Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1826

Search results for: flood modelling

1826 Flood Hazard and Risk Mapping to Assess Ice-Jam Flood Mitigation Measures

Authors: Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt, Apurba Das, Joel Trudell, Keanne Russell


In this presentation, we explore options for mitigating ice-jam flooding along the Athabasca River in western Canada. Not only flood hazard, expressed in this case as the probability of flood depths and extents being exceeded, but also flood risk, in which annual expected damages are calculated. Flood risk is calculated, which allows a cost-benefit analysis to be made so that decisions on the best mitigation options are not based solely on flood hazard but also on the costs related to flood damages and the benefits of mitigation. The river ice model is used to simulate extreme ice-jam flood events with which scenarios are run to determine flood exposure and damages in flood-prone areas along the river. We will concentrate on three mitigation options – the placement of a dike, artificial breakage of the ice cover along the river, the installation of an ice-control structure, and the construction of a reservoir. However, any mitigation option is not totally failsafe. For example, dikes can still be overtopped and breached, and ice jams may still occur in areas of the river where ice covers have been artificially broken up. Hence, for all options, it is recommended that zoning of building developments away from greater flood hazard areas be upheld. Flood mitigation can have a negative effect of giving inhabitants a false sense of security that flooding may not happen again, leading to zoning policies being relaxed. (Text adapted from Lindenschmidt [2022] "Ice Destabilization Study - Phase 2", submitted to the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo, Alberta, Canada)

Keywords: ice jam, flood hazard, flood risk river ice modelling, flood risk

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1825 Impact of Global Warming on the Total Flood Duration and Flood Recession Time in the Meghna Basin Using Hydrodynamic Modelling

Authors: Karan Gupta


The floods cause huge loos each year, and their impact gets manifold with the increase of total duration of flood as well as recession time. Moreover, floods have increased in recent years due to climate change in floodplains. In the context of global climate change, the agreement in Paris convention (2015) stated to keep the increase in global average temperature well below 2°C and keep it at the limit of 1.5°C. Thus, this study investigates the impact of increasing temperature on the stage, discharge as well as total flood duration and recession time in the Meghna River basin in Bangladesh. This study considers the 100-year return period flood flows in the Meghna river under the specific warming levels (SWLs) of 1.5°C, 2°C, and 4°C. The results showed that the rate of increase of duration of flood is nearly 50% lesser at ∆T = 1.5°C as compared to ∆T = 2°C, whereas the rate of increase of duration of recession is 75% lower at ∆T = 1.5°C as compared to ∆T = 2°C. Understanding the change of total duration of flood as well as recession time of the flood gives a better insight to effectively plan for flood mitigation measures.

Keywords: flood, climate change, Paris convention, Bangladesh, inundation duration, recession duration

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1824 The Use of Hec Ras One-Dimensional Model and Geophysics for the Determination of Flood Zones

Authors: Ayoub El Bourtali, Abdessamed Najine, Amrou Moussa Benmoussa


It is becoming more and more necessary to manage flood risk, and it must include all stakeholders and all possible means available. The goal of this work is to map the vulnerability of the Oued Derna-region Tagzirt flood zone in the semi-arid region. This is about implementing predictive models and flood control. This allows for the development of flood risk prevention plans. In this study, A resistivity survey was conducted over the area to locate and evaluate soil characteristics in order to calculate discharges and prevent flooding for the study area. The development of a one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic model of the Derna River was carried out in HEC-RAS 5.0.4 using a combination of survey data and spatially extracted cross-sections and recorded river flows. The study area was hit by several extreme floods, causing a lot of property loss and loss of life. This research focuses on the most recent flood events, based on the collected data, the water level, river flow and river cross-section were analyzed. A set of flood levels were obtained as the outputs of the hydraulic model and the accuracy of the simulated flood levels and velocity.

Keywords: derna river, 1D hydrodynamic model, flood modelling, HEC-RAS 5.0.4

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1823 Simulation of Flood Inundation in Kedukan River Using HEC-RAS and GIS

Authors: Reini S. Ilmiaty, Muhammad B. Al Amin, Sarino, Muzamil Jariski


Kedukan River is an artificial river which serves as a Watershed Boang drainage channel in Palembang. The river has upstream and downstream connected to Musi River, that often overflowing and flooding caused by the huge runoff discharge and high tide water level of Musi River. This study aimed to analyze the flood water surface profile on Kedukan River continued with flood inundation simulation to determine flooding prone areas in research area. The analysis starts from the peak runoff discharge calculations using rational method followed by water surface profile analysis using HEC-RAS program controlled by manual calculations using standard stages. The analysis followed by running flood inundation simulation using ArcGIS program that has been integrated with HEC-GeoRAS. Flood inundation simulation on Kedukan River creates inundation characteristic maps with depth, area, and circumference of inundation as the parameters. The inundation maps are very useful in providing an overview of flood prone areas in Kedukan River.

Keywords: flood modelling, HEC-GeoRAS, HEC-RAS, inundation map

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1822 Design and Modeling of Amphibious Houses for Flood Prone Areas: The Case of Nigeria

Authors: Onyebuchi Mogbo, Abdulsalam Mohammed, Salsabila Wali


This research discusses the design and modeling of an amphibious building. The amphibious building is a house with the function of floating during a flood event. Over the years, houses have been built to resist flood events some of which have failed. The floating house is designed to work with nature and not against it. In the event of a flood, the house will rise with the increasing water level and protect the house from sinking. For the design and modeling of this house an estimated cost of N250, 000, approximately $700, will be needed. It is expected that the house will rise when lightweight materials are incorporated in the design, and the concrete dock (in form of a hollow box) carrying the entire house in its hollow space is well designed. When there is flooding the water will fill up the concrete dock, and the house will rise upwards with vertical guides preventing it from moving side to side or out of its boundary. Architectural and Structural designs will be used in this project.

Keywords: amphibious building, flood, housing, design and modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1821 Flood Prediction with Satellite Data and Remote Sensing Tools: A Case Study in Lorestan, Iran

Authors: Milad Farhadi


Flood is a natural destructive phenomenon, and its risk is expected to increase remarkably under changing climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Many parameters are involved in the occurrence of floods in an area, including the heavy rainfall in the mountainous region. A flood zone has different potential properties for flood occurrence due to different natural conditions. These conditions can be used as parameters to produce a flood risk map. Lorestan province naturally has a high flood potential due to the occurrence of floods. In this study, we have predicted the level of flood risk in this province by examining two parameters: rainfall and vegetation changes before and after the main Lorestan flood. Eight criteria for generating a flood hazard map have been considered in this study. The criteria include vegetation cover, distance from the river, drainage density, land use and land cover, elevation, slope, geology, and precipitation. A real flood map was produced using a Sentinel-1 RADAR image and compared with the flood risk map. It was found that some parameters such as vegetation cover change and the amount of rainfall in the study area can lead to a flood.

Keywords: flood risk, remote sensing, hazard, satellite data

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1820 Estimation of the Parameters of Muskingum Methods for the Prediction of the Flood Depth in the Moudjar River Catchment

Authors: Fares Laouacheria, Said Kechida, Moncef Chabi


The objective of the study was based on the hydrological routing modelling for the continuous monitoring of the hydrological situation in the Moudjar river catchment, especially during floods with Hydrologic Engineering Center–Hydrologic Modelling Systems (HEC-HMS). The HEC-GeoHMS was used to transform data from geographic information system (GIS) to HEC-HMS for delineating and modelling the catchment river in order to estimate the runoff volume, which is used as inputs to the hydrological routing model. Two hydrological routing models were used, namely Muskingum and Muskingum routing models, for conducting this study. In this study, a comparison between the parameters of the Muskingum and Muskingum-Cunge routing models in HEC-HMS was used for modelling flood routing in the Moudjar river catchment and determining the relationship between these parameters and the physical characteristics of the river. The results indicate that the effects of input parameters such as the weighting factor "X" and travel time "K" on the output results are more significant, where the Muskingum routing model was more sensitive to input parameters than the Muskingum-Cunge routing model. This study can contribute to understand and improve the knowledge of the mechanisms of river floods, especially in ungauged river catchments.

Keywords: HEC-HMS, hydrological modelling, Muskingum routing model, Muskingum-Cunge routing model

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1819 Flood Planning Based on Risk Optimization: A Case Study in Phan-Calo River Basin in Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Quang Kim, Nguyen Thu Hien, Nguyen Thien Dung


Flood disasters are increasing worldwide in both frequency and magnitude. Every year in Vietnam, flood causes great damage to people, property, and environmental degradation. The flood risk management policy in Vietnam is currently updated. The planning of flood mitigation strategies is reviewed to make a decision how to reach sustainable flood risk reduction. This paper discusses the basic approach where the measures of flood protection are chosen based on minimizing the present value of expected monetary expenses, total residual risk and costs of flood control measures. This approach will be proposed and demonstrated in a case study for flood risk management in Vinh Phuc province of Vietnam. Research also proposed the framework to find a solution of optimal protection level and optimal measures of the flood. It provides an explicit economic basis for flood risk management plans and interactive effects of options for flood damage reduction. The results of the case study are demonstrated and discussed which would provide the processing of actions helped decision makers to choose flood risk reduction investment options.

Keywords: drainage plan, flood planning, flood risk, residual risk, risk optimization

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1818 Changes in Religious Belief after Flood Disasters

Authors: Sapora Sipon, Mohd Fo’ad Sakdan, Che Su Mustaffa, Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Mohamad Sukeri Khalid, Mohd Taib Ariffin, Husni Mohd Radzi, Salhah Abdullah


Flood disasters occur throughout the world including Malaysia. The major flood disaster that hit Malaysia in the 2014-2015 episodes proved the psychosocial and mental health consequences such as vivid images of destruction, upheaval, death and loss of lives. Flood, flood survivors reported that flood has changed one looks at their religious belief. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the changes in religious belief after the 2014-2015 Malaysia flood disaster. The total population of 1300 respondents who experienced the 2014-2015 Malaysia flood were surveyed a month after the disaster. The questionnaires were used to measure religiosity and stress. The results provide compelling evidence that religion played an important role in the lives of Malaysia flood disasters’ survivor where more than half of the respondents (>75%) experiencing the strengthening of their religious belief. It was also reported the victims’ strengthening of their religious belief proved to be a powerful factor in reducing stress in the aftermath of the flood.

Keywords: religious belief, flood disaster, humanity, society

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1817 Flood Scenarios for Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Modelling

Authors: M. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir, Mohammad Masud Kamal Khan, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Raj H. Sharma, Fatema Akram


Future flood can be predicted using the probable maximum flood (PMF). PMF is calculated using the historical discharge or rainfall data considering the other climatic parameter stationary. However, climate is changing globally and the key climatic variables are temperature, evaporation, rainfall and sea level rise (SLR). To develop scenarios to a basin or catchment scale these important climatic variables should be considered. Nowadays scenario based on climatic variables is more suitable than PMF. Six scenarios were developed for a large Fitzroy basin and presented in this paper.

Keywords: climate change, rainfall, potential evaporation, scenario, sea level rise (SLR), sub-catchment

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1816 Study on Disaster Prevention Plan for an Electronic Industry in Thailand

Authors: S. Pullteap, M. Pathomsuriyaporn


In this article, a study of employee’s opinion to the factors that affect to the flood preventive and the corrective action plan in an electronic industry at the Sharp Manufacturing (Thailand) Co., Ltd. has been investigated. The surveys data of 175 workers and supervisors have, however, been selected for data analysis. The results is shown that the employees emphasize about the needs in a subsidy at the time of disaster at high levels of 77.8%, as the plan focusing on flood prevention of the rehabilitation equipment is valued at the intermediate level, which is 79.8%. Demonstration of the hypothesis has found that the different education levels has thus been affected to the needs factor at the flood disaster time. Moreover, most respondents give priority to flood disaster risk management factor. Consequently, we found that the flood prevention plan is valued at high level, especially on information monitoring, which is 93.4% for the supervisor item. The respondents largely assume that the flood will have impacts on the industry, up to 80%, thus to focus on flood management plans is enormous.

Keywords: flood prevention plan, flood event, electronic industrial plant, disaster, risk management

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1815 Flood Disaster Prevention and Mitigation in Nigeria Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Dinebari Akpee, Friday Aabe Gaage, Florence Fred Nwaigwu


Natural disasters like flood affect many parts of the world including developing countries like Nigeria. As a result, many human lives are lost, properties damaged and so much money is lost in infrastructure damages. These hazards and losses can be mitigated and reduced by providing reliable spatial information to the generality of the people through about flood risks through flood inundation maps. Flood inundation maps are very crucial for emergency action plans, urban planning, ecological studies and insurance rates. Nigeria experience her worst flood in her entire history this year. Many cities were submerged and completely under water due to torrential rainfall. Poor city planning, lack of effective development control among others contributes to the problem too. Geographic information system (GIS) can be used to visualize the extent of flooding, analyze flood maps to produce flood damaged estimation maps and flood risk maps. In this research, the under listed steps were taken in preparation of flood risk maps for the study area: (1) Digitization of topographic data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS (2) Flood simulation using hydraulic model and integration and (3) Integration of the first two steps to produce flood risk maps. The results shows that GIS can play crucial role in Flood disaster control and mitigation.

Keywords: flood disaster, risk maps, geographic information system, hazards

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1814 Evaluation of Flood Events in Respect of Disaster Management in Turkey

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan, Hasan Uzun


Flood is the event which damage to the surrounding lands, residential places, infrastructure and vibrant, because of the streams overflow events from its bed for several reasons. Flood is a natural formation which develops due to its region's climatic conditions, technical and topographical characteristics. However, factors causing floods with global warming caused by human activity are events such as uncontrolled urbanization. Floods in Turkey are natural disasters which cause huge economic losses after the earthquake. At the same time, the flood disaster is one of the most observed hydrometeorological disasters, compared to 30%, in Turkey. Every year, there are around 200 flood-flood disasters and the disaster as a result of financial losses of $ 100 million per year are reported to occur in public institutions. The amount allocated for carrying out investment-project activities for reducing and controlling of flood damage control are around US $ 30 million per year. The existence of a linear increase in the number of flood disasters is noteworthy due to various reasons in the last 50 years of observation. In this study, first of all, big events of the flood in Turkey and their reasons were examined. And then, the information about the work to be done in order to prevent flooding by government was given with examples. Meteorological early warning systems, flood risk maps and regulation of urban development studies are described for this purpose. As a result, recommendations regarding in the event of the occurrence of floods disaster management were issues raised.

Keywords: flood, disaster, disaster management, Türkiye

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1813 Knowledge Integration from Concept to Practice: An Exploratory Study of Designing a Flood Resilient Urban Park in Viet Nam

Authors: To Quyen Le, Oswald Devisch, Tu Anh Trinh, Els Hannes


Urban centres worldwide are affected differently by flooding. In Vietnam this impact is increasingly negative caused by a process of rapid urbanisation. Traditional spatial planning and flood mitigation planning are not able to deal with this growing threat. This article therefore proposes to focus on increasing the participation of local communities in flood control and management. It explores, on the basis of a design studio exercise, how lay knowledge on flooding can be integrated within planning processes. The article presents a theoretical basis for the structured criterion for site selection for a flood resilient urban park from the perspective of science, then discloses the tacit and explicit knowledge of the flood-prone area and finally integrates this knowledge into the design strategies for flood resilient urban park design.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, AHP, design resilience, flood resilient urban park, knowledge integration

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1812 Flood Predicting in Karkheh River Basin Using Stochastic ARIMA Model

Authors: Karim Hamidi Machekposhti, Hossein Sedghi, Abdolrasoul Telvari, Hossein Babazadeh


Floods have huge environmental and economic impact. Therefore, flood prediction is given a lot of attention due to its importance. This study analysed the annual maximum streamflow (discharge) (AMS or AMD) of Karkheh River in Karkheh River Basin for flood predicting using ARIMA model. For this purpose, we use the Box-Jenkins approach, which contains four-stage method model identification, parameter estimation, diagnostic checking and forecasting (predicting). The main tool used in ARIMA modelling was the SAS and SPSS software. Model identification was done by visual inspection on the ACF and PACF. SAS software computed the model parameters using the ML, CLS and ULS methods. The diagnostic checking tests, AIC criterion, RACF graph and RPACF graphs, were used for selected model verification. In this study, the best ARIMA models for Annual Maximum Discharge (AMD) time series was (4,1,1) with their AIC value of 88.87. The RACF and RPACF showed residuals’ independence. To forecast AMD for 10 future years, this model showed the ability of the model to predict floods of the river under study in the Karkheh River Basin. Model accuracy was checked by comparing the predicted and observation series by using coefficient of determination (R2).

Keywords: time series modelling, stochastic processes, ARIMA model, Karkheh river

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1811 Applying of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for Estimation of Flood Hydrographs

Authors: Amir Ahmad Dehghani, Morteza Nabizadeh


This paper presents the application of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to flood hydrograph modeling of Shahid Rajaee reservoir dam located in Iran. This was carried out using 11 flood hydrographs recorded in Tajan river gauging station. From this dataset, 9 flood hydrographs were chosen to train the model and 2 flood hydrographs to test the model. The different architectures of neuro-fuzzy model according to the membership function and learning algorithm were designed and trained with different epochs. The results were evaluated in comparison with the observed hydrographs and the best structure of model was chosen according the least RMSE in each performance. To evaluate the efficiency of neuro-fuzzy model, various statistical indices such as Nash-Sutcliff and flood peak discharge error criteria were calculated. In this simulation, the coordinates of a flood hydrograph including peak discharge were estimated using the discharge values occurred in the earlier time steps as input values to the neuro-fuzzy model. These results indicate the satisfactory efficiency of neuro-fuzzy model for flood simulating. This performance of the model demonstrates the suitability of the implemented approach to flood management projects.

Keywords: adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, flood hydrograph, hybrid learning algorithm, Shahid Rajaee reservoir dam

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1810 Machine Learning Methods for Flood Hazard Mapping

Authors: Stefano Zappacosta, Cristiano Bove, Maria Carmela Marinelli, Paola di Lauro, Katarina Spasenovic, Lorenzo Ostano, Giuseppe Aiello, Marco Pietrosanto


This paper proposes a novel neural network approach for assessing flood hazard mapping. The core of the model is a machine learning component fed by frequency ratios, namely statistical correlations between flood event occurrences and a selected number of topographic properties. The proposed hybrid model can be used to classify four different increasing levels of hazard. The classification capability was compared with the flood hazard mapping River Basin Plans (PAI) designed by the Italian Institute for Environmental Research and Defence, ISPRA (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale). The study area of Piemonte, an Italian region, has been considered without loss of generality. The frequency ratios may be used as a standalone block to model the flood hazard mapping. Nevertheless, the mixture with a neural network improves the classification power of several percentage points, and may be proposed as a basic tool to model the flood hazard map in a wider scope.

Keywords: flood modeling, hazard map, neural networks, hydrogeological risk, flood risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
1809 Automatic Flood Prediction Using Rainfall Runoff Model in Moravian-Silesian Region

Authors: B. Sir, M. Podhoranyi, S. Kuchar, T. Kocyan


Rainfall-runoff models play important role in hydrological predictions. However, the model is only one part of the process for creation of flood prediction. The aim of this paper is to show the process of successful prediction for flood event (May 15–May 18 2014). The prediction was performed by rainfall runoff model HEC–HMS, one of the models computed within Floreon+ system. The paper briefly evaluates the results of automatic hydrologic prediction on the river Olše catchment and its gages Český Těšín and Věřňovice.

Keywords: flood, HEC-HMS, prediction, rainfall, runoff

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1808 Measuring Flood Risk concerning with the Flood Protection Embankment in Big Flooding Events of Dhaka Metropolitan Zone

Authors: Marju Ben Sayed, Shigeko Haruyama


Among all kinds of natural disaster, the flood is a common feature in rapidly urbanizing Dhaka city. In this research, assessment of flood risk of Dhaka metropolitan area has been investigated by using an integrated approach of GIS, remote sensing and socio-economic data. The purpose of the study is to measure the flooding risk concerning with the flood protection embankment in big flooding events (1988, 1998 and 2004) and urbanization of Dhaka metropolitan zone. In this research, we considered the Dhaka city into two parts; East Dhaka (outside the flood protection embankment) and West Dhaka (inside the flood protection embankment). Using statistical data, we explored the socio-economic status of the study area population by comparing the density of population, land price and income level. We have drawn the cross section profile of the flood protection embankment into three different points for realizing the flooding risk in the study area, especially in the big flooding year (1988, 1998 and 2004). According to the physical condition of the study area, the land use/land cover map has been classified into five classes. Comparing with each land cover unit, historical weather station data and the socio-economic data, the flooding risk has been evaluated. Moreover, we compared between DEM data and each land cover units to find out the relationship with flood. It is expected that, this study could contribute to effective flood forecasting, relief and emergency management for a future flood event in Dhaka city.

Keywords: land use, land cover change, socio-economic, Dhaka city, GIS, flood

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1807 Failure to React Positively to Flood Early Warning Systems: Lessons Learned by Flood Victims from Flash Flood Disasters: the Malaysia Experience

Authors: Mohamad Sukeri Khalid, Che Su Mustaffa, Mohd Najib Marzuki, Mohd Fo’ad Sakdan, Sapora Sipon, Mohd Taib Ariffin, Shazwani Shafiai


This paper describes the issues relating to the role of the flash flood early warning system provided by the Malaysian Government to the communities in Malaysia, specifically during the flash flood disaster in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Normally, flash flood disasters can occur as a result of heavy rainfall in an area, and that water may possibly cause flooding via streams or narrow channels. For this study, the flash flood disaster in the Cameron Highlands occurred on 23 October 2013, and as a result the Sungai Bertam overflowed after the release of water from the Sultan Abu Bakar Dam. This release of water from the dam caused flash flooding which led to damage to properties and also the death of residents and livestock in the area. Therefore, the effort of this study is to identify the perceptions of the flash flood victims on the role of the flash flood early warning system. For the purposes of this study, data collection was gathered from those flood victims who were willing to participate in this study through face-to-face interviews. This approach helped the researcher to glean in-depth information about their feeling and perceptions on the role of the flash flood early warning system offered by the government. The data were analysed descriptively and the findings show that the respondents of 22 flood victims believe strongly that the flash flood early warning system was confusing and dysfunctional, and communities had failed to response positively to it. Therefore, most of the communities were not well prepared for the releasing of water from the dam that caused property damage and 3 people were killed in Cameron Highland flash flood disaster.

Keywords: communities affected, disaster management, early warning system, flash flood disaster

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1806 Urban Flood Risk Mapping–a Review

Authors: Sherly M. A., Subhankar Karmakar, Terence Chan, Christian Rau


Floods are one of the most frequent natural disasters, causing widespread devastation, economic damage and threat to human lives. Hydrologic impacts of climate change and intensification of urbanization are two root causes of increased flood occurrences, and recent research trends are oriented towards understanding these aspects. Due to rapid urbanization, population of cities across the world has increased exponentially leading to improperly planned developments. Climate change due to natural and anthropogenic activities on our environment has resulted in spatiotemporal changes in rainfall patterns. The combined effect of both aggravates the vulnerability of urban populations to floods. In this context, an efficient and effective flood risk management with its core component as flood risk mapping is essential in prevention and mitigation of flood disasters. Urban flood risk mapping involves zoning of an urban region based on its flood risk, which depicts the spatiotemporal pattern of frequency and severity of hazards, exposure to hazards, and degree of vulnerability of the population in terms of socio-economic, environmental and infrastructural aspects. Although vulnerability is a key component of risk, its assessment and mapping is often less advanced than hazard mapping and quantification. A synergic effort from technical experts and social scientists is vital for the effectiveness of flood risk management programs. Despite an increasing volume of quality research conducted on urban flood risk, a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach towards flood risk mapping still remains neglected due to which many of the input parameters and definitions of flood risk concepts are imprecise. Thus, the objectives of this review are to introduce and precisely define the relevant input parameters, concepts and terms in urban flood risk mapping, along with its methodology, current status and limitations. The review also aims at providing thought-provoking insights to potential future researchers and flood management professionals.

Keywords: flood risk, flood hazard, flood vulnerability, flood modeling, urban flooding, urban flood risk mapping

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1805 Regional Flood Frequency Analysis in Narmada Basin: A Case Study

Authors: Ankit Shah, R. K. Shrivastava


Flood and drought are two main features of hydrology which affect the human life. Floods are natural disasters which cause millions of rupees’ worth of damage each year in India and the whole world. Flood causes destruction in form of life and property. An accurate estimate of the flood damage potential is a key element to an effective, nationwide flood damage abatement program. Also, the increase in demand of water due to increase in population, industrial and agricultural growth, has let us know that though being a renewable resource it cannot be taken for granted. We have to optimize the use of water according to circumstances and conditions and need to harness it which can be done by construction of hydraulic structures. For their safe and proper functioning of hydraulic structures, we need to predict the flood magnitude and its impact. Hydraulic structures play a key role in harnessing and optimization of flood water which in turn results in safe and maximum use of water available. Mainly hydraulic structures are constructed on ungauged sites. There are two methods by which we can estimate flood viz. generation of Unit Hydrographs and Flood Frequency Analysis. In this study, Regional Flood Frequency Analysis has been employed. There are many methods for estimating the ‘Regional Flood Frequency Analysis’ viz. Index Flood Method. National Environmental and Research Council (NERC Methods), Multiple Regression Method, etc. However, none of the methods can be considered universal for every situation and location. The Narmada basin is located in Central India. It is drained by most of the tributaries, most of which are ungauged. Therefore it is very difficult to estimate flood on these tributaries and in the main river. As mentioned above Artificial Neural Network (ANN)s and Multiple Regression Method is used for determination of Regional flood Frequency. The annual peak flood data of 20 sites gauging sites of Narmada Basin is used in the present study to determine the Regional Flood relationships. Homogeneity of the considered sites is determined by using the Index Flood Method. Flood relationships obtained by both the methods are compared with each other, and it is found that ANN is more reliable than Multiple Regression Method for the present study area.

Keywords: artificial neural network, index flood method, multi layer perceptrons, multiple regression, Narmada basin, regional flood frequency

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1804 Acceptance towards Counselling Services among Flood Victims in Selangor

Authors: Husni Mohd Radzi, Lilie Zahara Ramly, Sapora Sipon, Salhah Abdullah


Malaysia have been experiencing series of huge floods all around the country for the past decades despide planned development done by local authorities. The floods incurred due to factors like natural climate change or man-made disaster. Floods have caused a lot of damages, destructions and losses in term of infrastructure, financial implications and physical health. However, other damaging aspect was not being given much attention are the psychological need of the flood victim. The traumatic impact from the natural disaster like floods may cause serious psychological and spiritual deterioration. Many flood relief shelters in the past did not provide counseling services for flood victims to consult, and as a result, it contributes to added stress among the flood victims, as the issue were not being addressed. Some studies indicates that flood victims did not look for counseling service being offered. A total of 257 flood victim was involved in this study. Main area of the study was Kg Bukit Changgang, Kg. Rancangan Tanah Belia, Kg. Labohan Dagang and Kg.Olak Lempit in Kuala Langat, Selangor. The flood victims have responded to the survey given and the data was analyze using SPSS for descriptive information and other measures. At least 13 victims were reported to have experienced moderate to severe level of stress and anxiety over the flood disaster incidents and a total of 88 respondents admitted to have at least thought and consider getting counseling service.

Keywords: perception, acceptance towards counseling, counseling service for flood victim, disaster

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1803 Tide Contribution in the Flood Event of Jeddah City: Mathematical Modelling and Different Field Measurements of the Groundwater Rise

Authors: Aïssa Rezzoug


This paper is aimed to bring new elements that demonstrate the tide caused the groundwater to rise in the shoreline band, on which the urban areas occurs, especially in the western coastal cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia like Jeddah. The reason for the last events of Jeddah inundation was the groundwater rise in the city coupled at the same time to a strong precipitation event. This paper will illustrate the tide participation in increasing the groundwater level significantly. It shows that the reason for internal groundwater recharge within the urban area is not only the excess of the water supply coming from surrounding areas, due to the human activity, with lack of sufficient and efficient sewage system, but also due to tide effect. The research study follows a quantitative method to assess groundwater level rise risks through many in-situ measurements and mathematical modelling. The proposed approach highlights groundwater level, in the urban areas of the city on the shoreline band, reaching the high tide level without considering any input from precipitation. Despite the small tide in the Red Sea compared to other oceanic coasts, the groundwater level is considerably enhanced by the tide from the seaside and by the freshwater table from the landside of the city. In these conditions, the groundwater level becomes high in the city and prevents the soil to evacuate quickly enough the surface flow caused by the storm event, as it was observed in the last historical flood catastrophe of Jeddah in 2009.

Keywords: flood, groundwater rise, Jeddah, tide

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1802 Assessment of Chemical and Physical Properties of Surface Water Resources in Flood Affected Area

Authors: Siti Hajar Ya’acob, Nor Sayzwani Sukri, Farah Khaliz Kedri, Rozidaini Mohd Ghazi, Nik Raihan Nik Yusoff, Aweng A/L Eh Rak


Flood event that occurred in mid-December 2014 in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia has driven attention from the public nationwide. Apart from loss and damage of properties and belongings, the massive flood event has introduced environmental disturbances on surface water resources in such flood affected area. A study has been conducted to measure the physical and chemical composition of Galas River and Pergau River prior to identification the flood impact towards environmental deterioration in surrounding area. Samples that have been collected were analyzed in-situ using YSI portable instrument and also in the laboratory for acid digestion and heavy metals analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that range of temperature (0C), DO (mg/L), Ec (µs/cm), TDS (mg/L), turbidity (NTU), pH, and salinity were 25.05-26.65, 1.51-5.85, 0.032-0.054, 0.022-0.035, 23.2-76.4, 3.46-7.31, and 0.01-0.02 respectively. The results from this study could be used as a primary database to evaluate the status of water quality of the respective river after the massive flood.

Keywords: flood, river, heavy metals, AAS

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1801 Flood Risk Assessment in the Niger River Basin in Support of the Conception of a Flood Risk Management Plan: Case Study of the District of Malanville, Benin

Authors: Freddy Houndekindo


A study was carried out to evaluate the flood risk in the district of Malanville located along the Niger River. The knowledge produce by this study is useful in the implementation of adaptation and/or mitigation measures to alleviate the impact of the flooding on the populations, the economy and the environment. Over the course of the study, the lack of data in the area of interest has been one of the main challenges encountered. Therefore, in the analysis of the flood hazard different sources of remotely sensed data were used. Moreover, the flood hazard was analysed by applying a 1D hydraulic model: HEC-RAS. After setting up the model for the study area, the different flood scenarios considered were simulated and mapped using ArcGIS and the HEC-GEORAS extension. The result of the simulation gave information about the inundated areas and the water depths at each location. From the analysis of the flood hazard, it was found that between 47% and 50% of the total area of the district of Malanville would be flooded in the different flood scenarios considered, and the water depth varies between 1 and 7 m. The townships of Malanville most at risk of flooding are Momkassa and Galiel, located in a high-risk and very high-risk zone, respectively. Furthermore, the assessment of the flood risk showed that the most vulnerable sector to the inundations is the agricultural sector. Indeed, the cultivated floodplains were the most affected areas by the floodwater in every flood scenarios. Knowing that a high proportion of the population of the district relies on their farmlands in these floodplains for their livelihood, the floods pose a challenge not only to the food security in the area but also to its development.

Keywords: flood risk management, Niger, remote sensing, vulnerability

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1800 Flood Modeling in Urban Area Using a Well-Balanced Discontinuous Galerkin Scheme on Unstructured Triangular Grids

Authors: Rabih Ghostine, Craig Kapfer, Viswanathan Kannan, Ibrahim Hoteit


Urban flooding resulting from a sudden release of water due to dam-break or excessive rainfall is a serious threatening environment hazard, which causes loss of human life and large economic losses. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision, and rescue plans. This work reports on the numerical modelling of flash flood propagation in urban areas after an excessive rainfall event or dam-break. A two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged shallow water model is used with a refined unstructured grid of triangles for representing the urban area topography. The 2D shallow water equations are solved using a second-order well-balanced discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Theoretical test case and three flood events are described to demonstrate the potential benefits of the scheme: (i) wetting and drying in a parabolic basin (ii) flash flood over a physical model of the urbanized Toce River valley in Italy; (iii) wave propagation on the Reyran river valley in consequence of the Malpasset dam-break in 1959 (France); and (iv) dam-break flood in October 1982 at the town of Sumacarcel (Spain). The capability of the scheme is also verified against alternative models. Computational results compare well with recorded data and show that the scheme is at least as efficient as comparable second-order finite volume schemes, with notable efficiency speedup due to parallelization.

Keywords: dam-break, discontinuous Galerkin scheme, flood modeling, shallow water equations

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1799 Risk Assessment of Flood Defences by Utilising Condition Grade Based Probabilistic Approach

Authors: M. Bahari Mehrabani, Hua-Peng Chen


Management and maintenance of coastal defence structures during the expected life cycle have become a real challenge for decision makers and engineers. Accurate evaluation of the current condition and future performance of flood defence structures is essential for effective practical maintenance strategies on the basis of available field inspection data. Moreover, as coastal defence structures age, it becomes more challenging to implement maintenance and management plans to avoid structural failure. Therefore, condition inspection data are essential for assessing damage and forecasting deterioration of ageing flood defence structures in order to keep the structures in an acceptable condition. The inspection data for flood defence structures are often collected using discrete visual condition rating schemes. In order to evaluate future condition of the structure, a probabilistic deterioration model needs to be utilised. However, existing deterioration models may not provide a reliable prediction of performance deterioration for a long period due to uncertainties. To tackle the limitation, a time-dependent condition-based model associated with a transition probability needs to be developed on the basis of condition grade scheme for flood defences. This paper presents a probabilistic method for predicting future performance deterioration of coastal flood defence structures based on condition grading inspection data and deterioration curves estimated by expert judgement. In condition-based deterioration modelling, the main task is to estimate transition probability matrices. The deterioration process of the structure related to the transition states is modelled according to Markov chain process, and a reliability-based approach is used to estimate the probability of structural failure. Visual inspection data according to the United Kingdom Condition Assessment Manual are used to obtain the initial condition grade curve of the coastal flood defences. The initial curves then modified in order to develop transition probabilities through non-linear regression based optimisation algorithms. The Monte Carlo simulations are then used to evaluate the future performance of the structure on the basis of the estimated transition probabilities. Finally, a case study is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method under no-maintenance and medium-maintenance scenarios. Results show that the proposed method can provide an effective predictive model for various situations in terms of available condition grading data. The proposed model also provides useful information on time-dependent probability of failure in coastal flood defences.

Keywords: condition grading, flood defense, performance assessment, stochastic deterioration modelling

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1798 Rethinking Urban Floodplain Management: The Case of Colombo, Sri Lanka

Authors: Malani Herath, Sohan Wijesekera, Jagath Munasingha


The impact of recent floods become significant, and the extraordinary flood events cause considerable damage to lives, properties, environment and negatively affect the whole development of Colombo urban region. Even though the Colombo urban region experiences recurrent flood impacts, several spatial planning interventions have been taken from time to time since early 20th century. All past plans have adopted a traditional approach to flood management, using infrastructural measures to reduce the chance of flooding together with rigid planning regulations. The existing flood risk management practices do not operate to be acceptable by the local community particular the urban poor. Researchers have constantly reported the differences in estimations of flood risk, priorities, concerns of experts and the local community. Risk-based decision making in flood management is not only a matter of technical facts; it has a significant bearing on how flood risk is viewed by local community and individuals. Moreover, sustainable flood management is an integrated approach, which highlights joint actions of experts and community. This indicates the necessity of further societal discussion on the acceptable level of flood risk indicators to prioritize and identify the appropriate flood management measures in Colombo. The understanding and evaluation of flood risk by local people are important to integrate in the decision-making process. This research questioned about the gap between the acceptable level of flood risk to spatial planners and to the local communities in Colombo. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to prepare a framework to analyze the public perception in Colombo. This research work identifies the factors that affect the variation of flood risk and acceptable levels to both local community and planning authorities.

Keywords: Colombo basin, public perception, urban flood risk, multi-criteria analysis

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1797 Development of Map of Gridded Basin Flash Flood Potential Index: GBFFPI Map of QuangNam, QuangNgai, DaNang, Hue Provinces

Authors: Le Xuan Cau


Flash flood is occurred in short time rainfall interval: from 1 hour to 12 hours in small and medium basins. Flash floods typically have two characteristics: large water flow and big flow velocity. Flash flood is occurred at hill valley site (strip of lowland of terrain) in a catchment with large enough distribution area, steep basin slope, and heavy rainfall. The risk of flash floods is determined through Gridded Basin Flash Flood Potential Index (GBFFPI). Flash Flood Potential Index (FFPI) is determined through terrain slope flash flood index, soil erosion flash flood index, land cover flash floods index, land use flash flood index, rainfall flash flood index. Determining GBFFPI, each cell in a map can be considered as outlet of a water accumulation basin. GBFFPI of the cell is determined as basin average value of FFPI of the corresponding water accumulation basin. Based on GIS, a tool is developed to compute GBFFPI using ArcObjects SDK for .NET. The maps of GBFFPI are built in two types: GBFFPI including rainfall flash flood index (real time flash flood warning) or GBFFPI excluding rainfall flash flood index. GBFFPI Tool can be used to determine a high flash flood potential site in a large region as quick as possible. The GBFFPI is improved from conventional FFPI. The advantage of GBFFPI is that GBFFPI is taking into account the basin response (interaction of cells) and determines more true flash flood site (strip of lowland of terrain) while conventional FFPI is taking into account single cell and does not consider the interaction between cells. The GBFFPI Map of QuangNam, QuangNgai, DaNang, Hue is built and exported to Google Earth. The obtained map proves scientific basis of GBFFPI.

Keywords: ArcObjects SDK for NET, basin average value of FFPI, gridded basin flash flood potential index, GBFFPI map

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