords: drying, microwave, potato, rehydration

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
13122 Finite Element Modeling of Mass Transfer Phenomenon and Optimization of Process Parameters for Drying of Paddy in a Hybrid Solar Dryer

Authors: Aprajeeta Jha, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy

Abstract:

Drying technologies for various food processing operations shares an inevitable linkage with energy, cost and environmental sustainability. Hence, solar drying of food grains has become imperative choice to combat duo challenges of meeting high energy demand for drying and to address climate change scenario. But performance and reliability of solar dryers depend hugely on sunshine period, climatic conditions, therefore, offer a limited control over drying conditions and have lower efficiencies. Solar drying technology, supported by Photovoltaic (PV) power plant and hybrid type solar air collector can potentially overpower the disadvantages of solar dryers. For development of such robust hybrid dryers; to ensure quality and shelf-life of paddy grains the optimization of process parameter becomes extremely critical. Investigation of the moisture distribution profile within the grains becomes necessary in order to avoid over drying or under drying of food grains in hybrid solar dryer. Computational simulations based on finite element modeling can serve as potential tool in providing a better insight of moisture migration during drying process. Hence, present work aims at optimizing the process parameters and to develop a 3-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture profile in paddy during solar drying. COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to develop a 3D finite element model for predicting moisture profile. Furthermore, optimization of process parameters (power level, air velocity and moisture content) was done using response surface methodology in design expert software. 3D finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture migration in single kernel for every time step has been developed and validated with experimental data. The mean absolute error (MAE), mean relative error (MRE) and standard error (SE) were found to be 0.003, 0.0531 and 0.0007, respectively, indicating close agreement of model with experimental results. Furthermore, optimized process parameters for drying paddy were found to be 700 W, 2.75 m/s at 13% (wb) with optimum temperature, milling yield and drying time of 42˚C, 62%, 86 min respectively, having desirability of 0.905. Above optimized conditions can be successfully used to dry paddy in PV integrated solar dryer in order to attain maximum uniformity, quality and yield of product. PV-integrated hybrid solar dryers can be employed as potential and cutting edge drying technology alternative for sustainable energy and food security.

Keywords: finite element modeling, moisture migration, paddy grain, process optimization, PV integrated hybrid solar dryer

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
13121 Design and Evaluation of a Fully-Automated Fluidized Bed Dryer for Complete Drying of Paddy

Authors: R. J. Pontawe, R. C. Martinez, N. T. Asuncion, R. V. Villacorte

Abstract:

Drying of high moisture paddy remains a major problem in the Philippines, especially during inclement weather condition. To alleviate the problem, mechanical dryers were used like a flat bed and recirculating batch-type dryers. However, drying to 14% (wet basis) final moisture content is long which takes 10-12 hours and tedious which is not the ideal for handling high moisture paddy. Fully-automated pilot-scale fluidized bed drying system with 500 kilograms per hour capacity was evaluated using a high moisture paddy. The developed fluidized bed dryer was evaluated using four drying temperatures and two variations in fluidization time at a constant airflow, static pressure and tempering period. Complete drying of paddy with ≥28% (w.b.) initial MC was attained after 2 passes of fluidized-bed drying at 2 minutes exposure to 70 °C drying temperature and 4.9 m/s superficial air velocity, followed by 60 min ambient air tempering period (30 min without ventilation and 30 min with air ventilation) for a total drying time of 2.07 h. Around 82% from normal mechanical drying time was saved at 70 °C drying temperature. The drying cost was calculated to be P0.63 per kilogram of wet paddy. Specific heat energy consumption was only 2.84 MJ/kg of water removed. The Head Rice Yield recovery of the dried paddy passed the Philippine Agricultural Engineering Standards. Sensory evaluation showed that the color and taste of the samples dried in the fluidized bed dryer were comparable to air dried paddy. The optimum drying parameters of using fluidized bed dryer is 70 oC drying temperature at 2 min fluidization time, 4.9 m/s superficial air velocity, 10.16 cm grain depth and 60 min ambient air tempering period.

Keywords: drying, fluidized bed dryer, head rice yield, paddy

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
13120 Preparation of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) Powder Using Spray Drying Technique

Authors: Shubham Mandliya, Pooja Pandey, H. N. Mishra

Abstract:

Amla (Phyllanthus emblica), a plant of Euphorbiaceous is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Amla is very high in vitamin C content. Spray drying of fruit juices represents another alternative way to improve the physicochemical stability and increase their shelf life. Samples of amla powder were produced using the spray drying method to investigate the effect of inlet temperatures and maltodextrin levels. The spray dryer model used was a laboratory scale dryer and samples were run at different temperatures and concentrations. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the spray-drying process for the development of amla powder. The resultant powders were then analyzed for vitamin C, moisture, solubility and dispersibility. The spray dried amla powder contains higher amounts of vitamin C when compared to commercial fruit juice powders. SEM analysis revealed that lower maltodextrin levels and higher inlet air temperatures resulted in smaller but smoother particles. At lower temperature, vitamin C content is high as compared to higher temperature. Spray drying is an effective as well as an economic method which can be commercially used for making powder rather than by tray or solar drying as more fraction is retained with less cost.

Keywords: Amla powder, physiochemical properties, response surface methodology, spray drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 116