Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: overpressure

14 Internal and External Overpressure Calculation for Vented Gas Explosion by Using a Combined Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach

Authors: Jingde Li, Hong Hao


Recent oil and gas accidents have reminded us the severe consequences of gas explosion on structure damage and financial loss. In order to protect the structures and personnel, engineers and researchers have been working on numerous different explosion mitigation methods. Amongst, venting is the most economical approach to mitigate gas explosion overpressure. In this paper, venting is used as the overpressure alleviation method. A theoretical method and a numerical technique are presented to predict the internal and external pressure from vented gas explosion in a large enclosure. Under idealized conditions, a number of experiments are used to calibrate the accuracy of the theoretically calculated data. A good agreement between the theoretical results and experimental data is seen. However, for realistic scenarios, the theoretical method over-estimates internal pressures and is incapable of predicting external pressures. Therefore, a CFD simulation procedure is proposed in this study to estimate both the internal and external overpressure from a large-scale vented explosion. Satisfactory agreement between CFD simulation results and experimental data is achieved.

Keywords: vented gas explosion, internal pressure, external pressure, CFD simulation, FLACS, ANSYS Fluent

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13 Study of Hydraulic and Tectonic Fracturation within Zemlet El Beidha Area (North Chott Range)

Authors: Nabil Abaab, Dhaou Akrout, Riadh Ahmadi, Mabrouk Montacer


The study of fluid pressure and its evolution have a critical importance as they lead to understanding the tectonic history of the region. Therefore, the present work focuses on a microtectonic study of tectonic and hydraulic fracture at the anticline structure of Zemlet El Beidha (North Chott range). The study and the analysis of several stations of tectonic and hydraulic fracture allow revealing the witnesses of a paléosurpression in the deposits of Lower Cretaceous (Bouhedma Formation). In fact, we noticed that the overpressure is directly involved in the creation of various types of fractures as evidenced by the different measures and the stereographic projections. Thus, the orientations of fibers of mineralization that fills the Beefs type fracture have the same direction as the main constraint. Furthermore, we discussed the different overpressure build-up mechanisms. The results showed that tectonics is likely, responsible for this anomaly. This is confirmed by the description of the fibers and the projection of the different measurements of Beefs. The mineralization transformation from gypsum to anhydrite is heavily involved in this stress regime especially in the presence of all necessary conditions of dehydration of gypsum.

Keywords: Zemlet El Beidha, overpressure, tectonic fracture, hydraulic fracture, gypsum beefs

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12 Numerical Modeling of Air Shock Wave Generated by Explosive Detonation and Dynamic Response of Structures

Authors: Michał Lidner, Zbigniew SzcześNiak


The ability to estimate blast load overpressure properly plays an important role in safety design of buildings. The issue of studying of blast loading on structural elements has been explored for many years. However, in many literature reports shock wave overpressure is estimated with simplified triangular or exponential distribution in time. This indicates some errors when comparing real and numerical reaction of elements. Nonetheless, it is possible to further improve setting similar to the real blast load overpressure function versus time. The paper presents a method of numerical analysis of the phenomenon of the air shock wave propagation. It uses Finite Volume Method and takes into account energy losses due to a heat transfer with respect to an adiabatic process rule. A system of three equations (conservation of mass, momentum and energy) describes the flow of a volume of gaseous medium in the area remote from building compartments, which can inhibit the movement of gas. For validation three cases of a shock wave flow were analyzed: a free field explosion, an explosion inside a steel insusceptible tube (the 1D case) and an explosion inside insusceptible cube (the 3D case). The results of numerical analysis were compared with the literature reports. Values of impulse, pressure, and its duration were studied. Finally, an overall good convergence of numerical results with experiments was achieved. Also the most important parameters were well reflected. Additionally analyses of dynamic response of one of considered structural element were made.

Keywords: adiabatic process, air shock wave, explosive, finite volume method

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11 Simulation Research of the Aerodynamic Drag of 3D Structures for Individual Transport Vehicle

Authors: Pawel Magryta, Mateusz Paszko


In today's world, a big problem of individual mobility, especially in large urban areas, occurs. Commonly used grand way of transport such as buses, trains or cars do not fulfill their tasks, i.e. they are not able to meet the increasing mobility needs of the growing urban population. Additional to that, the limitations of civil infrastructure construction in the cities exist. Nowadays the most common idea is to transfer the part of urban transport on the level of air transport. However to do this, there is a need to develop an individual flying transport vehicle. The biggest problem occurring in this concept is the type of the propulsion system from which the vehicle will obtain a lifting force. Standard propeller drives appear to be too noisy. One of the ideas is to provide the required take-off and flight power by the machine using the innovative ejector system. This kind of the system will be designed through a suitable choice of the three-dimensional geometric structure with special shape of nozzle in order to generate overpressure. The authors idea is to make a device that would allow to cumulate the overpressure using the a five-sided geometrical structure that will be limited on the one side by the blowing flow of air jet. In order to test this hypothesis a computer simulation study of aerodynamic drag of such 3D structures have been made. Based on the results of these studies, the tests on real model were also performed. The final stage of work was a comparative analysis of the results of simulation and real tests. The CFD simulation studies of air flow was conducted using the Star CD - Star Pro 3.2 software. The design of virtual model was made using the Catia v5 software. Apart from the objective to obtain advanced aviation propulsion system, all of the tests and modifications of 3D structures were also aimed at achieving high efficiency of this device while maintaining the ability to generate high value of overpressures. This was possible only in case of a large mass flow rate of air. All these aspects have been possible to verify using CFD methods for observing the flow of the working medium in the tested model. During the simulation tests, the distribution and size of pressure and velocity vectors were analyzed. Simulations were made with different boundary conditions (supply air pressure), but with a fixed external conditions (ambient temp., ambient pressure, etc.). The maximum value of obtained overpressure is 2 kPa. This value is too low to exploit the power of this device for the individual transport vehicle. Both the simulation model and real object shows a linear dependence of the overpressure values obtained from the different geometrical parameters of three-dimensional structures. Application of computational software greatly simplifies and streamlines the design and simulation capabilities. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: aviation propulsion, CFD, 3d structure, aerodynamic drag

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10 Flame Propagation Velocity of Selected Gas Mixtures Depending on the Temperature

Authors: Kaczmarzyk Piotr, Anna Dziechciarz, Wojciech Klapsa


The purpose of this paper is demonstration the test results of research influence of temperature on the velocity of flame propagation using gas and air mixtures for selected gas mixtures. The research was conducted on the test apparatus in the form of duct 2 m long. The test apparatus was funded from the project: “Development of methods to neutralize threats of explosion for determined tanks contained technical gases, including alternative sources of supply in the fire environment, taking into account needs of rescuers” number: DOB-BIO6/02/50/2014. The Project is funded by The National Centre for Research and Development. This paper presents the results of measurement of rate of pressure rise and rate in flame propagation, using test apparatus for mixtures air and methane or air and propane. This paper presents the results performed using the test apparatus in the form of duct measuring the rate of flame and overpressure wave. Studies were performed using three gas mixtures with different concentrations: Methane (3% to 8% vol), Propane (3% to 6% vol). As regard to the above concentrations, tests were carried out at temperatures 20 and 30 ̊C. The gas mixture was supplied to the inside of the duct by the partial pressure molecules. Data acquisition was made using 5 dynamic pressure transducers and 5 ionization probes, arranged along of the duct. Temperature conditions changes were performed using heater which was mounted on the duct’s bottom. During the tests, following parameters were recorded: maximum explosion pressure, maximum pressure recorded by sensors and voltage recorded by ionization probes. Performed tests, for flammable gas and air mixtures, indicate that temperature changes have an influence on overpressure velocity. It should be noted, that temperature changes do not have a major impact on the flame front velocity. In the case of propane and air mixtures (temperature 30 ̊C) was observed DDT (Deflagration to Detonation) phenomena. The velocity increased from 2 to 20 m/s. This kind of explosion could turn into a detonation, but the duct length is too short (2 m).

Keywords: flame propagation, flame propagation velocity, explosion, propane, methane

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9 Traumatic Brain Injury Induced Lipid Profiling of Lipids in Mice Serum Using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS

Authors: Seema Dhariwal, Kiran Maan, Ruchi Baghel, Apoorva Sharma, Poonam Rana


Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as the temporary or permanent alteration in brain function and pathology caused by an external mechanical force. It represents the leading cause of mortality and morbidity among children and youth individuals. Various models of TBI in rodents have been developed in the laboratory to mimic the scenario of injury. Blast overpressure injury is common among civilians and military personnel, followed by accidents or explosive devices. In addition to this, the lateral Controlled cortical impact (CCI) model mimics the blunt, penetrating injury. Method: In the present study, we have developed two different mild TBI models using blast and CCI injury. In the blast model, helium gas was used to create an overpressure of 130 kPa (±5) via a shock tube, and CCI injury was induced with an impact depth of 1.5mm to create diffusive and focal injury, respectively. C57BL/6J male mice (10-12 weeks) were divided into three groups: (1) control, (2) Blast treated, (3) CCI treated, and were exposed to different injury models. Serum was collected on Day1 and day7, followed by biphasic extraction using MTBE/Methanol/Water. Prepared samples were separated on Charged Surface Hybrid (CSH) C18 column and acquired on UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS using ESI probe with inhouse optimized parameters and method. MS peak list was generated using Markerview TM. Data were normalized, Pareto-scaled, and log-transformed, followed by multivariate and univariate analysis in metaboanalyst. Result and discussion: Untargeted profiling of lipids generated extensive data features, which were annotated through LIPID MAPS® based on their m/z and were further confirmed based on their fragment pattern by LipidBlast. There is the final annotation of 269 features in the positive and 182 features in the negative mode of ionization. PCA and PLS-DA score plots showed clear segregation of injury groups to controls. Among various lipids in mild blast and CCI, five lipids (Glycerophospholipids {PC 30:2, PE O-33:3, PG 28:3;O3 and PS 36:1 } and fatty acyl { FA 21:3;O2}) were significantly altered in both injury groups at Day 1 and Day 7, and also had VIP score >1. Pathway analysis by Biopan has also shown hampered synthesis of Glycerolipids and Glycerophospholipiods, which coincides with earlier reports. It could be a direct result of alteration in the Acetylcholine signaling pathway in response to TBI. Understanding the role of a specific class of lipid metabolism, regulation and transport could be beneficial to TBI research since it could provide new targets and determine the best therapeutic intervention. This study demonstrates the potential lipid biomarkers which can be used for injury severity diagnosis and identification irrespective of injury type (diffusive or focal).

Keywords: LipidBlast, lipidomic biomarker, LIPID MAPS®, TBI

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8 High-Speed LIF-OH Imaging of H2-Air Turbulent Premixed Flames

Authors: Ahmed A. Al-Harbi


This paper presents a comparative study of effects of the repeated solid obstacles on the propagation of H2-Air premixed flames. Pressure, speed of the flame front as well as structure of reaction zones are studied for hydrogen. Two equivalence ratios are examined for different configurations of three baffle plates and two obstacles with a square cross-section having blockage ratios of either 0.24 or 0.5. Hydrogen fuel mixtures with two equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.8 are studied and this is limited by the excessive overpressures. The results show that the peak pressure and its rate of change can be increased by increasing the blockage ratio or by decreasing the space between successive baffles. As illustrated by the high speed images of LIF-OH, the degree of wrinkling and contortion in the flame front increase as the blockages increase. The images also show how the flame front relaminarises with increasing distances between obstacles, which accounts for the pressure decrease with increasing separation. It is also found that more than one obstacle is needed to achieve a turbulent flame structure with intense corrugations.

Keywords: premixed propagating flames, flame-obstacle interaction, turbulent premixed flames, overpressure, transient flames

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7 Investigation of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges under Blasting Loads Based on Slope Reflection

Authors: Yuan Li, Yitao Han, Zhao Zhu


In this paper, the effect of blasting loads on steel-concrete composite bridges has been investigated considering the slope reflection effect. Reasonable values of girder size, plate thickness, stiffening rib, and other design parameters were selected according to design specifications. Modified RHT (Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma) was used as constitutive relation in analyses. In order to simulate the slope reflection effect, the slope of the bridge was precisely built in the model. Different blasting conditions, including top, middle, and bottom explosions, were simulated. The multi-Euler domain method based on fully coupled Lagrange and Euler models was adopted for the structural analysis of the explosion process using commercial software AUTODYN. The obtained results showed that explosion overpressure was increased by 3006, 879, and 449kPa, corresponding to explosions occurring at the top, middle, and bottom of the slope, respectively. At the same time, due to energy accumulation and transmission dissipation caused by slope reflection, the corresponding yield lengths of steel beams were increased by 8, 0, and 5m, respectively.

Keywords: steel-concrete composite bridge, explosion damage, slope reflection, blasting loads, RHT

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6 Vulnerability Analysis for Risk Zones Boundary Definition to Support a Decision Making Process at CBRNE Operations

Authors: Aliaksei Patsekha, Michael Hohenberger, Harald Raupenstrauch


An effective emergency response to accidents with chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive materials (CBRNE) that represent highly dynamic situations needs immediate actions within limited time, information and resources. The aim of the study is to provide the foundation for division of unsafe area into risk zones according to the impact of hazardous parameters (heat radiation, thermal dose, overpressure, chemical concentrations). A decision on the boundary values for three risk zones is based on the vulnerability analysis that covered a variety of accident scenarios containing the release of a toxic or flammable substance which either evaporates, ignites and/or explodes. Critical values are selected for the boundary definition of the Red, Orange and Yellow risk zones upon the examination of harmful effects that are likely to cause injuries of varying severity to people and different levels of damage to structures. The obtained results provide the basis for creating a comprehensive real-time risk map for a decision support at CBRNE operations.

Keywords: boundary values, CBRNE threats, decision making process, hazardous effects, vulnerability analysis, risk zones

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5 Development of Numerical Model to Compute Water Hammer Transients in Pipe Flow

Authors: Jae-Young Lee, Woo-Young Jung, Myeong-Jun Nam


Water hammer is a hydraulic transient problem which is commonly encountered in the penstocks of hydropower plants. The numerical model was developed to estimate the transient behavior of pressure waves in pipe systems. The computational algorithm was proposed to model the water hammer phenomenon in a pipe system with pump shutdown at midstream and sudden valve closure at downstream. To predict the pressure head and flow velocity as a function of time as a result of rapidly closing a valve and pump shutdown, two boundary conditions at the ends considering pump operation and valve control can be implemented as specified equations of the pressure head and flow velocity based on the characteristics method. It was shown that the effects of transient flow make it determine the needs for protection devices, such as surge tanks, surge relief valves, or air valves, at various points in the system against overpressure and low pressure. It produced reasonably good performance with the results of the proposed transient model for pipeline systems. The proposed numerical model can be used as an efficient tool for the safety assessment of hydropower plants due to water hammer.

Keywords: water hammer, hydraulic transient, pipe systems, characteristics method

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4 Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Optical Properties of InAs Quantum Dots Grown on (100) and (311)B GaAs Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Amjad Almunyif, Amra Alhassni, Sultan Alhassan, Maryam Al Huwayz, Saud Alotaibi, Abdulaziz Almalki, Mohamed Henini


The effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the optical properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown at an As overpressure of 2x 10⁻⁶ Torr by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on (100) and (311)B GaAs substrates was investigated using photoluminescence (PL) technique. PL results showed that for the as-grown samples, the QDs grown on the high index plane (311)B have lower PL intensity and lower full width at half maximum (FWHM) than those grown on the conventional (100) plane. The latter demonstrates that the (311)B QDs have better size uniformity than (100) QDs. Compared with as-grown samples, a blue-shift was observed for all samples with increasing annealing temperature from 600°C to 700°C. For (100) samples, a narrowing of the FWHM was observed with increasing annealing temperature from 600°C to 700°C. However, in (311)B samples, the FWHM showed a different behaviour; it slightly increased when the samples were annealed at 600°C and then decreased when the annealing temperature increased to 700°C. As expected, the PL peak intensity for all samples increased when the laser excitation power increased. The PL peak energy temperature dependence showed a strong redshift when the temperature was increased from 10 K to 120 K. The PL peak energy exhibited an abnormal S-shape behaviour as a function of temperature for all samples. Most samples exhibited a significant enhancement in their activation energies when annealed at 600°C and 700°C, suggesting that annealing annihilated defects created during sample growth.

Keywords: RTA, QDs, InAs, MBE

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3 Sedimentary, Diagenesis and Evaluation of High Quality Reservoir of Coarse Clastic Rocks in Nearshore Deep Waters in the Dongying Sag; Bohai Bay Basin

Authors: Kouassi Louis Kra


The nearshore deep-water gravity flow deposits in the Northern steep slope of Dongying depression, Bohai Bay basin, have been acknowledged as important reservoirs in the rift lacustrine basin. These deep strata term as coarse clastic sediment, deposit at the root of the slope have complex depositional processes and involve wide diagenetic events which made high-quality reservoir prediction to be complex. Based on the integrated study of seismic interpretation, sedimentary analysis, petrography, cores samples, wireline logging data, 3D seismic and lithological data, the reservoir formation mechanism deciphered. The Geoframe software was used to analyze 3-D seismic data to interpret the stratigraphy and build a sequence stratigraphic framework. Thin section identification, point counts were performed to assess the reservoir characteristics. The software PetroMod 1D of Schlumberger was utilized for the simulation of burial history. CL and SEM analysis were performed to reveal diagenesis sequences. Backscattered electron (BSE) images were recorded for definition of the textural relationships between diagenetic phases. The result showed that the nearshore steep slope deposits mainly consist of conglomerate, gravel sandstone, pebbly sandstone and fine sandstone interbedded with mudstone. The reservoir is characterized by low-porosity and ultra-low permeability. The diagenesis reactions include compaction, precipitation of calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, quartz cement and dissolution of feldspars and rock fragment. The main types of reservoir space are primary intergranular pores, residual intergranular pores, intergranular dissolved pores, intergranular dissolved pores, and fractures. There are three obvious anomalous high-porosity zones in the reservoir. Overpressure and early hydrocarbon filling are the main reason for abnormal secondary pores development. Sedimentary facies control the formation of high-quality reservoir, oil and gas filling preserves secondary pores from late carbonate cementation.

Keywords: Bohai Bay, Dongying Sag, deep strata, formation mechanism, high-quality reservoir

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2 Transient Performance Evaluation and Control Measures for Oum Azza Pumping Station Case Study

Authors: Itissam Abuiziah


This work presents a case study of water-hammer analysis and control for the Oum Azza pumping station project in the coastal area of Rabat to Casablanca from the dam Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah (SMBA). This is a typical pumping system with a long penstock and is currently at design and executions stages. Since there is no ideal location for construction of protection devices, the protection devices were provisionally designed to protect the whole conveying pipeline. The simulation results for the transient conditions caused by a sudden pumping stopping without including any protection devices, show that there is a negative beyond 1300m to the station 5725m near the arrival of the reservoir, therefore; there is a need for the protection devices to protect the conveying pipeline. To achieve the goal behind the transient flow analysis which is to protect the conveying pipeline system, four scenarios had been investigated in this case study with two types of protecting devices (pressure relief valve and desurging tank with automatic air control). The four scenarios are conceders as with pressure relief valve, with pressure relief valve and a desurging tank with automatic air control, with pressure relief valve and tow desurging tanks with automatic air control and with pressure relief valve and three desurging tanks with automatic air control. The simulation result for the first scenario shows that overpressure corresponding to an instant pumping stopping is reduced from 263m to 240m, and the minimum hydraulic grad line for the length approximately from station 1300m to station 5725m is still below the pipeline profile which means that the pipe must be equipped with another a protective devices for smoothing depressions. The simulation results for the second scenario show that the minimum and maximum pressures envelopes are decreases especially in the depression phase but not effectively protects the conduct in this case study. The minimum pressure increased from -77.7m for the previous scenario to -65.9m for the current scenario. Therefore the pipeline is still requiring additional protective devices; another desurging tank with automatic air control is installed at station2575.84m. The simulation results for the third scenario show that the minimum and maximum pressures envelopes are decreases but not effectively protects the conduct in this case study since the depression is still exist and varies from -0.6m to– 12m. Therefore the pipeline is still requiring additional protective devices; another desurging tank with automatic air control is installed at station 5670.32 m. Examination of the envelope curves of the minimum pressuresresults for the fourth scenario, we noticed that the piezometric pressure along the pipe remains positive over the entire length of the pipe. We can, therefore, conclude that such scenario can provide effective protection for the pipeline.

Keywords: analysis methods, protection devices, transient flow, water hammer

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1 Evaluation of the Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion Thermal Effects in Hassi R'Mel Gas Processing Plant Using Fire Dynamics Simulator

Authors: Brady Manescau, Ilyas Sellami, Khaled Chetehouna, Charles De Izarra, Rachid Nait-Said, Fati Zidani


During a fire in an oil and gas refinery, several thermal accidents can occur and cause serious damage to people and environment. Among these accidents, the BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) is most observed and remains a major concern for risk decision-makers. It corresponds to a violent vaporization of explosive nature following the rupture of a vessel containing a liquid at a temperature significantly higher than its normal boiling point at atmospheric pressure. Their effects on the environment generally appear in three ways: blast overpressure, radiation from the fireball if the liquid involved is flammable and fragment hazards. In order to estimate the potential damage that would be caused by such an explosion, risk decision-makers often use quantitative risk analysis (QRA). This analysis is a rigorous and advanced approach that requires a reliable data in order to obtain a good estimate and control of risks. However, in most cases, the data used in QRA are obtained from the empirical correlations. These empirical correlations generally overestimate BLEVE effects because they are based on simplifications and do not take into account real parameters like the geometry effect. Considering that these risk analyses are based on an assessment of BLEVE effects on human life and plant equipment, more precise and reliable data should be provided. From this point of view, the CFD modeling of BLEVE effects appears as a solution to the empirical law limitations. In this context, the main objective is to develop a numerical tool in order to predict BLEVE thermal effects using the CFD code FDS version 6. Simulations are carried out with a mesh size of 1 m. The fireball source is modeled as a vertical release of hot fuel in a short time. The modeling of fireball dynamics is based on a single step combustion using an EDC model coupled with the default LES turbulence model. Fireball characteristics (diameter, height, heat flux and lifetime) issued from the large scale BAM experiment are used to demonstrate the ability of FDS to simulate the various steps of the BLEVE phenomenon from ignition up to total burnout. The influence of release parameters such as the injection rate and the radiative fraction on the fireball heat flux is also presented. Predictions are very encouraging and show good agreement in comparison with BAM experiment data. In addition, a numerical study is carried out on an operational propane accumulator in an Algerian gas processing plant of SONATRACH company located in the Hassi R’Mel Gas Field (the largest gas field in Algeria).

Keywords: BLEVE effects, CFD, FDS, fireball, LES, QRA

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