Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: LLDPE

12 Tensile strength and Elastic Modulus of Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi, Ismail Ghasemi, Sajad Daneshpayeh


In this study, tensile strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites based on polypropylene/ linear low density polyethylene/ nano titanium dioxide (PP/LLDPE/TiO2) were studied. The samples were produced using a co-rotating twin screw extruder including 0, 2, 4 Wt .% of nano particles, and 20, 40, 60 Wt.% of LLDPE. The styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) was used as comptabiliser. Tensile strength and elastic modulus were evaluated. The results showed that modulus was increased by 7% with addition of nano particles in comparison to PP/LLDPE. In addition, tensile strength was decreased.

Keywords: PP/LLDPE/TiO2, nanocomposites, elastic modulus, tensile strength

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11 Simple Rheological Method to Estimate the Branch Structures of Polyethylene under Reactive Modification

Authors: Mahdi Golriz


The aim of this work is to estimate the change in molecular structure of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) during peroxide modification can be detected by a simple rheological method. For this purpose a commercial grade LLDPE (Exxon MobileTM LL4004EL) was reacted with different doses of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The samples were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with a light scattering detector. The dynamic shear oscillatory measurements showed a deviation of the δ-׀G ׀٭curve from that of the linear LLDPE, which can be attributed to the presence of long-chain branching (LCB). By the use of a simple rheological method that utilizes melt rheology, transformations in molecular architecture induced on an originally linear low density polyethylene during the early stages of reactive modification were indicated. Reasonable and consistent estimates are obtained, concerning the degree of LCB, the volume fraction of the various molecular species produced in peroxide modification of LLDPE.

Keywords: linear low-density polyethylene, peroxide modification, long-chain branching, rheological method

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10 Weight Loss Degradation of Hybrid Blends LLDPE/Starch/PVA Upon Exposure to UV Light and Soil Burial

Authors: Rahmah M., Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, Farhan M., Mohd Muizz Fahimi M.


Polybag and mulch film for agricultural field pose environmental wastage upon disposal. Thus a degradable polybag was designed with hybrid sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Two Different blended composition of SS and PVA Hybrid have been compounded. Then, the hybrids blended are mixed with linear line density polyethylene (LLDPE) resin to fabricate polybag film through conventional film blowing process. Hybrid blends was compounded at different ratios. Samples of LLDPE, SS and PVA hybrid film were exposed to UV light and soil burial. The weight loss were determined during degradation process. Hybrid film by degradation of starch was found to decrease on esterification. However the hybrid film showed greater degradation in soil and uv radiation up to 60% of SS. Weight loss were also determined in control humidity oven with 70% humidity and temperature set up at 30 °C and left in humidity chamber for a month.

Keywords: LLDPE, PVA, sago starch, degradation, soil burial, uv radiation

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9 Rheological and Morphological Properties of Investment Casting Pattern Material Based on Paraffin Wax Fortified with Linear Low-Density Polyethylene and Filled with Poly Methyl Methacrylate

Authors: Robert Kimutai Tewo, Hilary Limo Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


The rheological and morphological properties of paraffin wax, linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microbeads formulations were prepared via an extrusion process. The blends were characterized by rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the viscosity of the blends increased as compared to that of neat wax. SEM confirmed that LLDPE alters the wax crystal habit at higher concentrations. The rheological experimental data fitted with predicted data using the modified Krieger and Dougherty expression. The SEM micrograph of wax/LLDPE/PMMA revealed a near-perfect spherical nature for the filler particles in the wax/EVA polymer matrix. The FT-IR spectra show the deformation vibrations stretch of a long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbon (C-H) and also the presence of carbonyls absorption group denoted by -C=O- stretch.

Keywords: investment casting pattern, paraffin wax, LLDPE, PMMA, rheological properties, modified Krieger and Dougherty expression

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8 The Effect of Molecular Weight on the Cross-Linking of Two Different Molecular Weight LLDPE Samples

Authors: Ashkan Forootan, Reza Rashedi


Polyethylene has wide usage areas such as blow molding, pipe, film, cable insulation. However, regardless to its growing applications, it has some constraints such as the limited 70C operating temperature. Polyethylene thermo setting procedure whose molecules are knotted and 3D-molecular-network formed , is developed to conquer the above problem and to raise the applicable temperature of the polymer. This paper reports the cross-linking for two different molecular weight grades of LLDPE by adding 0.5, 1, and 2% of DCP (Dicumyl Peroxide). DCP was chosen for its prevalence among various cross-linking agents. Structural parameters such as molecular weight, melt flow index, comonomer, number of branches,etc. were obtained through the use of relative tests as Gel Permeation Chromatography and Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometer. After calculating the percentage of gel content, properties of the pure and cross-linked samples were compared by thermal and mechanical analysis with DMTA and FTIR and the effects of cross-linking like viscous and elastic modulus were discussed by using various structural paprameters such as MFI, molecular weight, short chain branches, etc. Studies showed that cross-linked polymer, unlike the pure one, had a solid state with thermal mechanical properties in the range of 110 to 120C and this helped overcome the problem of using polyethylene in temperatures near the melting point.

Keywords: LLDPE, cross-link, structural parameters, DCP, DMTA, GPC

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7 Moisture Absorption Analysis of LLDPE-NR Nanocomposite for HV Insulation

Authors: M. S. Kamarulzaman, N. A. Muhamad, N. A. M. Jamail, M. A. M. Piah, N. F. Kasri


Insulation for high voltage application that has been service for a very long time is subjected to several types of degradation. The degradation can lead to premature breakdown and definitely will spent highly cost to replace the cable. Thus, there are many research on nano composite material get serious attention attention due to their abilities to enhance electrical performance by addition of nano filler. In this paper, water absorption of Low Linear Density Polyethyelene (LLDPE) with different amount of nano filler added is studied. This study is necessary to be conducted since most of electrical apparatus such as cable insulation are dominant used especially in high voltage application. The cable insulation are continuously exposed in uncontrolled environment may suffer degradation process. Three type of nano fillers, was used in this study are: Silicon dioxide (SiO2), Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Monmorillonite (MMT). The percentage absorption of water was measured by weighted using high precision scales for absorption process up to 92 days. Experimental result demonstrate that SiO2 absorb less water than other filler while, the MMT has hydrophilic properties which it absorbs more water compare to another sample.

Keywords: nano composite, nano filler, water absorption, hydrophilic properties

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6 Investigation of Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Poly (trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT)/Polyethylene Blend Using Carboxylate and Ionomer as Compatibilizers

Authors: Wuttikorn Chayapanja, Sutep Charoenpongpool, Manit Nithitanakul, Brian P. Grady


Poly (trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) is a linear aromatic polyester with good strength and stiffness, good surface appearance, low shrinkage and war page, and good dimensional stability. However, it has low impact strength which is a problem in automotive application. Thus, modification of PTT with the other polymer or polymer blending is a one way to develop a new material with excellence properties. In this study, PTT/High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) blends and PTT/Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) blends with and without compatibilizers base on maleic anhydride grafted HDPE (MAH-g-HDPE) and ethylene-methacrylic acid neutralized sodium metal (Na-EMAA) were prepared by a twin-screw extruder. The blended samples with different ratios of polymers and compatibilizers were characterized on mechanical and rheological properties. Moreover, the phase morphology and dispersion size were studied by using SEM to give better understanding of the compatibility of the blends.

Keywords: poly trimethylene terephthalate, polyethylene, compatibilizer, polymer blend

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5 The Effect of Addition of Dioctyl Terephthalate and Calcite on the Tensile Properties of Organoclay/Linear Low Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites

Authors: A. Gürses, Z. Eroğlu, E. Şahin, K. Güneş, Ç. Doğar


In recent years, polymer/clay nanocomposites have generated great interest in the polymer industry as a new type of composite material because of their superior properties, which includes high heat deflection temperature, gas barrier performance, dimensional stability, enhanced mechanical properties, optical clarity and flame retardancy when compared with the pure polymer or conventional composites. The investigation of change of the tensile properties of organoclay/linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) nanocomposites with the use of Dioctyl terephthalate (DOTP) (as plasticizer) and calcite (as filler) has been aimed. The composites and organoclay synthesized were characterized using the techniques such as XRD, HRTEM and FTIR techniques. The spectroscopic results indicate that platelets of organoclay were well dispersed within the polymeric matrix. The tensile properties of the composites were compared considering the stress-strain curve drawn for each composite and pure polymer. It was observed that the composites prepared by adding the plasticizer at different ratios and a certain amount of calcite exhibited different tensile behaviors compared to pure polymer.

Keywords: linear low density polyethylene, nanocomposite, organoclay, plasticizer

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4 Recycling of Polymers in the Presence of Nanocatalysts: A Green Approach towards Sustainable Environment

Authors: Beena Sethi


This work involves the degradation of plastic waste in the presence of three different nanocatalysts. A thin film of LLDPE was formed with all three nanocatalysts separately in the solvent. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) analysis of polymers suggest that the presence of these catalysts lowers the degradation temperature and the change mechanism of degradation. Gas chromatographic analysis was carried out for two films. In gas chromatography (GC) analysis, it was found that degradation of pure polymer produces only 32% C3/C4 hydrocarbons and 67.6% C5/C9 hydrocarbons. In the presence of these catalysts, more than 80% of polymer by weight was converted into either liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. Change in the mechanism of degradation of polymer was observed therefore more C3/C4 hydrocarbons along with valuable feedstock are produced. Adjustment of dose of nanocatalyst, use of nano-admixtures and recycling of catalyst can make this catalytic feedstock recycling method a good tool to get sustainable environment. The obtained products can be utilized as fuel or can be transformed into other useful products. In accordance with the principles of sustainable development, chemical recycling i.e. tertiary recycling of polymers along with the reuse (zero order recycling) of plastics can be the most appropriate and promising method in this direction. The tertiary recycling is attracting much attention from the viewpoint of the energy resource.

Keywords: degradation, differential scanning calorimetry, feedstock recycling, gas chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis

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3 New Formulation of FFS3 Layered Blown Films Containing Toughened Polypropylene and Plastomer with Superior Properties

Authors: S. Talebnezhad, S. Pourmahdian, D. Soudbar, M. Khosravani, J. Merasi


Adding toughened polypropylene and plastomer in FFS 3 layered blown film formulation resulted in superior dart impact and MD tear resistance along with acceptable tensile properties in TD and MD. The optimum loading of toughened polypropylene and plastomer in each layer depends on miscibility of polypropylene in polyethylene medium, mechanical properties, welding characteristics in bags top and bottoms and friction coefficient of film surfaces. Film property tests and efficiency of FFS machinery during processing in industrial scale showed that about 4% loading of plastomer and 16% of toughened polypropylene (reactor grade) in middle layer and loading of 0-1% plastomer and 5-19% of toughened polypropylene in other layers results optimum characteristics in the formulation based on 1-butene LLDPE grade with MFR of 0.9 and LDPE grade with MFI of 0.3. Both the plastomer and toughened polypropylene had the MFI of blow 1 and the TiO2 and processing aid masterbatches loading was 2%. The friction coefficient test results also represented the anti-block masterbatch could be omitted from formulation with adding toughened polypropylene due to partial miscibility of PP in PE which makes the surface of films somewhat bristly.

Keywords: FFS 3 layered blown film, toughened polypropylene, plastomer, dart impact, tear resistance

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2 Thermomechanical Behavior of Asphalt Modified with Thermoplastic Polymer and Nanoclay Dellite 43B

Authors: L. F. Tamele Jr., G. Buonocore, H. F. Muiambo


Asphalt binders play an essential role in the performance and properties of asphalt mixtures. The increase in heavy loads, greater traffic volume, and high tire pressure, combined with a substantial variation in daily and seasonal pavement temperatures, are the main responsible for the failure of asphalt pavements. To avoid or mitigate these failures, the present research proposes the use of thermoplastic polymers, HDPE and LLDPE, and nanoclay Dellite 43B for modification of asphalt in order to improve its thermomechanical and rheological properties. The nanocomposites were prepared by the solution intercalation method in a high shear mixer for a mixing time of 2 h, at 180℃ and 5000 rpm. The addition of Dellite 43B improved the physical, rheological, and thermal properties of asphalt, either separated or in the form of polymer/bitumen blends. The results of the physical characterization showed a decrease in penetration and an increase in softening point, thermal susceptibility, viscosity, and stiffness. On the other hand, thermal characterization showed that the nanocomposites have greater stability at higher temperatures by exhibiting greater amounts of residues and improved initial and final decomposition temperatures. Thus, the modification of asphalt by polymers and nanoclays seems to be a suitable solution for road pavement in countries which experiment with high temperatures combined with long heavy rain seasons.

Keywords: asphalt, nanoclay dellite 43B, polymer modified asphalt, thermal and rheological properties

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1 An Approach to Study the Biodegradation of Low Density Polyethylene Using Microbial Strains of Bacillus subtilus, Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas fluroscence in Different Media Form and Salt Condition

Authors: Monu Ojha, Rahul Rana, Satywati Sharma, Kavya Dashora


The global production rate of plastics has increased enormously and global demand for polyethylene resins –High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is expected to rise drastically, with very high value. These get accumulated in the environment, posing a potential ecological threat as they are degrading at a very slow rate and remain in the environment indefinitely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of commonly found soil microbes like Bacillus subtilus, Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas fluroscence for their ability to biodegrade LDPE in the lab on solid and liquid media conditions as well as in presence of 1% salt in the soil. This study was conducted at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India from July to September where average temperature and RH (Relative Humidity) were 33 degrees Celcius and 80% respectively. It revealed that the weight loss of LDPE strip obtained from market of approximately 4x6 cm dimensions is more in liquid broth media than in solid agar media. The percentage weight loss by P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus observed after 80 days of incubation was 15.52, 9.24 and 8.99% respectively in broth media and 6.93, 2.18 and 4.76 % in agar media. The LDPE strips from same source and on the same were subjected to soil in presence of above microbes with 1% salt (NaCl: obtained from commercial table salt) with temperature and RH 33 degree Celcius and 80%. It was found that the rate of degradation increased in the soil than under lab conditions. The rate of weight loss of LDPE strips under same conditions given in lab was found to be 32.98, 15.01 and17.09 % by P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus respectively. The breaking strength was found to be 9.65N, 29N and 23.85 N for P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus respectively. SEM analysis conducted on Zeiss EVO 50 confirmed that surface of LDPE becomes physically weak after biological treatment. There was the increase in the surface roughness indicating Surface erosion of LDPE film. FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis of the degraded LDPE films showed stretching of aldehyde group at 3334.92 and 3228.84 cm-1,, C–C=C symmetric of aromatic ring at 1639.49 cm-1.There was also C=O stretching of aldehyde group at 1735.93 cm-1. N=O peak bend was also observed which corresponds to 1365.60 cm-1, C–O stretching of ether group at 1217.08 and 1078.21 cm-1.

Keywords: microbial degradation, LDPE, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilus, Peudomonas fluroscence, common salt

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