Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1048

Search results for: religious belief

1048 Changes in Religious Belief after Flood Disasters

Authors: Sapora Sipon, Mohd Fo’ad Sakdan, Che Su Mustaffa, Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Mohamad Sukeri Khalid, Mohd Taib Ariffin, Husni Mohd Radzi, Salhah Abdullah

Abstract:

Flood disasters occur throughout the world including Malaysia. The major flood disaster that hit Malaysia in the 2014-2015 episodes proved the psychosocial and mental health consequences such as vivid images of destruction, upheaval, death and loss of lives. Flood, flood survivors reported that flood has changed one looks at their religious belief. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the changes in religious belief after the 2014-2015 Malaysia flood disaster. The total population of 1300 respondents who experienced the 2014-2015 Malaysia flood were surveyed a month after the disaster. The questionnaires were used to measure religiosity and stress. The results provide compelling evidence that religion played an important role in the lives of Malaysia flood disasters’ survivor where more than half of the respondents (>75%) experiencing the strengthening of their religious belief. It was also reported the victims’ strengthening of their religious belief proved to be a powerful factor in reducing stress in the aftermath of the flood.

Keywords: religious belief, flood disaster, humanity, society

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1047 A Critical Analysis of Cognitive Explanations of Afterlife Belief

Authors: Mahdi Biabanaki

Abstract:

Religion is present in all human societies and has been for tens of thousands of years. What is noteworthy is that although religious traditions vary in different societies, there are considerable similarities in their religious beliefs. In all human cultures, for example, there is a widespread belief in the afterlife. Cognitive science of Religion (CSR), an emerging branch of cognitive science, searches for the root of these widespread similarities and the widespread prevalence of beliefs such as beliefs in the afterlife in common mental structures among humans. Accordingly, the cognitive architecture of the human mind has evolved to produce such beliefs automatically and non-reflectively. For CSR researchers, belief in the afterlife is an intuitive belief resulting from the functioning of mental tools. Our purpose in this article is to extract and evaluate the cognitive explanations presented in the CSR field for explaining beliefs in the afterlife. Our research shows that there are two basic theories in this area of CSR, namely "intuitive dualism" and "simulation constraint" theory. We show that these two theories face four major challenges and limitations in explaining belief in the afterlife: inability to provide a causal explanation, inability to explain cultural/religious differences in afterlife belief, the lack of distinction between the natural and the rational foundations of belief in the afterlife and disregarding the supernatural foundations of the afterlife belief.

Keywords: afterlife, cognitive science of religion, intuitive dualism, simulation constraint

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1046 Resort to Religious and Faith Healing Practices in the Pathway to Care for Mental Illness: A Study among Mappila Muslims of Malabar, Kerala

Authors: K. P. Farsana

Abstract:

Belief in supernatural causation of mental illnesses and resort to religious and faith healing as the method of intervention still continue in many parts of the world. The proposed study intended to find out the belief and causation on health and illness and utilization of religious and faith healing, its implications, and associated socio-cultural and religious factors among Mappila Muslims of Malabar, Kerala, a southern state of India.Thangals are the endogamous community in Kerala, of Yemeni heritage who claim direct descent from the Prophet Mohammed’s family. Because of their sacrosanct status, many Thangal works as religious healers in Malabar, Northern Kerala. Using the case of one Thangal healer as an illustration of the many religious healers in Kerala who engage in the healing practices, it is intended, in this paper to illustrate the religious and ritual healing practices among Mappila Muslims of Malabar. It was found that the majority of the Mappila Muslims believed in supernatural causation on illness, and majority of them consulted religious and faith healers for various health problems before seeking professional help, and a considerable proportion continued to believe in the healing efficiency of the religious and faith healing. A significant proportion of the population found religious and faith healing practices are supportive and more acceptable within the community. Religion and belief system play an important role in the heath seeking behavior of a person.

Keywords: religious and faith healing, mental illness, Mappila Muslims, Malabar

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1045 Psychometric Examination of the QUEST-25: An Online Assessment of Intellectual Curiosity and Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

Abstract:

The current study reports an examination of the QUEST-25 (Q-Assessment of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thinking) online version for assessing the dispositional attitudes toward scientific thinking and intellectual curiosity among undergraduate students. The QUEST-25 consists of scientific thinking (SIQ-25) and intellectual curiosity (ICIQ-25), which were correlated in hypothesized directions with the Religious Commitment Inventory, Curiosity and Exploration Inventory, Belief in Science scale, and measures of academic self-efficacy. Additionally, concurrent validity was established by the resulting significant differences between those identifying the centrality of religious belief in their lives and those who do not self-identify as being guided daily by religious beliefs. This study demonstrates the utility of the QUEST-25 for research, evaluation, and theory development.

Keywords: guided-inquiry learning, intellectual curiosity, psychometric assessment, scientific thinking

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1044 Supernatural Beliefs Impact Pattern Perception

Authors: Silvia Boschetti, Jakub Binter, Robin Kopecký, Lenka PříPlatová, Jaroslav Flegr

Abstract:

A strict dichotomy was present between religion and science, but recently, cognitive science focusses on the impact of supernatural beliefs on cognitive processes such as pattern recognition. It has been hypothesized that cognitive and perceptual processes have been under evolutionary pressures that ensured amplified perception of patterns, especially when in stressful and harsh conditions. The pattern detection in religious and non-religious individuals after induction of negative, anxious mood shall constitute a cornerstone of the general role of anxiety, cognitive bias, leading towards or against the by-product hypothesis, one of the main theories on the evolutionary studies of religion. The apophenia (tendencies to perceive connection and meaning on unrelated events) and perception of visual patterns (or pateidolia) are of utmost interest. To capture the impact of culture and upbringing, a comparative study of two European countries, the Czech Republic (low organized religion participation, high esoteric belief) and Italy (high organized religion participation, low esoteric belief), are currently in the data collection phase. Outcomes will be presented at the conference. A battery of standardized questionnaires followed by pattern recognition tasks (the patterns involve color, shape, and are of artificial and natural origin) using an experimental method involving the conditioning of (controlled, laboratory-induced) stress is taking place. We hypothesize to find a difference between organized religious belief and personal (esoteric) belief that will be alike in both of the cultural environments.

Keywords: culture, esoteric belief, pattern perception, religiosity

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1043 Religious Coercion as Means of Trafficking in Women and Faith Communities’ Role in Ending Such Religious Exploitation

Authors: Xiaoyu Stephanie Ren

Abstract:

With the increase of massive migration, economic polarization, as well as increasing awareness and respects for religious freedom in the world, women have become unprecedentedly vulnerable to trafficking involving religious coercion. Such cases can also bring enormous challenges for prosecution in which the prosecutor bears the burden of proving that the victim acted, or not acted in a certain way due to the exploitation of her belief system: (1) Jurors who are nonbelievers tend not to be convinced that something of intangible nature can act as the force to get victim into women trafficking situation; (2) Court more often than not rules in favor of victims in women trafficking cases involving religious exploitation only when there is physical coercion in addition to religious coercion; (3) Female victims are often reluctant to testify at court due to their godly fear and loyalty to trafficker. Using case study methodology, this paper examines the unique characteristics of religious coercion as means of trafficking in women from a legal perspective and proposes multiple ways based on communal beliefs that faith communities, as victims for such crime themselves, can act in order to help to end religious exploitation. The purpose of this paper is threefold: to improve acknowledgment for the role of religious coercion as a sole force for women trafficking situation; to discuss legal hurdles in prosecuting women trafficking cases involving religious coercion; and to propose collaboration across borders among faith communities to end such exploitation.

Keywords: women trafficking, sex violence, religious exploitation, faith community, prosecution, law

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1042 Socio-Religious Mythology of the Igala of Central Nigeria Area

Authors: Abdullahi Musa Yusuf

Abstract:

Culture and traditions are an embodiment of every society. In Africa, people are socialized into believing that the world is full of mysteries. Mysteries that can only be explain through the interpretation of some forces which are ordinarily beyond the comprehension of Man. These forces have the power and capability of influencing the lives of the living either benevolently or malevolently. To decipher these mysteries various religious and cultural practices were evolved. This paper is therefore an attempt to explain the traditional religious belief system and the relationship existing between the forces of the living and dead among the Igala people of the Central Nigeria Region.

Keywords: culture, tradition, mythology, Nigeria

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1041 On the Rational Roots of the Agnosticism and the Faith

Authors: Lola Rosalia Saavedra Guzman, Plamen Neytchev Netchev

Abstract:

In general, agnosticism is perceived as an uncertainty between a well-structured (religious) belief (in some Christian or pagan deity) and its absolute and total absence, often causing the suspicion that an agnostic is an atheist, which is "reinsured" in case if their personal belief is wrong. All of this, along with the prevailing view among the naturalists that science has already demonstrated the inexistence of God, has compelled us to seek the foundation of agnosticism and faith in the contemporary formal human logic, advanced mathematics, and the natural sciences. Along the way, we will find that no natural science can demonstrate the existence of God, nor could it discard it for rational considerations, which show that there is something beyond. After all, it seems that the human intellect is insufficient to respond surely with yes or no to the existence of higher intelligences leaving unconditional faith as the only path to God for Christians and transcendent techniques, for pagan religious beliefs.

Keywords: agnosticism, formal logic, axioms and postulates, Gödel theorems, and logical faults

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1040 Accounting as Economic and Religious Reality: Reveal Religious Values Through the Photographs in Annual Report of Islamic Bank

Authors: Rahasanica Nariswari Pratiwi, Maulana Syaiful Haq

Abstract:

The role of accounting in Islamic Banking is not only as economic reality but also as religious reality. Religious reality constructed by religious value in annual report of Islamic Bank. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to understand and analyze the existence of religious values by form of photographs in annual report, and to analyze the reason of religious values disclosure in annual report. Ontologically, this study is build on a belief that annual report is a communication media to show the ways Islamic Banks express adherence to sharia principle. The research has done by analyzing the photographs in annual report of Bank Syariah Mandiri (BSM), Bank Muamalat Indonesia (BMI), Bank Nasional Indonesia (BNI) Syariah, Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) Syariah, and Bank Central Asia (BCA) Syariah in Indonesia. This study is qualitative research, was carried out within interpretive paradigm using semiotic approach. By employing semiotic analysis, this research showed that annual report of Islamic Bank in Indonesia contained religious value by the form of its photographs. The results of this study also show that photographs in annual report of Islamic Banks in this research contained religious values. Furthermore, this study concludes that Islamic banks actually expressed religious reality and make them different from the other bank’s annual report which focuses only on economic reality. This indicates Islamic Banks obidience existence about responsibility, not only to the stakeholders but also to the society and Allah.

Keywords: Islamic banking, semiotics, accounting, annual report

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1039 True Religious Piety and Its Social Implications an Analysis of Calvin’s Thought

Authors: Philip Tachin

Abstract:

Despite the positive contributions that religion has impacted human society, religious discrimination and violence also have been growing globally with extreme negative effects on human life and social relationships. Believers in religious extremism are motivated by a sense of exhibiting true religious piety in which case they do not only withhold their practical benevolence from those who do not belong to their faith but they even seek the elimination of other adherents from human existence. This phenomenon has a very high magnitude in Nigeria over the years, which deserves more research for the purpose of finding sustainable solutions to the problem. Calvin believed that true religious piety must, among other things, be categorized in personal and corporate positive social actions that esteem human needs irrespective of ethnic, ideological and belief differences. It is therefore appropriate to pose the following questions: Should true religious piety be seen in terms of how the actions of adherents positively impact human society? Could Calvin’s idea on this issue be very significant and helpful in the context of the Nigerian situation? In answering these questions, this research will limit its investigation to Calvin’s Institutes and some of his Commentaries. The goal of this research is to offer an instructive orientation to the readers that will help in building a more tolerable, peaceful, and a free and virtuous society.

Keywords: Calvin, human good, religious piety, virtuous society

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1038 On the Difference between Cultural and Religious Identities

Authors: Mputu Ngandu Simon

Abstract:

Culture and religion are two of the most significant markers of an individual or group's identity. Religion finds its expression in a given culture, and culture is the costume in which a religion is dressed. In other words, there is a crucial relationship between religion and culture which should not be ignored. On the one hand, religion influences the way in which a culture is consumed. A person's consumption of a certain cultural practice is influenced by his/her religious identity. On the other hand, cultural identity plays an important role in how a religion is practiced by its adherents. Some cultural practices become more credible when interpreted in religious terms just as religious doctrines and dogmas need cultural interpretation to be understood by a given people in a given context. This relationship goes so deep that sometimes the boundaries between culture and religion become blurred, and people end up mixing religion and culture. In some cases, the two are considered to be one and the same thing. However, despite this apparent sameness, religion and culture are two distinct aspects of identity, and they should always be considered as such. One results from knowledge, while the other has beliefs as its foundation. This essay explores the difference between cultural and religious identity by drawing from existing literature on this topic as a whole before applying that knowledge to two specific case studies: Christianity and Islam in some African and Asian countries.

Keywords: culture, religion, identity, knowledge, belief

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1037 The Lightener of Love: The World Peace Religion

Authors: Abdul Razzaq

Abstract:

It is known that every human society throughout the world and throughout history, the various religions and their theologies, ethics, and traditions influence everything in their life, shaping socio-economic and political ideas, attitudes and institutions. It is observed that religious teachings and traditions shape how people respond to each other in their daily social inter-course and interaction in the community at large. The majorities of us preserves and protect our own religious beliefs and traditions as generally they symbolize our essential identities, theologically, historically, culturally, socially, and even politically. Our religious faiths symbolize our dignity as persons and our very souls as communities and individuals. It thus goes without saying that in our multi-racial and multi-religious society, the only way for us to live in peace and harmony is for us to live in peaceful co-existence. It is important for us to recognize, understand, accept and respect each other regardless of our respective belief. The history of interfaith is as ancient as the religions since men and women when not at war with their neighbors have always made an effort to understand them (not least because understanding is a strategy for defense, but also because for as long as there is dialogue wars are delayed).

Keywords: Islam, religion, peace, society

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1036 The Lightener of Love - The World Peace

Authors: Abdul Razzaq

Abstract:

It is known that every human society throughout the world and throughout history, the various religions and their theologies, ethics, and traditions influence everything in their life, shaping socio-economic and political ideas, attitudes and institutions. It is observed that religious teachings and traditions shape how people respond to each other in their daily social inter-course and interaction in the community at large. The majorities of us preserves and protect our own religious beliefs and traditions as generally they symbolize our essential identities, theologically, historically, culturally, socially, and even politically. Our religious faiths symbolize our dignity as persons and our very souls as communities and individuals. It thus goes without saying that in our multi-racial and multi-religious society, the only way for us to live in peace and harmony is for us to live in peaceful co-existence. It is important for us to recognize, understand, accept and respect each other regardless of our respective belief. The history of interfaith is as ancient as the religions since men and women when not at war with their neighbors have always made an effort to understand them (not least because understanding is a strategy for defense, but also because for as long as there is dialogue wars are delayed).

Keywords: Islam, interfaith, Sects, world, piece

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1035 The Necessity and Methods of Abolishing Discrimination and Religious Violence

Authors: Hossein Boroujerdi, Mohammad R. Sadeghi, Maryam Moazen Zadeh

Abstract:

During the recent decades, the result of religious prophets has lost its attraction, and theology has become disfigured, so it has been made ugly. Undoubtedly, some of existing non-peaceful and harsh rules and measures within the religious books and contexts have been considered as the reasons and excuses for defamation of religions. Based on library sources and also extensive research in Quran and Islamic narratives, this study has aimed to find some alternative solutions and options to abolish and disregard those religious rules which are in contrary of human right charters and standards. The results have demonstrated that some of inhuman religious punishments such as execution, stoning, whipping as well as religious discriminations and warlike behaviors are in contrary of some other religious contexts and concepts. This finding have proved inadaptability between some religious contexts and religious records.

Keywords: adjustment and abolishment, discrimination, religious commands and laws, tolerance, violence

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1034 The Lightener of Love, the World Piece Religion

Authors: Abdul Razzaq Azad

Abstract:

It is known that every human society throughout the world and throughout history, the various religions and their theologies, ethics, and traditions influence everything in their life, shaping socio-economic and political ideas, attitudes and institutions. It is observed that religious teachings and traditions shape how people respond to each other in their daily social inter-course and interaction in the community at large. The majorities of us preserves and protect our own religious beliefs and traditions as generally they symbolize our essential identities, theologically, historically, culturally, socially, and even politically. Our religious faiths symbolize our dignity as persons and our very souls as communities and individuals. It thus goes without saying that in our multi racial and multi religious society, the only way for us to live in peace and harmony is for us to live in peaceful co-existence. It is important for us to recognize, understand, accept and respect each other regardless of our respective belief. The history of interfaith is as ancient as the religions since men and women when not at war with their neighbors have always made an effort to understand them (not least because understanding is a strategy for defense, but also because for as long as there is dialogue wars are delayed).

Keywords: interfaith harmony, world piece order, Islam, religions, lightness,

Procedia PDF Downloads 555
1033 Mindfulness in a Secular Age: Framing and Contextualising the Conversation in the Irish Context

Authors: Thomas P. Carroll

Abstract:

The phenomenon of mindfulness has become ever more popular in an increasingly pluralist Western society. Mindfulness practice has penetrated secular contexts that would otherwise be closed to religious influence, including state schools, hospitals, and commerce. The contemporary understanding of mindfulness has its origins in Buddhist meditation. However, since Jon Kabat-Zinn’s pioneering work in Mindfulness-Based Interventions, the concept has developed and sometimes mutated into various forms of practice which are disembedded from their original spiritual philosophy. This project will explore the spiritual climate within which mindfulness is currently flourishing through dialogue with three interlocutors. The first interlocutor is the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor whose seminal work, ‘A Secular Age’, outlines three distinct modes of secularity. Taylor examines how the conditions of belief have changed and how the self seeks meaning in an age where belief in the divine is no longer axiomatic. The next interlocutor is Czech theologian and psychotherapist Tomáš Halík who offers a unique perspective of a Catholic who belongs to a section of society outnumbered by secular counterparts, with a theological hermeneutic best described as 'Den Fremden verstehen- understanding the stranger'. Finally, Irish theologian Michael Paul Gallagher offers a theological perspective on how the Christian faith can be translated into dialogue with Irish secular culture, as well as addressing the crisis of imagination and culture rather than the crisis of faith in Ireland. These interlocutors will illustrate that there are sometimes striking differences in how to interpret the religious signs of the times. However, these approaches also reveal significant similarities in how they address and explore the meaning of religious belief and experience today. In this way, themes will emerge that will help to frame the conversation about mindfulness in the West. These themes will include; the failure of the secularization thesis to pass, the growth of a diverse marketplace of religions and beliefs and the growth of a demographic who identify as spiritual but not religious. Such research is paramount in enabling a richer dialogue between Christian faith and mindfulness in a fragmented, postmodern Western context.

Keywords: culture, mindfulness, secularism, spirituality

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1032 Religious Fundamentalism Prescribes Requirements for Marriage and Reproduction

Authors: Steven M. Graham, Anne V. Magee

Abstract:

Most world religions have sacred texts and traditions that provide instruction about and definitions of marriage, family, and family duties and responsibilities. Given that religious fundamentalism (RF) is defined as the belief that these sacred texts and traditions are literally and completely true to the exclusion of other teachings, RF should be predictive of the attitudes one holds about these topics. The goals of the present research were to: (1) explore the extent to which people think that men and women can be happy without marriage, a significant sexual relationship, a long-term romantic relationship, and having children; (2) determine the extent to which RF is associated with these beliefs; and, (3) to determine how RF is associated with considering certain elements of a relationship to be necessary for thinking of that relationship as a marriage. In Study 1, participants completed a reliable and valid measure of RF and answered questions about the necessity of various elements for a happy life. Higher RF scores were associated with the belief that both men and women require marriage, a sexual relationship, a long-term romantic relationship, and children in order to have a happy life. In Study 2, participants completed these same measures and the pattern of results replicated when controlling for overall religiosity. That is, RF predicted these beliefs over and above religiosity. Additionally, participants indicated the extent to which a variety of characteristics were necessary to consider a particular relationship to be a marriage. Controlling for overall religiosity, higher RF scores were associated with the belief that the following were required to consider a relationship a marriage: religious sanctification, a sexual component, sexual monogamy, emotional monogamy, family approval, children (or the intent to have them), cohabitation, and shared finances. Interestingly, and unexpectedly, higher RF scores were correlated with less importance placed on mutual consent in order to consider a relationship a marriage. RF scores were uncorrelated with the importance placed on legal recognition or lifelong commitment and these null findings do not appear to be attributable to ceiling effects or lack of variability. These results suggest that RF constrains views about both the importance of marriage and family in one’s life and also the characteristics required to consider a relationship a proper marriage. This could have implications for the mental and physical health of believers high in RF, either positive or negative, depending upon the extent to which their lives correspond to these templates prescribed by RF. Additionally, some of these correlations with RF were substantial enough (> .70) that the relevant items could serve as a brief, unobtrusive measure of RF. Future research will investigate these possibilities.

Keywords: attitudes about marriage, fertility intentions, measurement, religious fundamentalism

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1031 Religious Insurgency in Nigeria: A Bane to National Unity

Authors: Ayoola Adediran Amos

Abstract:

Nigeria as a secular state that is characterized with various religions namely: Christianity, Islam and African Religion. Each of the religion adherents often claim that their religion is the only means of gaining eternity while others who do not belong to their sect may not be opportuned. Religious doctrine within those religious sects is another source of insurgency which serves as a threat to the unity of Nigeria. Similarly, Boko Haram Religious group has become a threat to the unity of the country in which its root has both political and religious undertones. Primary and secondary sources of collecting data were used. Historical method allowed enquiry into the past events and improvement to the current experience. Both published and unpublished theses were used. Interview was also conducted as part of the secondary sources. It was observed that all aspects of the system in Nigeria were affected with this scourge of religious unrest. i.e. education, political, economic and a host of others. Finally, it was recommended that religious leaders should be given adequate orientation on the needs not to preach against other religious groups. Government of Nigeria should not give priority to one religion at the expense of others.

Keywords: insurgency, national unity, religious, threat

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1030 Millenial Muslim Women’s Views on Religious Identity and Religious Leaders: The Role of the State on Religious Issues and Religious Radicalism in Jakarta

Authors: Achmad Muchadam Fahham, Sony Hendra Permana

Abstract:

Millennial Muslims are a generation of young people between 20-30 years. They will play an important role in various aspects of life for the next 10 to 20 years. In Indonesia, the population of this generation is quite large and in the next ten to twenty years they will occupy strategic position in various fields of social, economic and political life. One of the characteristics of the millenials generation are always connected to the internet and independence to learn anything from the internet. In terms of religion, the majority of millennial are Muslim. In digital era, the generation of millenial Muslim is vulnerable to the influence of radical Islamic thinking because of their easy access to that thought on social media, new media, and the books they read. This study seeks to examine the religious views of millennial Muslim women in four main focuses, namely religious identity, religious leaders, the role of the state on religious issues, and religious radicalism. This study was conducted with a qualitative approach, the data collection was carried out by the interview method. The study was conducted in Jakarta, mainly in religious study groups located in several mosques and shopping center in Jakarta. This study is expected to portray the religious views of millennial Muslim women, especially their commitment to Islamic identity, their views on the authority of religious leaders, the role of the state in various religious problems, and religious radicalism.

Keywords: millenial Muslims, radicalism, muslim mowen, religious identity

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1029 Examining the Perceptions of Religious Stakeholders towards Religious Tourism Development

Authors: Katerina Pericleous, Zanet Garanti

Abstract:

Traveling for religious and pilgrimage purposes consist of an early-stage motivation for the historical development of tourism. Sacred places become important attractions for local and foreign visitors, and many countries invest on the development of religious and pilgrimage tourism. Cyprus has a rich tradition as an important place for the establishment and diffusion of the Christian Orthodox Religion (Greek). Being considered the ‘island of Saints’, Cyprus sets strong foundations to be recognised as a spiritual destination of devotion for visitors interested in discovering the roots and the spiritual essence of the Christian Orthodox Religion. The paper elucidates on bringing together the fact whether tourism in sacred places affect the spirituality and religiosity. Thus, the aim is to consider the perceptions of main religious stakeholders, including monastery abbots, in relation to the development of religious tourism. The aim of the study is fulfilled by incorporating questionnaires targeting the responses of the involved religious key players and stakeholders. The results of the study are indicative and provide an understanding in terms of religious tourism as an important product by interpreting the stance of religious stakeholders. In general, religious leaders support tourism in religious sites and argue that spirituality and holiness can be maintained as long there is a policy that is followed both by religious and tourism policy makers. Undoubtedly, establishing Cyprus as a religious tourism destination would bring many economic and social benefits.

Keywords: religious tourism, cyprus, Christian orthodox religion, monasteries

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1028 A PROMETHEE-BELIEF Approach for Multi-Criteria Decision Making Problems with Incomplete Information

Authors: H. Moalla, A. Frikha

Abstract:

Multi-criteria decision aid methods consider decision problems where numerous alternatives are evaluated on several criteria. These methods are used to deal with perfect information. However, in practice, it is obvious that this information requirement is too much strict. In fact, the imperfect data provided by more or less reliable decision makers usually affect decision results since any decision is closely linked to the quality and availability of information. In this paper, a PROMETHEE-BELIEF approach is proposed to help multi-criteria decisions based on incomplete information. This approach solves problems with incomplete decision matrix and unknown weights within PROMETHEE method. On the base of belief function theory, our approach first determines the distributions of belief masses based on PROMETHEE’s net flows and then calculates weights. Subsequently, it aggregates the distribution masses associated to each criterion using Murphy’s modified combination rule in order to infer a global belief structure. The final action ranking is obtained via pignistic probability transformation. A case study of real-world application concerning the location of a waste treatment center from healthcare activities with infectious risk in the center of Tunisia is studied to illustrate the detailed process of the BELIEF-PROMETHEE approach.

Keywords: belief function theory, incomplete information, multiple criteria analysis, PROMETHEE method

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1027 Beliefs about the God of the Other in Intergroup Conflict: Experimental Results from Israel and Palestine

Authors: Crystal Shackleford, Michael Pasek, Allon Vishkin, Jeremy Ginges

Abstract:

In the Middle East, conflict is often viewed as religiously motivated. In this context, an important question is how we think the religion of the other drives their behavior. If people see conflicts as religious, they may expect the belief of the other to motivate intergroup bias. Beliefs about the motivations of the other impact how we engage with them. Conflict may result if actors believe the other’s religion promotes parochialism. To examine how actors on the ground in Israel-Palestine think about the God of the other as it relates to the other’s behavior towards them, we ran two studies in winter 2019 with an online sample of Jewish Israelis and fieldwork with Palestinians in the West Bank. We asked participants to predict the behavior of an outgroup member participating in an economic game task, dividing the money between themselves and another person, who is either an ingroup or outgroup member. Our experimental manipulation asks participants to predict the behavior of the other when the other is thinking of their God. Both Israelis and Palestinians believed outgroup members would show in-group favoritism, and that group members would give more to their in-group when thinking of their God. We also found that participants thought outgroup members would give more to their own ingroup when thinking of God. In other words, Palestinians predicted that Israelis would give more to fellow Israelis when thinking of God, but also more to Palestinians. Our results suggest that religious belief is seen to promote universal moral reasoning, even in a context with over 70 years of intense conflict. More broadly, this challenges the narrative that religion necessarily motivates intractable conflict.

Keywords: conflict, psychology, religion, meta-cognition, morality

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1026 Attitudes of Nurses towards End-of-Life Care for Themselves

Authors: H. N. S. Silva, S. N. Silva

Abstract:

Introduction: 88.3% of physicians decided to choose a ‘no-code’ or a DNR order if hospitalized and would choose to die less aggressively at home. However, their wishes were mostly over ridden. Objective: To assess the attitudes of nurses towards the end-of-the-life care they would like to receive for themselves and their attitudes towards terminal illnesses. Methods: A mixed method approach was used. A closed and open-ended questionnaire was administered to 73 participants and 5 registered nurses, who have more than 10 years of experience, working in hospitals both in Sri Lanka and abroad, were interviewed. Results: 94.1% of the participants stated that they would like to die at home, spending their last hours at home surrounded by their loved ones and engaging in religious activities but 57.7% of unmarried nurse said they would agree on euthanasia if they had a terminal disease, and also 66.2% of them stated they would agree in DNR order if they happen to be admitted to the ICU, but 82.5% wanted to diagnose if they had a terminal illness or cancer but did not agree on euthanasia. Qualitative analysis confirmed the findings and revealed that despite having adequate confidence about the hospital care, nurses would choose to die at home, surrounded by their loved once and engaging in religious activities. Euthanasia was believed to be inappropriate as it is religiously incorrect and as death is a natural process. Conclusion: The perception of death among nurses depends on their religious belief.

Keywords: death, do not resuscitate, euthanasia, nurses

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1025 The Effect of Unconscious Exposure to Religious Concepts on Mutual Stereotypes of Jews and Muslims in Israel

Authors: Lipaz Shamoa-Nir, Irene Razpurker-Apfeld

Abstract:

This research examined the impact of subliminal exposure to religious content on the mutual attitudes of majority group members (Jews) and minority group members (Muslims). Participants were subliminally exposed to religious concepts (e.g., Mezuzah, yarmulke or veil) and then they filled questionnaires assessing their stereotypes towards the out-group members. Each participant was primed with either in-group religious concepts, out-group concepts or neutral ones. The findings show that the Muslim participants were not influenced by the religious content to which they were exposed while the Jewish participants perceived the Muslims as less 'hostile' when subliminally exposed to religious concepts, regardless of concept type (out-group/in-group). This research highlights the influence of evoked religious content on out-group attitudes even when the perceiver is unaware of prime content. The power that exposure to content in a non-native language has in activating attitudes towards the out-group is also discussed.

Keywords: intergroup attitudes, stereotypes, majority-minority, religious out-group, implicit content, native language

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1024 Cultural Invasion to Submerge Kalasha Culture: An Ethnomethodological Study

Authors: Fariyal Mir

Abstract:

The largest minority group over Pakistan lives in the farthest region of KPK, Chitral, which enclosed all its people in one closet despite their diversity. Chitral is considered a tourist hub and piece of paradise on earth. The major attraction of Chitral is the Kalash valley, which is also known as the homeland of kafir or 'weavers of the black robes'. Kalash people are counted as the primitive pagan tribe who practice culture, beliefs, and a lifestyle which dated beyond and distinct from the rest of the region. Their religious belief is known to be as 'animism', which means that objects, places, and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. They also believe that nature plays a highly significant and spiritual role in their daily life. As they have their different festivals like (a) Chilam Josh: celebrated in May to welcome spring, (b) Uchaw: which is observed in late August to ensure good crops of wheat, (c) Chanmos: which is being observed in December for more than two weeks, grand festival and is celebrated to welcome New Year. Their concept of purity and impurity is also very traditional and part of their religious belief as well. They used to call the man as pure 'Oshniru' (pure, holy) and woman as impure 'Chetu' (dirty, polluted, or contaminated). This study is based on ethnomethodology, which focuses on the way people make sense of their daily life. Their unique belief system connects them with the descendants of the armies of Alexander the Great, who called the Hindu Kush 'Parapamisus', meaning mountains over which eagles can fly. With time, their cultural system was molded into many ways, and the same is going on with the true beauty of Chitral in the form of conversion to Islam and adaptation of modern lifestyle. Ethnomethodology also supports this, that people are always good in their original form so they can be called the true representatives of their origin and cultural identity. It also argues that human society is based on the method of achieving and displaying not on the imposition of others' order and laws. So, everybody is obliged to respect and not to harm the beliefs and culture of all other human fellows. Some historians believe that these Kalash people are from Afghanistan and their origin is Saim which is known as Thailand, but those Kalash tribe from Afghanistan were forced to embrace Islam and only Pakistan keeps these people who own unique cultural values, ornaments and entire culture. Kalasha culture has been listed by UNESCO for consideration as World Heritage. It is necessary to save these people from the cultural invasion caused by modernity, forced religious conversion to maintain the pluralistic diversity of our country.

Keywords: Chitral, cultural identity, ethnomethodology, Kalasha culture

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1023 Popular Modern Devotional Prints: The Construction of Identity between the Visual and Viewer in Public Interaction Spaces

Authors: Muhammad Asghar, Muhammad Ali, Farwah Batool

Abstract:

Despite the general belief in Islam that figural representations should be avoided, particularly propagated by the Deobandis, a religious group influenced by Salafi and Wahhabi ideas, nevertheless the public interaction spaces such as Shops and offices are decorated with popular, mass-produced, modern devotional prints. This study seeks to focus on popular visual culture, its display in public interaction places such as shops and discusses how people establish relationships with images. The method adopted was basically ethnographic: to describe as precisely and completely as possible the phenomena to be studied, using the language and conceptual categories of the interlocutors themselves. This study has been enriched by ethnographic field research conducted during the months from October to December 2015 in the major cities of Punjab and their brief forays and surroundings where we explored how seeing upon images performs religious identity within the public space. The study examines the pattern of aesthetics and taste in the shops of especially common people whose sensibilities have not been refined or influenced by being exposed to any narrative or fine arts. Furthermore, it is our intention to question the general beliefs and opinions in the context of popular practices, the way in which people relate to these prints. The interpretations and analyses presented in this study illuminate how people create meaning through the display of such items of material culture in the immediate settings of their spaces. This study also seeks to demonstrate how popular Islam is practiced, transformed and understood through the display of popular representations of popular figures of piety like Sufi saints or their shrines are important to many believers and thus occupy important places in their shops. The findings are supported with empirical evidence and based on interviews with the shopkeepers, owners and office employees. Looking upon those popular modern devotional prints keeps people’s reverence of the personages alive. Because of their sacred themes they affect a relationship between the saint and the beholders as well as serve to symbolize and reinforce their belief since they become powerful loci of emotional attachment. Collectively such devotional prints satisfy a local taste to help people establish contact with God through the saints’ intercession in order to receive protection and benediction, and help in spiritual, mental and material problems. By putting all these facets of belief together we gain an insight into both the subjective and cognizant role that icons’ of saints play in the lives of believers. Their veneration through ingeniously contrived modern means of production makes a significant contribution to an understanding of how such imagery promotes a powerful belief in Sufi saints, which ultimately gives indications of how popular Islam is practiced and understood at its gross roots level.

Keywords: ethnographic field research, popular visual culture, protected space, religious identity

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1022 Belief-Based Games: An Appropriate Tool for Uncertain Strategic Situation

Authors: Saied Farham-Nia, Alireza Ghaffari-Hadigheh

Abstract:

Game theory is a mathematical tool to study the behaviors of a rational and strategic decision-makers, that analyze existing equilibrium in interest conflict situation and provides an appropriate mechanisms for cooperation between two or more player. Game theory is applicable for any strategic and interest conflict situation in politics, management and economics, sociology and etc. Real worlds’ decisions are usually made in the state of indeterminacy and the players often are lack of the information about the other players’ payoffs or even his own, which leads to the games in uncertain environments. When historical data for decision parameters distribution estimation is unavailable, we may have no choice but to use expertise belief degree, which represents the strength with that we believe the event will happen. To deal with belief degrees, we have use uncertainty theory which is introduced and developed by Liu based on normality, duality, subadditivity and product axioms to modeling personal belief degree. As we know, the personal belief degree heavily depends on the personal knowledge concerning the event and when personal knowledge changes, cause changes in the belief degree too. Uncertainty theory not only theoretically is self-consistent but also is the best among other theories for modeling belief degree on practical problem. In this attempt, we primarily reintroduced Expected Utility Function in uncertainty environment according to uncertainty theory axioms to extract payoffs. Then, we employed Nash Equilibrium to investigate the solutions. For more practical issues, Stackelberg leader-follower Game and Bertrand Game, as a benchmark models are discussed. Compared to existing articles in the similar topics, the game models and solution concepts introduced in this article can be a framework for problems in an uncertain competitive situation based on experienced expert’s belief degree.

Keywords: game theory, uncertainty theory, belief degree, uncertain expected value, Nash equilibrium

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1021 The Anatomy of Inter-Religious Conflict in Northern Nigeria: A Conflict without Peace Education

Authors: Shehu Hashimu

Abstract:

Ever since the independence, Northern Nigeria has been experiencing a flashpoint of all sorts of conflict ranging from ethnoreligious, intra-religious, and inter-religious violence; many people are of the view and worrisome that indeed the region (North) is becoming a religious-political battle-ground. The trends of violence associated with these conflicts are a reflection of high level of misunderstanding, misinform unpolitical zeal toward uplifting peace education for greater enhancement among the religious, ethnic group or sects in the northern region. The aims of this paper, among other things, are to outline the misconception on the term inter-religious conflict. It is justifiable to state the brief historical antecedence of the making of contemporary Northern Nigeria and how conflict is fluctuating over and over without concrete resolution is another concern of the paper. The desirability of peace education in enhancing cordial relations and cementing potholes among various religious sects in the region (Northern Nigeria) cannot over emphasized considering the pivotal role play toward national cohesion; therefore, this paper strategically made a lengthy discourse for elaborations. In the conclusion aspect of it, the paper outline some relevant recommendation and suggestions for viable co-existence if properly implemented.

Keywords: anatomy, inter-religious, conflict, peace education

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1020 The Roles of Muslims Scholars in Minifying Religious Extremism for Religious Tolerance and Peace Building in Nigeria

Authors: Mukhtar Sarkin-Kebbi

Abstract:

Insurgency, religious extremism and other related religious crises become hydra-headed in Nigeria, which caused destruction of human lives and properties worth of billions naira. As result, millions people were displaced and million children were out of school most of whom from Muslims community. The wrong teaching and misinterpretation of Islam by some Muslim community fuel the spread of extremist ideology hatred among Muslim sects, non-Muslims and emergency of extremist groups, like Boko Haram. A multi-religious country like Nigeria to realise its development in all human aspects, there must be unity and religious tolerance. Many agreed that changing the ideologies of insurgents and religious extremism will require intellectual role with vigorous campaign. Muslim scholars can play a vital role in promoting social reform and peaceful coexistence. This paper discusses the importance of unity among Muslim community and religious tolerance in light of the Qur’an and the Hadith. The paper also reviews the relationship between Muslims and non Muslims during the life time the Prophet (S.A.W.) in order to serve as exemplary model. Contemporary issues such as religious extremism, sectarians, intolerance and their consequences were examined. To minify religious intolerance and extremism,the paper identifies the roles to be played by Muslim scholars with references from Qur’an and Sunnah. The paper concludes that to realise overall human development and eternal salvation, Muslim should shun away from any religious crises and embrace unity and religious tolerance. Finally the paper recommends among others that only pious and learned scholars should be allowed to preach in any religious gathering, Muslim should exercise patience, tolerance in dealing with Muslims and non Muslims. Muslims should leave by example from the teaching of Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A.W.).

Keywords: Muslim scholars, peace building, religious extremism, religious tolerance

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1019 Religious Beliefs and Their Effects on the Use of Contraceptives in Female College Students

Authors: Amy Kless, Peter Reuter

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the teachings of religious doctrine on the use of contraceptives and its influence on the behavior of female college students. The religious doctrine of both Christian and non-Christian religions states that sexual intercourse shall only take place between people that are married. Additionally, the teachings of most Christian and non-Christian religions prohibit the use of contraceptives during sexual intercourse. Being away from home for the first time, students that grew up in religious households may stop attending church services or stop practicing religion entirety. The college years are also a time for sexual exploration. The desire for sexual exploration leaves many students, both religious and non-religious, with having to choose between abstaining from sexual intercourse or using a form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. Of 1,130 female students anonymously surveyed at a southern university between Spring 2016 and Fall 2020, 50% reported having religious beliefs. Less than 50% of the students who reported having religious beliefs attend church services on a regular basis. Nearly 75% of the same students reported having participated in sexual intercourse with close to 60% utilizing some form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. The data suggest that female college students do not follow religious teachings on abstinence from premarital sex or the ban on the use of contraceptives.

Keywords: contraceptives, females, intercourse, religion

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