Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Adeel Zulfiqar

32 Estimation of Twist Loss in the Weft Yarn during Air-Jet Weft Insertion

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Yasir Nawab, Khubab Shaker, Muhammad Maqsood, Adeel Zulfiqar, Danish Mahmood Baitab

Abstract:

Fabric is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Today fabrics are produced by weaving, braiding, knitting, tufting and non-woven. Weaving is a method of fabric production in which warp and weft yarns are interlaced perpendicular to each other. There is infinite number of ways for the interlacing of warp and weft yarn. Each way produces a different fabric structure. The yarns parallel to the machine direction are called warp yarns and the yarns perpendicular to the machine direction are called weft or filling yarns. Air jet weaving is the modern method of weft insertion and considered as high speed loom. The twist loss in air jet during weft insertion affects the strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of twist change in weft yarn during air-jet weft insertion. A total number of 8 samples were produced using 1/1 plain and 3/1 twill weave design with two fabric widths having same loom settings. Two different types of yarns like cotton and PC blend were used. The effect of material type, weave design and fabric width on twist change of weft yarn was measured and discussed. Twist change in the different types of weft yarn and weave design was measured and compared the twist change in the weft yarn with the yarn before weft yarn insertion and twist loss is measured. Wider fabric leads to higher twist loss in the yarn.

Keywords: air jet loom, twist per inch, twist loss, weft yarn

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31 Tuning of Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicles Using Tethered Setup

Authors: Shoeb Ahmed Adeel, Vivek Paul, K. Prajwal, Michael Fenelon

Abstract:

Techniques have been used to tether and stabilize a multi-rotor MAV but carrying out the same process to a fixed wing MAV is a novel method which can be utilized in order to reduce damage occurring to the fixed wing MAVs while conducting flight test trials and PID tuning. A few sensors and on board controller is required to carry out this experiment in horizontal and vertical plane of the vehicle. Here we will be discussing issues such as sensitivity of the air vehicle, endurance and external load of the string acting on the vehicle.

Keywords: MAV, PID tuning, tethered flight, UAV

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30 Eating Behaviours in Islam and Mental Health: A Preventative Approach

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Lamae Zulfiqar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

Abstract:

A growing number of research focuses on healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors and their impact on health. It was intended to study the Islamic point of view on eating behavior, its impact on mental health and preventative strategies in the light of the Quran and Sunnah. Different articles and Islamic sayings related to eating behaviors and mental health were reviewed in detail. It was also revealed scientifically and through Islamic point of view that appropriate quantity, quality and timings of food have positive effects on mental health. Therefore, a 3Rs model of eating behaviors has been proposed.

Keywords: food intake, mental health, quality of food, quantity of food

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29 Effect of Anion Variation on the CO2 Capture Performance of Pyridinium Containing Poly(ionic liquid)s

Authors: Sonia Zulfiqar, Daniele Mantione, Muhammad Ilyas Sarwar, Alexander Rothenberger, David Mecerreyes

Abstract:

Climate change due to escalating carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is an issue of paramount importance that needs immediate attention. CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) is a promising route to mitigate climate change and adsorption is the most widely recognized technology owing to possible energy savings relative to the conventional absorption techniques. In this conference, the potential of a new family of solid sorbents for CO2 capture and separation will be presented. Novel pyridinium containing poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) were synthesized with varying anions i.e bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and hexafluorophosphate. The resulting polymers were characterized using NMR, XRD, TGA, BET surface area and microscopic techniques. Furthermore, CO2 adsorption measurements at two different temperatures were also carried out and revealed great potential of these PILs as CO2 scavengers.

Keywords: climate change, CO2 capture, poly(ionic liquid)s, CO2/N2 selectivity

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28 Financial Crises in the Context of Behavioral Finance

Authors: Nousheen Tariq Bhutta, Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah

Abstract:

Financial crises become a key impediment towards the development of countries especially in emerging economies. Based on standard finance, many researchers investigated the financial crises in different countries in order to find the underlying reason regarding occurrence these event; however they were unable to provide it. In this essence behavioral finance may be helpful in providing answers to some queries regarding occurrence and prevention of financial crises. In this paper, we explore the some psychological factors comprises of our inspiration, emotion, cognition and culture along with their reflection companies, financial markets and governments that present some supportive arguments. Moreover, we compared the views of Keynes and Minsky in order to validate the underling justification towards occurrence of financial crises and their prevention in future. This study helps the practitioners and policy makers through providing valuable recommendation in order to protect the economies.

Keywords: financial crises, behavioral finance, financial markets, emerging economies

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27 Design, Prototyping, Integration, Flight Testing of a 20 cm Span Fully Autonomous Fixed Wing Micro Air Vehicle

Authors: Vivek Paul, Abel Nelly, Shoeb A Adeel, R. Tilak, S. Maheshwaran, S. Pulikeshi, Roshan Antony, C. S. Suraj

Abstract:

This paper presents the complete design and development cycle of a 20 cm span fixed wing micro air vehicle that was developed at CSIR-NAL, under the micro air vehicle development program. The design is a cropped delta flying wing MAV with a modified N22 airfoil of 12.3% thickness. The design was fabricated using the fused deposition method- RPT technique. COTS components were procured and integrated into this RPT prototype. A commercial autopilot that was proven in the earlier MAV designs was used for this MAV. The MAV was flown fully autonomous for 14mins at an open field. The flight data showed good performance as expected from the MAV design. The paper also describes about the process involved in the design of MAVs.

Keywords: autopilot, autonomous mode, flight testing, MAV, RPT

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26 The Application of Lean-Kaizen in Course Plan and Delivery in Malaysian Higher Education Sector

Authors: Nur Aishah Binti Awi, Zulfiqar Khan

Abstract:

Lean-kaizen has always been applied in manufacturing sector since many years ago. What about education sector? This paper discuss on how lean-kaizen can also be applied in education sector, specifically in academic area of Malaysian’s higher education sector. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of lean kaizen in course plan and delivery. Lean-kaizen techniques have been used to identify waste in the course plan and delivery. A field study has been conducted to obtain the data. This study used both quantitative and qualitative data. The researcher had interviewed the chosen lecturers regarding to the problems of course plan and delivery that they encountered. Secondary data of students’ feedback at the end of semester also has been used to improve course plan and delivery. The result empirically shows that lean-kaizen helps to improve the course plan and delivery by reducing the wastes. Thus, this study demonstrates that lean-kaizen can also help education sector to improve their services as achieved by manufacturing sector.

Keywords: course delivery, education, Kaizen, lean

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25 Geotechnical Distress Evaluation of a Damaged Structure

Authors: Zulfiqar Ali, Umar Saleem, Muhammad Junaid, Rizwan Tahir

Abstract:

Gulzar Mahal is a heritage site located in the city of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The site is under a process of degradation, as cracks are appearing on the walls, roofs, and floor around the building due to differential settlement. To preserve the integrity of the structure, a geotechnical distress evaluation was carried out to evaluate the causal factors and recommend remediation measures. The research involved the characterization of the problematic soil and analysis of the observed distress with respect to the geotechnical properties. Both conventional lab and field tests were used in conjunction with the unconventional techniques like; Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and FEA. The temporal, geophysical and geotechnical evaluations have concluded that the foundation soil over the past was subjected to variations in the land use, poor drainage patterns, overloading and fluctuations in groundwater table all contributing to the differential settlements manifesting in the form of the visible shear crack across the length and breadth of the building.

Keywords: differential settlement, distress evaluation, finite element analysis, Gulzar Mahal

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24 Autonomic Threat Avoidance and Self-Healing in Database Management System

Authors: Wajahat Munir, Muhammad Haseeb, Adeel Anjum, Basit Raza, Ahmad Kamran Malik

Abstract:

Databases are the key components of the software systems. Due to the exponential growth of data, it is the concern that the data should be accurate and available. The data in databases is vulnerable to internal and external threats, especially when it contains sensitive data like medical or military applications. Whenever the data is changed by malicious intent, data analysis result may lead to disastrous decisions. Autonomic self-healing is molded toward computer system after inspiring from the autonomic system of human body. In order to guarantee the accuracy and availability of data, we propose a technique which on a priority basis, tries to avoid any malicious transaction from execution and in case a malicious transaction affects the system, it heals the system in an isolated mode in such a way that the availability of system would not be compromised. Using this autonomic system, the management cost and time of DBAs can be minimized. In the end, we test our model and present the findings.

Keywords: autonomic computing, self-healing, threat avoidance, security

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23 Prediction Modeling of Compression Properties of a Knitted Sportswear Fabric Using Response Surface Method

Authors: Jawairia Umar, Tanveer Hussain, Zulfiqar Ali, Muhammad Maqsood

Abstract:

Different knitted structures and knitted parameters play a vital role in the stretch and recovery management of compression sportswear in addition to the materials use to generate this stretch and recovery behavior of the fabric. The present work was planned to predict the different performance indicators of a compression sportswear fabric with some ground parameters i.e. base yarn stitch length (polyester as base yarn and spandex as plating yarn involve to make a compression fabric) and linear density of the spandex which is a key material of any sportswear fabric. The prediction models were generated by response surface method for performance indicators such as stretch & recovery percentage, compression generated by the garment on body, total elongation on application of high power force and load generated on certain percentage extension in fabric. Certain physical properties of the fabric were also modeled using these two parameters.

Keywords: Compression, sportswear, stretch and recovery, statistical model, kikuhime

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22 A Detailed Study of Two Different Airfoils on Flight Performance of MAV of Same Physical Dimension

Authors: Shoeb A. Adeel, Shashant Anand, Vivek Paul, Dinesh, Suraj, Roshan

Abstract:

The paper presents a study of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wingspans of 20 Cm with two different airfoil configurations. MAVs have vast potential applications in both military and civilian areas. These MAVs are fully autonomous and supply real-time data. The paper focuses on two different designs of the MAVs one being N22 airfoil and the other a flat plate with similar dimension. As designed, the MAV would fly in a low Reynolds-number regime at airspeeds of 15 & 20 m/sec. Propulsion would be provided by an electric motor with an advanced lithium. Because of the close coupling between vehicle elements, system integration would be a significant challenge, requiring tight packaging and multifunction components to meet mass limitations and Centre of Gravity (C.G) balancing. These MAVs are feasible and within a couple of years of technology development in key areas including sensors, propulsion, Aerodynamics, and packaging these would be easily available to the users at affordable prices. The paper finally compares the flight performance of the two configurations.

Keywords: airfoil, CFD, MAV, flight performance, endurance, climb, lift, drag

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21 Estimation of Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation Studies of Islamabad, Capital City of Pakistan

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Maliha Afshan, Adeel Tahir

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation studies have been carried out for the Capital city of Pakistan, Islamabad ( latitude 330 43’N and Longitude 370 71’E) to assess the solar potential of the area. The global and diffuse solar radiation were carried out using sunshine hour data for the above-mentioned area. Monthly total solar radiation is calculated through regression constants a and b through declination angle of the sun and sunshine hours and KT that is cloudiness index are used to calculate the diffuse solar radiation. Result obtained shows variation in the direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months for Islamabad. Diffuse solar radiation was found maximum in July, i.e., 32% whereas direct or beam radiation was found to be high in April to June, i.e., 73%. During July, August, and December, the sky was found cloudy. From the result, it appears that with the exception of monsoon month July and August the solar energy can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year in Islamabad.

Keywords: global radiation, Islamabad, diffuse radiation, sky condition, sunshine hour

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20 An Improved Modular Multilevel Converter Voltage Balancing Approach for Grid Connected PV System

Authors: Safia Bashir, Zulfiqar Memon

Abstract:

During the last decade, renewable energy sources in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) has gained increased attention. Therefore, various PV converters topologies have emerged. Among this topology, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is considered as one of the most promising topologies for the grid-connected PV system due to its modularity and transformerless features. When it comes to the safe operation of MMC, the balancing of the Submodules Voltages (SMs) plays a critical role. This paper proposes a balancing approach based on space vector PWM (SVPWM). Unlike the existing techniques, this method generates the switching vectors for the MMC by using only one SVPWM for the upper arm. The lower arm switching vectors are obtained by finding the complement of the upper arm switching vectors. The use of one SVPWM not only simplifies the calculation but also helped in reducing the circulating current in the MMC. The proposed method is varied through simulation using Matlab/Simulink and compared with other available modulation methods. The results validate the ability of the suggested method in balancing the SMs capacitors voltages and reducing the circulating current which will help in reducing the power loss of the PV system.

Keywords: capacitor voltage balancing, circulating current, modular multilevel converter, PV system

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19 Screening of Risk Phenotypes among Metabolic Syndrome Subjects in Adult Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Saqlain, Abid Mahmood, S. M. Saqlan Naqvi, Rizwan Aziz Qazi, Ghazala Kaukab Raja

Abstract:

Background: Metabolic Syndrome is a clustering of multiple risk factors including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. These risk phenotypes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalent world-wide, Therefore we aimed to identify the frequency of risk phenotypes among metabolic syndrome subjects in local adult Pakistani population. Methods: Screening of subjects visiting out-patient department of medicine, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad was performed to assess the occurrence of risk phenotypes among MetS subjects in Pakistani population. The Metabolic Syndrome was defined based on International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Anthropometric and biochemical assay results were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS software (16.0). Results: Our results showed that dyslipidemia (31.50%) and hyperglycemia (30.50%) was most population specific risk phenotypes of MetS. The results showed the order of association of metabolic risk phenotypes to MetS as follows hyperglycemia>dyslipidemia>obesity >hypertension. Conclusion: The hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were found be the major risk phenotypes among the MetS subjects and have greater chances of deceloping MetS among Pakistani Population.

Keywords: dyslipidemia, hypertention, metabolic syndrome, obesity

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18 Pre and Post Mordant Effect of Alum on Gamma Rays Assisted Cotton Fabric by Using Ipomoea indica Leaves Extract

Authors: Abdul Hafeez, Shahid Adeel, Ayesha Hussain

Abstract:

There are number of plants species in the universe which give the protections from different diseases and give colour for the foods and textiles. The environmental condition of the universe suggested toward the ecofriendly textiles. The aim of the paper is to analyze the influence of pre & post mordanting of alum on radiated cotton fabric with Gamma Radiation of different doses by using Ipomoea indica leaves extract. Alum used as mordant with the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% as pre and post mordanting to observe the effect of light and colour fastness of radiated cotton. 6% of alum concentration in pre mordanting gave good colour strength 117.82 with darker in shade toward the greenish tone and in post mordanting 6% concentration gave good colour strength 102.19. The lab values show that the colour is darker in tone and gave bluish effect. Further results showed that alum gave good light and rubbing fastness on gamma radiated cotton fabric.

Keywords: Ipomoea indica, gamma radiation, alum, light fastness

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17 The Influence of Addition of Asparagus Bean Powder (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) on Gonad Maturity of Nilem Carp (Osteochilus hasselti) at the Floating Net Cage of Cirata Reservoir

Authors: Rita Rostika, Junianto, Zulfiqar W. Ibrahim, Iskandar, Lantun P. Dewanti

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of asparagus bean powder and its most effective administration dose to improve the gonad maturity of nilem carp (Osteochilus hasselti). The research is conducted in October-July 2017 located at Cirata Reservoir and Aquaculture Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor. The research employs an experimental method using a Complete Random Design (RAL) with six treatments and three repetitions. The treatments include the addition of asparagus bean powder by 0% (Control), 4% per kg of feed, 5% per kg of feed, 6% per kg of feed, 7% per kg of feed, as well as the addition of vitamin E essential as the control. The results show that the addition of asparagus bean powder to the feed may influence the gonad maturity of nilem carp shown by its Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) parameter, fecundity, egg diameter and egg reaching its maturity phase or GVBD (Germinal Vesicle Breakdown). The best administration dose influencing nilem carp is the addition of asparagus bean powder by 7% per kg of feed with the average GSI of 15.02%, relative fecundity of 137 eggs/g of fish parent weight, egg diameter of 1,263 mm, and egg reaching its maturity phase (GVBD) of 78.15%.

Keywords: asparagus bean powder, nilem carp, gonad maturity, Cirata reservoir

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16 Assessment of Population Trends of Birds at Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakistan

Authors: Fehmeada Bibi, Shafqat Nawaz Qaisrani, Masood Akhtar, Zulfiqar Ali

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Population trends learning is an important tool for conservation programs in rare as well as in common species of birds. A study was conducted to assess annual decline in species of birds and to identify the causes of this decline at Taunsa Barrage wildlife Sanctuary, Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected by direct census method during wintering and breeding periods (2001 to 2002 and 2008 to 2011). The results indicated an increasing trend in 157, whereas a decreasing trend in 14 species of birds. Among the species with declining trend, there was a 92% decrease in White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis), 60% in Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis), 57% in Garganey (Anas querquedula), Pallas’s Fish Eagle and Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) 50% each, 41% in Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea), 39% in Little Cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger), 37% in Gadwall (Anas strepera), 33% in Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus), 30% in Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) and 26% in Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina) population. Habitat exploitation, hunting and grazing were found the main causes of this decline. In conclusion, conservation and management of the study area is foremost to interests of declining bird population. It is suggested, therefore, to take immediate steps for the protection of the sanctuary to conserve the declining population of birds.

Keywords: population trends, wildlife sanctuary, bird, habitat exploitation

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15 Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Employee Performance: Mediating Role of Counterproductive Work Behavior in Hotel Industry of Pakistan

Authors: Kashif Mahmood, Tehreem Fatima, Adeel Hassan

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Firms are always concerned with their performance which is directly linked to employees’ performance. In the thrive of this goal, number of researches have been conducted where Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and Counterproductive Work Behavior (CPWB) is among those studies. This study is aimed at investigating the role OCB by considering altruism and conscientiousness in an employee’s job performance with the mediating role of CPWB by considering sabotage and withdraw among the employees of hotel industry in Pakistan. A quantitative method was used by following deductive approach in positivist paradigm where survey was conducted through self-administered questionnaires and data was collected from the employees working in hotel industry of Pakistan. Top 10 hotels from the region of Lahore, Punjab was selected as population, and 500 questionnaires were distributed among their employees by using stratified random sampling technique. There is a positive impact of OCB is found on job performance of an employee whereas full mediation of CPWB is also found between OCB and job performance. The study is important for the practitioners in a way that hotel industry is growing at an enormous rate where employee behavior is always a concern specifically in emerging markets due to the exploitation of employees at the workplace, so the findings of the study can be helpful for practitioners and policy makers.

Keywords: organizational citizenship behavior, counterproductive work behavior, employee performance, altruism, conscientiousness, sabotage, withdraw, hotel industry

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14 Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Sindh Province, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha A. Siddiqui, Adeel Tahir

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of southern sindh namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to asses the feasibility of solar Energy utilization at Sindh province for power generation. From the observation, result is derived which shows a drastic variation in the diffuse and direct component of solar radiation for summer and winter for Southern Sindh that is both contributes 50% for Karachi and Hyderabad. In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low in monsoon months, July and August. The Kᴛ value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky almost throughout the year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even in monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential whereas Karachi and Hyderabad has low solar potential. During the monsoon months, the southern part of Sind can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 to 6.9 m/sec. There exist a wind corridor near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in monsoon months July and August the wind speed are higher in the southern region of Sindh.

Keywords: hybrid power system, power generation, solar and wind energy potential, southern Sindh

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13 Development of Electrospun Porous Carbon Fibers from Cellulose/Polyacrylonitrile Blend

Authors: Zubair Khaliq, M. Bilal Qadir, Amir Shahzad, Zulfiqar Ali, Ahsan Nazir, Ali Afzal, Abdul Jabbar

Abstract:

Carbon fibers are one of the most demanding materials on earth due to their potential application in energy, high strength materials, and conductive materials. The nanostructure of carbon fibers offers enhanced properties of conductivity due to the larger surface area. The next generation carbon nanofibers demand the porous structure as it offers more surface area. Multiple techniques are used to produce carbon fibers. However, electrospinning followed by carbonization of the polymeric materials is easy to carry process on a laboratory scale. Also, it offers multiple diversity of changing parameters to acquire the desired properties of carbon fibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is the most used material for the production of carbon fibers due to its promising processing parameters. Also, cellulose is one of the highest yield producers of carbon fibers. However, the electrospinning of cellulosic materials is difficult due to its rigid chain structure. The combination of PAN and cellulose can offer a suitable solution for the production of carbon fibers. Both materials are miscible in the mixed solvent of N, N, Dimethylacetamide and lithium chloride. This study focuses on the production of porous carbon fibers as a function of PAN/Cellulose blend ratio, solution properties, and electrospinning parameters. These single polymer and blend with different ratios were electrospun to give fine fibers. The higher amount of cellulose offered more difficulty in electrospinning of nanofibers. After carbonization, the carbon fibers were studied in terms of their blend ratio, surface area, and texture. Cellulose contents offered the porous structure of carbon fibers. Also, the presence of LiCl contributed to the porous structure of carbon fibers.

Keywords: cellulose, polyacrylonitrile, carbon nanofibers, electrospinning, blend

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12 An Assessment into the Drift in Direction of International Migration of Labor: Changing Aspirations for Religiosity and Cultural Assimilation

Authors: Syed Toqueer Akhter, Rabia Zulfiqar

Abstract:

This paper attempts to trace the determining factor- as far as individual preferences and expectations are concerned- of what causes the direction of international migration to drift in certain ways owing to factors such as Religiosity and Cultural Assimilation. The narrative on migration has graduated from the age long ‘push/pull’ debate to that of complex factors that may vary across each individual. We explore the longstanding factor of religiosity widely acknowledged in mentioned literature as a key variable in the assessment of migration, wherein the impact of religiosity in the form of a drift into the intent of migration has been analyzed. A more conventional factor cultural assimilation is used in a contemporary way to estimate how it plays a role in affecting the drift in direction. In particular what our research aims at achieving is to isolate the effect our key variables: Cultural Assimilation and Religiosity have on direction of migration, and to explore how they interplay as a composite unit- and how we may be able to justify the change in behavior displayed by these key variables. In order to establish a true sense of what drives individual choices we employ the method of survey research and use a questionnaire to conduct primary research. The questionnaire was divided into six sections covering subjects including household characteristics, perceptions and inclinations of the respondents relevant to our study. Religiosity was quantified using a proxy of Migration Network that utilized secondary data to estimate religious hubs in recipient countries. To estimate the relationship between Intent of Migration and its variants three competing econometric models namely: the Ordered Probit Model, the Ordered Logit Model and the Tobit Model were employed. For every model that included our key variables, a highly significant relationship with the intent of migration was estimated.

Keywords: international migration, drift in direction, cultural assimilation, religiosity, ordered probit model

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11 Effects of Bile Acids and Lipase Supplementation in Low-Energy Diets on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti

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The study aimed to investigate the effect of bile acids and lipase supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Seven hundred day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 45.9 ± 0.3 g were assigned to 5 dietary treatments, with five replications of 28 birds each in a completely randomized design. The five treatments were as follows: (i) HE: broilers received a diet with high energy content; (ii) LE: broilers received a diet with low energy content and energy content reduced by 100 kcal/kg as compared to HE; (iii) LEB: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 300 g/ton bile acids; (iv) LEL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 180 g/ton lipase enzyme and (v) LEBL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with both 300 g/ton bile acids and 180 g/ton lipase enzyme. The experimental period lasted for 35 days. Broilers fed HE had a lower (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) gain and lower feed intake (1-35 d), but during finisher period (21-35 d), BW gain was similar with other treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in HE and higher in LEBL group (P < 0.05), while the LE, LEB, and LEL had intermediate values. At 35 d no difference occurred between treatment for water holding capacity and pH of breast and thigh muscles (P > 0.05). The relative weight of pancreas was higher (P < 0.05) in LEB treatment but lower (P < 0.05) in LEL treatment. In conclusion, bile acids and lipase supplementation at 300 g/ton and 150g/ton of feed in low-energy diets respectively had no effect on broiler performance and meat quality. However, FCR was improved in HE treatment.

Keywords: bile acids, energy, enzyme, growth

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10 Mitigating Ruminal Methanogenesis Through Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Faiz-Ul Hassan, Yanfen Cheng

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According to FAO, enteric methane (CH4) production is about 44% of all greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. Ruminants produce CH4 as a result of fermentation of feed in the rumen especially from roughages which yield more CH4 per unit of biomass ingested as compared to concentrates. Efficient ruminal fermentation is not possible without abating CO2 and CH4. Methane abatement strategies are required to curb the predicted rise in emissions associated with greater ruminant production in future to meet ever increasing animal protein requirements. Ecology of ruminal methanogenesis and avenues for its mitigation can be identified through various genomic and transcriptomic techniques. Programs such as Hungate1000 and the Global Rumen Census have been launched to enhance our understanding about global ruminal microbial communities. Through Hungate1000 project, a comprehensive reference set of rumen microbial genome sequences has been developed from cultivated rumen bacteria and methanogenic archaea along with representative rumen anaerobic fungi and ciliate protozoa cultures. But still many species of rumen microbes are underrepresented especially uncultivable microbes. Lack of sequence information specific to the rumen's microbial community has inhibited efforts to use genomic data to identify specific set of species and their target genes involved in methanogenesis. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic study of entire microbial rumen populations offer new perspectives to understand interaction of methanogens with other rumen microbes and their potential association with total gas and methane production. Deep understanding of methanogenic pathway will help to devise potentially effective strategies to abate methane production while increasing feed efficiency in ruminants.

Keywords: Genome sequences, Hungate1000, methanogens, ruminal fermentation

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9 Laboratory Scale Purification of Water from Copper Waste

Authors: Mumtaz Khan, Adeel Shahid, Waqas Khan

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Heavy metals presence in water streams is a big danger for aquatic life and ultimately effects human health. Removal of copper (Cu) by ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake from synthetic solution in batch conditions was studied. Different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial solution pH, agitation rate, initial Cu concentration, biosorbent concentration, and biosorbent particle size has been studied to quantify the Cu biosorption. The rate of adsorption of metal ions was very fast at the beginning and became slow after reaching the saturation point, followed by a slower active metabolic uptake of metal ions into the cells. Up to a certain point, (pH=4, concentration of Cu = ~ 640 mg/l, agitation rate = ~ 400 rpm, biosorbent concentration = ~ 0.5g, 3g, 3g for ispaghula husk, maize fiber and maize oil cake, respectively) increasing the pH, concentration of Cu, agitation rate, and biosorbent concentration, increased the biosorption rate; however the sorption capacity increased by decreasing the particle size. At optimized experimental parameters, the maximum Cu biosorption by ispaghula husk, maize fibre and maize oil cake were 86.7%, 59.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the kinetics studies demonstrated that the biosorption of copper on ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The results of adsorption were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model represented the sorption process better than Freundlich, and R² value ~ 0.978. Optimizations of physical and environmental parameters revealed, ispaghula husk as more potent copper biosorbent than maize fibre, and maize oil cake. The sorbent is cheap and available easily, so this study can be applied to remove Cu impurities on pilot and industrial scale after certain modifications.

Keywords: biosorption, copper, ispaghula husk, maize fibre, maize oil cake, purification

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8 Oral Lichen Planus a Manifestation of Grinspan's Syndrome or a Lichenoid Reaction to Medication

Authors: Sahar Iqrar, Malik Adeel Anwar, Zain Akram, Maria Noor

Abstract:

Introduction: Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory condition of unknown etiology. Oral lichen planus may be related with several other diseases. Grinspan's Syndrome is characterized by a triad of oral lichen planus, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Other associations reported in the literature are with chronic liver disease and, with dyslipidemia. The nature of these associations is still not fully understood. Material and methods: Study was conducted in Department of Oral Medicine, Fatima Memorial Hospital College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan. A total of n=89 clinically diagnosed patients of oral lichen planus of both gender and all age groups were recruited and detailed history were recorded in the designed performs. Results: A total of n=89 patients were taken with male to female ratio of 3:8 in which 24 were male and 65 females. Mean age was 48.8 ± 13.8 years. Age range of 10-74 years was seen. Among these patients suffering from oral lichen planus, 41.6% (n=37) had a positive history for hypertension with 59.5% (n=22) of these patients were taking different medication for their condition. Whereas Diabetes Mellitus was found in 24.7% (n=22) patients with 72.7% (n=16) of these patients using the hypoglycemic drug (oral or injectable) to control their blood glucose levels. Out of these n=89 lichen planus patients 21.3% had both hypertension and diabetes mellitus (fulfilling the criteria for Grinspan's Syndrome). Out of this Grinspan's Syndrome pool 94.7% (n=19) were taking drug atleast for one of the two conditions. Conclusion: As noticed form the medical history of the patients, most of them were using hypoglycemic drugs for diabetes mellitus and beta blockers, diuretics and calcium channel blockers for hypertension. These drugs are known for lichenoid reaction. Therefore, it should be ruled out at histopathological/ immunological and molecular level whether these patients are suffering from lichen planus or lichenoid drug reaction to truly declare them as patients with Grinspan’s Syndrome.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, grinspan's syndrome, lichenoid drug reaction, oral lichen planus

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7 Correlation of Serum Ferritin and Left Ventricular Function in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients with Increased Transfusion Dependence

Authors: Amna Imtiaz

Abstract:

Aims: To correlate serum ferritin with left ventricular function in beta thalassemia major patients with increased transfusion dependence and to find out whether echocardiography can be used to assess pre clinical cardiac disease in these patients. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. 60 patients of beta thalassemia major with increased transfusion dependence were enrolled in this study. Serum ferritin levels of all patients were measured by using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Echocardiography was performed on all patients by a consultant cardiologist by linking conventional echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging. Ejection fraction and E/A ratio were measured in all patients to assess left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Results: On the basis of serum ferritin level, patients were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of patients having serum ferritin level equal to or less than 2500 ng/ml. A total of 25 patients were placed in this group. Group II included patients having serum ferritin level between 2500 to 5000 ng/ml. A total of 22 patients were placed in this group. Group III included patients having serum ferritin level more than 5000 ng/ml. This group consisted of 13 patients. All patients having serum ferritin below 2500ng/ml had normal systolic function, and only 16% of the patients in this group had diastolic dysfunction as reflected by abnormal E/A ratio. In group II, 27% of the patients had systolic dysfunction reflected by subnormal ejection fraction while 40% of the patients had diastolic dysfunction. In group III, 62% of the patients had abnormal systolic and diastolic function. Pearson correlation was used to find a correlation between serum ferritin and left ventricular function. A strong negative correlation was found which is reflected by a p value of less than 0.05 which is significant. Chi square test is used to correlate serum ferritin with E/A ratio. P value came out to be less than 0.05 which is significant.

Keywords: beta thalassemia major, left ventricular function, serum ferritin, transfusion dependence

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6 Utilization of Oat in Rabbit Feed for the Development of Healthier Rabbit Meat and Its Impact on Human Blood Lipid Profile

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Tariq, Muhammad Issa Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad, Muhammad Adnan Nasir, Muhammad Sameem Javed, Sheraz Ahmed

Abstract:

Functional foods may be a good tool that can be simply utilized in reducing community health expenses. Regular consumption of rabbit meat can offer patrons with bioactive components because the manipulation in rabbit feed is much successful to raise the levels of conjugated linoleic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, decosahexaenoic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, tocopherol etc. and to reduce the ω-3/ω-6 ratio which is performing a major role in curing of cardiovascular and several other diseases. In comparison to the meats of other species, rabbit meat has higher amounts of protein with essential amino acids, especially in the muscles and low cholesterol contents that also have elevated digestibility. The present study was carried out to develop the functional rabbit meat by modifying feed ingredient of rabbit diet. Thirty-day old rabbits were fed with feeds containing 2 % and 4 % oat. The feeding trial was carried out for eight weeks. Rabbits were divided into three different groups and reared for the period of two months. T0 rabbits were considered control group while T1 rabbits were reared on 4% oat, and T2 were on 2% oat in the feed. At the end of the 8 weeks, the rabbits were slaughtered. Results presented in this study concluded that 4 % oat seed supplementation enhanced n-3 PUFA in meat. It was observed that oat seed supplementation also reduced fat percentage in the meat. Utilization of oat in the feed of rabbits significantly affected the pH, protein, fat, textural and concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. A study trial was conducted in order to examine the impact of functional meat on the blood lipid profile of human subjects. They were given rabbit meat in comparison to the chicken meat for the period of one month. The cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein were found to be lower in blood serum of human subject group treated with 4 % oat meat.

Keywords: functional food, functional rabbit meat, meat quality, rabbit

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5 Geological Engineering Mapping Approach to Know Factor of Safety Distribution and Its Implication to Landslide Potential at Muria Mountain, Kudus, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Sony Hartono, Azka Decana, Vilia Yohana, Annisa Luthfianihuda, Yuni Faizah, Tati Andriani, Dewi Kania, Fachri Zulfiqar, Sugiar Yusup, Arman Nugraha

Abstract:

Landslide is a geological hazard that is quite common in some areas in Indonesia and have disadvantages impact for public around. Due to the high frequency of landslides in Indonesia, and extensive damage, landslides should be specifically noted. Landslides caused by a soil or rock unit that has been in a state of unstable slopes and not in ideal state again, so the value of ground resistance or the rock been passed by the value of the forces acting on the slope. Based on this fact, authors held a geological engineering mapping at Muria Mountain, Kudus, Central Java province which is known as an agriculture and religion tourism area. This geological engineering mapping is performed to determine landslides potential at Muria Mountain. Slopes stability will be illustrated by a number called the “factor of safety” where the number can describe how much potential a slope to fall. Slopes stability can be different depending on the physical and mechanical characteristics of the soil and slope conditions. Testing of physical and mechanical characteristics of the soil conducted in the geotechnical laboratory. The characteristics of the soil must be same when sampled as well as in the test laboratory. To meet that requirement, authors used "undisturb sample" method that will be guarantee sample will not be distracted by environtment influences. From laboratory tests on soil physical and mechanical properties obtained characteristics of the soil on a slope, and then inserted into a Geological Information Software that would generate a value of factor of safety and give a visualization slope form area of research. Then, as a result of the study, obtained a map of the ground movement distribution map and i is implications for landslides potential areas.

Keywords: factor of safety, geological engineering mapping, landslides, slope stability, soil

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4 Assessment of Land Suitability for Tea Cultivation Using Geoinformatics in the Mansehra and Abbottabad District, Pakistan

Authors: Nasir Ashraf, Sajid Rahid Ahmad, Adeel Ahmad

Abstract:

Pakistan is a major tea consumer country and ranked as the third largest importer of tea worldwide. Out of all beverage consumed in Pakistan, tea is the one with most demand for which tea import is inevitable. Being an agrarian country, Pakistan should cultivate its own tea and save the millions of dollars cost from tea import. So the need is to identify the most suitable areas with favorable weather condition and suitable soils where tea can be planted. This research is conducted over District Mansehra and District Abbottabad in Khyber Pakhtoonkhwah Province of Pakistan where the most favorable conditions for tea cultivation already exist and National Tea Research Institute has done successful experiments to cultivate high quality tea. High tech approach is adopted to meet the objectives of this research by using the remotely sensed data i.e. Aster DEM, Landsat8 Imagery. The Remote Sensing data was processed in Erdas Imagine, Envi and further analyzed in ESRI ArcGIS spatial analyst for final results and representation of result data in map layouts. Integration of remote sensing data with GIS provided the perfect suitability analysis. The results showed that out of all study area, 13.4% area is highly suitable while 33.44% area is suitable for tea plantation. The result of this research is an impressive GIS based outcome and structured format of data for the agriculture planners and Tea growers. Identification of suitable tea growing areas by using remotely sensed data and GIS techniques is a pressing need for the country. Analysis of this research lets the planners to address variety of action plans in an economical and scientific manner which can lead tea production in Pakistan to meet demand. This geomatics based model and approach may be used to identify more areas for tea cultivation to meet our demand which we can reduce by planting our own tea, and our country can be independent in tea production.

Keywords: agrarian country, GIS, geoinformatics, suitability analysis, remote sensing

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3 Direct Fed Microbes: A Better Approach to Maximize Utilization of Roughages in Tropical Ruminants

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti, Faiz-ul Hassan

Abstract:

Manipulating microbial ecosystem in the rumen is considered as an important strategy to optimize production efficiency in ruminants. In the past, antibiotics and synthetic chemical compounds have been used for the manipulation of rumen fermentation. However, since the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics has been banned, efforts are being focused to search out safe alternative products. In tropics, crop residues and forage grazing are major dietary sources for ruminants. Poor digestibility and utilization of these feedstuffs by animals is a limiting factor to exploit the full potential of ruminants in this area. Hence, there is a need to enhance the utilization of these available feeding resources. One of the potential strategies in this regard is the use of direct-fed microbes. Bacteria and fungi are mostly used as direct-fed microbes to improve animal health and productivity. Commonly used bacterial species include lactic acid-producing and utilizing bacteria (Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacillus) and fungal species of yeast are Saccharomyces and Aspergillus. Direct-fed microbes modulate microbial balance in the gastrointestinal tract through the competitive exclusion of pathogenic species and favoring beneficial microbes. Improvement in weight gain and feed efficiency has been observed as a result of feeding direct-fed bacteria. The use of fungi as a direct-fed microbe may prevent excessive production of lactate and harmful oxygen in the rumen leading to better feed digestibility. However, the mechanistic mode of action for bacterial or fungal direct-fed microbes has not been established yet. Various reports have confirmed an increase in dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk contents in response to the administration of direct-fed microbes. However, the application of a direct-fed microbe has shown variable responses mainly attributed to dosages and strains of microbes. Nonetheless, it is concluded that the inclusion of direct-fed microbes may mediate the rumen ecosystem to manage lactic acid production and utilization in both clinical and sub-acute rumen acidosis.

Keywords: microbes, roughages, rumen, feed efficiency, production, fermentation

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