Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: K. Siadkowska

11 Numerical Investigation of the Electromagnetic Common Rail Injector Characteristics

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Ksenia Siadkowska, Tytus Tulwin

Abstract:

The paper describes the modeling of a fuel injector for common rail systems. A one-dimensional model of a solenoid-valve-controlled injector with Valve Closes Orifice (VCO) spray was modelled in the AVL Hydsim. This model shows the dynamic phenomena that occur in the injector. The accuracy of the calibration, based on a regulation of the parameters of the control valve and the nozzle needle lift, was verified by comparing the numerical results of injector flow rate. Our model is capable of a precise simulation of injector operating parameters in relation to injection time and fuel pressure in a fuel rail. As a result, there were made characteristics of the injector flow rate and backflow.

Keywords: common rail, diesel engine, fuel injector, modeling

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10 Optimal Diesel Engine Technology Analysis Matching the Platform of the Helicopter

Authors: M. Wendeker, K. Siadkowska, P. Magryta, Z. Czyz, K. Skiba

Abstract:

In the paper environmental impact analysis the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter was performed. The paper consist an answer to the question of what the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter is, taking into consideration its expected performance and design capacity. The use of turbocharged engine with self-ignition and an electronic control system can substantially reduce the negative impact on the environment by decreasing toxic substance emission, fuel consumption and therefore carbon dioxide emission. In order to establish the environmental benefits of the diesel engine technologies, mathematical models were created, providing additional insight on the environmental impact and performance of a classic turboshaft and an advanced diesel engine light helicopter, incorporating technology developments.

Keywords: diesel engine, helicopter, simulation, environmental impact

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9 Problems of Using Mobile Photovoltaic Installations

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Łukasz Grabowski, Michał Gęca

Abstract:

The dynamic development of photovoltaics in the 21st century has resulted in more possibilities for using photovoltaic systems. In order to reduce emissions, a retrofitting of vehicles with photovoltaic modules has recently become increasingly popular. Preparing such an installation, however, requires professional knowledge and compliance with safety rules. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of some types of flexible photovoltaic modules that can be applied to mobile installations, types and causes of damage to photovoltaic modules as well as the most frequent types of misinstallation. Our attention has been drawn to the risk of fire caused by misintallation or defective insulation and the need to closely monitor mobile installations, for example by a non-destructive testing with a thermal imaging camera. The paper also presents certain selected results of the research conducted at the Lublin University of Technology. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, under Grant Agreement No. PBS2/A6/16/2013.

Keywords: flexible PV module, mobile PV module, photovoltaic module, photovoltaic

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8 Selecting a Material for an Aircraft Diesel Engine Block

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Tytus Tulwin, Rafał Sochaczewski

Abstract:

Selecting appropriate materials is presently a complex task as material databases cover tens of thousands of different types of materials. Product designing proceeds in numerous stages and in most of them there are open questions with not only one correct solution but better and worse ones. This paper overviews the Diesel engine body construction materials mentioned in the literature and discusses a certain practical method to select materials for a cylinder head and a Diesel engine block as a prototype. The engine body, depending on its purpose, is most frequently iron or aluminum. If it is important to optimize parts to achieve low weight, aluminum alloys are usually applied, especially in the automotive and aviation industries. In the latter case, weight is even more important so new types of magnesium alloys which are even lighter than aluminum ones are developed and used. However, magnesium alloys are, for example, more flammable and not enough strong so, for safety reasons, this type of material is not used solely in engine bodies. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, cylinder head, Diesel engine, materials selection

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7 A Research of the Prototype Fuel Injector for the Aircraft Two-Stroke Opposed-Piston Diesel Engine

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Zbigniew Czyz, Lukasz Grabowski

Abstract:

The paper presents the research results of the construction of an injector with a modified injection nozzle. The injector is designed for a prototype aircraft opposed-piston diesel engine with an assumed starting power of 100 kW. The injector has been subjected to optical tests carried out in a constant volume chamber with the use of a camera allowing to record images at the frequency of 5400 fps and at the resolution of 1024x1024. The measurements were based on a Mie scattering technique with global lighting. Seven repetitions were made for a specific measurement point. The measuring point was selected on the basis of the analysis of engine operating conditions. The analysis focused on the average range of the spray and its distribution. As a result of the conducted research, the range of the fuel spray was defined for the determined parameters of injection. The obtained results were used to verify and optimize the combustion process in the designed opposed-piston two-stroke diesel engine. Acknowledgment: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK 'PZL-KALISZ' S.A.' and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, opposed-piston, aircraft, fuel injector

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6 Radial Fuel Injection Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Compression Ignition Two-Stroke Opposed Piston Engine

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Rafal Sochaczewski, Ksenia Siadkowska

Abstract:

Designing a new engine requires a large number of different cases to be considered. Especially different injector parameters and combustion chamber geometries. This is essential when developing an engine with unconventional build – compression ignition, two-stroke operating with direct side injection. Computational Fluid Dynamics modelling allows to test those different conditions and seek for the best conditions with correct combustion. This research presents the combustion results for different injector and combustion chamber cases. The shape of combustion chamber is different than for conventional engines as it requires side injection. This completely changes the optimal shape for the given condition compared to standard automotive heart shaped combustion chamber. Because the injection is not symmetrical there is a strong influence of cylinder swirl and piston motion on the injected fuel stream. The results present the fuel injection phenomena allowing to predict the right injection parameters for a maximum combustion efficiency and minimum piston heat loads. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, injection, opposed piston

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5 Helicopter Exhaust Gases Cooler in Terms of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Ksenia Siadkowska

Abstract:

Due to the low-altitude and relatively low-speed flight, helicopters are easy targets for actual combat assets e.g. infrared-guided missiles. Current techniques aim to increase the combat effectiveness of the military helicopters. Protection of the helicopter in flight from early detection, tracking and finally destruction can be realized in many ways. One of them is cooling hot exhaust gasses, emitting from the engines to the atmosphere in special heat exchangers. Nowadays, this process is realized in ejective coolers, where strong heat and momentum exchange between hot exhaust gases and cold air ejected from atmosphere takes place. Flow effects of air, exhaust gases; mixture of those two and the heat transfer between cold air and hot exhaust gases are given by differential equations of: Mass transportation–flow continuity, ejection of cold air through expanding exhaust gasses, conservation of momentum, energy and physical relationship equations. Calculation of those processes in ejective cooler by means of classic mathematical analysis is extremely hard or even impossible. Because of this, it is necessary to apply the numeric approach with modern, numeric computer programs. The paper discussed the general usability of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in a process of projecting the ejective exhaust gases cooler cooperating with helicopter turbine engine. In this work, the CFD calculations have been performed for ejective-based cooler cooperating with the PA W3 helicopter’s engines.

Keywords: aviation, CFD analysis, ejective-cooler, helicopter techniques

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4 A Dual Spark Ignition Timing Influence for the High Power Aircraft Radial Engine Using a CFD Transient Modeling

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Ksenia Siadkowska, Rafał Sochaczewski

Abstract:

A high power radial reciprocating engine is characterized by a large displacement volume of a combustion chamber. Choosing the right moment for ignition is important for a high performance or high reliability and ignition certainty. This work shows methods of simulating ignition process and its impact on engine parameters. For given conditions a flame speed is limited when a deflagration combustion takes place. Therefore, a larger length scale of the combustion chamber compared to a standard size automotive engine makes combustion take longer time to propagate. In order to speed up the mixture burn-up time the second spark is introduced. The transient Computational Fluid Dynamics model capable of simulating multicycle engine processes was developed. The CFD model consists of ECFM-3Z combustion and species transport models. A relative ignition timing difference for the both spark sources is constant. The temperature distribution on engine walls was calculated in the separate conjugate heat transfer simulation. The in-cylinder pressure validation was performed for take-off power flight conditions. The influence of ignition timing on parameters like in-cylinder temperature or rate of heat release was analyzed. The most advantageous spark timing for the highest power output was chosen. The conditions around the spark plug locations for the pre-ignition period were analyzed. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, ignition, simulation, timing

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3 Combustion Variability and Uniqueness in Cylinders of a Radial Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: Michal Geca, Grzegorz Baranski, Ksenia Siadkowska

Abstract:

The work is a part of the project which aims at developing innovative power and control systems for the high power aircraft piston engine ASz62IR. Developed electronically controlled ignition system will reduce emissions of toxic compounds as a result of lowered fuel consumption, optimized combustion and engine capability of efficient combustion of ecological fuels. The tested unit is an air-cooled four-stroke gasoline engine of 9 cylinders in a radial setup, mechanically charged by a radial compressor powered by the engine crankshaft. The total engine cubic capac-ity is 29.87 dm3, and the compression ratio is 6.4:1. The maximum take-off power is 1000 HP at 2200 rpm. The maximum fuel consumption is 280 kg/h. Engine powers aircrafts: An-2, M-18 „Dromader”, DHC-3 „OTTER”, DC-3 „Dakota”, GAF-125 „HAWK” i Y5. The main problems of the engine includes the imbalanced work of cylinders. The non-uniformity value in each cylinder results in non-uniformity of their work. In radial engine cylinders arrangement causes that the mixture movement that takes place in accordance (lower cylinder) or the opposite (upper cylinders) to the direction of gravity. Preliminary tests confirmed the presence of uneven workflow of individual cylinders. The phenomenon is most intense at low speed. The non-uniformity is visible on the waveform of cylinder pressure. Therefore two studies were conducted to determine the impact of this phenomenon on the engine performance: simulation and real tests. Simplified simulation was conducted on the element of the intake system coated with fuel film. The study shows that there is an effect of gravity on the movement of the fuel film inside the radial engine intake channels. Both in the lower and the upper inlet channels the film flows downwards. It follows from the fact that gravity assists the movement of the film in the lower cylinder channels and prevents the movement in the upper cylinder channels. Real tests on aircraft engine ASz62IR was conducted in transients condition (rapid change of the excess air in each cylinder were performed. Calculations were conducted for mass of fuel reaching the cylinders theoretically and really and on this basis, the factors of fuel evaporation “x” were determined. Therefore a simplified model of the fuel supply to cylinder was adopted. Model includes time constant of the fuel film τ, the number of engine transport cycles of non-evaporating fuel along the intake pipe γ and time between next cycles Δt. The calculation results of identification of the model parameters are presented in the form of radar graphs. The figures shows the averages declines and increases of the injection time and the average values for both types of stroke. These studies shown, that the change of the position of the cylinder will cause changes in the formation of fuel-air mixture and thus changes in the combustion process. Based on the results of the work of simulation and experiments was possible to develop individual algorithms for ignition control. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: radial engine, ignition system, non-uniformity, combustion process

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2 Concepts of Technologies Based on Smart Materials to Improve Aircraft Aerodynamic Performance

Authors: Krzysztof Skiba, Zbigniew Czyz, Ksenia Siadkowska, Piotr Borowiec

Abstract:

The article presents selected concepts of technologies that use intelligent materials in aircraft in order to improve their performance. Most of the research focuses on solutions that improve the performance of fixed wing aircraft due to related to their previously dominant market share. Recently, the development of the rotorcraft has been intensive, so there are not only helicopters but also gyroplanes and unmanned aerial vehicles using rotors and vertical take-off and landing. There are many different technologies to change a shape of the aircraft or its elements. Piezoelectric, deformable actuator systems can be applied in the system of an active control of vibration dampening in the aircraft tail structure. Wires made of shape memory alloys (SMA) could be used instead of hydraulic cylinders in the rear part of the aircraft flap. The aircraft made of intelligent materials (piezoelectrics and SMA) is one of the NASA projects which provide the possibility of changing a wing shape coefficient by 200%, a wing surface by 50%, and wing deflections by 20 degrees. Active surfaces made of shape memory alloys could be used to control swirls in the flowing stream. An intelligent control system for helicopter blades is a method for the active adaptation of blades to flight conditions and the reduction of vibrations caused by the rotor. Shape memory alloys are capable of recovering their pre-programmed shapes. They are divided into three groups: nickel-titanium-based, copper-based, and ferromagnetic. Due to the strongest shape memory effect and the best vibration damping ability, a Ni-Ti alloy is the most commercially important. The subject of this work was to prepare a conceptual design of a rotor blade with SMA actuators. The scope of work included 3D design of the supporting rotor blade, 3D design of beams enabling to change the geometry by changing the angle of rotation and FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis. The FEM analysis was performed using NX 12 software in the Pre/Post module, which includes extended finite element modeling tools and visualizations of the obtained results. Calculations are presented for two versions of the blade girders. For FEM analysis, three types of materials were used for comparison purposes (ABS, aluminium alloy 7057, steel C45). The analysis of internal stresses and extreme displacements of crossbars edges was carried out. The internal stresses in all materials were close to the yield point in the solution of girder no. 1. For girder no. 2 solution, the value of stresses decreased by about 45%. As a result of the displacement analysis, it was found that the best solution was the ABS girder no. 1. The displacement of about 0.5 mm was obtained, which resulted in turning the crossbars (upper and lower) by an angle equal to 3.59 degrees. This is the largest deviation of all the tests. The smallest deviation was obtained for beam no. 2 made of steel. The displacement value of the second girder solution was approximately 30% lower than the first solution. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development under the LIDER program, Grant Agreement No. LIDER/45/0177/L-9/17/NCBR/2018.

Keywords: aircraft, helicopters, shape memory alloy, SMA, smart material, unmanned aerial vehicle, UAV

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1 Designing and Simulation of the Rotor and Hub of the Unmanned Helicopter

Authors: Zbigniew Czyz, Ksenia Siadkowska, Krzysztof Skiba, Karol Scislowski

Abstract:

Today’s progress in the rotorcraft is mostly associated with an optimization of aircraft performance achieved by active and passive modifications of main rotor assemblies and a tail propeller. The key task is to improve their performance, improve the hover quality factor for rotors but not change in specific fuel consumption. One of the tasks to improve the helicopter is an active optimization of the main rotor providing for flight stages, i.e., an ascend, flight, a descend. An active interference with the airflow around the rotor blade section can significantly change characteristics of the aerodynamic airfoil. The efficiency of actuator systems modifying aerodynamic coefficients in the current solutions is relatively high and significantly affects the increase in strength. The solution to actively change aerodynamic characteristics assumes a periodic change of geometric features of blades depending on flight stages. Changing geometric parameters of blade warping enables an optimization of main rotor performance depending on helicopter flight stages. Structurally, an adaptation of shape memory alloys does not significantly affect rotor blade fatigue strength, which contributes to reduce costs associated with an adaptation of the system to the existing blades, and gains from a better performance can easily amortize such a modification and improve profitability of such a structure. In order to obtain quantitative and qualitative data to solve this research problem, a number of numerical analyses have been necessary. The main problem is a selection of design parameters of the main rotor and a preliminary optimization of its performance to improve the hover quality factor for rotors. This design concept assumes a three-bladed main rotor with a chord of 0.07 m and radius R = 1 m. The value of rotor speed is a calculated parameter of an optimization function. To specify the initial distribution of geometric warping, a special software has been created that uses a numerical method of a blade element which respects dynamic design features such as fluctuations of a blade in its joints. A number of performance analyses as a function of rotor speed, forward speed, and altitude have been performed. The calculations were carried out for the full model assembly. This approach makes it possible to observe the behavior of components and their mutual interaction resulting from the forces. The key element of each rotor is the shaft, hub and pins holding the joints and blade yokes. These components are exposed to the highest loads. As a result of the analysis, the safety factor was determined at the level of k > 1.5, which gives grounds to obtain certification for the strength of the structure. The construction of the joint rotor has numerous moving elements in its structure. Despite the high safety factor, the places with the highest stresses, where the signs of wear and tear may appear, have been indicated. The numerical analysis carried out showed that the most loaded element is the pin connecting the modular bearing of the blade yoke with the element of the horizontal oscillation joint. The stresses in this element result in a safety factor of k=1.7. The other analysed rotor components have a safety factor of more than 2 and in the case of the shaft, this factor is more than 3. However, it must be remembered that the structure is as strong as the weakest cell is. Designed rotor for unmanned aerial vehicles adapted to work with blades with intelligent materials in its structure meets the requirements for certification testing. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development under the LIDER program, Grant Agreement No. LIDER/45/0177/L-9/17/NCBR/2018.

Keywords: main rotor, rotorcraft aerodynamics, shape memory alloy, materials, unmanned helicopter

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