Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11741

Search results for: sea level rise (SLR)

11741 Forecasting the Sea Level Change in Strait of Hormuz

Authors: Hamid Goharnejad, Amir Hossein Eghbali

Abstract:

Recent investigations have demonstrated the global sea level rise due to climate change impacts. In this study climate changes study the effects of increasing water level in the strait of Hormuz. The probable changes of sea level rise should be investigated to employ the adaption strategies. The climatic output data of a GCM (General Circulation Model) named CGCM3 under climate change scenario of A1b and A2 were used. Among different variables simulated by this model, those of maximum correlation with sea level changes in the study region and least redundancy among themselves were selected for sea level rise prediction by using stepwise regression. One models of Discrete Wavelet artificial Neural Network (DWNN) was developed to explore the relationship between climatic variables and sea level changes. In these models, wavelet was used to disaggregate the time series of input and output data into different components and then ANN was used to relate the disaggregated components of predictors and predictands to each other. The results showed in the Shahid Rajae Station for scenario A1B sea level rise is among 64 to 75 cm and for the A2 Scenario sea level rise is among 90 to 105 cm. Furthermore the result showed a significant increase of sea level at the study region under climate change impacts, which should be incorporated in coastal areas management.

Keywords: climate change scenarios, sea-level rise, strait of Hormuz, forecasting

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11740 Tide Contribution in the Flood Event of Jeddah City: Mathematical Modelling and Different Field Measurements of the Groundwater Rise

Authors: Aïssa Rezzoug

Abstract:

This paper is aimed to bring new elements that demonstrate the tide caused the groundwater to rise in the shoreline band, on which the urban areas occurs, especially in the western coastal cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia like Jeddah. The reason for the last events of Jeddah inundation was the groundwater rise in the city coupled at the same time to a strong precipitation event. This paper will illustrate the tide participation in increasing the groundwater level significantly. It shows that the reason for internal groundwater recharge within the urban area is not only the excess of the water supply coming from surrounding areas, due to the human activity, with lack of sufficient and efficient sewage system, but also due to tide effect. The research study follows a quantitative method to assess groundwater level rise risks through many in-situ measurements and mathematical modelling. The proposed approach highlights groundwater level, in the urban areas of the city on the shoreline band, reaching the high tide level without considering any input from precipitation. Despite the small tide in the Red Sea compared to other oceanic coasts, the groundwater level is considerably enhanced by the tide from the seaside and by the freshwater table from the landside of the city. In these conditions, the groundwater level becomes high in the city and prevents the soil to evacuate quickly enough the surface flow caused by the storm event, as it was observed in the last historical flood catastrophe of Jeddah in 2009.

Keywords: flood, groundwater rise, Jeddah, tide

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11739 Florida’s Groundwater and Surface Water System Reliability in Terms of Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise

Authors: Rahman Davtalab

Abstract:

Florida is one of the most vulnerable states to natural disasters among the 50 states of the USA. The state exposed by tropical storms, hurricanes, storm surge, landslide, etc. Besides, the mentioned natural phenomena, global warming, sea-level rise, and other anthropogenic environmental changes make a very complicated and unpredictable system for decision-makers. In this study, we tried to highlight the effects of climate change and sea-level rise on surface water and groundwater systems for three different geographical locations in Florida; Main Canal of Jacksonville Beach (in the northeast of Florida adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean), Grace Lake in central Florida, far away from surrounded coastal line, and Mc Dill in Florida and adjacent to Tampa Bay and Mexican Gulf. An integrated hydrologic and hydraulic model was developed and simulated for all three cases, including surface water, groundwater, or a combination of both. For the case study of Main Canal-Jacksonville Beach, the investigation showed that a 76 cm sea-level rise in time horizon 2060 could increase the flow velocity of the tide cycle for the main canal's outlet and headwater. This case also revealed how the sea level rise could change the tide duration, potentially affecting the coastal ecosystem. As expected, sea-level rise can raise the groundwater level. Therefore, for the Mc Dill case, the effect of groundwater rise on soil storage and the performance of stormwater retention ponds is investigated. The study showed that sea-level rise increased the pond’s seasonal high water up to 40 cm by time horizon 2060. The reliability of the retention pond is dropped from 99% for the current condition to 54% for the future. The results also proved that the retention pond could not retain and infiltrate the designed treatment volume within 72 hours, which is a significant indication of increasing pollutants in the future. Grace Lake case study investigates the effects of climate change on groundwater recharge. This study showed that using the dynamically downscaled data of the groundwater recharge can decline up to 24% by the mid-21st century.

Keywords: groundwater, surface water, Florida, retention pond, tide, sea level rise

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11738 Real-Time Monitoring Approaches of Groundwater Conductivity and Level to Pre-Alert the Seawater Intrusion in Sand Coast of Liaodong Bay of China

Authors: Yuguang Wang, Chuanjun Wang

Abstract:

At present, many coastal areas around the world suffer from seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion is the superimposed result of two factors which are nature and human social economical activities in particular area. In recent years, due to excessive exploitation of groundwater, the seawater intrusion phenomenon aggravate in coastal zone of the Bohai and Huanghai seas in our country. Moreover, with sea-level rising, the original hydrodynamic equilibrium between saltwater and freshwater has been damaged to a certain extent, and it will further aggravate seawater intrusion in the land plains. In addition, overexploitation of groundwater declined groundwater level and increase saltwater intrusion in coastal areas. Therefore, in view of the sensitivity and vulnerability of the impact of sea-level rise in the future, the risk of sea-level rise in coastal zone should be considered, reasonable exploitation, utilization and management of coastal zone’s groundwater should be formulated. The response mechanism of sea-level rise should be studied to prevent and reduce the harm of seawater intrusion, which has important theoretical and realistic significances. In this paper, through the long-term monitoring of groundwater level and conductibility in the transition region of seawater intrusion for the sand coast area, realtimely master the situation of seawater intrusion. Combined with the seasonal exploitation station of groundwater and sea level variation, early alert the seawater intrusion to prevent and reduce the harm of seawater intrusion.

Keywords: groundwater level, sea level, seawater intrusion, sand coast

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11737 Architectural Approaches to a Sustainable Community with Floating Housing Units Adapting to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise in Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Thi Thu Trang

Abstract:

Climate change and sea level rise is one of the greatest challenges facing human beings in the 21st century. Because of sea level rise, several low-lying coastal areas around the globe are at risk of being completely submerged, disappearing under water. Particularly in Viet Nam, the rise in sea level is predicted to result in more frequent and even permanently inundated coastal plains. As a result, land reserving fund of coastal cities is going to be narrowed in near future, while construction ground is becoming increasingly limited due to a rapid growth in population. Faced with this reality, the solutions are being discussed not only in tradition view such as accommodation is raised or moved to higher areas, or “living with the water”, but also forwards to “living on the water”. Therefore, the concept of a sustainable floating community with floating houses based on the precious value of long term historical tradition of water dwellings in Viet Nam would be a sustainable solution for adaptation of climate change and sea level rise in the coastal areas. The sustainable floating community is comprised of sustainability in four components: architecture, environment, socio-economic and living quality. This research paper is focused on sustainability in architectural component of floating community. Through detailed architectural analysis of current floating houses and floating communities in Viet Nam, this research not only accumulates precious values of traditional architecture that need to be preserved and developed in the proposed concept, but also illustrates its weaknesses that need to address for optimal design of the future sustainable floating communities. Based on these studies the research would provide guidelines with appropriate architectural solutions for the concept of sustainable floating community with floating housing units that are adapted to climate change and sea level rise in Viet Nam.

Keywords: guidelines, sustainable floating community, floating houses, Vietnam

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11736 Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low-lying areas: Coastal Evolution and Impact of Future Sea Level Rise Scenarios in Mirabello Gulf - NE Crete

Authors: Maria Kazantzaki, Evangelos Tsakalos, Eleni Filippaki, Yannis Bassiakos

Abstract:

Mediterranean areas are characterized by intense seismic and volcanic activity as well as eustatic changes, the result of which is the creation of particularly vulnerable coastal zones. The most vulnerable are low-lying coastal areas, the geomorphological evolution of which are highly affected by natural processes and anthropogenic interventions. Therefore, assessing changes that take place along coastal zones is of great importance in order to enable the development of integrated coastal management plans. A characteristic case is the gulf of Mirabello in N.E Crete, where intense coastal erosion, in combination with the tectonic subsidence of the area, threatens a large part of the coastal zone, resulting in direct socio-economic impacts. The present study assesses the temporal geomorphological changes that have taken place in the coastal zone of Mirabello gulf to provide a clear frame of the coastal zone evolution over time and performs a vulnerability assessment based on the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methodology by Thieler and Hammar-Klose, considering geological features, coastal slope, relative sea-level change, shoreline erosion/accretion rates and mean significant wave height as well as mean tide range in the area. In light of this, an impact assessment, based on three different sea level rise scenarios, is also performed and presented.

Keywords: coastal vulnerability index, coastal erosion, GIS, sea level rise

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11735 Impact of Climate Change on Sea Level Rise along the Coastline of Mumbai City, India

Authors: Chakraborty Sudipta, A. R. Kambekar, Sarma Arnab

Abstract:

Sea-level rise being one of the most important impacts of anthropogenic induced climate change resulting from global warming and melting of icebergs at Arctic and Antarctic, the investigations done by various researchers both on Indian Coast and elsewhere during the last decade has been reviewed in this paper. The paper aims to ascertain the propensity of consistency of different suggested methods to predict the near-accurate future sea level rise along the coast of Mumbai. Case studies at East Coast, Southern Tip and West and South West coast of India have been reviewed. Coastal Vulnerability Index of several important international places has been compared, which matched with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts. The application of Geographic Information System mapping, use of remote sensing technology, both Multi Spectral Scanner and Thematic Mapping data from Landsat classified through Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique for arriving at high, moderate and low Coastal Vulnerability Index at various important coastal cities have been observed. Instead of data driven, hindcast based forecast for Significant Wave Height, additional impact of sea level rise has been suggested. Efficacy and limitations of numerical methods vis-à-vis Artificial Neural Network has been assessed, importance of Root Mean Square error on numerical results is mentioned. Comparing between various computerized methods on forecast results obtained from MIKE 21 has been opined to be more reliable than Delft 3D model.

Keywords: climate change, Coastal Vulnerability Index, global warming, sea level rise

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11734 Long-Term Trends of Sea Level and Sea Surface Temperature in the Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Bayoumy Mohamed, Khaled Alam El-Din

Abstract:

In the present study, 24 years of gridded sea level anomalies (SLA) from satellite altimetry and sea surface temperature (SST) from advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) daily data (1993-2016) are used. These data have been used to investigate the sea level rising and warming rates of SST, and their spatial distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. The results revealed that there is a significant sea level rise in the Mediterranean Sea of 2.86 ± 0.45 mm/year together with a significant warming of 0.037 ± 0.007 °C/year. The high spatial correlation between sea level and SST variations suggests that at least part of the sea level change reported during the period of study was due to heating of surface layers. This indicated that the steric effect had a significant influence on sea level change in the Mediterranean Sea.

Keywords: altimetry, AVHRR, Mediterranean Sea, sea level and SST changes, trend analysis

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11733 Saltwater Intrusion Studies in the Cai River in the Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam

Authors: B. Van Kessel, P. T. Kockelkorn, T. R. Speelman, T. C. Wierikx, C. Mai Van, T. A. Bogaard

Abstract:

Saltwater intrusion is a common problem in estuaries around the world, as it could hinder the freshwater supply of coastal zones. This problem is likely to grow due to climate change and sea-level rise. The influence of these factors on the saltwater intrusion was investigated for the Cai River in the Khanh Hoa province in Vietnam. In addition, the Cai River has high seasonal fluctuations in discharge, leading to increased saltwater intrusion during the dry season. Sea level rise, river discharge changes, river mouth widening and a proposed saltwater intrusion prevention dam can have influences on the saltwater intrusion but have not been quantified for the Cai River estuary. This research used both an analytical and numerical model to investigate the effect of the aforementioned factors. The analytical model was based on a model proposed by Savenije and was calibrated using limited in situ data. The numerical model was a 3D hydrodynamic model made using the Delft3D4 software. The analytical model and numerical model agreed with in situ data, mostly for tidally average data. Both models indicated a roughly similar dependence on discharge, also agreeing that this parameter had the most severe influence on the modeled saltwater intrusion. Especially for discharges below 10 m/s3, the saltwater was predicted to reach further than 10 km. In the models, both sea-level rise and river widening mainly resulted in salinity increments up to 3 kg/m3 in the middle part of the river. The predicted sea-level rise in 2070 was simulated to lead to an increase of 0.5 km in saltwater intrusion length. Furthermore, the effect of the saltwater intrusion dam seemed significant in the model used, but only for the highest position of the gate.

Keywords: Cai River, hydraulic models, river discharge, saltwater intrusion, tidal barriers

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11732 Predicting Ecological Impacts of Sea-Level Change on Coastal Conservation Areas in India

Authors: Mohammad Zafar-ul Islam, Shaily Menon, Xingong Li, A. Townsend Peterson

Abstract:

In addition to the mounting empirical data on direct implications of climate change for natural and human systems, evidence is increasing for other, indirect climate change phenomena such as sea-level rise. Rising sea levels and associated marine intrusion into terrestrial environments are predicted to be among the most serious eventual consequences of climate change. The many complex and interacting factors affecting sea levels create considerable uncertainty in sea-level rise projections: conservative estimates are on the order of 0.5-1.0 m globally, while other estimates are much higher, approaching 6 m. Marine intrusion associated with 1– 6 m sea-level rise will impact species and habitats in coastal ecosystems severely. Examining areas most vulnerable to such impacts may allow design of appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. We present an overview of potential effects of 1 and 6 m sea level rise for coastal conservation areas in the Indian Subcontinent. In particular, we examine the projected magnitude of areal losses in relevant biogeographic zones, ecoregions, protected areas (PAs), and Important Bird Areas (IBAs). In addition, we provide a more detailed and quantitative analysis of likely effects of marine intrusion on 22 coastal PAs and IBAs that provide critical habitat for birds in the form of breeding areas, migratory stopover sites, and overwintering habitats. Several coastal PAs and IBAs are predicted to experience higher than 50% losses to marine intrusion. We explore consequences of such inundation levels on species and habitat in these areas.

Keywords: sea-level change, coastal inundation, marine intrusion, biogeographic zones, ecoregions, protected areas, important bird areas, adaptation, mitigation

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11731 Beggar-Thy-Neighbor's Beach: Pricing Adaptation to Sea-Level Rise

Authors: Arlan Zandro Brucal, John Lynham

Abstract:

With the accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) increasingly becoming a concern, demand for coastal management and protection is expected to grow. Among the coastal management and protection methods, building seawalls are among the most controversial due to the negative externalities they impose on beachgoers and neighboring properties. This paper provides estimates of the external cost associated with building seawalls on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. Using hedonic pricing approach on real properties sold between 1980-2010 and aerial photographs of seawalls in 1995, the paper finds that (1) while seawalls do increase the value of protected properties, the share of armored properties appear to be negatively correlated with property sale prices, suggesting that the positive effect of seawalls tend to decline as more and more rely on this coastal management method; and (2) the value of beachfront properties tend to decline as they get approach seawalls. Results suggest that policymakers should devise a policy that would internalize the externalities associated with private-sector adaptation to climate change.

Keywords: private sector climate change adaptation, externalities, sea-level rise, hedonic pricing

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11730 Determining the Spatial Vulnerability Levels and Typologies of Coastal Cities to Climate Change: Case of Turkey

Authors: Mediha B. Sılaydın Aydın, Emine D. Kahraman

Abstract:

One of the important impacts of climate change is the sea level rise. Turkey is a peninsula, so the coastal areas of the country are threatened by the problem of sea level rise. Therefore, the urbanized coastal areas are highly vulnerable to climate change. At the aim of enhancing spatial resilience of urbanized areas, this question arises: What should be the priority intervention subject in the urban planning process for a given city. To answer this question, by focusing on the problem of sea level rise, this study aims to determine spatial vulnerability typologies and levels of Turkey coastal cities based on morphological, physical and social characteristics. As a method, spatial vulnerability of coastal cities is determined by two steps as level and type. Firstly, physical structure, morphological structure and social structure were examined in determining spatial vulnerability levels. By determining these levels, most vulnerable areas were revealed as a priority in adaptation studies. Secondly, all parameters are also used to determine spatial typologies. Typologies are determined for coastal cities in order to use as a base for urban planning studies. Adaptation to climate change is crucial for developing countries like Turkey so, this methodology and created typologies could be a guide for urban planners as spatial directors and an example for other developing countries in the context of adaptation to climate change. The results demonstrate that the urban settlements located on the coasts of the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean respectively, are more vulnerable than the cities located on the Black Sea’s coasts to sea level rise.

Keywords: climate change, coastal cities, vulnerability, urban land use planning

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11729 Hydrodynamic and Morphological Simulation of Karnafuli River Using CCHE2D Model

Authors: Shah Md. Imran Kabir, Md. Mostafa Ali

Abstract:

Karnafuli is one of the most important rivers of Bangladesh which is playing a vital role in our national economy. The major sea port of Bangladesh is the Chittagong port located on the right bank of Karnafuli River Bangladesh. Karnafuli river port is considered as the lifeline of the economic activities of the country. Therefore, it is always necessary to keep the river active and live in terms of its navigability. Due to man-made intervention, the river flow becomes interrupted and thereby may cause the change in the river morphology. The specific objective of this study is the application of 2D model to assess different hydrodynamic and morphological characteristics of the river due to normal flow condition and sea level rise condition. The model has been set with the recent bathymetry data collected from CPA hydrography division. For model setup, the river reach is selected between Kalurghat and Khal no-18. Time series discharge and water level data are used as boundary condition at upstream and downstream. Calibration and validation have been carried out with the recent water level data at Khal no-10 and Sadarghat. The total reach length of the river has been divided into four parts to determine different hydrodynamic and morphological assessments like variation of velocity, sediment erosion and deposition and bed level changes also have been studied. This model has been used for the assessment of river response due sediment transport and sea level rise. Model result shows slight increase in velocity. It also changes the rate of erosion and deposition at some location of the selected reach. It is hoped that the result of the model simulation will be helpful to suggest the effect of possible future development work to be implemented on this river.

Keywords: CCHE 2D, hydrodynamic, morphology, sea level rise

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11728 Hydro-Sedimentological Evaluation in Itajurú Channel–Araruama Lagoon-Rj, Due Superelevation of the Sea Level by Climate Change

Authors: Paulo José Sigaúque, Paulo Rosman

Abstract:

The Itajurú channel, located in the Eastern side of the Araruama lagoon, Rio de Janeiro state, is the one who makes the connection between Araruama lagoon and the sea. It is important to understand the hydrodynamic circulation of the location and effects of the sedimentological processes, and also estimate of the hydrodynamic and sedimentological processes in the future after the sea level change due to effects of climate change. This work presents results of a study about sediments dynamics in the Araruama lagoon focusing on the Itajurú channel region considering the present mean sea level and a foreseen sea level rise of 0.5 meters due to climate changes. The study was conducted with the aid of computer modeling for hydrodynamic and morphodynamic in SisBaHiA®. The results indicate that Araruama lagoon is composed by two hydrodynamics compartments; one is dominated by the action of the tide between the entrance of the channel and the strait of Perynas, and another one by the action of wind in narrow region between strait of Perynas and western extreme of the lagoon. With sea level rise, the magnitude of current velocities and flow rates is increased and consequently flow of sediment transport from upstream to downstream of Itajurú channel is increased and has more effect in the bridge Feliciano Sodré.

Keywords: hydrodinamic, superelevation, sea level, climate change

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11727 Comparison between FEM Simulation and Experiment of Temperature Rise in Power Transformer Inner Steel Plate

Authors: Byung hyun Bae

Abstract:

In power transformer, leakage magnetic flux generate temperature rise of inner steel plate. Sometimes, this temperature rise can be serious problem. If temperature of steel plate is over critical point, harmful gas will be generated in the tank. And this gas can be a reason of fire, explosion and life decrease. So, temperature rise forecasting of steel plate is very important at the design stage of power transformer. To improve accuracy of forecasting of temperature rise, comparison between simulation and experiment achieved in this paper.

Keywords: power transformer, steel plate, temperature rise, experiment, simulation

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11726 Flood Scenarios for Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Modelling

Authors: M. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir, Mohammad Masud Kamal Khan, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Raj H. Sharma, Fatema Akram

Abstract:

Future flood can be predicted using the probable maximum flood (PMF). PMF is calculated using the historical discharge or rainfall data considering the other climatic parameter stationary. However, climate is changing globally and the key climatic variables are temperature, evaporation, rainfall and sea level rise (SLR). To develop scenarios to a basin or catchment scale these important climatic variables should be considered. Nowadays scenario based on climatic variables is more suitable than PMF. Six scenarios were developed for a large Fitzroy basin and presented in this paper.

Keywords: climate change, rainfall, potential evaporation, scenario, sea level rise (SLR), sub-catchment

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11725 Comparative Study of Arch Bridges with Varying Rise to Span Ratio

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Arnab Kumar Sinha

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study of Arch bridges based on their varying rise to span ratio. The comparison is done between different steel Arch bridges which have variable span length and rise to span ratio keeping the same support condition. The aim of our present study is to select the optimum value of rise to span ratio of Arch bridge as the cost of the Arch bridge increases with the increasing of the rise. In order to fulfill the objective, several rise to span ratio have been considered for same span of Arch bridge and various structural parameters such as Bending moment, shear force etc have been calculated for different model. A comparative study has been done for several Arch bridges finally to select the optimum rise to span ratio of the Arch bridges. In the present study, Finite Element model for medium to long span, with different rise to span ratio have been modeled and are analyzed with the help of a Computational Software named MIDAS Civil to evaluate the results such as Bending moments, Shear force, displacements, Stresses, influence line diagrams, critical loads. In the present study, 60 models of Arch bridges for 80 to 120 m span with different rise to span ratio has been thoroughly investigated.

Keywords: arch bridge, analysis, comparative study, rise to span ratio

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11724 Forecasting Impacts on Vulnerable Shorelines: Vulnerability Assessment Along the Coastal Zone of Messologi Area - Western Greece

Authors: Evangelos Tsakalos, Maria Kazantzaki, Eleni Filippaki, Yannis Bassiakos

Abstract:

The coastal areas of the Mediterranean have been extensively affected by the transgressive event that followed the Last Glacial Maximum, with many studies conducted regarding the stratigraphic configuration of coastal sediments around the Mediterranean. The coastal zone of the Messologi area, western Greece, consists of low relief beaches containing low cliffs and eroded dunes, a fact which, in combination with the rising sea level and tectonic subsidence of the area, has led to substantial coastal. Coastal vulnerability assessment is a useful means of identifying areas of coastline that are vulnerable to impacts of climate change and coastal processes, highlighting potential problem areas. Commonly, coastal vulnerability assessment takes the form of an ‘index’ that quantifies the relative vulnerability along a coastline. Here we make use of the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methodology by Thieler and Hammar-Klose, by considering geological features, coastal slope, relative sea-level change, shoreline erosion/accretion rates, and mean significant wave height as well as mean tide range to assess the present-day vulnerability of the coastal zone of Messologi area. In light of this, an impact assessment is performed under three different sea level rise scenarios, and adaptation measures to control climate change events are proposed. This study contributes toward coastal zone management practices in low-lying areas that have little data information, assisting decision-makers in adopting best adaptations options to overcome sea level rise impact on vulnerable areas similar to the coastal zone of Messologi.

Keywords: coastal vulnerability index, coastal erosion, sea level rise, GIS

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11723 Application of Numerical Modeling and Field Investigations for Groundwater Recharge Characterization at Abydos Archeological Site, Sohag, Egypt

Authors: Sherif A. Abu El-Magd, Ahmed M. Sefelnasr, Ahmed M. Masoud

Abstract:

Groundwater modeling is the way and tool for assessing and managing groundwater resources efficiently. The present work was carried out in the ancient Egyptian archeological site (Abydos) fromDynastyIandII.Theareaislocated about 13km west of the River Nilecourse, Upper Egypt. The main problem in this context is that the ground water level rise threatens and damages fragile carvings and paintings of the ancient buildings. The main objective of the present work is to identify the sources of the groundwater recharge in the site, further more, equally important there is to control the ground water level rise. Numerical modeling combined with field water level measurements was implemented to understand the ground water recharge sources. However, building a conceptual model was an important step in the groundwater modeling to phase to satisfy the modeling objectives. Therefore, boreholes, crosssections, and a high-resolution digital elevation model were used to construct the conceptual model. To understand the hydrological system in the site, the model was run under both steady state and transient conditions. Then, the model was calibrated agains the observation of the water level measurements. Finally, the results based on the modeling indicated that the groundwater recharge is originating from an indirect flow path mainly from the southeast. Besides, there is a hydraulic connection between the surface water and groundwater in the study site. The decision-makers and archeologyists could consider the present work to understand the behavior of groundwater recharge and water table level rise.

Keywords: numerical modeling, archeological site, groundwater recharge, egypt

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11722 A Case Study on the Collapse Assessment of the Steel Moment-Frame Setback High-Rise Tower

Authors: Marzie Shahini, Rasoul Mirghaderi

Abstract:

This paper describes collapse assessments of a steel moment-frame high-rise tower with setback irregularity, designed per the 2010 ASCE7 code, under spectral-matched ground motion records. To estimate a safety margin against life-threatening collapse, an analytical model of the tower is subjected to a suite of ground motions with incremental intensities from maximum considered earthquake hazard level to the incipient collapse level. Capability of the structural system to collapse prevention is evaluated based on the similar methodology reported in FEMA P695. Structural performance parameters in terms of maximum/mean inter-story drift ratios, residual drift ratios, and maximum plastic hinge rotations are also compared to the acceptance criteria recommended by the TBI Guidelines. The results demonstrate that the structural system satisfactorily safeguards the building against collapse. Moreover, for this tower, the code-specified requirements in ASCE7-10 are reasonably adequate to satisfy seismic performance criteria developed in the TBI Guidelines for the maximum considered earthquake hazard level.

Keywords: high-rise buildings, set back, residual drift, seismic performance

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11721 Application of Facilities Management Practice in High Rise Commercial Properties: Jos in Perpective

Authors: Aliyu Ahmad Aliyu, Abubakar Ahmad, Muhammad Umar Bello, Rozilah Kasim, David Martin

Abstract:

The article studied the application of facilities management practice in high rise commercial properties. Convenience sampling technique was used in administering questionnaires to the 60 respondents who responded to the survey. It was found out that the extent of application of facilities management in the subject properties is better described as below average. Similarly, the most frequently tools of facilities management in use and employed in the properties were outsourcing and in-house sourcing. This was influenced by the level of their familiarity with the tools. Planned and Preventive maintenance should be taken regularly in other to enhance the effectiveness of the facilities management and to satisfy both the owner and customers of the organization.

Keywords: commercial properties, facilities management, high-rise buildings, Jos metropolis and outsourcing

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11720 Sea-Level Rise and Shoreline Retreat in Tainan Coast

Authors: Wen-Juinn Chen, Yi-Phei Chou, Jou-Han Wang

Abstract:

Tainan coast is suffering from beach erosion, wave overtopping, and lowland flooding; though most of the shoreline has been protected by seawalls, they still threatened by sea level rise. For coastal resources developing, coastal land utilization, and to draft an appropriate mitigate strategy. Firstly; we must assess the impact of beach erosion under a different scenario of climate change. Here, we have used the meteorological data since 1898 to 2012 to prove that the Tainan area did suffer the impact of climate change. The result shows the temperature has been raised to about 1.7 degrees since 1989. Also, we analyzed the tidal data near the Tainan coast (Anpin site and Junjunn site), it shows sea level rising with a rate about 4.1~4.8 mm/year, this phenomenon will have serious impacts on Tainan coastal area, especially it will worsen coastal erosion. So we have used Bruun rule to calculate the shoreline retreated rate at every two decade period since 2012. Wave data and bottom sand diameter D50 were used to calculate the closure depth that will be used in Bruun formula and the active length of the profile is computed by the beach slope and Dean's equilibrium concept. After analysis, we found that in 2020, the shoreline will be retreated about 3.0 to 12 meters. The maximum retreat is happening at Chigu coast. In 2060, average shoreline retreated distance is 22m, but at Chigu and Tsenwen, shoreline may be backward retreat about 70m and will be reached about 130m at 2100, this will cause a lot of coastal land loss to the sea, protect and mitigate project must be quickly performed.

Keywords: sea level rise, shoreline, coastal erosion, climate change

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11719 The Effect of Phase Development on Micro-Climate Change of Urban Area

Authors: Tommy Lo

Abstract:

This paper presented the changes in temperature and air ventilation of an inner urban area at different development stages during 2002 to 2012 and the high-rise buildings to be built in 2018. 3D simulation models ENVI-met and Autodesk Falcon were used. The results indicated that replacement of old residence buildings or open space with high-rise buildings will increase the air temperature of inner urban area; the air temperature at the pedestrian level will increase more than that at the upper levels. The temperature of the inner street in future will get higher than that in 2002, 2008 and 2012. It is attributed that heat is trapped in the street canyons as the air permeability at the pedestrian levels is lower. High-rise buildings with massive podium will further reduce the air ventilation in that area. In addition, sufficient separations among buildings is essential in design. High-rise buildings aligned along the waterfront will obstruct the wind flowing into the inner urban area and accelerate the temperature increase both in daytime and night time.

Keywords: micro-climate change, urban design, ENVI-met, construction engineering

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11718 Counter-Hegemonic Movements and Their Consequences at the International Level: Transposing Gramsci to the 21st Century

Authors: Hanna Corsini

Abstract:

This article provides an analysis of counter-hegemonic movements and their consequences for the neoliberal world order at the international level. Even if calls for change are becoming louder, current research on populist forces at the domestic level in comparative politics is lacking an investigation of the international dimensions of the rise of such movements. At the same time, in the International Relations field, the focus still remains on the surge of challengers at the global level, while the national one stays neglected. This paper argues that to fill this gap as identified in the academic literature, the concept of hegemony, and more precisely, as deployed by Antonio Gramsci, can bear some interesting insights. An adaptation to the 21st century of Gramsci’s concept is proposed, highlighting the explanatory power that key concepts of his theoretical framework have. Transposing it to contemporary politics provides precious elements for an in-depth understanding of counter-hegemonic movements and the consequences of their rise for the neoliberal world order. In an era of disruption and turmoil in national politics, International Relations theory cannot avoid to engage with this dimension. However, populism as a theoretical concept lacks the capacity to go beyond the domestic border. It is therefore essential to create a dialogue between these two fields. Ultimately, the paper claims that (counter-)hegemony is crucial to build a bridge between the international and the domestic level.

Keywords: counter-hegemonic movements, Gramsci, hegemony, international relations

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11717 Flood Control Structures in the River Göta Älv to Protect Gothenburg City (Sweden) during the 21st Century: Preliminary Evaluation

Authors: M. Irannezhad, E. H. N. Gashti, U. Moback, B. Kløve

Abstract:

Climate change because of increases in concentration level of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere will result in mean sea level rise about +1 m by 2100. To prevent coastal floods resulted from the sea level rising, different flood control structures have been built, e.g. the Thames barrier on the Thames River in London (UK), with acceptable protection levels at least so far. Gothenburg located on the southwest coast of Sweden, with the River Göta älv running through it, is one of vulnerable cities to the accelerated rises in mean sea level. Developing a water level model by MATLAB, we evaluated using a sea barrage in the Göta älv River as the flood control structure for protecting the Gothenburg city during this century. Considering three operational scenarios for two barriers in upstream and downstream, the highest sea level was estimated to + 2.95 m above the current mean sea level by 2100. To verify flood protection against such high sea levels, both barriers have to be closed. To prevent high water level in the River Göta älv reservoir, the barriers would be open when the sea level is low. The suggested flood control structures would successfully protect the city from flooding events during this century.

Keywords: climate change, flood control structures, gothenburg, sea level rising, water level mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
11716 Urban River As Living Infrastructure: Tidal Flooding And Sea Level Rise In A Working Waterway In Hampton Roads, Virginia

Authors: William Luke Hamel

Abstract:

Existing conceptions of urban flooding caused by tidal fluctuations and sea-level rise have been inadequately conceptualized by metrics of resilience and methods of flow modeling. While a great deal of research has been devoted to the effects of urbanization on pluvial flooding, the kind of tidal flooding experienced by locations like Hampton Roads, Virginia, has not been adequately conceptualized as being a result of human factors such as urbanization and gray infrastructure. Resilience from sea level rise and its associated flooding has been pioneered in the region with the 2015 Norfolk Resilience Plan from 100 Resilient Cities as well as the 2016 Norfolk Vision 2100 plan, which envisions different patterns of land use for the city. Urban resilience still conceptualizes the city as having the ability to maintain an equilibrium in the face of disruptions. This economic and social equilibrium relies on the Elizabeth River, narrowly conceptualized. Intentionally or accidentally, the river was made to be a piece of infrastructure. Its development was meant to serve the docks, shipyards, naval yards, and port infrastructure that gives the region so much of its economic life. Inasmuch as it functions to permit the movement of cargo; the raising and lowering of ships to be repaired, commissioned, or decommissioned; or the provisioning of military vessels, the river as infrastructure is functioning properly. The idea that the infrastructure is malfunctioning when high tides and sea-level rise create flooding is predicated on the idea that the infrastructure is truly a human creation and can be controlled. The natural flooding cycles of an urban river, combined with the action of climate change and sea-level rise, are only abnormal so much as they encroach on the development that first encroached on the river. The urban political ecology of water provides the ability to view the river as an infrastructural extension of urban networks while also calling for its emancipation from stationarity and human control. Understanding the river and city as a hydrosocial territory or as a socio-natural system liberates both actors from the duality of the natural and the social while repositioning river flooding as a normal part of coexistence on a floodplain. This paper argues for the adoption of an urban political ecology lens in the analysis and governance of urban rivers like the Elizabeth River as a departure from the equilibrium-seeking and stability metrics of urban resilience.

Keywords: urban flooding, political ecology, Elizabeth river, Hampton roads

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11715 Thermal and Starvation Effects on Lubricated Elliptical Contacts at High Rolling/Sliding Speeds

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Surjit Angra

Abstract:

The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.

Keywords: starvation, lubrication, elliptical contact, traction, minimum film thickness

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11714 Corruption, Tax Systems and Inclusive Development

Authors: Lawrence Kwaku Amoako, Parrendah Adwoa Kpeli

Abstract:

This paper analyses the implications of the corruption and tax system on inclusive development. We employ a sample of 45 countries between 2007 and 2020. We test for two related hypotheses; first, corruption hinders the smooth mobilisation of revenue through the tax system. Second, a rise in corruption amidst a defective tax system impairs inclusive development. We expect that a rise in the level of corruption in the economy will distort the tax system, thus affecting efficient revenue mobilisation and, subsequently, inclusive development. By extension, these findings have important policy implications for governments in containing corruption and building an effective tax system as it will help promote inclusive development.

Keywords: corruption, development, tax systems, tax complexity

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11713 Design and Modeling of Amphibious Houses for Flood Prone Areas: The Case of Nigeria

Authors: Onyebuchi Mogbo, Abdulsalam Mohammed, Salsabila Wali

Abstract:

This research discusses the design and modeling of an amphibious building. The amphibious building is a house with the function of floating during a flood event. Over the years, houses have been built to resist flood events some of which have failed. The floating house is designed to work with nature and not against it. In the event of a flood, the house will rise with the increasing water level and protect the house from sinking. For the design and modeling of this house an estimated cost of N250, 000, approximately $700, will be needed. It is expected that the house will rise when lightweight materials are incorporated in the design, and the concrete dock (in form of a hollow box) carrying the entire house in its hollow space is well designed. When there is flooding the water will fill up the concrete dock, and the house will rise upwards with vertical guides preventing it from moving side to side or out of its boundary. Architectural and Structural designs will be used in this project.

Keywords: amphibious building, flood, housing, design and modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
11712 High-Rise Building with PV Facade

Authors: Jiří Hirš, Jitka Mohelnikova

Abstract:

A photovoltaic system integrated into a high-rise building façade was studied. The high-rise building is located in the Central Europe region with temperate climate and dominant partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions. The PV façade has been monitored since 2013. The three-year monitoring of the façade energy generation shows that the façade has an important impact on the building energy efficiency and sustainable operation.

Keywords: buildings, energy, PV façade, solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 223