Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 259

Search results for: conductive yarn

259 Investigation of Heating Behaviour of E-Textile Structures

Authors: Hande Sezgin, Senem Kursun Bahadır, Yakup Erhan Boke, Fatma Kalaoğlu

Abstract:

Electronic textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that contain electronics and interconnections with them. In this study, two types of base yarns (cotton and acrylic) and three conductive steel yarns with different linear resistance values (14Ω/m, 30Ω/m, 70Ω/m) were used to investigate the effect of base yarn type and linear resistance of conductive yarns on thermal behavior of e-textile structures. Thermal behavior of samples were examined by thermal camera.

Keywords: conductive yarn, e-textiles, smart textiles, thermal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
258 Development of Multifunctional Yarns and Fabrics for Interactive Textiles

Authors: Muhammad Bilal Qadir, Danish Umer, Amir Shahzad

Abstract:

The use of conductive materials in smart and interactive textiles is gaining significant importance for creating value addition, innovation, and functional product development. These products find their potential applications in health monitoring, military, protection, communication, sensing, monitoring, actuation, fashion, and lifestyles. The materials which are most commonly employed in such type of interactive textile include intrinsically conducting polymers, conductive inks, and metallic coating on textile fabrics and inherently conducting metallic fibre yarns. In this study, silver coated polyester filament yarn is explored for the development of multifunctional interactive gloves. The composite yarn was developed by covering the silver coated polyester filament around the polyester spun yarn using hollow spindle technique. The electrical and tensile properties of the yarn were studied. This novel yarn was used to manufacture a smart glove to explore the antibacterial, functional, and interactive properties of the yarn. The change in electrical resistance due to finger movement at different bending positions and antimicrobial properties were studied. This glove was also found useful as an interactive tool to operate the commonly used touch screen devices due to its conductive nature. The yarn can also be used to develop the sensing elements like stretch, strain, and piezoresistive sensors. Such sensor can be effectively used in medical and sports textile for performance monitoring, vital signs monitoring and development of antibacterial textile for healthcare and hygiene.

Keywords: conductive yarn, interactive textiles, piezoresistive sensors, smart gloves

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
257 Development of a Systematic Approach to Assess the Applicability of Silver Coated Conductive Yarn

Authors: Y. T. Chui, W. M. Au, L. Li

Abstract:

Recently, wearable electronic textiles have been emerging in today’s market and were developed rapidly since, beside the needs for the clothing uses for leisure, fashion wear and personal protection, there also exist a high demand for the clothing to be capable for function in this electronic age, such as interactive interfaces, sensual being and tangible touch, social fabric, material witness and so on. With the requirements of wearable electronic textiles to be more comfortable, adorable, and easy caring, conductive yarn becomes one of the most important fundamental elements within the wearable electronic textile for interconnection between different functional units or creating a functional unit. The properties of conductive yarns from different companies can vary to a large extent. There are vitally important criteria for selecting the conductive yarns, which may directly affect its optimization, prospect, applicability and performance of the final garment. However, according to the literature review, few researches on conductive yarns on shelf focus on the assessment methods of conductive yarns for the scientific selection of material by a systematic way under different conditions. Therefore, in this study, direction of selecting high-quality conductive yarns is given. It is to test the stability and reliability of the conductive yarns according the problems industrialists would experience with the yarns during the every manufacturing process, in which, this assessment system can be classified into four stage. That is 1) Yarn stage, 2) Fabric stage, 3) Apparel stage and 4) End user stage. Several tests with clear experiment procedures and parameters are suggested to be carried out in each stage. This assessment method suggested that the optimal conducting yarns should be stable in property and resistant to various corrosions at every production stage or during using them. It is expected that this demonstration of assessment method can serve as a pilot study that assesses the stability of Ag/nylon yarns systematically at various conditions, i.e. during mass production with textile industry procedures, and from the consumer perspective. It aims to assist industrialists to understand the qualities and properties of conductive yarns and suggesting a few important parameters that they should be reminded of for the case of higher level of suitability, precision and controllability.

Keywords: applicability, assessment method, conductive yarn, wearable electronics

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
256 Strength Translation from Spun Yarns to Woven Fabrics

Authors: Anindya Ghosh

Abstract:

Structural parameters, yarn to yarn friction, strength of ring, rotor, air-jet and open-end friction spun yarns and the strength of fabrics made from these yarns are measured. The ratio of fabric strip strength per yarn and corresponding single yarn strength is considered as a measure of quantifying the fabric assistance. Mechanism of yarn failure inside the fabric is different as that of single yarn and the former exhibit more fibre rupture. Fabrics made from weaker yarns have higher ratio of strip strength to single yarn strength than that made from stronger yarns due to larger increase in the percentage of rupture fibres in the former. The fabric assistance also depends to some extent on the degree of gripping of the yarns that is influenced by the yarn to yarn friction, extent of yarn flattening and yarn diameter.

Keywords: fabric assistance, fabric strength, yarn diameter, yarn friction, yarn strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
255 Glass and Polypropylene Combinations for Thermoplastic Preforms

Authors: Hireni Mankodi

Abstract:

The textile preforms for thermoplastic composite play a key role in providing the mechanical properties and gives the idea about preparing combination of yarn from Glass, Basalt, Carbon as reinforcement and PP, PET, Nylon as thermoplastic matrix at yarn stage for preforms to improve the quality and performance of laminates. The main objectives of this work are to develop the hybrid yarn using different yarn manufacturing process and prepare different performs using hybrid yarns. It has been observed that the glass/pp combination give homogeneous distribution in yarn. The proportion varied to optimize the glass/pp composition. The different preform has been prepared with combination of hybrid yarn, PP, glass combination. Further studies will investigate the effect of glass content in fabric, effect of weave, warps and filling density, number of layer plays significant role in deciding mechanical properties of thermoplastic laminates.

Keywords: thermoplastic, preform, laminates, hybrid yarn, glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 500
254 Study of Structure and Properties of Polyester/Carbon Blends for Technical Applications

Authors: Manisha A. Hira, Arup Rakshit

Abstract:

Textile substrates are endowed with flexibility and ease of making–up, but are non-conductors of electricity. Conductive materials like carbon can be incorporated into textile structures to make flexible conductive materials. Such conductive textiles find applications as electrostatic discharge materials, electromagnetic shielding materials and flexible materials to carry current or signals. This work focuses on use of carbon fiber as conductor of electricity. Carbon fibers in staple or tow form can be incorporated in textile yarn structure to conduct electricity. The paper highlights the process for development of these conductive yarns of polyester/carbon using Friction spinning (DREF) as well as ring spinning. The optimized process parameters for processing hybrid structure of polyester with carbon tow on DREF spinning and polyester with carbon staple fiber using ring spinning have been presented. The studies have been linked to highlight the electrical conductivity of the developed yarns. Further, the developed yarns have been incorporated as weft in fabric and their electrical conductivity has been evaluated. The paper demonstrates the structure and properties of fabrics developed from such polyester/carbon blend yarns and their suitability as electrically dissipative fabrics.

Keywords: carbon fiber, conductive textiles, electrostatic dissipative materials, hybrid yarns

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
253 Estimation of Twist Loss in the Weft Yarn during Air-Jet Weft Insertion

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Yasir Nawab, Khubab Shaker, Muhammad Maqsood, Adeel Zulfiqar, Danish Mahmood Baitab

Abstract:

Fabric is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Today fabrics are produced by weaving, braiding, knitting, tufting and non-woven. Weaving is a method of fabric production in which warp and weft yarns are interlaced perpendicular to each other. There is infinite number of ways for the interlacing of warp and weft yarn. Each way produces a different fabric structure. The yarns parallel to the machine direction are called warp yarns and the yarns perpendicular to the machine direction are called weft or filling yarns. Air jet weaving is the modern method of weft insertion and considered as high speed loom. The twist loss in air jet during weft insertion affects the strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of twist change in weft yarn during air-jet weft insertion. A total number of 8 samples were produced using 1/1 plain and 3/1 twill weave design with two fabric widths having same loom settings. Two different types of yarns like cotton and PC blend were used. The effect of material type, weave design and fabric width on twist change of weft yarn was measured and discussed. Twist change in the different types of weft yarn and weave design was measured and compared the twist change in the weft yarn with the yarn before weft yarn insertion and twist loss is measured. Wider fabric leads to higher twist loss in the yarn.

Keywords: air jet loom, twist per inch, twist loss, weft yarn

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
252 Fabrication of Silver Nanowire Based Low Temperature Conductive Ink

Authors: Merve Nur Güven Biçer

Abstract:

Conductive inks are used extensively in electronic devices like sensors, batteries, photovoltaic devices, antennae, and organic light-emitting diodes. These inks are typically made from silver. Wearable technology is another industry that requires inks to be flexible. The aim of this study is the fabrication of low-temperature silver paste by synthesis long silver nanowires.

Keywords: silver ink, conductive ink, low temperature conductive ink, silver nanowire

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
251 Effect of Friction Parameters on the Residual Bagging Behaviors of Denim Fabrics

Authors: M. Gazzah, B. Jaouachi, F. Sakli

Abstract:

This research focuses on the yarn-to-yarn and metal-to-fabric friction effects on the residual bagging behavior expressed by residual bagging height, volume and recovery of some denim fabrics. The results show, that both residual bagging height and residual bagging volume, which is determined using image analysis method, are significantly affected due to the most influential fabric parameter variations, the weft yarns density and the mean frictional coefficients. After the applied number of fatigue cycles, the findings revealed that the weft yarn rigidity contributes on fabric bagging behavior accurately. Among the tested samples, our results show that the elastic fabrics present a high recovery ability to give low bagging height and volume values.

Keywords: bagging recovery, denim fabric, metal-to-fabric friction, residual bagging height, yarn-to-yarn friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 492
250 Influence of Intra-Yarn Permeability on Mesoscale Permeability of Plain Weave and 3D Fabrics

Authors: Debabrata Adhikari, Mikhail Matveev, Louise Brown, Andy Long, Jan Kočí

Abstract:

A good understanding of mesoscale permeability of complex architectures in fibrous porous preforms is of particular interest in order to achieve efficient and cost-effective resin impregnation of liquid composite molding (LCM). Fabrics used in structural reinforcements are typically woven or stitched. However, 3D fabric reinforcement is of particular interest because of the versatility in the weaving pattern with the binder yarn and in-plain yarn arrangements to manufacture thick composite parts, overcome the limitation in delamination, improve toughness etc. To predict the permeability based on the available pore spaces between the inter yarn spaces, unit cell-based computational fluid dynamics models have been using the Stokes Darcy model. Typically, the preform consists of an arrangement of yarns with spacing in the order of mm, wherein each yarn consists of thousands of filaments with spacing in the order of μm. The fluid flow during infusion exchanges the mass between the intra and inter yarn channels, meaning there is no dead-end of flow between the mesopore in the inter yarn space and the micropore in the yarn. Several studies have employed the Brinkman equation to take into account the flow through dual-scale porosity reinforcement to estimate their permeability. Furthermore, to reduce the computational effort of dual scale flow, scale separation criteria based on the ratio between yarn permeability to the yarn spacing was also proposed to quantify the dual scale and negligible micro-scale flow regime for the prediction of mesoscale permeability. In the present work, the key parameter to identify the influence of intra yarn permeability on the mesoscale permeability has been investigated with the systematic study of weft and warp yarn spacing on the plane weave as well as the position of binder yarn and number of in-plane yarn layers on 3D weave fabric. The permeability tensor has been estimated using an OpenFOAM-based model for the various weave pattern with idealized geometry of yarn implemented using open-source software TexGen. Additionally, scale separation criterion has been established based on the various configuration of yarn permeability for the 3D fabric with both the isotropic and anisotropic yarn from Gebart’s model. It was observed that the variation of mesoscale permeability Kxx within 30% when the isotropic porous yarn is considered for a 3D fabric with binder yarn. Furthermore, the permeability model developed in this study will be used for multi-objective optimizations of the preform mesoscale geometry in terms of yarn spacing, binder pattern, and a number of layers with an aim to obtain improved permeability and reduced void content during the LCM process.

Keywords: permeability, 3D fabric, dual-scale flow, liquid composite molding

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
249 Eli-Twist Spun Yarn: An Alternative to Conventional Sewing Thread

Authors: Sujit Kumar Sinha, Madan Lal Regar

Abstract:

Sewing thread plays an important role in the transformation of a two-dimensional fabric into a three-dimensional garment. The interaction of the sewing thread with the fabric at the seam not only influences the appearance of a garment but also its performance. Careful selection of sewing thread and associated parameters can only help in improvement. Over the years, ring spinning has been dominating the yarn market. In the pursuit of improvement to challenge its dominance alternative technology has also been developed. But no real challenge has been posed by the any of the developed spinning systems. Eli-Twist spinning system can be a new method of yarn manufacture to provide a product with improved mechanical and physical properties with respect to the conventional ring spun yarn. The system, patented by Suessen has gained considerable attention in the recent times. The process of produces a two-ply compact yarn with improved fiber utilization. It produces a novel structure combining all advantages of condensing and doubling. In the present study, sewing threads of three different counts each from cotton, polyester and polyester/cotton (50/50) blend were produced on a ring and Eli-Twist systems. A twist multiplier of 4.2 was used to produce all the yarns. A comparison of hairiness, tensile strength and coefficient of friction with conventional ring yarn was made. Eli-Twist yarn has shown better frictional characteristics, better tensile strength and less hairiness. The performance of the Eli-Twist sewing thread has also been found to be better than the conventional 2-ply sewing thread. The performance was estimated through seam strength, seam elongation and seam efficiency of sewn fabric. Eli-Twist sewing thread has shown less friction, less hairiness, and higher tensile strength. Eli-Twist sewing thread resulted in better seam characteristics in comparison to conventional 2-ply sewing thread.

Keywords: ring spun yarn, Eli-Twist yarn, sewing thread, seam strength, seam elongation, seam efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
248 A Design Research Methodology for Light and Stretchable Electrical Thermal Warm-Up Sportswear to Enhance the Performance of Athletes against Harsh Environment

Authors: Chenxiao Yang, Li Li

Abstract:

In this decade, the sportswear market rapidly expanded while numerous sports brands are conducting fierce competitions to hold their market shares and trying to act as a leader in professional competition sports areas to set the trends. Thus, various advancing sports equipment is being deeply explored to improving athletes’ performance in fierce competitions. Although there is plenty protective equipment such as cuff, running legging, etc., on the market, there is still blank in the field of sportswear during prerace warm-up this important time gap, especially for those competitions host in cold environment. Because there is always time gaps between warm-up and race due to event logistics or unexpected weather factors. Athletes will be exposed to chilly condition for an unpredictable long period of time. As a consequence, the effects of warm-up will be negated, and the competition performance will be degraded. However, reviewing the current market, there is none effective sports equipment provided to help athletes against this harsh environment or the rare existing products are so blocky or heavy to restrict the actions. An ideal thermal-protective sportswear should be light, flexible, comfort and aesthetic at the same time. Therefore, this design research adopted the textile circular knitting methodology to integrate soft silver-coated conductive yarns (ab. SCCYs), elastic nylon yarn and polyester yarn to develop the proposed electrical, thermal sportswear, with the strengths aforementioned. Meanwhile, the relationship between heating performance, stretch load, and energy consumption were investigated. Further, a simulation model was established to ensure providing sufficient warm and flexibility at lower energy cost and with an optimized production, parameter determined. The proposed circular knitting technology and simulation model can be directly applied to instruct prototype developments to cater different target consumers’ needs and ensure prototypes’’ safety. On the other hand, high R&D investment and time consumption can be saved. Further, two prototypes: a kneecap and an elbow guard, were developed to facilitate the transformation of research technology into an industrial application and to give a hint on the blur future blueprint.

Keywords: cold environment, silver-coated conductive yarn, electrical thermal textile, stretchable

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
247 Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile

Authors: Ezgi Ismar

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, conductive textiles, nanotechnology, nanotextiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
246 Development of Kenaf Cellulose CNT Paper for Electrical Conductive Paper

Authors: A. W. Fareezal, R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, M. Z. Shazana, I. Rushdan

Abstract:

Kenaf cellulose CNT paper production was for lightweight, high strength and excellent flexibility electrical purposes. Aqueous dispersions of kenaf cellulose and varied weight percentage of CNT were combined with the assistance of PEI solution by using ultrasonic probe. The solution was dried using vacuum filter continued with air drying in condition room for 2 days. Circle shape conductive paper was characterized with Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and therma gravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: cellulose, CNT paper, PEI solution, electrical conductive paper

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
245 Theoretical Density Study of Winding Yarns on Spool

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Rachid Halfaoui

Abstract:

The aim of work is to define the distribution density of winding yarn on cylindrical and conical bobbins. It is known that parallel winding gives greater density and more regular distribution, but the unwinding of yarn is much more difficult for following process. The conical spool has an enormous advantage during unwinding and may contain a large amount of yarns, but the density distribution is not regular because of difference in diameters. The variation of specific density over the reel height is explained generally by the sudden change of winding speed due to direction movement variation of yarn. We determined the conditions of uniform winding and developed a calculate model to the change of the specific density of winding wire over entire spool height.

Keywords: textile, cylindrical bobbins, conical bobbins, parallel winding, cross winding

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
244 Optimization of Hydrogel Conductive Nanocomposite as Solar Cell

Authors: Shimaa M. Elsaeed, Reem K. Farag, Ibrahim M. Nassar

Abstract:

Hydrogel conductive polymer nanocomposite fabricated via in-situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) inside thermosensitive hydrogels based on hydroxy ethyl meth acrylate (HEMA) copolymer with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS). SEM micrographs show the nanometric size of the conductive material (polyaniline, PANI) dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. The swelling parameters of hydrogel are measured. The incorporation of PANI improves the mechanical properties and swelling up to 30,000% without breaking. X-ray diffraction shows that typical polyaniline crystallization is formed in composite, which is advantageous to increase the electrical conductivity of the composite hydrogel. Open-circuit voltage (I-V) curve fill factor of the highest photo-conversion efficiency and enhanced to use in solar cell.

Keywords: hydrogel, solar cell, conductive polymer, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
243 Determinants of the Income of Household Level Coir Yarn Labourers in Sri Lanka

Authors: G. H. B. Dilhari, A. A. D. T. Saparamadu

Abstract:

Sri Lanka is one of the prominent countries for the coir production. The coir is one of the by-products of the coconut and the coir industry is considered to be one of the traditional industries in Sri Lanka. Because of the inherent nature of the coir industry, labourers play a significant role in the coir production process. The study has analyzed the determinants of the income of the household level coir yarn labourers. The study was conducted in the Kumarakanda Grama Niladhari division. Simple random sampling was used to generate a sample of 100 household level coir yarn labourers and structured questionnaire, personal interviews, and discussion were performed to gather the required data. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed for mean comparison. The findings revealed that the household level coir yarn industry is dominated by the female workers and it was identified that fewer numbers of workers have engaged in this industry as the main occupation. In addition to that, elderly participation in the industry is higher than the younger participation and most of them have engaged in the industry as a source of extra income. Level of education, the methods of engagement, satisfaction, engagement in the industry by the next generation, support from the government, method of government support, working hours per day, employed as a main job, number of completed units per day, suffering from job related diseases and type of the diseases were related with income level of household level coir yarn laboures. The recommendations as to flourish in future includes, technological transformation for coir yarn production, strengthening the raw material base and regulating the raw material supply, introduction of new technologies, markets and training programmes, the establishment of the labourers’ association, the initiation of micro credit schemes and better consideration about the job oriented diseases.

Keywords: coir yarn, determinants, income, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
242 The Fabrication and Characterization of a Honeycomb Ceramic Electric Heater with a Conductive Coating

Authors: Siming Wang, Qing Ni, Yu Wu, Ruihai Xu, Hong Ye

Abstract:

Porous electric heaters, compared to conventional electric heaters, exhibit excellent heating performance due to their large specific surface area. Porous electric heaters employ porous metallic materials or conductive porous ceramics as the heating element. The former attains a low heating power with a fixed current due to the low electrical resistivity of metal. Although the latter can bypass the inherent challenges of porous metallic materials, the fabrication process of the conductive porous ceramics is complicated and high cost. This work proposed a porous ceramic electric heater with dielectric honeycomb ceramic as a substrate and surface conductive coating as a heating element. The conductive coating was prepared by the sol-gel method using silica sol and methyl trimethoxysilane as raw materials and graphite powder as conductive fillers. The conductive mechanism and degradation reason of the conductive coating was studied by electrical resistivity and thermal stability analysis. The heating performance of the proposed heater was experimentally investigated by heating air and deionized water. The results indicate that the electron transfer is achieved by forming the conductive network through the contact of the graphite flakes. With 30 wt% of graphite, the electrical resistivity of the conductive coating can be as low as 0.88 Ω∙cm. The conductive coating exhibits good electrical stability up to 500°C but degrades beyond 600°C due to the formation of many cracks in the coating caused by the weight loss and thermal expansion. The results also show that the working medium has a great influence on the volume power density of the heater. With air under natural convection as the working medium, the volume power density attains 640.85 kW/m3, which can be increased by 5 times when using deionized water as the working medium. The proposed honeycomb ceramic electric heater has the advantages of the simple fabrication method, low cost, and high volume power density, demonstrating great potential in the fluid heating field.

Keywords: conductive coating, honeycomb ceramic electric heater, high specific surface area, high volume power density

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
241 Carbon Coated Yarn Supercapacitors: Parametric Study of Performance Output

Authors: Imtiaz Ahmed Khan, Sabu John, Sania Waqar, Lijing Wang, Mac Fergusson, Ilija Najdovski

Abstract:

Evolution of textiles, from its orthodox to more interactive role has stirred the researchers to uncover its application in numerous arenas. The idea of using textile based materials for wearable energy harvesting and storage devices have gained immense popularity. This is mainly due to textile comfort and flexibility features. In this work, nano-carbonous materials were infused on cellulosic fibers using caustic soda treatment. This paper presents the complete procedure of yarn supercapacitors fabrication process through dip coating technique and its characterization method. The main objective is to study, the effect of varying caustic soda concentration on mass loading of activated carbon on yarns and the related capacitance output of the designed yarn supercapacitor. Polyvinyl alcohol and Phosphoric acid were used as electrolyte in a two-electrode cell assembly to measure device electrochemical performance. The results show a promising increase in capacitance value using this technique.

Keywords: yarn supercapacitors, activated carbon, dip coating, caustic soda, electrolyte, electrochemical characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
240 Determinants and Impact on Income: Special Reference to Household Level Coir Yarn Labourers

Authors: G. H. B. Dilhari, A. A. D. T. Saparamadu

Abstract:

The coir is one of the by-products of the coconut and the coir industry can be identified as one of the traditional industries in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is one of the prominent countries for the coir production. Due to the labour insensitiveness, the labourers are the significant factor in the coir production process. The study has analyzed the determinants and its impact on income of the household level coir yarn labourers. The study was conducted in the Kumarakanda Grama Niladhari division, Galle, Sri Lanka. Simple random sampling was used to generate the sample of 100 household level coir yarn labourers and structured questionnaire, personal interviews and discussion were performed to gather the required data. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test were carried out. The findings revealed that the household level coir yarn industry is dominated by the female workers and fewer amounts of workers have engaged this industry as the main occupation. In addition to that, elderly participation of the industry is greater than younger participation and most of them engaged as an extra income source. Level of education, the methods of engagement, satisfaction, labour’s children employment in the coir industry, support from the government, method of government support, working hours per day, employed as a main job, no of completed units per day, suffering any job related diseases and type of the diseases were related with income level of household level coir yarn labourers. The recommendations were formulated in respect to these problems including technological transformation for coir yarn production, strengthening of the raw material base and regulating the raw material supply, introduction of new technologies, markets and training programs, the establishment of the labourers association, the initiation of micro credit schemes, better consideration about the job oriented diseases.

Keywords: coir, coir yarn labourers, income, Galle

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
239 Variation of Warp and Binder Yarn Tension across the 3D Weaving Process and its Impact on Tow Tensile Strength

Authors: Reuben Newell, Edward Archer, Alistair McIlhagger, Calvin Ralph

Abstract:

Modern industry has developed a need for innovative 3D composite materials due to their attractive material properties. Composite materials are composed of a fibre reinforcement encased in a polymer matrix. The fibre reinforcement consists of warp, weft and binder yarns or tows woven together into a preform. The mechanical performance of composite material is largely controlled by the properties of the preform. As a result, the bulk of recent textile research has been focused on the design of high-strength preform architectures. Studies looking at optimisation of the weaving process have largely been neglected. It has been reported that yarns experience varying levels of damage during weaving, resulting in filament breakage and ultimately compromised composite mechanical performance. The weaving parameters involved in causing this yarn damage are not fully understood. Recent studies indicate that poor yarn tension control may be an influencing factor. As tension is increased, the yarn-to-yarn and yarn-to-weaving-equipment interactions are heightened, maximising damage. The correlation between yarn tension variation and weaving damage severity has never been adequately researched or quantified. A novel study is needed which accesses the influence of tension variation on the mechanical properties of woven yarns. This study has looked to quantify the variation of yarn tension throughout weaving and sought to link the impact of tension to weaving damage. Multiple yarns were randomly selected, and their tension was measured across the creel and shedding stages of weaving, using a hand-held tension meter. Sections of the same yarn were subsequently cut from the loom machine and tensile tested. A comparison study was made between the tensile strength of pristine and tensioned yarns to determine the induced weaving damage. Yarns from bobbins at the rear of the creel were under the least amount of tension (0.5-2.0N) compared to yarns positioned at the front of the creel (1.5-3.5N). This increase in tension has been linked to the sharp turn in the yarn path between bobbins at the front of the creel and creel I-board. Creel yarns under the lower tension suffered a 3% loss of tensile strength, compared to 7% for the greater tensioned yarns. During shedding, the tension on the yarns was higher than in the creel. The upper shed yarns were exposed to a decreased tension (3.0-4.5N) compared to the lower shed yarns (4.0-5.5N). Shed yarns under the lower tension suffered a 10% loss of tensile strength, compared to 14% for the greater tensioned yarns. Interestingly, the most severely damaged yarn was exposed to both the largest creel and shedding tensions. This study confirms for the first time that yarns under a greater level of tension suffer an increased amount of weaving damage. Significant variation of yarn tension has been identified across the creel and shedding stages of weaving. This leads to a variance of mechanical properties across the woven preform and ultimately the final composite part. The outcome from this study highlights the need for optimised yarn tension control during preform manufacture to minimize yarn-induced weaving damage.

Keywords: optimisation of preform manufacture, tensile testing of damaged tows, variation of yarn weaving tension, weaving damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
238 Wet Spun Graphene Fibers With Silver Nanoparticles For Flexible Electronic Applications

Authors: Syed W. Hasan, Zhiqun Tian

Abstract:

Wet spinning provides a facile and economic route to fabricate graphene nanofibers (GFs) on mass scale. Nevertheless, the pristine GFs exhibit significantly low electrical and mechanical properties owing to stacked graphene sheets and weak inter-atomic bonding. In this report, we present highly conductive Ag-decorated-GFs (Ag/GFs). The SEM micrographs show Ag nanoparticles (NPs) (dia ~10 nm) are homogeneously distributed throughout the cross-section of the fiber. The Ag NPs provide a conductive network for the electrons flow raising the conductivity to 1.8(10^4) S/m which is 4 times higher than the pristine GFs. Our results surpass the conductivities of graphene fibers doped with CNTs, Nanocarbon, fullerene, and Cu. The chemical and structural attributes of Ag/GFs are further elucidated through XPS, AFM and Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: Ag nanoparticles, Conductive fibers, Graphene, Wet spinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
237 Conductive and Stretchable Graphene Nanoribbon Coated Textiles

Authors: Lu Gan, Songmin Shang, Marcus Chun Wah Yuen

Abstract:

A conductive and stretchable cotton fabric was prepared in this study through coating the graphene nanoribbon onto the cotton fabric. The mechanical and electrical properties of the prepared cotton fabric were then investigated. As shown in the results, the graphene nanoribbon coated cotton fabric had an improvement in both mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. Moreover, the resistance of the cotton fabric had a linear dependence on the strain applied to it. The prepared graphene nanoribbon coated cotton fabric has great application potentials in smart textile industry.

Keywords: conductive fabric, graphene nanoribbon, coating, enhanced properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
236 Synthesis of Silver Powders Destined for Conductive Paste Metallization of Solar Cells Using Butyl-Carbitol and Butyl-Carbitol Acetate Chemical Reduction

Authors: N. Moudir, N. Moulai-Mostefa, Y. Boukennous, I. Bozetine, N. Kamel, D. Moudir

Abstract:

the study focuses on a novel process of silver powders synthesis for the preparation of conductive pastes used for solar cells metalization. Butyl-Carbitol and butyl-carbitol Acetate have been used as solvents and reducing agents of silver nitrate (AgNO3) as precursor to get silver powders. XRD characterization revealed silver powders with a cubic crystal system. SEM micro graphs showed spherical morphology of the particles. Laser granulometer gives similar particles distribution for the two agents. Using same glass frit and organic vehicle for comparative purposes, two conductive pastes were prepared with the synthesized silver powders for the front-side metalization of multi-crystalline cells. The pastes provided acceptable fill factor of 59.5 % and 60.8 % respectively.

Keywords: chemical reduction, conductive paste, silver nitrate, solar cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
235 Characterization and Monitoring of the Yarn Faults Using Diametric Fault System

Authors: S. M. Ishtiaque, V. K. Yadav, S. D. Joshi, J. K. Chatterjee

Abstract:

The DIAMETRIC FAULTS system has been developed that captures a bi-directional image of yarn continuously in sequentially manner and provides the detailed classification of faults. A novel mathematical framework developed on the acquired bi-directional images forms the basis of fault classification in four broad categories, namely, Thick1, Thick2, Thin and Normal Yarn. A discretised version of Radon transformation has been used to convert the bi-directional images into one-dimensional signals. Images were divided into training and test sample sets. Karhunen–Loève Transformation (KLT) basis is computed for the signals from the images in training set for each fault class taking top six highest energy eigen vectors. The fault class of the test image is identified by taking the Euclidean distance of its signal from its projection on the KLT basis for each sample realization and fault class in the training set. Euclidean distance applied using various techniques is used for classifying an unknown fault class. An accuracy of about 90% is achieved in detecting the correct fault class using the various techniques. The four broad fault classes were further sub classified in four sub groups based on the user set boundary limits for fault length and fault volume. The fault cross-sectional area and the fault length defines the total volume of fault. A distinct distribution of faults is found in terms of their volume and physical dimensions which can be used for monitoring the yarn faults. It has been shown from the configurational based characterization and classification that the spun yarn faults arising out of mass variation, exhibit distinct characteristics in terms of their contours, sizes and shapes apart from their frequency of occurrences.

Keywords: Euclidean distance, fault classification, KLT, Radon Transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
234 Development of Knitted Seersucker Fabric for Improved Comfort Properties

Authors: Waqas Ashraf, Yasir Nawab, Haritham Khan, Habib Awais, Shahbaz Ahmad

Abstract:

Seersucker is a popular lightweight fabric widely used in men’s and women’s suiting, casual wear, children’s clothing, house robes, bed spreads and for spring and summer wear. The puckered effect generates air spaces between body and the fabric, keeping the wearer cool in hot conditions. The aim of this work was to develop knitted seersucker fabric on single cylinder weft knitting machine using plain jersey structure. Core spun cotton yarn and cotton spun yarn of same linear density were used. Core spun cotton yarn, contains cotton fiber in the sheath and elastase filament in the core. The both yarn were fed at regular interval to feeders on the machine. The loop length and yarn tension were kept constant at each feeder. The samples were then scoured and bleached. After wet processing, the fabric samples were washed and tumble dried. Parameters like loop length, stitch density and areal density were measured after conditioning these samples for 24 hours in Standard atmospheric condition. Produced sample has a regular puckering stripe along the width of the fabric with same height. The stitch density of both the flat and puckered area of relaxed fabric was found to be different .Air permeability and moisture management tests were performed. The results indicated that the knitted seersucker fabric has better wicking and moisture management properties as the flat area contact, whereas puckered area held away from the skin. Seersucker effect in knitted fabric was achieved by the difference of contraction of both sets of courses produced from different types of yarns. The seer sucker fabric produce by knitting technique is less expensive as compared to woven seer sucker fabric as there is no need of yarn preparation. The knitted seersucker fabric is more practicable for summer dresses, skirts, blouses, shirts, trousers and shorts.

Keywords: air permeability, knitted structure, moisture management, seersucker

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
233 Prediction Modeling of Compression Properties of a Knitted Sportswear Fabric Using Response Surface Method

Authors: Jawairia Umar, Tanveer Hussain, Zulfiqar Ali, Muhammad Maqsood

Abstract:

Different knitted structures and knitted parameters play a vital role in the stretch and recovery management of compression sportswear in addition to the materials use to generate this stretch and recovery behavior of the fabric. The present work was planned to predict the different performance indicators of a compression sportswear fabric with some ground parameters i.e. base yarn stitch length (polyester as base yarn and spandex as plating yarn involve to make a compression fabric) and linear density of the spandex which is a key material of any sportswear fabric. The prediction models were generated by response surface method for performance indicators such as stretch & recovery percentage, compression generated by the garment on body, total elongation on application of high power force and load generated on certain percentage extension in fabric. Certain physical properties of the fabric were also modeled using these two parameters.

Keywords: Compression, sportswear, stretch and recovery, statistical model, kikuhime

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
232 Fungal Pigments For Fabrics Dyeing: Initial Tests Using Industrial Dyeing Conditions

Authors: Vicente A. Hernandez, Felipe Galleguillos, Rene Thibaut, Alejandro Muller

Abstract:

Natural pigments have been proposed as an eco-friendly alternative to artificial pigments. Among the diverse organisms able to synthesize natural pigments, several wood colonizing fungi produce extracellular pigments which have been tested to dye fabrics at laboratory conditions with good results. However, the dyeing conditions used at laboratory level not necessary meet the real conditions in which dyeing of fabrics is conducted at industrial level. In this work, yellow and red pigments from the fungi Penicillium murcianum and Talaromyces australis, respectively, were used to dye yarn and linen fabrics using dyeing processes optimized according to the standard conditions used at industrial level. After dyeing treatments, fabrics were tested for color fastness to wash and to wet and dry rubbing, but also to tensile strength tests. Satisfactory result was obtained with both yellow and red pigments in yarn and linen, when used alone or mixed to different proportions. According to these results, natural pigments synthesized by both wood colonizing fungi have a great potential to be used in dyeing processes at industrial level.

Keywords: natural pigments, fungal pigments, yarn, linen

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
231 Performance Modeling and Availability Analysis of Yarn Dyeing System of a Textile Industry

Authors: P. C. Tewari, Rajiv Kumar, Dinesh Khanduja

Abstract:

This paper discusses the performance modeling and availability analysis of Yarn Dyeing System of a Textile Industry. The Textile Industry is a complex and repairable engineering system. Yarn Dyeing System of Textile Industry consists of five subsystems arranged in series configuration. For performance modeling and analysis of availability, a performance evaluating model has been developed with the help of mathematical formulation based on Markov-Birth-Death Process. The differential equations have been developed on the basis of Probabilistic Approach using a Transition Diagram. These equations have further been solved using normalizing condition in order to develop the steady state availability, a performance measure of the system concerned. The system performance has been further analyzed with the help of decision matrices. These matrices provide various availability levels for different combinations of failure and repair rates for various subsystems. The findings of this paper are, therefore, considered to be useful for the analysis of availability and determination of the best possible maintenance strategies which can be implemented in future to enhance the system performance.

Keywords: performance modeling, markov process, steady state availability, availability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
230 Highly Stretchable, Intelligent and Conductive PEDOT/PU Nanofibers Based on Electrospinning and in situ Polymerization

Authors: Kun Qi, Yuman Zhou, Jianxin He

Abstract:

A facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning and followed by in situ polymerization to fabricate a highly stretchable and conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Polyurethane (PEDOT/PU) nanofibrous membrane is reported. PU nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and then PEDOT was coated on the plasma modified PU nanofiber surface via in-situ polymerization to form flexible PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers with conductivity. The results show PEDOT is successfully synthesized on the surface of PU nanofiber and PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers possess skin-core structure. Furthermore, the experiments indicate the optimal technological parameters of the polymerization process are as follow: The concentration of EDOT monomers is 50 mmol/L, the polymerization time is 24 h and the temperature is 25℃. The PEDOT/PU nanofibers exhibit excellent electrical conductivity ( 27.4 S/cm). In addition, flexible sensor made from conductive PEDOT/PU nanofibers shows highly sensitive response towards tensile strain and also can be used to detect finger motion. The results demonstrate promising application of the as-obtained nanofibrous membrane in flexible wearable electronic fields.

Keywords: electrospinning, polyurethane, PEDOT, conductive nanofiber, flexible senor

Procedia PDF Downloads 198