Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: elastane yarns

44 Seersucker Fabrics Development Using Single Warp Beam

Authors: Khubab Shaker, Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Usman Javed, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Maqsood

Abstract:

Seersucker is a thin and puckered fabric commonly striped or chequered, used to make clothing for spring and woven in such a way that some threads bunch together, giving the fabric a wrinkled appearance in places. Due to use of two warp beams, such fabrics were not possible to weave on conventional weaving machines. Objective of this study was to weave a seersucker fabric on conventional looms using single warp beam. This objective was achieved using two types of yarns, forming stripes in weft: one being 100% cotton yarn and the other core spun elastane yarn with sheath of cotton (95.7% cotton and 4.3% elastane). Stress-strain behaviour of the produced fabric samples were tested and explained.

Keywords: seersucker fabrics, elastane yarns, single warp beam, weaving

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43 A Study on the Water and Oil Repellency Characteristics of Plasma-Treated Pet and Pet/Elastane Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan

Abstract:

New orientations have emerged in the textile sector as a result of increasing global competition and environmental problems. Under the scope of new understandings, it is required to bring forward multi-functional, simple and environmentally friendly methods that will meet tight economic and ecological demands of today. Plasma technology has become a significant alternative in this sense. This technology may provide great advantages in case it is developed, however, it does not receive adequate consideration. In this study, plasma treatment was applied by using glow discharge plasma system to 100% polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and 95% PET/5% elastane fabrics and then the effects of plasma polymerization on fabric surface was tested and analyzed using water and oil repellent finishes.

Keywords: plasma, polyester, elastane, water repellency, oil repellency

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
42 Strength Translation from Spun Yarns to Woven Fabrics

Authors: Anindya Ghosh

Abstract:

Structural parameters, yarn to yarn friction, strength of ring, rotor, air-jet and open-end friction spun yarns and the strength of fabrics made from these yarns are measured. The ratio of fabric strip strength per yarn and corresponding single yarn strength is considered as a measure of quantifying the fabric assistance. Mechanism of yarn failure inside the fabric is different as that of single yarn and the former exhibit more fibre rupture. Fabrics made from weaker yarns have higher ratio of strip strength to single yarn strength than that made from stronger yarns due to larger increase in the percentage of rupture fibres in the former. The fabric assistance also depends to some extent on the degree of gripping of the yarns that is influenced by the yarn to yarn friction, extent of yarn flattening and yarn diameter.

Keywords: fabric assistance, fabric strength, yarn diameter, yarn friction, yarn strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
41 Investigation of Heating Behaviour of E-Textile Structures

Authors: Hande Sezgin, Senem Kursun Bahadır, Yakup Erhan Boke, Fatma Kalaoğlu

Abstract:

Electronic textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that contain electronics and interconnections with them. In this study, two types of base yarns (cotton and acrylic) and three conductive steel yarns with different linear resistance values (14Ω/m, 30Ω/m, 70Ω/m) were used to investigate the effect of base yarn type and linear resistance of conductive yarns on thermal behavior of e-textile structures. Thermal behavior of samples were examined by thermal camera.

Keywords: conductive yarn, e-textiles, smart textiles, thermal analysis

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40 Development of a Systematic Approach to Assess the Applicability of Silver Coated Conductive Yarn

Authors: Y. T. Chui, W. M. Au, L. Li

Abstract:

Recently, wearable electronic textiles have been emerging in today’s market and were developed rapidly since, beside the needs for the clothing uses for leisure, fashion wear and personal protection, there also exist a high demand for the clothing to be capable for function in this electronic age, such as interactive interfaces, sensual being and tangible touch, social fabric, material witness and so on. With the requirements of wearable electronic textiles to be more comfortable, adorable, and easy caring, conductive yarn becomes one of the most important fundamental elements within the wearable electronic textile for interconnection between different functional units or creating a functional unit. The properties of conductive yarns from different companies can vary to a large extent. There are vitally important criteria for selecting the conductive yarns, which may directly affect its optimization, prospect, applicability and performance of the final garment. However, according to the literature review, few researches on conductive yarns on shelf focus on the assessment methods of conductive yarns for the scientific selection of material by a systematic way under different conditions. Therefore, in this study, direction of selecting high-quality conductive yarns is given. It is to test the stability and reliability of the conductive yarns according the problems industrialists would experience with the yarns during the every manufacturing process, in which, this assessment system can be classified into four stage. That is 1) Yarn stage, 2) Fabric stage, 3) Apparel stage and 4) End user stage. Several tests with clear experiment procedures and parameters are suggested to be carried out in each stage. This assessment method suggested that the optimal conducting yarns should be stable in property and resistant to various corrosions at every production stage or during using them. It is expected that this demonstration of assessment method can serve as a pilot study that assesses the stability of Ag/nylon yarns systematically at various conditions, i.e. during mass production with textile industry procedures, and from the consumer perspective. It aims to assist industrialists to understand the qualities and properties of conductive yarns and suggesting a few important parameters that they should be reminded of for the case of higher level of suitability, precision and controllability.

Keywords: applicability, assessment method, conductive yarn, wearable electronics

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39 Estimation of Twist Loss in the Weft Yarn during Air-Jet Weft Insertion

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Yasir Nawab, Khubab Shaker, Muhammad Maqsood, Adeel Zulfiqar, Danish Mahmood Baitab

Abstract:

Fabric is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Today fabrics are produced by weaving, braiding, knitting, tufting and non-woven. Weaving is a method of fabric production in which warp and weft yarns are interlaced perpendicular to each other. There is infinite number of ways for the interlacing of warp and weft yarn. Each way produces a different fabric structure. The yarns parallel to the machine direction are called warp yarns and the yarns perpendicular to the machine direction are called weft or filling yarns. Air jet weaving is the modern method of weft insertion and considered as high speed loom. The twist loss in air jet during weft insertion affects the strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of twist change in weft yarn during air-jet weft insertion. A total number of 8 samples were produced using 1/1 plain and 3/1 twill weave design with two fabric widths having same loom settings. Two different types of yarns like cotton and PC blend were used. The effect of material type, weave design and fabric width on twist change of weft yarn was measured and discussed. Twist change in the different types of weft yarn and weave design was measured and compared the twist change in the weft yarn with the yarn before weft yarn insertion and twist loss is measured. Wider fabric leads to higher twist loss in the yarn.

Keywords: air jet loom, twist per inch, twist loss, weft yarn

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38 Study of Structure and Properties of Polyester/Carbon Blends for Technical Applications

Authors: Manisha A. Hira, Arup Rakshit

Abstract:

Textile substrates are endowed with flexibility and ease of making–up, but are non-conductors of electricity. Conductive materials like carbon can be incorporated into textile structures to make flexible conductive materials. Such conductive textiles find applications as electrostatic discharge materials, electromagnetic shielding materials and flexible materials to carry current or signals. This work focuses on use of carbon fiber as conductor of electricity. Carbon fibers in staple or tow form can be incorporated in textile yarn structure to conduct electricity. The paper highlights the process for development of these conductive yarns of polyester/carbon using Friction spinning (DREF) as well as ring spinning. The optimized process parameters for processing hybrid structure of polyester with carbon tow on DREF spinning and polyester with carbon staple fiber using ring spinning have been presented. The studies have been linked to highlight the electrical conductivity of the developed yarns. Further, the developed yarns have been incorporated as weft in fabric and their electrical conductivity has been evaluated. The paper demonstrates the structure and properties of fabrics developed from such polyester/carbon blend yarns and their suitability as electrically dissipative fabrics.

Keywords: carbon fiber, conductive textiles, electrostatic dissipative materials, hybrid yarns

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37 Variation of Warp and Binder Yarn Tension across the 3D Weaving Process and its Impact on Tow Tensile Strength

Authors: Reuben Newell, Edward Archer, Alistair McIlhagger, Calvin Ralph

Abstract:

Modern industry has developed a need for innovative 3D composite materials due to their attractive material properties. Composite materials are composed of a fibre reinforcement encased in a polymer matrix. The fibre reinforcement consists of warp, weft and binder yarns or tows woven together into a preform. The mechanical performance of composite material is largely controlled by the properties of the preform. As a result, the bulk of recent textile research has been focused on the design of high-strength preform architectures. Studies looking at optimisation of the weaving process have largely been neglected. It has been reported that yarns experience varying levels of damage during weaving, resulting in filament breakage and ultimately compromised composite mechanical performance. The weaving parameters involved in causing this yarn damage are not fully understood. Recent studies indicate that poor yarn tension control may be an influencing factor. As tension is increased, the yarn-to-yarn and yarn-to-weaving-equipment interactions are heightened, maximising damage. The correlation between yarn tension variation and weaving damage severity has never been adequately researched or quantified. A novel study is needed which accesses the influence of tension variation on the mechanical properties of woven yarns. This study has looked to quantify the variation of yarn tension throughout weaving and sought to link the impact of tension to weaving damage. Multiple yarns were randomly selected, and their tension was measured across the creel and shedding stages of weaving, using a hand-held tension meter. Sections of the same yarn were subsequently cut from the loom machine and tensile tested. A comparison study was made between the tensile strength of pristine and tensioned yarns to determine the induced weaving damage. Yarns from bobbins at the rear of the creel were under the least amount of tension (0.5-2.0N) compared to yarns positioned at the front of the creel (1.5-3.5N). This increase in tension has been linked to the sharp turn in the yarn path between bobbins at the front of the creel and creel I-board. Creel yarns under the lower tension suffered a 3% loss of tensile strength, compared to 7% for the greater tensioned yarns. During shedding, the tension on the yarns was higher than in the creel. The upper shed yarns were exposed to a decreased tension (3.0-4.5N) compared to the lower shed yarns (4.0-5.5N). Shed yarns under the lower tension suffered a 10% loss of tensile strength, compared to 14% for the greater tensioned yarns. Interestingly, the most severely damaged yarn was exposed to both the largest creel and shedding tensions. This study confirms for the first time that yarns under a greater level of tension suffer an increased amount of weaving damage. Significant variation of yarn tension has been identified across the creel and shedding stages of weaving. This leads to a variance of mechanical properties across the woven preform and ultimately the final composite part. The outcome from this study highlights the need for optimised yarn tension control during preform manufacture to minimize yarn-induced weaving damage.

Keywords: optimisation of preform manufacture, tensile testing of damaged tows, variation of yarn weaving tension, weaving damage

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36 Investigation of Elastic Properties of 3D Full Five Directional (f5d) Braided Composite Materials

Authors: Apeng Dong, Shu Li, Wenguo Zhu, Ming Qi, Qiuyi Xu

Abstract:

The primary objective of this paper is to focus on the elasticity properties of three-dimensional full five directional (3Df5d) braided composite. A large body of research has been focused on the 3D four directional (4d) and 3D five directional (5d) structure but not much research on the 3Df5d material. Generally, the influence of the yarn shape on mechanical properties of braided materials tends to be ignored, which makes results too ideal. Besides, with the improvement of the computational ability, people are accustomed to using computers to predict the material parameters, which fails to give an explicit and concise result facilitating production and application. Based on the traditional mechanics, this paper firstly deduced the functional relation between elasticity properties and braiding parameters. In addition, considering the actual shape of yarns after consolidation, the longitudinal modulus is modified and defined practically. Firstly, the analytic model is established based on the certain assumptions for the sake of clarity, this paper assumes that: A: the cross section of axial yarns is square; B: The cross section of braiding yarns is hexagonal; C: the characters of braiding yarns and axial yarns are the same; D: The angle between the structure boundary and the projection of braiding yarns in transverse plane is 45°; E: The filling factor ε of composite yarns is π/4; F: The deformation of unit cell is under constant strain condition. Then, the functional relation between material constants and braiding parameters is systematically deduced aimed at the yarn deformation mode. Finally, considering the actual shape of axial yarns after consolidation, the concept of technology factor is proposed and the longitudinal modulus of the material is modified based on the energy theory. In this paper, the analytic solution of material parameters is given for the first time, which provides a good reference for further research and application for 3Df5d materials. Although the analysis model is established based on certain assumptions, the analysis method is also applicable for other braided structures. Meanwhile, it is crucial that the cross section shape and straightness of axial yarns play dominant roles in the longitudinal elastic property. So in the braiding and solidifying process, the stability of the axial yarns should be guaranteed to increase the technology factor to reduce the dispersion of material parameters. Overall, the elastic properties of this materials are closely related to the braiding parameters and can be strongly designable, and although the longitudinal modulus of the material is greatly influenced by the technology factors, it can be defined to certain extent.

Keywords: analytic solution, braided composites, elasticity properties, technology factor

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35 Recycling of Post-Industrial Cotton Wastes: Quality and Rotor Spinning of Reclaimed Fibers

Authors: Béchir Wanassi, Béchir Azzouz, Taher Halimi, Mohamed Ben Hassen

Abstract:

Mechanical recycling of post-industrial cotton yarn wastes, as well as the effects of passage number on the properties of reclaimed fibers, have been investigated. A new Modified Fiber Quality Index (MFQI) and Spinning Consistency Index (MSCI) for the characterization of the quality are presented. This index gives the real potential of spinnability according to its physical properties. The best quality of reclaimed fibers (after 7th passage) was used to produce rotor yarns. 100% recycling cotton yarns were produced in open-end spinning system with different rotor speed (i.e. 65000, 70000, and 80000 rpm), opening roller speed (i.e. 7700, 8200, and 8700 rpm) and twist factor (i.e. 137, 165, and 183). The effects of spinning parameters were investigated to evaluate a 100% recycling cotton yarns quality (TQI, hairiness, thin places, and thick places) using DOE method.

Keywords: cotton wastes, DOE, mechanical recycling, rotor spinning

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34 Chemical Modification of Jute Fibers with Oxidative Agents for Usability as Reinforcement in Polymeric Composites

Authors: Yasemin Seki, Aysun Akşit

Abstract:

The goal of this research is to modify the surface characterization of jute yarns with different chemical agents to improve the compatibility with a non-polar polymer, polypropylene, when used as reinforcement. A literature review provided no knowledge on surface treatment of jute fibers with sodium perborate trihydrate. This study also aims to compare the efficiency of sodium perborate trihydrate on jute fiber treatment with other commonly used chemical agents. Accordingly, jute yarns were treated with 0.02% potassium dichromate (PD), potassium permanganate (PM) and sodium perborate trihydrate (SP) aqueous solutions in order to enhance interfacial compatibility with polypropylene in this study. The effect of treatments on surface topography, surface chemistry and interfacial shear strength of jute yarns with polypropylene were investigated. XPS results revealed that surface treatments enhanced surface hydrophobicity by increasing C/O ratios of fiber surface. Surface roughness values increased with the treatments. The highest interfacial adhesion with polypropylene was achieved after SP treatment by providing the highest surface roughness values and hydrophobic character of jute fiber.

Keywords: jute, chemical modification, sodium perborate, polypropylene

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33 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Consisting of Recycled Carbon Fibres and Polyamide 6 Fibres

Authors: Mir Mohammad Badrul Hasan, Anwar Abdkader, Chokri Cherif

Abstract:

With the increasing demand and use of carbon fibre reinforced composites (CFRC), disposal of the carbon fibres (CF) and end of life composite parts is gaining tremendous importance on the issue especially of sustainability. Furthermore, a number of processes (e. g. pyrolysis, solvolysis, etc.) are available currently to obtain recycled CF (rCF) from end-of-life CFRC. Since the CF waste or rCF are neither allowed to be thermally degraded nor landfilled (EU Directive 1999/31/EC), profitable recycling and re-use concepts are urgently necessary. Currently, the market for materials based on rCF mainly consists of random mats (nonwoven) made from short fibres. The strengths of composites that can be achieved from injection-molded components and from nonwovens are between 200-404 MPa and are characterized by low performance and suitable for non-structural applications such as in aircraft and vehicle interiors. On the contrary, spinning rCF to yarn constructions offers good potential for higher CFRC material properties due to high fibre orientation and compaction of rCF. However, no investigation is reported till yet on the direct comparison of the mechanical properties of thermoplastic CFRC manufactured from virgin CF filament yarn and spun yarns from staple rCF. There is a lack of understanding on the level of performance of the composites that can be achieved from hybrid yarns consisting of rCF and PA6 fibres. In this drop back, extensive research works are being carried out at the Textile Machinery and High-Performance Material Technology (ITM) on the development of new thermoplastic CFRC from hybrid yarns consisting of rCF. For this purpose, a process chain is developed at the ITM starting from fibre preparation to hybrid yarns manufacturing consisting of staple rCF by mixing with thermoplastic fibres. The objective is to apply such hybrid yarns for the manufacturing of load bearing textile reinforced thermoplastic CFRCs. In this paper, the development of innovative multi-component core-sheath hybrid yarn structures consisting of staple rCF and polyamide 6 (PA 6) on a DREF-3000 friction spinning machine is reported. Furthermore, Unidirectional (UD) CFRCs are manufactured from the developed hybrid yarns, and the mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile and flexural properties are analyzed. The results show that the UD composite manufactured from the developed hybrid yarns consisting of staple rCF possesses approximately 80% of the tensile strength and E-module to those produced from virgin CF filament yarn. The results show a huge potential of the DREF-3000 friction spinning process to develop composites from rCF for high-performance applications.

Keywords: recycled carbon fibres, hybrid yarn, friction spinning, thermoplastic composite

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32 Strain Sensing Seams for Monitoring Body Movement

Authors: Sheilla Atieno Odhiambo, Simona Vasile, Alexandra De Raeve, Ann Schwarz

Abstract:

Strain sensing seams have been developed by integrating conductive sewing threads in different types of seams design on a fabric typical for sports clothing using sewing technology. The aim is to have a simple integrated textile strain sensor that can be applied to sports clothing to monitor the movements of the upper body parts of the user during sports. Different types of commercially available sewing threads were used as the bobbin thread in the production of different architectural seam sensors. These conductive sewing threads have been integrated into seams in particular designs using specific seam types. Some of the threads are delicate and needed to be laid into the seam with as little friction as possible and less tension; thus, they could only be sewn in as the bobbin thread and not the needle thread. Stitch type 304; 406; 506; 601;602; 605. were produced. The seams were made on a fabric of 80% polyamide 6.6 and 20% elastane. The seams were cycled(stretch-release-stretch) for five cycles and up to 44 cycles following EN ISO 14704-1: 2005 (modified), using a tensile instrument and the changes in the resistance of the seams with time were recorded using Agilent meter U1273A. Both experiments were conducted simultaneously on the same seam sample. Sensing functionality, among which is sensor gauge and reliability, were evaluated on the promising sensor seams. The results show that the sensor seams made from HC Madeira 40 conductive yarns performed better inseam stitch 304 and 602 compared to the other combination of stitch type and conductive sewing threads. These sensing seams 304, 406 and 602 will further be interconnected to our developed processing and communicating unit and further integrated into a sports clothing prototype that can track body posture. This research is done within the framework of the project SmartSeam.

Keywords: conductive sewing thread, sensing seams, smart seam, sewing technology

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31 Theoretical Density Study of Winding Yarns on Spool

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Rachid Halfaoui

Abstract:

The aim of work is to define the distribution density of winding yarn on cylindrical and conical bobbins. It is known that parallel winding gives greater density and more regular distribution, but the unwinding of yarn is much more difficult for following process. The conical spool has an enormous advantage during unwinding and may contain a large amount of yarns, but the density distribution is not regular because of difference in diameters. The variation of specific density over the reel height is explained generally by the sudden change of winding speed due to direction movement variation of yarn. We determined the conditions of uniform winding and developed a calculate model to the change of the specific density of winding wire over entire spool height.

Keywords: textile, cylindrical bobbins, conical bobbins, parallel winding, cross winding

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30 Crystallized Colored Towels Obtained by Special Coloration of Yarns

Authors: Hasan Eskin, Gizem Özmen, A. Nazmi Çeler

Abstract:

When we examine the home textile development process, it follows a parallel line with the other textile products especially in the garment fabrics in terms of raw materials, production technologies and pattern characteristics. As a result, the expectations of people regarding textile, comfort, pattern (texture) and color properties are increasing. One of the places where comfort is most sought after is bath, pool, sea and baths. In addition to the material and technique that make up the physical structure in woven fabrics, color has an impressive importance with its strong effects. Color is the most prominent element in the fabric, and the color and texture are visually reinforcing. Evaluation of color in fabric is a personal phenomenon. Factors that determine color determination in fabric are the amount of color used, color ratio and its relationship with other colors. In this project; Considering the effect of color dimensions on human, we are talking about the crystallized colored towel that we developed in terms of comfort and texture properties. The basis of the effect created in the towel; It is formed by bending the yarn from its own special blend and the harmonious appearance of the natural crystallized rainbow colors with the pattern effect it determines on the warp yarns by using the weft yarns in the weaving. In addition, by using different weaving techniques and colors, alternatives can be created and personalized patterns can be created. One side of the towel determines the properties related to color, while the pile part determines the comfort characteristics with its soft touch and water absorbency.

Keywords: color effect, comfort, towel, weaving technique

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29 User-Controlled Color-Changing Textiles: From Prototype to Mass Production

Authors: Joshua Kaufman, Felix Tan, Morgan Monroe, Ayman Abouraddy

Abstract:

Textiles and clothing have been a staple of human existence for millennia, yet the basic structure and functionality of textile fibers and yarns has remained unchanged. While color and appearance are essential characteristics of a textile, an advancement in the fabrication of yarns that allows for user-controlled dynamic changes to the color or appearance of a garment has been lacking. Touch-activated and photosensitive pigments have been used in textiles, but these technologies are passive and cannot be controlled by the user. The technology described here allows the owner to control both when and in what pattern the fabric color-change takes place. In addition, the manufacturing process is compatible with mass-producing the user-controlled, color-changing yarns. The yarn fabrication utilizes a fiber spinning system that can produce either monofilament or multifilament yarns. For products requiring a more robust fabric (backpacks, purses, upholstery, etc.), larger-diameter monofilament yarns with a coarser weave are suitable. Such yarns are produced using a thread-coater attachment to encapsulate a 38-40 AWG metal wire inside a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. Conversely, products such as shirts and pants requiring yarns that are more flexible and soft against the skin comprise multifilament yarns of much smaller-diameter individual fibers. Embedding a metal wire in a multifilament fiber spinning process has not been realized to date. This research has required collaboration with Hills, Inc., to design a liquid metal-injection system to be combined with fiber spinning. The new system injects molten tin into each of 19 filaments being spun simultaneously into a single yarn. The resulting yarn contains 19 filaments, each with a tin core surrounded by a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. The color change we demonstrate is distinct from garments containing LEDs that emit light in various colors. The pigment itself changes its optical absorption spectrum to appear a different color. The thermochromic color-change is induced by a temperature change in the inner metal wire within each filament when current is applied from a small battery pack. The temperature necessary to induce the color change is near body temperature and not noticeable by touch. The prototypes already developed either use a simple push button to activate the battery pack or are wirelessly activated via a smart-phone app over Wi-Fi. The app allows the user to choose from different activation patterns of stripes that appear in the fabric continuously. The power requirements are mitigated by a large hysteresis in the activation temperature of the pigment and the temperature at which there is full color return. This was made possible by a collaboration with Chameleon International to develop a new, customized pigment. This technology enables a never-before seen capability: user-controlled, dynamic color and pattern change in large-area woven and sewn textiles and fabrics with wide-ranging applications from clothing and accessories to furniture and fixed-installation housing and business décor. The ability to activate through Wi-Fi opens up possibilities for the textiles to be part of the ‘Internet of Things.’ Furthermore, this technology is scalable to mass-production levels for wide-scale market adoption.

Keywords: activation, appearance, color, manufacturing

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28 Development of Stretchable Woven Fabrics with Auxetic Behaviour

Authors: Adeel Zulifqar, Hong Hu

Abstract:

Auxetic fabrics are a special kind of textile materials which possess negative Poisson’s ratio. Opposite to most of the conventional fabrics, auxetic fabrics get bigger in the transversal direction when stretched or get smaller when compressed. Auxetic fabrics are superior to conventional fabrics because of their counterintuitive properties, such as enhanced porosity under the extension, excellent formability to a curved surface and high energy absorption ability. Up till today, auxetic fabrics have been produced based on two approaches. The first approach involves using auxetic fibre or yarn and weaving technology to fabricate auxetic fabrics. The other method to fabricate the auxetic fabrics is by using non-auxetic yarns. This method has gained extraordinary curiosity of researcher in recent years. This method is based on realizing auxetic geometries into the fabric structure. In the woven fabric structure auxetic geometries can be realized by creating a differential shrinkage phenomenon into the fabric structural unit cell. This phenomenon can be created by using loose and tight weave combinations within the unit cell of interlacement pattern along with elastic and non-elastic yarns. Upon relaxation, the unit cell of interlacement pattern acquires a non-uniform shrinkage profile due to different shrinkage properties of loose and tight weaves in designed pattern, and the auxetic geometry is realized. The development of uni-stretch auxetic woven fabrics and bi-stretch auxetic woven fabrics by using this method has already been reported. This study reports the development of another kind of bi-stretch auxetic woven fabric. The fabric is first designed by transforming the auxetic geometry into interlacement pattern and then fabricated, using the available conventional weaving technology and non-auxetic elastic and non-elastic yarns. The tensile tests confirmed that the developed bi-stretch auxetic woven fabrics exhibit negative Poisson’s ratio over a wide range of tensile strain. Therefore, it can be concluded that the auxetic geometry can be realized into the woven fabric structure by creating the phenomenon of differential shrinkage and bi-stretch woven fabrics made of non-auxetic yarns having auxetic behavior and stretchability are possible can be obtained. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (grant number 15205514).

Keywords: auxetic, differential shrinkage, negative Poisson's ratio, weaving, stretchable

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27 The Mechanical and Comfort Properties of Cotton/Micro-Tencel Lawn Fabrics

Authors: Abdul Basit, Shahid Latif, Shah Mehmood

Abstract:

Lawn fabric was usually prepared from originally of linen but at present chiefly cotton. Lawn fabric is worn in summer. Cotton Lawn is a lightweight pure cloth which is heavier than voile. It is so fine that it is somewhat transparent. It is soft and superb to wear thus it is perfect for summer clothes or for regular wear in hotter climates. Tencel (Lyocell) fiber is considered as the fiber of the future as Tencel fibers are absorbent, soft, and extremely strong when wet or dry, and resistant to wrinkles. Fibers are more absorbent than cotton, softer than silk and cooler than linen. High water absorption and water vapor absorption give more heat capacity and heat balancing effect for thermo-regulation. This thermo-regulation is analogous with the action of phase-change-materials. The thermal wear properties result in cool and dry touch that gives cooling effect in sportswear, and the warmth properties (when used as an insulation layer). These cooling and warming effects are adaptive to the environment giving comfort in a broad range of climatic conditions. In this work, single yarns of Ne 80s were made. Yarns were made from conventional ring spinning. Different yarns of 100% cotton, 100% micro-Tencel and Cotton:micro-Tencel blends (67:33, 50:50:33:67) were made. The mechanical and comfort properties of the woven fabrics were compared. The mechanical properties include the tensile and tear strength, bending length, pilling and abrasion resistance whereas comfort properties include the air permeability, moisture management and thermal resistance. It is found that as the content of the micro-Tencel is increased, the mechanical and comfort properties of the woven fabric are also increased.

Keywords: combed cotton, comfort properties , mechanical properties, micro-Tencel

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26 Mesoscopic Defects of Forming and Induced Properties on the Impact of a Composite Glass/Polyester

Authors: Bachir Kacimi, Fatiha Teklal, Arezki Djebbar

Abstract:

Forming processes induce residual deformations on the reinforcement and sometimes lead to mesoscopic defects, which are more recurrent than macroscopic defects during the manufacture of complex structural parts. This study deals with the influence of the fabric shear and buckles defects, which appear during draping processes of composite, on the impact behavior of a glass fiber reinforced polymer. To achieve this aim, we produced several specimens with different amplitude of deformations (shear) and defects on the fabric using a specific bench. The specimens were manufactured using the contact molding and tested with several impact energies. The results and measurements made on tested specimens were compared to those of the healthy material. The results showed that the buckle defects have a negative effect on elastic parameters and revealed a larger damage with significant out-of-plane mode relatively to the healthy composite material. This effect is the consequence of a local fiber impoverishment and a disorganization of the fibrous network, with a reorientation of the fibers following the out-of-plane buckling of the yarns, in the area where the defects are located. For the material with calibrated shear of the reinforcement, the increased local fiber rate due to the shear deformations and the contribution to stiffness of the transverse yarns led to an increase in mechanical properties.

Keywords: Defects, Forming, Impact, Induced properties, Textiles

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25 Flexural Properties of Carbon/Polypropylene Composites: Influence of Matrix Forming Polypropylene in Fiber, Powder, and Film States

Authors: Vijay Goud, Ramasamy Alagirusamy, Apurba Das, Dinesh Kalyanasundaram

Abstract:

Thermoplastic composites render new opportunities as effective processing technology while crafting newer complications into processing. One of the notable challenges is in achieving thorough wettability that is significantly deterred by the high viscosity of the long molecular chains of the thermoplastics. As a result of high viscosity, it is very difficult to impregnate the resin into a tightly interlaced textile structure to fill the voids present in the structure. One potential solution to the above problem, is to pre-deposit resin on the fiber, prior to consolidation. The current study compares DREF spinning, powder coating and film stacking methods of predeposition of resin onto fibers. An investigation into the flexural properties of unidirectional composites (UDC) produced from blending of carbon fiber and polypropylene (PP) matrix in varying forms of fiber, powder and film are reported. Dr. Ernst Fehrer (DREF) yarns or friction spun hybrid yarns were manufactured from PP fibers and carbon tows. The DREF yarns were consolidated to yield unidirectional composites (UDCs) referred to as UDC-D. PP in the form of powder was coated on carbon tows by electrostatic spray coating. The powder-coated towpregs were consolidated to form UDC-P. For the sake of comparison, a third UDC referred as UDC-F was manufactured by the consolidation of PP films stacked between carbon tows. The experiments were designed to yield a matching fiber volume fraction of about 50 % in all the three UDCs. A comparison of mechanical properties of the three composites was studied to understand the efficiency of matrix wetting and impregnation. Approximately 19% and 68% higher flexural strength were obtained for UDC-P than UDC-D and UDC-F respectively. Similarly, 25% and 81% higher modulus were observed in UDC-P than UDC-D and UDC-F respectively. Results from micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and short beam tests indicate better impregnation of PP matrix in UDC-P obtained through electrostatic spray coating process and thereby higher flexural strength and modulus.

Keywords: DREF spinning, film stacking, flexural strength, powder coating, thermoplastic composite

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24 Evaluation Criteria for Performance of Knitted Terry Fabrics and Building Elements of Fashion: A Critical Review

Authors: Harpinder Kaur, Amit Madahar

Abstract:

The terry fabric is one of the fastest growing and challenging sub-sectors of the textile industry. Terry fabrics are produced using ground weft, ground warp, and pile yarns. The terry fabrics not only finds applications in towels but also in home textile products, sauna dressing- gowns, slippers, jackets, garments, apparels, outerwears, overcoats, sweatshirts, children’s clothes, and hygiene products for babies, beachwear, sleepwear, gloves, scarfs, shawls, etc. In some cases, these wide ranges of applications not only demand a high degree of absorption but also necessitate the due consideration for the handle properties of the fabrics. These fabrics are required to be accessed for their performance in terms of absorbency and comfort characteristics. Since material (yarns, colors, fabrics, fashion, patrons, accessories and fittings) are the core elements of structure of fashion, hence textile and fashion go hand in hand. This paper throws some light on the performance evaluation of terry fabrics. Here, characteristics/features that are required to be achieved for satisfactory performance of the terry fabrics with reference to fashion are discussed. The terry fabrics are being modified over the years in terms of the raw material requirements such as 100% cotton or blends or cotton with other fibers in order to obtain better performance as well as their structural parameters including stitch length and stitch density etc.

Keywords: absorbency, comfort, cotton, performance, terry fabrics, fashion

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23 Development of Multifunctional Yarns and Fabrics for Interactive Textiles

Authors: Muhammad Bilal Qadir, Danish Umer, Amir Shahzad

Abstract:

The use of conductive materials in smart and interactive textiles is gaining significant importance for creating value addition, innovation, and functional product development. These products find their potential applications in health monitoring, military, protection, communication, sensing, monitoring, actuation, fashion, and lifestyles. The materials which are most commonly employed in such type of interactive textile include intrinsically conducting polymers, conductive inks, and metallic coating on textile fabrics and inherently conducting metallic fibre yarns. In this study, silver coated polyester filament yarn is explored for the development of multifunctional interactive gloves. The composite yarn was developed by covering the silver coated polyester filament around the polyester spun yarn using hollow spindle technique. The electrical and tensile properties of the yarn were studied. This novel yarn was used to manufacture a smart glove to explore the antibacterial, functional, and interactive properties of the yarn. The change in electrical resistance due to finger movement at different bending positions and antimicrobial properties were studied. This glove was also found useful as an interactive tool to operate the commonly used touch screen devices due to its conductive nature. The yarn can also be used to develop the sensing elements like stretch, strain, and piezoresistive sensors. Such sensor can be effectively used in medical and sports textile for performance monitoring, vital signs monitoring and development of antibacterial textile for healthcare and hygiene.

Keywords: conductive yarn, interactive textiles, piezoresistive sensors, smart gloves

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22 A Textile-Based Scaffold for Skin Replacements

Authors: Tim Bolle, Franziska Kreimendahl, Thomas Gries, Stefan Jockenhoevel

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The therapeutic treatment of extensive, deep wounds is limited. Autologous split-skin grafts are used as a so-called ‘gold standard’. Most common deficits are the defects at the donor site, the risk of scarring as well as the limited availability and quality of the autologous grafts. The aim of this project is a tissue engineered dermal-epidermal skin replacement to overcome the limitations of the gold standard. A key requirement for the development of such a three-dimensional implant is the formation of a functional capillary-like network inside the implant to ensure a sufficient nutrient and gas supply. Tailored three-dimensional warp knitted spacer fabrics are used to reinforce the mechanically week fibrin gel-based scaffold and further to create a directed in vitro pre-vascularization along the parallel-oriented pile yarns within a co-culture. In this study various three-dimensional warp knitted spacer fabrics were developed in a factorial design to analyze the influence of the machine parameters such as the stitch density and the pattern of the fabric on the scaffold performance and further to determine suitable parameters for a successful fibrin gel-incorporation and a physiological performance of the scaffold. The fabrics were manufactured on a Karl Mayer double-bar raschel machine DR 16 EEC/EAC. A fine machine gauge of E30 was used to ensure a high pile yarn density for sufficient nutrient, gas and waste exchange. In order to ensure a high mechanical stability of the graft, the fabrics were made of biocompatible PVDF yarns. Key parameters such as the pore size, porosity and stress/strain behavior were investigated under standardized, controlled climate conditions. The influence of the input parameters on the mechanical and morphological properties as well as the ability of fibrin gel incorporation into the spacer fabric was analyzed. Subsequently, the pile yarns of the spacer fabrics were colonized with Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) to analyze the ability of the fabric to further function as a guiding structure for a directed vascularization. The cells were stained with DAPI and investigated using fluorescence microscopy. The analysis revealed that the stitch density and the binding pattern have a strong influence on both the mechanical and morphological properties of the fabric. As expected, the incorporation of the fibrin gel was significantly improved with higher pore sizes and porosities, whereas the mechanical strength decreases. Furthermore, the colonization trials revealed a high cell distribution and density on the pile yarns of the spacer fabrics. For a tailored reinforcing structure, the minimum porosity and pore size needs to be evaluated which still ensures a complete incorporation of the reinforcing structure into the fibrin gel matrix. That will enable a mechanically stable dermal graft with a dense vascular network for a sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply of the cells. The results are promising for subsequent research in the field of reinforcing mechanically weak biological scaffolds and develop functional three-dimensional scaffolds with an oriented pre-vascularization.

Keywords: fibrin-gel, skin replacement, spacer fabric, pre-vascularization

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21 Analysis of Shrinkage Effect during Mercerization on Himalayan Nettle, Cotton and Cotton/Nettle Yarn Blends

Authors: Reena Aggarwal, Neha Kestwal

Abstract:

The Himalayan Nettle (Girardinia diversifolia) has been used for centuries as fibre and food source by Himalayan communities. Himalayan Nettle is a natural cellulosic fibre that can be handled in the same way as other cellulosic fibres. The Uttarakhand Bamboo and Fibre Development Board based in Uttarakhand, India is working extensively with the nettle fibre to explore the potential of nettle for textile production in the region. The fiber is a potential resource for rural enterprise development for some high altitude pockets of the state and traditionally the plant fibre is used for making domestic products like ropes and sacks. Himalayan Nettle is an unconventional natural fiber with functional characteristics of shrink resistance, degree of pathogen and fire resistance and can blend nicely with other fibres. Most importantly, they generate mainly organic wastes and leave residues that are 100% biodegradable. The fabrics may potentially be reused or re-manufactured and can also be used as a source of cellulose feedstock for regenerated cellulosic products. Being naturally bio- degradable, the fibre can be composted if required. Though a lot of research activities and training are directed towards fibre extraction and processing techniques in different craft clusters villagers of different clusters of Uttarkashi, Chamoli and Bageshwar of Uttarakhand like retting and Degumming process, very little is been done to analyse the crucial properties of nettle fiber like shrinkage and wash fastness. These properties are very crucial to obtain desired quality of fibre for further processing of yarn making and weaving and in developing these fibers into fine saleable products. This research therefore is focused towards various on-field experiments which were focused on shrinkage properties conducted on cotton, nettle and cotton/nettle blended yarn samples. The objective of the study was to analyze the scope of the blended fiber for developing into wearable fabrics. For the study, after conducting the initial fiber length and fineness testing, cotton and nettle fibers were mixed in 60:40 ratio and five varieties of yarns were spun in open end spinning mill having yarn count of 3s, 5s, 6s, 7s and 8s. Samples of 100% Nettle 100% cotton fibers in 8s count were also developed for the study. All the six varieties of yarns were tested with shrinkage test and results were critically analyzed as per ASTM method D2259. It was observed that 100% Nettle has a least shrinkage of 3.36% while pure cotton has shrinkage approx. 13.6%. Yarns made of 100% Cotton exhibits four times more shrinkage than 100% Nettle. The results also show that cotton and Nettle blended yarn exhibit lower shrinkage than 100% cotton yarn. It was thus concluded that as the ratio of nettle increases in the samples, the shrinkage decreases in the samples. These results are very crucial for Uttarakhand people who want to commercially exploit the abundant nettle fiber for generating sustainable employment.

Keywords: Himalayan nettle, sustainable, shrinkage, blending

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20 Crafting a Livelihood: A Story of the Kotpad Dyers and Weavers

Authors: Anahita Suri

Abstract:

Craft -an integral part of the conduit to create something beautiful- is a visual representation of the human imagination given life through the hand. The Mirgan tribe in the Naxalite infested forests of Koraput, Odisha are not exempt from this craving for beauty. These skilled craftsmen dye and weave the simple yet sophisticated Kotpad textiles. The women undertake the time-consuming task of dyeing the cotton and silk yarns with the root of the aul tree. The men then weave these yarns into beautiful sarees and dupattas. The root of the aul tree lends the textile its maroon to brown color, which is offset against the unbleached cotton to create a minimalist and distinctive look. The motifs, incorporated through the extra weft technique, reflect the rich tribal heritage of the community. This is an eco-friendly, non-toxic textile. Kotpad fabrics were on the verge of extinction due to various factors like poor infrastructure, no innovation in traditional designs/products, customer ignorance leading to low demand. With livelihood opportunities through craft slowly dwindling, artisans were moving to alternative sources of income generation, like agriculture and daily wage labor. There was an urgent need for intervention to revive the craft, spread awareness about them in urban spaces, and strengthen the artisan’s ability to innovate and create. Recent efforts by government bodies and local designers have given Kotpad handloom a contemporary look without diluting its essence. This research explores the possibilities to leverage Kotpad handloom to find a place in the dynamic culture of the world by its promotion among different target groups and incorporating self-sustaining practices for the artisans. This could further encourage a space for handmade and handcrafted art, rich with stories about India, with a contemporary visual sensibility. This will strengthen environmental and ethical sustainability.

Keywords: craft, contemporary, handloom, natural dye, tribal

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
19 Investigation of Knitted Fabric Properties Effect on Evaporation Rate

Authors: N. S. Achour, M. Hamdaoui, S. Ben Nasrallah

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Evaporation kinetics of water from porous knitted fabrics are studied: An experimental study of determining evaporated water mass (g) versus time (s) from different knitted fabrics was gravimetrically investigated in various atmospheric conditions. Then evaporation rates are calculated. The goal is to determine the effect of fabric composition, knit structure and yarns properties on evaporation rate. The results show that fabrics geometrical properties, such as porosity and thickness, have a significant influence on evaporated water quantities.

Keywords: evaporation rate, experimental study, geometrical properties, porous knitted fabrics

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18 Dyeing Properties of Natural Dyes on Silk Treated with ß-Cyclodextrin

Authors: Samera Salimpour Abkenar

Abstract:

In this work, silk yarns were treated using ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and cross-linked with citric acid (CA) via pad-dry-cure method. Elemental and FESEM analyses confirmed the presence of ß-CD on the treated silk samples even after five washing cycles. Then, the treated samples were dyed using natural dyes (carrot, orange and tomato). Results showed that the color strength (K/S) of the treated samples had been markedly enhanced compared with the control sample (after treatment with metal mordant). Finally, the color strength (K/S value) and color fastness (fading, staining and light fastness) of the treated samples with ß-CD were investigated and compared.

Keywords: ß-cyclodextrin, dyeing, natural dyes, silk yarn

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17 Glass and Polypropylene Combinations for Thermoplastic Preforms

Authors: Hireni Mankodi

Abstract:

The textile preforms for thermoplastic composite play a key role in providing the mechanical properties and gives the idea about preparing combination of yarn from Glass, Basalt, Carbon as reinforcement and PP, PET, Nylon as thermoplastic matrix at yarn stage for preforms to improve the quality and performance of laminates. The main objectives of this work are to develop the hybrid yarn using different yarn manufacturing process and prepare different performs using hybrid yarns. It has been observed that the glass/pp combination give homogeneous distribution in yarn. The proportion varied to optimize the glass/pp composition. The different preform has been prepared with combination of hybrid yarn, PP, glass combination. Further studies will investigate the effect of glass content in fabric, effect of weave, warps and filling density, number of layer plays significant role in deciding mechanical properties of thermoplastic laminates.

Keywords: thermoplastic, preform, laminates, hybrid yarn, glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
16 Experimental Study of Energy Absorption Efficiency (EAE) of Warp-Knitted Spacer Fabric Reinforced Foam (WKSFRF) Under Low-Velocity Impact

Authors: Amirhossein Dodankeh, Hadi Dabiryan, Saeed Hamze

Abstract:

Using fabrics to reinforce composites considerably leads to improved mechanical properties, including resistance to the impact load and the energy absorption of composites. Warp-knitted spacer fabrics (WKSF) are fabrics consisting of two layers of warp-knitted fabric connected by pile yarns. These connections create a space between the layers filled by pile yarns and give the fabric a three-dimensional shape. Today because of the unique properties of spacer fabrics, they are widely used in the transportation, construction, and sports industries. Polyurethane (PU) foams are commonly used as energy absorbers, but WKSF has much better properties in moisture transfer, compressive properties, and lower heat resistance than PU foam. It seems that the use of warp-knitted spacer fabric reinforced PU foam (WKSFRF) can lead to the production and use of composite, which has better properties in terms of energy absorption from the foam, its mold formation is enhanced, and its mechanical properties have been improved. In this paper, the energy absorption efficiency (EAE) of WKSFRF under low-velocity impact is investigated experimentally. The contribution of the effect of each of the structural parameters of the WKSF on the absorption of impact energy has also been investigated. For this purpose, WKSF with different structures such as two different thicknesses, small and large mesh sizes, and position of the meshes facing each other and not facing each other were produced. Then 6 types of composite samples with different structural parameters were fabricated. The physical properties of samples like weight per unit area and fiber volume fraction of composite were measured for 3 samples of any type of composites. Low-velocity impact with an initial energy of 5 J was carried out on 3 samples of any type of composite. The output of the low-velocity impact test is acceleration-time (A-T) graph with a lot deviation point, in order to achieve the appropriate results, these points were removed using the FILTFILT function of MATLAB R2018a. Using Newtonian laws of physics force-displacement (F-D) graph was drawn from an A-T graph. We know that the amount of energy absorbed is equal to the area under the F-D curve. Determination shows the maximum energy absorption is 2.858 J which is related to the samples reinforced with fabric with large mesh, high thickness, and not facing of the meshes relative to each other. An index called energy absorption efficiency was defined, which means absorption energy of any kind of our composite divided by its fiber volume fraction. With using this index, the best EAE between the samples is 21.6 that occurs in the sample with large mesh, high thickness, and meshes facing each other. Also, the EAE of this sample is 15.6% better than the average EAE of other composite samples. Generally, the energy absorption on average has been increased 21.2% by increasing the thickness, 9.5% by increasing the size of the meshes from small to big, and 47.3% by changing the position of the meshes from facing to non-facing.

Keywords: composites, energy absorption efficiency, foam, geometrical parameters, low-velocity impact, warp-knitted spacer fabric

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15 Effect of Friction Parameters on the Residual Bagging Behaviors of Denim Fabrics

Authors: M. Gazzah, B. Jaouachi, F. Sakli

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This research focuses on the yarn-to-yarn and metal-to-fabric friction effects on the residual bagging behavior expressed by residual bagging height, volume and recovery of some denim fabrics. The results show, that both residual bagging height and residual bagging volume, which is determined using image analysis method, are significantly affected due to the most influential fabric parameter variations, the weft yarns density and the mean frictional coefficients. After the applied number of fatigue cycles, the findings revealed that the weft yarn rigidity contributes on fabric bagging behavior accurately. Among the tested samples, our results show that the elastic fabrics present a high recovery ability to give low bagging height and volume values.

Keywords: bagging recovery, denim fabric, metal-to-fabric friction, residual bagging height, yarn-to-yarn friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 468