Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 79

Search results for: Fatema Akram

79 Flood Scenarios for Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Modelling

Authors: M. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir, Mohammad Masud Kamal Khan, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Raj H. Sharma, Fatema Akram


Future flood can be predicted using the probable maximum flood (PMF). PMF is calculated using the historical discharge or rainfall data considering the other climatic parameter stationary. However, climate is changing globally and the key climatic variables are temperature, evaporation, rainfall and sea level rise (SLR). To develop scenarios to a basin or catchment scale these important climatic variables should be considered. Nowadays scenario based on climatic variables is more suitable than PMF. Six scenarios were developed for a large Fitzroy basin and presented in this paper.

Keywords: climate change, rainfall, potential evaporation, scenario, sea level rise (SLR), sub-catchment

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
78 Comparison of Different Hydrograph Routing Techniques in XPSTORM Modelling Software: A Case Study

Authors: Fatema Akram, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Mohammad Masud Kamal Khan, Md. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir


A variety of routing techniques are available to develop surface runoff hydrographs from rainfall. The selection of runoff routing method is very vital as it is directly related to the type of watershed and the required degree of accuracy. There are different modelling softwares available to explore the rainfall-runoff process in urban areas. XPSTORM, a link-node based, integrated storm-water modelling software, has been used in this study for developing surface runoff hydrograph for a Golf course area located in Rockhampton in Central Queensland in Australia. Four commonly used methods, namely SWMM runoff, Kinematic wave, Laurenson, and Time-Area are employed to generate runoff hydrograph for design storm of this study area. In runoff mode of XPSTORM, the rainfall, infiltration, evaporation and depression storage for sub-catchments were simulated and the runoff from the sub-catchment to collection node was calculated. The simulation results are presented, discussed and compared. The total surface runoff generated by SWMM runoff, Kinematic wave and Time-Area methods are found to be reasonably close, which indicates any of these methods can be used for developing runoff hydrograph of the study area. Laurenson method produces a comparatively less amount of surface runoff, however, it creates highest peak of surface runoff among all which may be suitable for hilly region. Although the Laurenson hydrograph technique is widely acceptable surface runoff routing technique in Queensland (Australia), extensive investigation is recommended with detailed topographic and hydrologic data in order to assess its suitability for use in the case study area.

Keywords: ARI, design storm, IFD, rainfall temporal pattern, routing techniques, surface runoff, XPSTORM

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
77 A Review on Stormwater Harvesting and Reuse

Authors: Fatema Akram, Mohammad G. Rasul, M. Masud K. Khan, M. Sharif I. I. Amir


Australia is a country of some 7,700 million square kilometres with a population of about 22.6 million. At present water security is a major challenge for Australia. In some areas the use of water resources is approaching and in some parts it is exceeding the limits of sustainability. A focal point of proposed national water conservation programs is the recycling of both urban storm-water and treated wastewater. But till now it is not widely practiced in Australia, and particularly storm-water is neglected. In Australia, only 4% of storm-water and rainwater is recycled, whereas less than 1% of reclaimed wastewater is reused within urban areas. Therefore, accurately monitoring, assessing and predicting the availability, quality and use of this precious resource are required for better management. As storm-water is usually of better quality than untreated sewage or industrial discharge, it has better public acceptance for recycling and reuse, particularly for non-potable use such as irrigation, watering lawns, gardens, etc. Existing storm-water recycling practice is far behind of research and no robust technologies developed for this purpose. Therefore, there is a clear need for using modern technologies for assessing feasibility of storm-water harvesting and reuse. Numerical modelling has, in recent times, become a popular tool for doing this job. It includes complex hydrological and hydraulic processes of the study area. The hydrologic model computes storm-water quantity to design the system components, and the hydraulic model helps to route the flow through storm-water infrastructures. Nowadays water quality module is incorporated with these models. Integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) with these models provides extra advantage of managing spatial information. However for the overall management of a storm-water harvesting project, Decision Support System (DSS) plays an important role incorporating database with model and GIS for the proper management of temporal information. Additionally DSS includes evaluation tools and Graphical user interface. This research aims to critically review and discuss all the aspects of storm-water harvesting and reuse such as available guidelines of storm-water harvesting and reuse, public acceptance of water reuse, the scopes and recommendation for future studies. In addition to these, this paper identifies, understand and address the importance of modern technologies capable of proper management of storm-water harvesting and reuse.

Keywords: storm-water management, storm-water harvesting and reuse, numerical modelling, geographic information system, decision support system, database

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
76 Automated Localization of Palpebral Conjunctiva and Hemoglobin Determination Using Smart Phone Camera

Authors: Faraz Tahir, M. Usman Akram, Albab Ahmad Khan, Mujahid Abbass, Ahmad Tariq, Nuzhat Qaiser


The objective of this study was to evaluate the Degree of anemia by taking the picture of the palpebral conjunctiva using Smartphone Camera. We have first localized the region of interest from the image and then extracted certain features from that Region of interest and trained SVM classifier on those features and then, as a result, our system classifies the image in real-time on their level of hemoglobin. The proposed system has given an accuracy of 70%. We have trained our classifier on a locally gathered dataset of 30 patients.

Keywords: anemia, palpebral conjunctiva, SVM, smartphone

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75 Isotherm Study of Modified Zeolite in Sorption of Naphthalene from Water Sample

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Amir Hesam Hassani, Akram Torki, Elham Moniri


A new sorbent was synthesized through chemical modification of clinoptilolite zeolite using 2-naphtol, and characterized with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods and applied for the removal and elimination of trace naphthalene from water samples. The optimum pH value for sorption of the naphthalene by modified zeolite was in acidic pH. The sorption capacity of modified zeolite was 142 mg. g−1. Isotherm models, Langmuir, Frendlich and Temkin were employed to analyze the adsorption capacity of modified zeolite, which revealed that naphthalene adsorption by this zeolite follows Langmuir model.

Keywords: zeolite, clinoptilolite, modification, naphthalene

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74 Evolution of Multimodulus Algorithm Blind Equalization Based on Recursive Least Square Algorithm

Authors: Sardar Ameer Akram Khan, Shahzad Amin Sheikh


Blind equalization is an important technique amongst equalization family. Multimodulus algorithms based on blind equalization removes the undesirable effects of ISI and cater ups the phase issues, saving the cost of rotator at the receiver end. In this paper a new algorithm combination of recursive least square and Multimodulus algorithm named as RLSMMA is proposed by providing few assumption, fast convergence and minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) is achieved. The excellence of this technique is shown in the simulations presenting MSE plots and the resulting filter results.

Keywords: blind equalizations, constant modulus algorithm, multi-modulus algorithm, recursive least square algorithm, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
73 Development of Impervious Concrete Using Micro Silica and GGBS as Cement Replacement Materials

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Akram, Saim Raza, Hamza Hanif Chauhan


This paper describes the aim of research to evaluate the performance of ordinary Portland concretes containing cement replacement materials in both binary and ternary system. Blocks of concrete were prepared to have a constant water-binder ratio of 0.30. The test variables included the type and the amount of the supplementary cementious materials (SCMs) such as class of Silica Fume (SF) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Portland cement was replaced with Silica Fume (SF) upto 7.5% and GGBS up to a level of 50%. Then physical properties are assessed from the compressive strength and permeability tests.

Keywords: silica fume, GGBS, compressive strength, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
72 Residual Life Prediction for a System Subject to Condition Monitoring and Two Failure Modes

Authors: Akram Khaleghei, Ghosheh Balagh, Viliam Makis


In this paper, we investigate the residual life prediction problem for a partially observable system subject to two failure modes, namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model with unknown parameters. The parameter estimation procedure based on an EM algorithm is developed and the formulas for the conditional reliability function and the mean residual life are derived, illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: partially observable system, hidden Markov model, competing risks, residual life prediction

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71 A New Distributed Computing Environment Based On Mobile Agents for Massively Parallel Applications

Authors: Fatéma Zahra Benchara, Mohamed Youssfi, Omar Bouattane, Hassan Ouajji, Mohamed Ouadi Bensalah


In this paper, we propose a new distributed environment for High Performance Computing (HPC) based on mobile agents. It allows us to perform parallel programs execution as distributed one over a flexible grid constituted by a cooperative mobile agent team works. The distributed program to be performed is encapsulated on team leader agent which deploys its team workers as Agent Virtual Processing Unit (AVPU). Each AVPU is asked to perform its assigned tasks and provides the computational results which make the data and team works tasks management difficult for the team leader agent and that influence the performance computing. In this work we focused on the implementation of the Mobile Provider Agent (MPA) in order to manage the distribution of data and instructions and to ensure a load balancing model. It grants also some interesting mechanisms to manage the others computing challenges thanks to the mobile agents several skills.

Keywords: image processing, distributed environment, mobile agents, parallel and distributed computing

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70 A Comprehensive Model of Professional Ethics Based on the Teachings of the Holy Quran

Authors: Zahra Mohagheghian, Fatema Agharebparast


Professional ethic is a subject that has been an issue today, so most of the businesses, including the teaching profession, understand the need and importance of it. So they need to develop a code of professional ethics for their own. In this regard, this study seeks to answer the question, with respect to the integrity of the Qur'an (Nahl / 89), is it possible to contemplate the divine teachers conduct to extract the divine pattern for teaching and training? In the code of conduct for divine teachers what are the most important moral obligations and duties of the teaching professionals? The results of this study show that the teaching of Khidr, according to the Quran’s verses, Abundant and subtle hints emphasized that it can be as comprehensive and divine pattern used in teaching and in the drafting of the charter of professional ethics of teachers used it. Also, the results show that in there have been many ethical principles in prophet Khidr’s teaching pattern.The most important ethical principles include: Student assessment, using objective and not subjective examples, assessment during teaching, flexibility, and others. According to each of these principles can help teachers achieve their educational goals and lead human being in their path toward spiritual evaluation.

Keywords: professional ethics, teaching-learning process, teacher, student, Quran

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
69 Interest Rate of Managers and Tourism Officials over E-Tourism Development: Case Study of Lenjan City

Authors: Akram Shahriyari, Reza Mokhtari Malek Abadi


E-tourism is among the issues that have recently been entered into the field of tourism. In order to achieve this type of tourism, Information and Communications Technology (or ICT) infrastructures as well as Co-governmental organizations and tourism resources are important. In this study, the opinions of managers and tourism officials about the e-tourism in Lenjan city were measured; it also surveyed the impact of level of digital literacy of managers and tourism officials on attracting tourists in Lenjan city. This study was conducted in Lenjan, one of the environs of the Esfahan province. This study is a documentary – survey and the sources include library resources and also questionnaires. The results obtained indicate that if managers use ICT, it may help e-tourism to be developed in the region, and increasing managers’ beliefs on e-tourism and upgrading their level of digital literacy may affect e-tourism development.

Keywords: ICT, e-tourism, opinion of managers and officials, Lejnan

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68 An Optimal Bayesian Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable System Subject to Two Failure Modes

Authors: Akram Khaleghei Ghosheh Balagh, Viliam Makis, Leila Jafari


In this paper, we present a new maintenance model for a partially observable system subject to two failure modes, namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model. A cost-optimal Bayesian control policy is developed for maintaining the system. The control problem is formulated in the semi-Markov decision process framework. An effective computational algorithm is developed and illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: partially observable system, hidden Markov model, competing risks, multivariate Bayesian control

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67 TNF-Kinoid® in Autoimmune Diseases

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Melakhessou Med Akram, Mezahdia Mehdi, Marref Salah Eddine


Cytokines are natural proteins which act as true intercellular communication signals in immune and inflammatory responses. Reverse signaling pathways that activate cytokines help to regulate different functions at the target cell, causing its activation, its proliferation, the differentiation, its survival or death. It was shown that malfunctioning of the cytokine regulation, particularly over-expression, contributes to the onset and development of certain serious diseases such as chronic rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, lupus. The action mode of Kinoid® technology is based on the principle vaccine: The patient's immune system is activated so that it neutralizes itself and the factor responsible for the disease. When applied specifically to autoimmune diseases, therapeutic vaccination allows the body to neutralize cytokines (proteins) overproduced through a highly targeted stimulation of the immune system.

Keywords: cytokines, Kinoid tech, auto-immune diseases, vaccination

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66 In Search of Bauman’s Moral Impulse in Shadow Factories of China

Authors: Akram Hatami, Naser Firoozi, Vesa Puhakka


Ethics and responsibility are rapidly becoming a distinguishing feature of organizations. In this paper, we analyze ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. We engage ourselves with Bauman’s moral impulse perspective because his idea can contextualize ethics and responsibility. Moral impulse is a feeling of a selfless, infinite and unconditional responsibility towards, and care for, Others. We analyze a case study from a secondary data source because, for such a critical phenomenon as business ethics in shadow factories, collecting primary data is difficult, since they are unregistered factories. We argue that there has not been enough attention given to the ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. Our main goal is to demonstrate that, considering the Other, more importantly the employees, in ethical decision-making is a simple instruction beyond the narrow version of ethics by ethical codes and rules.

Keywords: moral impulse, responsibility, shadow factories, Bauman’s moral impulse

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65 Morphology Study of Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells in Sequential Deposition

Authors: Asmat Nawaz, Ali Koray Erdinc, Burak Gultekin, Muhammad Tayyib, Ceylan Zafer, Kaiying Wang, M. Nadeem Akram


In this study, a sequential deposition process is used for the fabrication of PEDOT: PSS based inverted planar perovskite solar cell. A small amount of additive deionized water (DI-H2O) was added into PbI2 + Dimethyl formamide (DMF) precursor solution in order to increase the solubility of PbI2 in DMF, and finally to manipulate the surface morphology of the perovskite films. A morphology transition from needle like structure to hexagonal plates, and then needle-like again has been observed as the DI-H2O was added continuously (0.0 wt% to 3.0wt%). The latter one leads to full surface coverage of the perovskite, which is essential for high performance solar cell.

Keywords: charge carrier diffusion lengths, Methylamonium lead iodide, precursor composition, perovskite solar cell, sequential deposition

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64 Numerical Simulation of Punching Shear of Flat Plates with Low Reinforcement

Authors: Fatema-Tuz-Zahura, Raquib Ahsan


Punching shear failure is usually the governing failure mode of flat plate structures. Punching failure is brittle in nature which induces more vulnerability to this type of structure. In the present study, a 3D finite element model of a flat plate with low reinforcement ratio and without any transverse reinforcement has been developed. Punching shear stress and the deflection data were obtained on the surface of the flat plate as well as through the thickness of the model from numerical simulations. The obtained data were compared with the experimental results. Variation of punching stress with respect to deflection as obtained from numerical results is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results; the range of variation of punching stress is within 5%. The numerical simulation shows an early and gradual onset of nonlinearity, whereas the same is late and abrupt as observed in the experimental results. The range of variation of punching stress for different slab thicknesses between experimental and numerical results is less than 15%. The developed numerical model is useful to complement available punching test series performed in the past. The results obtained from the numerical model will be helpful for designing retrofitting schemes of flat plates.

Keywords: flat plate, finite element model, punching shear, reinforcement ratio

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63 Toward a New Approach for Modeling Lean, Agile and Leagile Supply Chains

Authors: Bouchra Abdelilah, Akram El Korchi, Atmane Baddou


With the very competitive business era that we witness nowadays, companies needs more that anytime to use all the resources they have in order to maximize performance and satisfy the customers’ needs. The changes occurring in the market business are often due to the variations of demand, which requires a very specific supply chain strategy. Supply chains aims to balance cost, quality, and service level and lead time. Still, managers are confused when faced with the strategies working the best for the supply chain: lean, agile and leagile. This paper presents a decision making tool that aims to assist the manager in choosing the supply chain strategy that suits the most his business, depending on the type of product and the nature of demand. Analyzing the different characteristics of supply chain will enable us to guide the manager to the suitable strategy between lean, agile and leagile.

Keywords: supply chain, lean, agile, flexibility, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 509
62 A Comparative Analysis about the Effects of a Courtyard in Indoor Thermal Environment of a Room with and without Transitional Space Adjacent to Courtyard of a House in Old Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Fatema Tasmia, Brishti Majumder, Atiqur Rahman


Attaining appropriate comfort conditions in a place where the climate is hot and humid can be perplexing. Especially, when it is resided at a congested place like old Dhaka Bangladesh, the provision of giving cross ventilation and building with proper orientation is quite difficult. Courtyards are the part of buildings which are used as space for outdoor household activities, social gathering and it is also proved to have indoor thermal comfort as an effect of courtyard. This paper aims to investigate the effect of courtyard in indoor thermal environment of a room adjacent to the courtyard and a room next to transitional space after a courtyard through field measurements of a case study house. The field measurement was conducted in a two-storey house. Among different aspects of thermal environment, the study of this paper is based on the analysis of temperature in both situations. Ventilation or air movement was considered to have no impact because of the rooms’ layout and location. Other aspects and their variables were considered as constant (especially material) for accuracy and avoidance of confusion. This study focuses on the outcome that can ultimately contribute to the configuration of courtyards and in its relation to indoor space while achieving thermal comfort.

Keywords: courtyard, old Dhaka, temperature, thermal comfort, transitional space

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
61 A Fast Parallel and Distributed Type-2 Fuzzy Algorithm Based on Cooperative Mobile Agents Model for High Performance Image Processing

Authors: Fatéma Zahra Benchara, Mohamed Youssfi, Omar Bouattane, Hassan Ouajji, Mohamed Ouadi Bensalah


The aim of this paper is to present a distributed implementation of the Type-2 Fuzzy algorithm in a parallel and distributed computing environment based on mobile agents. The proposed algorithm is assigned to be implemented on a SPMD (Single Program Multiple Data) architecture which is based on cooperative mobile agents as AVPE (Agent Virtual Processing Element) model in order to improve the processing resources needed for performing the big data image segmentation. In this work we focused on the application of this algorithm in order to process the big data MRI (Magnetic Resonance Images) image of size (n x m). It is encapsulated on the Mobile agent team leader in order to be split into (m x n) pixels one per AVPE. Each AVPE perform and exchange the segmentation results and maintain asynchronous communication with their team leader until the convergence of this algorithm. Some interesting experimental results are obtained in terms of accuracy and efficiency analysis of the proposed implementation, thanks to the mobile agents several interesting skills introduced in this distributed computational model.

Keywords: distributed type-2 fuzzy algorithm, image processing, mobile agents, parallel and distributed computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
60 Peristaltic Transport of a Jeffrey Fluid with Double-Diffusive Convection in Nanofluids in the Presence of Inclined Magnetic Field

Authors: Safia Akram


In this article, the effects of peristaltic transport with double-diffusive convection in nanofluids through an asymmetric channel with different waveforms is presented. Mathematical modelling for two-dimensional and two directional flows of a Jeffrey fluid model along with double-diffusive convection in nanofluids are given. Exact solutions are obtained for nanoparticle fraction field, concentration field, temperature field, stream functions, pressure gradient and pressure rise in terms of axial and transverse coordinates under the restrictions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. With the help of computational and graphical results the effects of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, Dufour, Soret, and Grashof numbers (thermal, concentration, nanoparticles) on peristaltic flow patterns with double-diffusive convection are discussed.

Keywords: nanofluid particles, peristaltic flow, Jeffrey fluid, magnetic field, asymmetric channel, different waveforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
59 Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Studies of Magnesium-Iron Galvanic Couple

Authors: Akram Alfantazi, Tirdad Nickchi


Magnesium galvanic corrosion plays an important role in the commercialization of Mg alloys in the automobile industry. This study aims at visualizing the electrochemical activity of the magnesium surface being coupled with pure iron in sulfate-chloride solutions. Scanning electrochemical microscopy was used to monitor the chemical activity of the surface and the data was compared with the conventional corrosion results such as potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization, and immersion tests. The SECM results showed that the chemical reactivity of Mg is higher than phosphate-permanganate-coated Mg. Regions in the vicinity of the galvanic couple boundary are very active in the magnesium phase and fully protected in the iron phase. Scanning electrochemical microscopy results showed that the conversion coating provided good corrosion resistance for magnesium in the short-term but fails at long-term testing.

Keywords: corrosion, galvanic corrosion, magnesium, scanning electrochemical microscopy

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58 Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes toward the Use of Physical Restraints

Authors: Fatema Salman, Ridha Hammam, Fatima Khairallah, Fatima Aradi, Nafeesa Abdulla, Mohammed Alsafar


Purpose: This study aims at measuring the extent of nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward the use of physical restraints in different hospital wards at Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC). Background: The habitual use of physical restraint is a widespread practice among nurses working in the clinical settings. Restraints inflict many deleterious consequences on patients physically and psychologically which in turn increases their morbidity and mortality risk and jeopardizes care quality. Nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward physical restraints are crucial determinants of the persistence of this practice. Literature review: the evidence of lack of knowledge among nurses regarding the use of physical restraints is overwhelming in various clinical settings, especially in two main areas which are the negative consequences and the available alternatives to physical restraints. Studies explored nurses’ attitudes toward physical restraints yielded inconsistent findings. Equally comparable, some studies found that nurses hold positive attitudes toward the use of physical restraints while some others reported just the opposite. Methods: Self-administered knowledge and attitudes scales to 106 nurses working in the SMC. Findings: nurses hold the moderate level of knowledge about restraints (M=58%) with weak negative attitudes (M = -20%) toward using it. Significant moderately-strong negative correlation (r= -0.57, r2= 0.32, p= 0.000) was uncovered between nurses knowledge and their attitudes which provided an empirical explanation of this phenomenon (use of physical restraints). Recommendations: Induction of awareness program that especially focuses on the negative consequences and encourages the use of alternatives is an evident need. This effort necessarily should be adjoined with policy and procedure adjustments.

Keywords: attitudes, knowledge, nurses, restraints

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
57 Mediation as an Effective Tool for Resolving Sports Disputes

Authors: Mohd Akram Shair Mohamad


The relation to the infinite variety issues sprouting in sports or lex sportiva, like lex mercatoria in the early centuries, has now come of age and even begun a maturing process in the past thirty-five years or so. Lex sportiva now straddles sports management, sports medicine, tort, criminal law, employment contract, competition law and a host of multifarious activities related to sports. This has catapulted a host of legal issue and problems, demanding urgent legal solutions to actual or potential disputes. This paper discusses the nature and development of lex sportiva, and how it is able to resolve sports disputes. Resolving sports dispute via the tiresome, dilatory and expensive process of litigation is most unsuitable. Arbitration may not be equally a satisfactory solution. The paper strongly advocates the far the most effective and resolution friendly mode of settling sports disputes namely, mediation. In support it highlights numerous advantages mediation has to offer and with reference to many significant sports disputes which had been successfully resolved via mediation.

Keywords: alternative dispute resolution, mediation, arbitration, litigation

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56 Influence of Nanoparticles Phenomena on the Peristaltic Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluid in an Inclined Asymmetric Channel with Different Wave Forms

Authors: Safia Akram


The influence of nanofluid with different waveforms in the presence of inclined asymmetric channel on peristaltic transport of a pseudoplastic fluid is examined. The governing equations for two-dimensional and two directional flows of a pseudoplastic fluid along with nanofluid are modeled and then simplified under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. The exact solutions for temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are calculated. Series solution of the stream function and pressure gradient are carried out using perturbation technique. The flow quantities have been examined for various physical parameters of interest. It was found, that the magnitude value of the velocity profile decreases with an increase in volume flow rate (Q) and relaxation times (ζ) and increases in sinusoidal, multisinusoidal, trapezoidal and triangular waves. It was also observed that the size of the trapping bolus decreases with the drop of the width of the channel ‘d’ and increases with a rise of relaxation times ζ.

Keywords: nanofluid particles, peristaltic flow, pseudoplastic fluid, different waveforms, inclined asymmetric channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
55 Optical Properties of N-(Hydroxymethyl) Acrylamide Polymer Gel Dosimeters for Radiation Therapy

Authors: Khalid A. Rabaeh, Belal Moftah, Ahmed A. Basfar, Akram A. Almousa


Polymer gel dosimeters are tissue equivalent martial that fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of absorbed radiation dose. Polymer gel dosimeters can uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D). A novel composition of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters based on radiation-induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) is introduced in this study for radiotherapy treatment planning. The dosimeters were irradiated by 10 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator at a constant dose rate of 600 cGy/min with doses up to 30 Gy. The polymerization degree is directly proportional to absorbed dose received by the polymer gel. UV/Vis spectrophotometer was used to investigate the degree of white color of irradiated NHMA gel which is associated to the degree of polymerization of polymer gel dosimeters. The absorbance increases with absorbed dose for all gel dosimeters in the dose range between 0 and 30 Gy. Dose rate , energy of radiation and the stability of the polymerization after irradiation were investigated. No appreciable effects of these parameters on the performance of the novel gel dosimeters were observed.

Keywords: dosimeter, gel, spectrophotometer, N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide

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54 Influence of Cationic Surfactant (TTAB) on the Rate of Dipeptide (Gly-DL-Asp) Ninhydrin Reaction in Absence and Presence of Organic Solvents

Authors: Mohd. Akram, A. A. M. Saeed


Surfactants are widely used in our daily life either directly in household and personal care products or indirectly in the industrial processes. The kinetics of the interaction of glycyl-DL-aspartic acid (Gly-DL-Asp) with ninhydrin has been investigated spectrophotometrically in aqueous and organic-solvent media in the absence and presence of cationic surfactant of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB). The study was carried out under different experimental conditions. The first and fractional order-rate were observed for [Gly-DL-Asp] and [ninhydrin], respectively. The reaction was enhanced about four-fold by TTAB micelles. The effect of organic solvents was studied at a constant concentration of TTAB and showed an increase in the absorbance as well as the rate constant for the formation of product (Ruhemann's purple). The results obtained in micellar media are treated quantitatively in terms of pseudo-phase and Piszkiewicz cooperativity models. The Arrhenius and Eyring equations are valid for the reaction over the range of temperatures used and different activation parameters (Ea, ∆H#, ∆S#, and ∆G#) have been evaluated.

Keywords: glycyl-DL-aspartic acid, ninhydrin, organic solvents, TTAB

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53 Improved Processing Speed for Text Watermarking Algorithm in Color Images

Authors: Hamza A. Al-Sewadi, Akram N. A. Aldakari


Copyright protection and ownership proof of digital multimedia are achieved nowadays by digital watermarking techniques. A text watermarking algorithm for protecting the property rights and ownership judgment of color images is proposed in this paper. Embedding is achieved by inserting texts elements randomly into the color image as noise. The YIQ image processing model is found to be faster than other image processing methods, and hence, it is adopted for the embedding process. An optional choice of encrypting the text watermark before embedding is also suggested (in case required by some applications), where, the text can is encrypted using any enciphering technique adding more difficulty to hackers. Experiments resulted in embedding speed improvement of more than double the speed of other considered systems (such as least significant bit method, and separate color code methods), and a fairly acceptable level of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with low mean square error values for watermarking purposes.

Keywords: steganography, watermarking, time complexity measurements, private keys

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52 A Comparative Analysis of the Indoor Thermal Environment of a Room with and without Transitional Space or Threshold in Traditional Row Houses Adjacent to a Narrow Alley 'Rupchan Lane' in Old Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Fatema Tasmia, Brishti Majumder, Atiqur Rahman


Attaining appropriate thermal comfort conditions in a place where the climate is hot and humid can be perplexing. Especially, when it resides at a congested place like old Dhaka Bangladesh, the provision of giving cross ventilation and building with proper orientation is quite difficult. This paper aims to investigate the indoor thermal environment of a room with and without transitional space or threshold in traditional row houses adjacent to a narrow alley of old Dhaka through field measurements. Transitional spaces are the part of buildings which are used for semi-outdoor household activities, social gathering and it is also proved to provide an indoor thermal effect. The field study was conducted by collecting thermal data (temperature, humidity and airflow) respectively, among the outdoor narrow alley, transitional space and adjacent indoor. This east-west elongated alley has an average width of 2.13 meter (varies from 1.5 to 2.6 meter) holding row houses on both sides. Among different aspects of thermal environment, the study of this paper is based on the analysis of temperature of corresponding cases. Other aspects and their variables were considered as constant (especially material) for accuracy and avoidance of confusion. This study focuses on the outcome that can ultimately contribute to the configuration of row houses with transitional spaces and in its relation to the adjacent outdoor space while achieving thermal comfort.

Keywords: alley, Old-Dhaka, row houses, temperature, thermal comfort, threshold, transitional space

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51 Comparison Learning Vocabulary Implicitly and Explicitly

Authors: Akram Hashemi


This study provided an empirical evidence for learners of elementary level of language proficiency to investigate the potential role of contextualization in vocabulary learning. Prior to the main study, pilot study was performed to determine the reliability and validity of the researcher-made pretest and posttest. After manifesting the homogeneity of the participants, the participants (n = 90) were randomly assigned into three equal groups, i.e., two experimental groups and a control group. They were pretested by a vocabulary test, in order to test participants' pre-knowledge of vocabulary. Then, vocabulary instruction was provided through three methods of visual instruction, the use of context and the use of conventional techniques. At the end of the study, all participants took the same posttest in order to assess their vocabulary gain. The results of independent sample t-test indicated that there is a significant difference between learning vocabulary visually and learning vocabulary contextually. The results of paired sample t-test showed that different teaching strategies have significantly different impacts on learners’ vocabulary gains. Also, the contextual strategy was significantly more effective than visual strategy in improving students’ performance in vocabulary test.

Keywords: vocabulary instruction, explicit instruction, implicit instruction, strategy

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50 The Contemporary Dynamics of Board Composition and Executive Compensation for R&D Spending

Authors: Farheen Akram


Research and Development (R&D) is the most crucial element of the firm’s survival in a competitive business environment. R&D is a long-term investment; therefore, executives having the power to make the investment decisions may be pessimistic when their compensation is closely linked with short-term firm performance. Thus, the current study investigates the impact of board composition and executives’ compensation (cash or short-term benefits and LTIs) on R&D spending using a sample of 85 S&P/100 firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) in 2017. SmartPLS (v.3.2.7) was used to evaluate the proposed model of current research. The empirical findings of this study indicate that board composition has a significant and positive effect on R&D spending. While, as expected, executive cash compensation has negative and Long-Term-Incentives (LTIs) has a positive impact on R&D spending. Based on current findings, the study suggested that myopic behavior of CEOs and top management towards long-term value creation investment like R&D can be controlled by using long-term compensation rewards.

Keywords: cash compensation, LTIs, board composition, R&D spending

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