Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: Reena Aggarwal

46 Need for Contemporization of Craft for Sustenance: A Study on Solapur Wall Hanging

Authors: Reena Aggarwal


Wall art is a manifestation of the human mind and an absorbing form of cultural expression. Solapur wall hanging making art reflects cultural values, regional sensibilities, beliefs, and identity and helps to preserve the many different communities. The tango of warp and weft in many ways than one tells the story of civilization itself. Solapur wall hanging is a poem in multicolor, written with the warp and weft having long, rich, and complex history with indigenous design vocabularies made by the Padmasali communities. The wall-hanging weaving of Solapur has remained unaltered for years, from being very basic and monochrome having landscapes and portraits catering only to the local market, thereby becoming a potential family income generation tool. The study focuses on the need for contemporization of the Solapur wall hanging and also deliberates on the fact that wherever the culture of native people has been aided by intervention, in nearly every case, the quality of their craft has began to be enhanced. The study also found the underlying reason for diminishing sales to a declining market, low sales, lack of innovation in design, and product development. Keeping in mind that the artisans of Solapur have heroically always hold on to their ancient beliefs and practices, which give them strength and identity, and a sense of pride, an intervention program was developed with an objective of widening the market and help artisans have a sustaining income which include urban consumers and create designs suitable for the urban market. The process of defining and measuring the advantages of design intervention was achieved by using qualitative research methods. An ethnographic research methodology was adopted, which includes six months of close interface with artisans from ten families engaged in making of wall hanging in Solapur. Design solutions were proposed in terms of product diversification and design extensions of the existing product line for increased variety. A collection of contemporary wall arts (wall decor) and room dividers were designed and developed.

Keywords: wall hanging, Solapur, contemporization, traditional, sustainable

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45 Analysis of Shrinkage Effect during Mercerization on Himalayan Nettle, Cotton and Cotton/Nettle Yarn Blends

Authors: Reena Aggarwal, Neha Kestwal


The Himalayan Nettle (Girardinia diversifolia) has been used for centuries as fibre and food source by Himalayan communities. Himalayan Nettle is a natural cellulosic fibre that can be handled in the same way as other cellulosic fibres. The Uttarakhand Bamboo and Fibre Development Board based in Uttarakhand, India is working extensively with the nettle fibre to explore the potential of nettle for textile production in the region. The fiber is a potential resource for rural enterprise development for some high altitude pockets of the state and traditionally the plant fibre is used for making domestic products like ropes and sacks. Himalayan Nettle is an unconventional natural fiber with functional characteristics of shrink resistance, degree of pathogen and fire resistance and can blend nicely with other fibres. Most importantly, they generate mainly organic wastes and leave residues that are 100% biodegradable. The fabrics may potentially be reused or re-manufactured and can also be used as a source of cellulose feedstock for regenerated cellulosic products. Being naturally bio- degradable, the fibre can be composted if required. Though a lot of research activities and training are directed towards fibre extraction and processing techniques in different craft clusters villagers of different clusters of Uttarkashi, Chamoli and Bageshwar of Uttarakhand like retting and Degumming process, very little is been done to analyse the crucial properties of nettle fiber like shrinkage and wash fastness. These properties are very crucial to obtain desired quality of fibre for further processing of yarn making and weaving and in developing these fibers into fine saleable products. This research therefore is focused towards various on-field experiments which were focused on shrinkage properties conducted on cotton, nettle and cotton/nettle blended yarn samples. The objective of the study was to analyze the scope of the blended fiber for developing into wearable fabrics. For the study, after conducting the initial fiber length and fineness testing, cotton and nettle fibers were mixed in 60:40 ratio and five varieties of yarns were spun in open end spinning mill having yarn count of 3s, 5s, 6s, 7s and 8s. Samples of 100% Nettle 100% cotton fibers in 8s count were also developed for the study. All the six varieties of yarns were tested with shrinkage test and results were critically analyzed as per ASTM method D2259. It was observed that 100% Nettle has a least shrinkage of 3.36% while pure cotton has shrinkage approx. 13.6%. Yarns made of 100% Cotton exhibits four times more shrinkage than 100% Nettle. The results also show that cotton and Nettle blended yarn exhibit lower shrinkage than 100% cotton yarn. It was thus concluded that as the ratio of nettle increases in the samples, the shrinkage decreases in the samples. These results are very crucial for Uttarakhand people who want to commercially exploit the abundant nettle fiber for generating sustainable employment.

Keywords: Himalayan nettle, sustainable, shrinkage, blending

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44 Bulk Viscous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model with Time Dependent Gravitational Constant and Cosmological Constant in General Relativity

Authors: Reena Behal, D. P. Shukla


In this paper, we investigate Bulk Viscous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model with Time dependent gravitational constant and cosmological constant in general Relativity by assuming ξ(t)=ξ_(0 ) p^m where ξ_(0 ) and m are constants. We also assume a variation law for Hubble parameter as H(R) = a (R^(-n)+1), where a>0, n>1 being constant. Two universe models were obtained, and their physical behavior has been discussed. When n=1 the Universe starts from singular state whereas when n=0 the cosmology follows a no singular state. The presence of bulk viscosity increase matter density’s value.

Keywords: Bulk Viscous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model, hubble constants, gravitational constant, cosmological constants

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43 High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Paver Blocks

Authors: Som Nath Sachdeva, Vanita Aggarwal, S. M. Gupta


Use of concrete paver blocks is becoming increasingly popular. They are used for paving of approaches, paths and parking areas including their application in pre-engineered buildings. This paper discusses the results of an experimental study conducted on Fly Ash Concrete with the aim to report its suitability for concrete paver blocks. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash, 20 % to 40 %, on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied are M-30, M-35, M-40 and M-50. It is observed that all the fly ash based mixes are able to achieve the required compressive and flexural strengths. In comparison to control mixes, the compressive and flexural strengths of the fly ash based mixes are found to be slightly less at 7 days and 28 days and a little more at 90 days.

Keywords: fly ash concrete, paver blocks, compressive, flexural strength

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42 A Comparative Study of Standard, Casted, and Riveted Eye Design of a Mono Leaf Spring Using CAE Tools

Authors: Gian Bhushan, Vinkel Arora, M. L. Aggarwal


The objective of the present study is to determine better eye end design of a mono leaf spring used in light motor vehicle. A conventional 65Si7 spring steel leaf spring model with standard eye, casted and riveted eye end are considered. The CAD model of the leaf springs is prepared in CATIA and analyzed using ANSYS. The standard eye, casted, and riveted eye leaf springs are subjected to similar loading conditions. The CAE analysis of the leaf spring is performed for various parameters like deflection and Von-Mises stress. Mass reduction of 62.9% is achieved in case of riveted eye mono leaf spring as compared to standard eye mono leaf spring for the same loading conditions.

Keywords: CAE, leaf spring, standard, casted, riveted eye

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41 Quantitative Analysis of Multiprocessor Architectures for Radar Signal Processing

Authors: Deepak Kumar, Debasish Deb, Reena Mamgain


Radar signal processing requires high number crunching capability. Most often this is achieved using multiprocessor platform. Though multiprocessor platform provides the capability of meeting the real time computational challenges, the architecture of the same along with mapping of the algorithm on the architecture plays a vital role in efficiently using the platform. Towards this, along with standard performance metrics, few additional metrics are defined which helps in evaluating the multiprocessor platform along with the algorithm mapping. A generic multiprocessor architecture can not suit all the processing requirements. Depending on the system requirement and type of algorithms used, the most suitable architecture for the given problem is decided. In the paper, we study different architectures and quantify the different performance metrics which enables comparison of different architectures for their merit. We also carried out case study of different architectures and their efficiency depending on parallelism exploited on algorithm or data or both.

Keywords: radar signal processing, multiprocessor architecture, efficiency, load imbalance, buffer requirement, pipeline, parallel, hybrid, cluster of processors (COPs)

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40 Modern Pedagogy Techniques for DC Motor Speed Control

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal


Based on a survey conducted for second and third year students of the electrical engineering department at Maharishi Markandeshwar University, India, it was found that around 92% of students felt that it would be better to introduce a virtual environment for laboratory experiments. Hence, a need was felt to perform modern pedagogy techniques for students which consist of a virtual environment using MATLAB/Simulink. In this paper, a virtual environment for the speed control of a DC motor is performed using MATLAB/Simulink. The various speed control methods for the DC motor include the field resistance control method and armature voltage control method. The performance analysis of the DC motor is hence analyzed.

Keywords: DC Motor, field control, pedagogy techniques, speed control, virtual environment, voltage control

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39 Methodology of Geometry Simplification for Conjugate Heat Transfer of Electrical Rotating Machines Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sachin Aggarwal, Sarah Kassinger, Nicholas Hoffman


Geometry simplification is a key step in performing conjugate heat transfer analysis using CFD. This paper proposes a standard methodology for the geometry simplification of rotating machines, such as electrical generators and electrical motors (both air and liquid-cooled). These machines are extensively deployed throughout the aerospace and automotive industries, where optimization of weight, volume, and performance is paramount -especially given the current global transition to renewable energy sources and vehicle hybridization and electrification. Conjugate heat transfer analysis is an essential step in optimizing their complex design. This methodology will help in reducing convergence issues due to poor mesh quality, thus decreasing computational cost and overall analysis time.

Keywords: CFD, electrical machines, Geometry simplification, heat transfer

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38 Biometric Recognition Techniques: A Survey

Authors: Shabir Ahmad Sofi, Shubham Aggarwal, Sanyam Singhal, Roohie Naaz


Biometric recognition refers to an automatic recognition of individuals based on a feature vector(s) derived from their physiological and/or behavioral characteristic. Biometric recognition systems should provide a reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual. These features are used to provide an authentication for computer based security systems. Applications of such a system include computer systems security, secure electronic banking, mobile phones, credit cards, secure access to buildings, health and social services. By using biometrics a person could be identified based on 'who she/he is' rather than 'what she/he has' (card, token, key) or 'what she/he knows' (password, PIN). In this paper, a brief overview of biometric methods, both unimodal and multimodal and their advantages and disadvantages, will be presented.

Keywords: biometric, DNA, fingerprint, ear, face, retina scan, gait, iris, voice recognition, unimodal biometric, multimodal biometric

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37 Effect of Non-Ionic Surfactants on in vitro Release of Ketorolactromethamine

Authors: Ajay Aggarwal, Kamal Saroha, Sanju Nanda


Niosomes or non-ionic surfactant vesicles are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. They are vesicular systems similar to liposomes that can be used as carriers of amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs. Entrapment efficiency was found to be higher in case of niosome prepared with span60 than niosome prepared with tween. The amount of release was found to be in order of Span20>Tween60>Tween20>Span60. As the concentration of surfactant is increased in vitro release was increased due to high entrapment. The stability study of optimized batch revealed that particle size was increased after 3months on increasing the temperature. On the other hand entrapment efficiency was decreased on increasing the temperature.

Keywords: niosomes, vesicles, span, tween, in vitro release

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36 Computational Model for Predicting Effective siRNA Sequences Using Whole Stacking Energy (ΔG) for Gene Silencing

Authors: Reena Murali, David Peter S.


The small interfering RNA (siRNA) alters the regulatory role of mRNA during gene expression by translational inhibition. Recent studies shows that up regulation of mRNA cause serious diseases like Cancer. So designing effective siRNA with good knockdown effects play an important role in gene silencing. Various siRNA design tools had been developed earlier. In this work, we are trying to analyze the existing good scoring second generation siRNA predicting tools and to optimize the efficiency of siRNA prediction by designing a computational model using Artificial Neural Network and whole stacking energy (ΔG), which may help in gene silencing and drug design in cancer therapy. Our model is trained and tested against a large data set of siRNA sequences. Validation of our results is done by finding correlation coefficient of experimental versus observed inhibition efficacy of siRNA. We achieved a correlation coefficient of 0.727 in our previous computational model and we could improve the correlation coefficient up to 0.753 when the threshold of whole tacking energy is greater than or equal to -32.5 kcal/mol.

Keywords: artificial neural network, double stranded RNA, RNA interference, short interfering RNA

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35 Generational Differences in Leadership and Motivation: A Multilevel Study of Federal Workers

Authors: Sally Selden, Jyoti Aggarwal


The research on generational expectations about leadership is developing, but little scholarship exists on this topic for public sector organizations. Given the size of the federal workforce, this research study fills an important gap in the knowledge base and will inform public organizations how to approach managing and leading a multigenerational workforce. The research objectives of this study are to explore leadership preferences and motivation within generations and to determine whether these qualities differ by type of federal agency (e.g., law enforcement, human services, etc.). This paper will review the research on generational differences, expectations, and leadership with a focus on studies of public organizations. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), this study will examine how leadership and motivation vary by generation in the federal government workforce, controlling for other demographic characteristics. The study will also examine whether generational differences impact satisfaction and performance. The study will utilize the 2019 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey.

Keywords: multigenerational workforce, leadership, generational differences, federal workforce

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34 A Study of the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Financial Performance of Banks in Mauritius

Authors: Narvada Ramdhany, Reena Bhattu Babajee


The 2007-2008 Global Financial Crisis which initiated in the US had a global outreach, impacting the financial and banking sectors of several economies; such as European countries, developing and emerging countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa. European countries represent one of the main sources of export earnings for Mauritius and given that Europe has been quite profoundly affected by the crisis, the Mauritian economy also could have been negatively affected. This study is being undertaken to see if the crisis had a spill-over effect on the Mauritian banking system. It will also enable to determine if the measures put in place to counteract the crisis by regulatory authorities have been effective. The study will be carried out on 17 banks and data will be collected over a time frame of seven years; with a pre-crisis period from 2005 to 2007 and a post-crisis period from 2009 to 2011. The impact of the crisis as such will be measured through the financial performance of the banks, using financial ratios and regression analysis. The results show that during the period concerned Mauritian banks have remained solvent and relatively stable. One of the main explanations put forward to explain the resilience of the banking sector to the crisis is that foreign exposure was relatively low. Another explanation put forward is that Mauritian banks normally transact mainly with prime borrowers unlike most the banks which were affected by the financial crisis.  

Keywords: global financial crisis, banking sector, financial performance, Mauritian banks

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33 Rotor Side Speed Control Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink for Wound Induction Motor

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal


In recent advancements in electric machine and drives, wound rotor motor is extensively used. The merit of using wound rotor induction motor is to control speed/torque characteristics by inserting external resistance. Wound rotor induction motor can be used in the cases such as (a) low inrush current, (b) load requiring high starting torque, (c) lower starting current is required, (d) loads having high inertia, and (e) gradual built up of torque. Examples include conveyers, cranes, pumps, elevators, and compressors. This paper includes speed control of wound induction motor using MATLAB/Simulink for rotor resistance and slip power recovery method. The characteristics of these speed control methods are hence analyzed.

Keywords: MATLAB/Simulink, rotor resistance method, slip power recovery method, wound rotor induction motor

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32 Computer-Aided Teaching of Transformers for Undergraduates

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal


In the era of technological advancement, use of computer technology has become inevitable. Hence it has become the need of the hour to integrate software methods in engineering curriculum as a part to boost pedagogy techniques. Simulations software is a great help to graduates of disciplines such as electrical engineering. Since electrical engineering deals with high voltages and heavy instruments, extra care must be taken while operating with them. The viable solution would be to have appropriate control. The appropriate control could be well designed if engineers have knowledge of kind of waveforms associated with the system. Though these waveforms can be plotted manually, but it consumes a lot of time. Hence aid of simulation helps to understand steady state of system and resulting in better performance. In this paper computer, aided teaching of transformer is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The test carried out on a transformer includes open circuit test and short circuit respectively. The respective parameters of transformer are then calculated using the values obtained from open circuit and short circuit test respectively using Simulink.

Keywords: computer aided teaching, open circuit test, short circuit test, simulink, transformer

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31 Characteristics of Clayey Subgrade Soil Mixed with Cement Stabilizer

Authors: Manju, Praveen Aggarwal


Clayey soil is considered weakest subgrade soil from civil engineering point of view under moist condition. These swelling soils attract and absorb water and losses their strength. Certain inherent properties of these clayey soils need modification for their bulk use in the construction of highways/runways pavements and embankments, etc. In this paper, results of clayey subgrade modified with cement stabilizer is presented. Investigation includes evaluation of specific gravity, Atterberg’s limits, grain size distribution, maximum dry density, optimum moisture content and CBR value of the clayey soil and cement treated clayey soil. A series of proctor compaction and CBR tests (un-soaked and soaked) are carried out on clayey soil and clayey soil mixed with cement stabilizer in 2%, 4% & 6% percentages to the dry weight of soil. In CBR test, under soaked condition best results are obtained with 6% of cement. However, the difference between the CBR value by addition of 4% and 6% cement is not much. Therefore from economical consideration addition of 4% cement gives the best result after soaking period of 90 days.

Keywords: clayey soil, cement, maximum dry density, optimum moisture content, California bearing ratio

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30 Analysis of Fault Tolerance on Grid Computing in Real Time Approach

Authors: Parampal Kaur, Deepak Aggarwal


In the computational Grid, fault tolerance is an imperative issue to be considered during job scheduling. Due to the widespread use of resources, systems are highly prone to errors and failures. Hence, fault tolerance plays a key role in the grid to avoid the problem of unreliability. Scheduling the task to the appropriate resource is a vital requirement in computational Grid. The fittest resource scheduling algorithm searches for the appropriate resource based on the job requirements, in contrary to the general scheduling algorithms where jobs are scheduled to the resources with best performance factor. The proposed method is to improve the fault tolerance of the fittest resource scheduling algorithm by scheduling the job in coordination with job replication when the resource has low reliability. Based on the reliability index of the resource, the resource is identified as critical. The tasks are scheduled based on the criticality of the resources. Results show that the execution time of the tasks is comparatively reduced with the proposed algorithm using real-time approach rather than a simulator.

Keywords: computational grid, fault tolerance, task replication, job scheduling

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29 Predictive Models for Compressive Strength of High Performance Fly Ash Cement Concrete for Pavements

Authors: S. M. Gupta, Vanita Aggarwal, Som Nath Sachdeva


The work reported through this paper is an experimental work conducted on High Performance Concrete (HPC) with super plasticizer with the aim to develop some models suitable for prediction of compressive strength of HPC mixes. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash (0% to 50% at 10% increment) on compressive strength of high performance concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied were M30, M40 and M50 to compare the effect of fly ash addition on the properties of these concrete mixes. In all eighteen concrete mixes have been designed, three as conventional concretes for three grades under discussion and fifteen as HPC with fly ash with varying percentages of fly ash. The concrete mix designing has been done in accordance with Indian standard recommended guidelines i.e. IS: 10262. All the concrete mixes have been studied in terms of compressive strength at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days and 365 days. All the materials used have been kept same throughout the study to get a perfect comparison of values of results. The models for compressive strength prediction have been developed using Linear Regression method (LR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Leave One Out Validation (LOOV) methods.

Keywords: high performance concrete, fly ash, concrete mixes, compressive strength, strength prediction models, linear regression, ANN

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28 Rare Earth Doped Alkali Halide Crystals for Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Application

Authors: Pooja Seth, Shruti Aggarwal


The Europium (Eu) doped (0.02-0.1 wt %) lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal in the form of multicrystalline sheet was gown by the edge defined film fed growth (EFG) technique. Crystals were grown in argon gas atmosphere using graphite crucible and stainless steel die. The systematic incorporation of Eu inside the host LiF lattice was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve was recorded on annealed (AN) crystals after irradiation with a gamma dose of 15 Gy. The effect of different concentration of Eu in enhancing the thermoluminescence (TL) intensity of LiF was studied. The normalized peak height of the Eu-doped LiF crystal was nearly 12 times that of the LiF crystals. The optimized concentration of Eu in LiF was found to be 0.05wt% at which maximum TL intensity was observed with main TL peak positioned at 185 °C. At higher concentration TL intensity decreases due to the formation of precipitates in the form of clusters or aggregates. The nature of the energy traps in Eu doped LiF was analysed through glow curve deconvolution. The trap depth was found to be in the range of 0.2 – 0.5 eV. These results showed that doping with Eu enhances the TL intensity by creating more defect sites for capturing of electron and holes during irradiation which might be useful for dosimetry application.

Keywords: thermoluminescence, defects, gamma radiation, crystals

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27 Morphological Study of Sesamoid Bones of Thumb in South Indians

Authors: B. V. Murlimanju, R. Abisshek Balaji, Apoorva Aggarwal, Mangala M. Pai


Background: Since the literature is scarce from the South Indian population about the sesamoid bones of the thumb, the present study was undertaken. The objective of the present study was to figure out the muscle of the thumb which contain these sesamoid bones. Methods: The present study included 25 cadaveric thumbs, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory of our institution. Thumbs were studied for the prevalence of sesamoid bones at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. The muscle which contain these sesamoid bones were identified. Results: The present study observed that, there were 2 sesamoid bones (92%) at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb each at its medial and lateral aspect. The medial sesamoid bone was found inside the adductor pollicis muscle and lateral one was found either in the flexor pollicis brevis muscle or abductor pollicis brevis muscle. However, among the 25 thumbs being studied, 2 thumbs (8%) had solitary sesamoid bone. The interphalangeal joint of the thumb exhibited only one sesamoid bone at the median plane. Conclusion: The morphological data of the present study from the South Indians can be used as a database, which is enlightening to the operating hand surgeon and radiologist.

Keywords: morphology, muscles, sesamoid bones, thumb

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26 To Estimate the Association between Visual Stress and Visual Perceptual Skills

Authors: Vijay Reena Durai, Krithica Srinivasan


Introduction: The two fundamental skills involved in the growth and wellbeing of any child can be categorized into visual motor and perceptual skills. Visual stress is a disorder which is characterized by visual discomfort, blurred vision, misspelling words, skipping lines, letters bunching together. There is a need to understand the deficits in perceptual skills among children with visual stress. Aim: To estimate the association between visual stress and visual perceptual skills Objective: To compare visual perceptual skills of children with and without visual stress Methodology: Children between 8 to 15 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. All children with monocular visual acuity better than or equal to 6/6 were included. Visual perceptual skills were measured using test for visual perceptual skills (TVPS) tool. Reading speed was measured with the chosen colored overlay using Wilkins reading chart and pattern glare score was estimated using a 3cpd gratings. Visual stress was defined as change in reading speed of greater than or equal to 10% and a pattern glare score of greater than or equal to 4. Results: 252 children participated in this study and the male: female ratio of 3:2. Majority of the children preferred Magenta (28%) and Yellow (25%) colored overlay for reading. There was a significant difference between the two groups (MD=1.24±0.6) (p<0.04, 95% CI 0.01-2.43) only in the sequential memory skills. The prevalence of visual stress in this group was found to be 31% (n=78). Binary logistic regression showed that odds ratio of having poor visual perceptual skills was OR: 2.85 (95% CI 1.08-7.49) among children with visual stress. Conclusion: Children with visual stress are found to have three times poorer visual perceptual skills than children without visual stress.

Keywords: visual stress, visual perceptual skills, colored overlay, pattern glare

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25 A Novel Design of Inset Feed Patch Antenna for Ultra Wide Band Application

Authors: Priyanka Aggarwal, Priyanka Mangla


This work has focused on the aspect of UWB antenna design, which is very suitable for portable UWB applications. The design of new UWB antenna faces some challenges. The antenna should be compact, preferably conformal, and low cost for manufacture, and have good electrical performance, such as good matching, directional radiation performance over a wide band, good time response, etc. Keeping these goals in mind a compact and directional compact open-slot antenna was built. The antenna radiating structure is in the form of two exponentially tapered arms that lie on the opposite sides of the substrate. The antenna operates over the frequency band from 2.95 GHz to more than 12.1 GHz. It exhibits a directive radiation performance with a peak gain which is between 5.4 dBi and 8.3 dBi in the specified band. The antenna has linear phase response over the entire UWB frequency range and hence constant group delay which is vital for transmission and reception of sub-nanosecond pulses. Due to its planar profile, physically compact size, wide impedance bandwidth, directive performance over a wide bandwidth proposed antenna is a good candidate for portable UWB applications and other UWB integrated circuits.

Keywords: inset feed patch antenna, ultra wide band, radiation performance, geometry, antenna

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24 Non-Invasive Imaging of Tissue Using Near Infrared Radiations

Authors: Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal


NIR Light is non-ionizing and can pass easily through living tissues such as breast without any harmful effects. Therefore, use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function. This blurred reconstructed image has been enhanced using a digital filter which is optimal in mean square sense.

Keywords: least-squares optimization, filtering, tomography, laser interaction, light scattering

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23 Highly Efficient Iron Oxide-Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Catalyst for Esterification and Trans-Esterification Reactions

Authors: Reena D. Souza, Tripti Vats, Prem F. Siril


Esterification of free fatty acid (oleic acid) and transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) with ethanol over graphene oxide (GO), GO-Fe2O3, sulfonated GO (GO-SO3H), and Fe2O3/GO-SO3H catalysts were examined in the present study. Iron oxide supported graphene-based acid catalyst (Fe2O3/GO-SO3H) exhibited highest catalytic activity. GO was prepared by modified Hummer’s process. The GO-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were prepared by the addition of NaOH to a solution containing GO and FeCl3. Sulfonation was done using concentrated sulfuric acid. Transmissionelectron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging revealed the presence of Fe2O3 particles having size in the range of 50-200 nm. Crystal structure was analyzed by XRD and defect states of graphene were characterized using Raman spectroscopy. The effects of the reaction variables such as catalyst loading, ethanol to acid ratio, reaction time and temperature on the conversion of fatty acids were studied. The optimum conditions for the esterification process were molar ratio of alcohol to oleic acid at 12:1 with 5 wt% of Fe2O3/GO-SO3H at 1000C with a reaction time of 4h yielding 99% of ethyl oleate. This is because metal oxide supported solid acid catalysts have advantages of having both strong Brønsted as well as Lewis acid properties. The biodiesel obtained by transesterification of WCO was characterized by 1H NMR and Gas Chromatography techniques. XRD patterns of the recycled catalyst evidenced that the catalyst structure was unchanged up to the 5th cycle, which indicated the long life of the catalyst.

Keywords: Fe₂O₃/GO-SO₃H, Graphene Oxide, GO-Fe₂O₃, GO-SO₃H, WCO

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22 The Effect of the Addition of Additives on the Properties of Bisamide Organogels

Authors: Elmira Ghanbari, Jan Van Esch, Stephen J. Picken, Sahil Aggarwal


Organogels are formed by the assembly of low molecular weight gelators (LMWG) into fibrous structures. The assembly of these molecules into crystalline fibrous structures occurs as a result of reversible interactions such as π-stacking, hydrogen-bonding, and van der Waals interactions. Bisamide organogelators with two amide groups have been used as one of LMWGs which show efficient assembly behavior via hydrogen bonding for network formation, the formation of a crystalline network for solvent entrapment. In this study, different bisamide gelators with different lengths of alkyl chains have been added to the bisamide parent gels. The effect of the addition of bisamide additives on the gelation of bisamide gels is described. Investigation of the thermal properties of the gels by differential scanning calorimetry and dropping ball techniques indicated that the bisamide gels can be formed by the addition of a high concentration of the second bisamide components. The microstructure of the gels with different gelator components has been visualized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which has shown systematic woven, platelet-like, and a combination of those morphologies for different gels. Examining the addition of a range of bisamide additives with different structural characteristics than the parent bisamide gels has confirmed the effect of the molecular structure on the morphology of the bisamide gels and their final properties.

Keywords: bisamide organogelator additives, gel morphology, gel properties, self-assembly

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21 The Effects of Pride Therapy on the Level of Self-Esteem among Physically Challenged Adolescents

Authors: Canapi Patricia Joy, Canlas Tracy Gabriella, Canseco Teresa, Capistrano Reena Marie, Carandang Vernon, Carbonel Khiara Claudine


Research problem: The main problem of the study was to determine the effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual’s Self-esteem (PRIDE) therapy on the level of self-esteem of physically challenged adolescents. Objectives of the Study: The study determined the effect of PRIDE (Projecting the Reflection of the Individuals Self-esteem) therapy on the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescents. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study was used which involved 30 randomly-assigned subjects, 15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. The Projecting the reflection of the Individuals’ Self-Esteem (PRDIE) therapy was administered to the experimental group. The researchers utilized the Sorensen Self-Esteem test tool as a pretest and posttest questionnaire and yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of .912. Paired T-test was used to analyze the gathered data. Results: The results showed that after the administration of PRIDE therapy, there was an increase on the level of self-esteem. The experimental group had a value of 3.590, which was significant and meant that the level of self-esteem is significantly increased. On the other hand, the control group, had a value of -2.207 which was also significant, therefore, the level of self esteem significantly decreased. Conclusion: the PRIDE Therapy is effective in increasing the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescent. Recommendations: The researchers recommend the use of PRIDE Therapy as an intervention in handling physically challenged patients, especially adolescents, in order to enhance their self-esteem. Also, the researchers recommend that nursing students be informed on the efficacy of PRIDE Therapy in enhancing the self-esteem of physically challenged patients. Furthermore, the inclusion of a psychologist during the implementation of PRIDE Therapy, specifically art therapy, to be able to have a more focused interpretation of the drawings and really be able to see the projection of their self-esteem is also recommended.

Keywords: adolescents, PRIDE therapy, physically challenged, self-esteem

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20 Need of Medicines Information OPD in Tertiary Health Care Settings: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Swanand Pathak, Kiran R. Giri, Reena R. Giri, Kamlesh Palandurkar, Sangita Totade, Rajesh Jha, S. S. Patel


Background: Population burden, illiteracy, availability of few doctors for larger group of population leads to many unanswered questions left in a patient’s mind. Incomplete information results into noncompliance, therapeutic failure, and adverse drug reactions (ADR). It is very important to establish a system which will provide noncommercial, independent, unbiased source of medicine information. Medicines Info OPD is a concept and step towards safe and appropriate use of medicines. Objective: (1) to assess the present status of knowledge about the medicines in the patients and its correlation with education; (2) to assess the medicine information dispensing modalities, their use and sufficiency from the patients view point; (3) to assess the overall need for Medicines Information OPD in present scenario. Materials and Methods: A pre-validated questionnaire based study was conducted amongst 500 patients of tertiary health care hospital. The questionnaire consisted of specific questions regarding understanding of prescription, knowledge about adverse drug reaction, view about self-medication and opinion regarding the need of Medicines Info OPD. Results: Significantly large proportion of patients opined that doctors do not have sufficient time in current Indian healthcare to explain the prescription and they are not aware of adverse drug reactions, expiry date or use the package inserts etc. Conclusion: Clinically relevant, up to date, user specific, independent, objective and unbiased Medicines Info OPD is essential for appropriate drug use and can help in a big way to common public to address many problems faced by them.

Keywords: information, prescription, unbiased, clinically relevant

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19 Emerging Research Trends in Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Subhra Prosun Paul, Shruti Aggarwal


Now a days Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network has become a promising technique in the different fields of the latest computer technology. Routing in Wireless Sensor Network is a demanding task due to the different design issues of all sensor nodes. Network architecture, no of nodes, traffic of routing, the capacity of each sensor node, network consistency, service value are the important factor for the design and analysis of Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network. Additionally, internal energy, the distance between nodes, the load of sensor nodes play a significant role in the efficient routing protocol. In this paper, our intention is to analyze the research trends in different routing protocols of Wireless Sensor Network in terms of different parameters. In order to explain the research trends on Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network, different data related to this research topic are analyzed with the help of Web of Science and Scopus databases. The data analysis is performed from global perspective-taking different parameters like author, source, document, country, organization, keyword, year, and a number of the publication. Different types of experiments are also performed, which help us to evaluate the recent research tendency in the Routing Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network. In order to do this, we have used Web of Science and Scopus databases separately for data analysis. We have observed that there has been a tremendous development of research on this topic in the last few years as it has become a very popular topic day by day.

Keywords: analysis, routing protocol, research trends, wireless sensor network

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18 The Effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual's Self-Esteem (PRIDE) Therapy on the Level of Self-Esteem of Physically Challenged Adolescents

Authors: Khiara Claudine C. Carbonel, Patricia Joy A. Canapi, Tracy Gabriella M. Canlas, Teresa Zaine C. Canseco, Reena Marie A. Capistrano, Vernon A. Carandang, Carlo G. Ranoco


Research problem: The main problem of the study was to determine the effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual’s Self-esteem (PRIDE) therapy on the level of self-esteem of physically challenged adolescents. Objectives of the Study: The study determined the effect of PRIDE (Projecting the Reflection of the Individuals Self-esteem) therapy on the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescents. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study was used which involved 30 randomly-assigned subjects, 15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. The Projecting the reflection of the Individuals’ Self-Esteem (PRDIE) therapy was administered to the experimental group. The researchers utilized the Sorensen Self-Esteem test tool as a pretest and posttest questionnaire and yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of .912. Paired T-test was used to analyze the gathered data. Results: The results showed that after the administration of PRIDE therapy, there was an increase on the level of self-esteem. The experimental group had a value of 3.590, which was significant and meant that the level of self-esteem is significantly increased. On the other hand, the control group, had a value of -2.207 which was also significant, therefore, the level of self esteem significantly decreased. Conclusion: the PRIDE Therapy is effective in increasing the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescent. Recommendations: The researchers recommend the use of PRIDE Therapy as an intervention in handling physically challenged patients, especially adolescents, in order to enhance their self-esteem. Also, the researchers recommend that nursing students be informed on the efficacy of PRIDE Therapy in enhancing the self-esteem of physically challenged patients. Furthermore, the inclusion of a psychologist during the implementation of PRIDE Therapy, specifically art therapy, to be able to have a more focused interpretation of the drawings and really be able to see the projection of their self-esteem is also recommended.

Keywords: PRIDE therapy, physically challenged adolescents, self-esteem, art therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
17 Correlation of Depression and Anxiety with Glycemic Control in Children with Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Sujata Sethi, Pawan Kumar, Sameer Aggarwal


Depression and anxiety are of significant concern in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and these are correlated with glycemic control in multiple ways. The extent of depression and anxiety in children with T1DM remains poorly studied in India. The index study aimed to find the prevalence of depression and anxiety and their correlation with HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) levels in children with T1DM. Material and methods: This study was a cross-sectional study carried out on a purposive sample of 45 children with T1DM. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of all the participants were recorded. Results: 43 out of 45 children were analyzed as HbA1c status for two was not known. 48.8% were females. Mean age was 12.95+2.04. The average duration of diabetes was 3.63+1.82. Mean CDRS-R score was 41.6+12.25 and mean SCAS score was 33.07+12.29. Mean recording of HbA1c level was 7.90+1.51. 27 (62.8%) out of 43 participants had abnormal scores on CDRS-R and 24 (55.8%) out of 43 had abnormal scores on SCAS. The correlation coefficient between HbA1c levels and the CDRS-R score came out to be 0.57 and between HbA1c and SCAS, it was 0.53. Both correlations were significant with the p-value of < 0.02. Conclusion: Children with T1DM have high co-morbidity of depression and anxiety which is significantly correlated with the HbA1c levels. Thus, it becomes important to screen the patients for depression and anxiety for better outcomes.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, HbA1c, T1DM

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