Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 203

Search results for: seersucker fabrics

203 Seersucker Fabrics Development Using Single Warp Beam

Authors: Khubab Shaker, Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Usman Javed, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Maqsood

Abstract:

Seersucker is a thin and puckered fabric commonly striped or chequered, used to make clothing for spring and woven in such a way that some threads bunch together, giving the fabric a wrinkled appearance in places. Due to use of two warp beams, such fabrics were not possible to weave on conventional weaving machines. Objective of this study was to weave a seersucker fabric on conventional looms using single warp beam. This objective was achieved using two types of yarns, forming stripes in weft: one being 100% cotton yarn and the other core spun elastane yarn with sheath of cotton (95.7% cotton and 4.3% elastane). Stress-strain behaviour of the produced fabric samples were tested and explained.

Keywords: seersucker fabrics, elastane yarns, single warp beam, weaving

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
202 Development of Knitted Seersucker Fabric for Improved Comfort Properties

Authors: Waqas Ashraf, Yasir Nawab, Haritham Khan, Habib Awais, Shahbaz Ahmad

Abstract:

Seersucker is a popular lightweight fabric widely used in men’s and women’s suiting, casual wear, children’s clothing, house robes, bed spreads and for spring and summer wear. The puckered effect generates air spaces between body and the fabric, keeping the wearer cool in hot conditions. The aim of this work was to develop knitted seersucker fabric on single cylinder weft knitting machine using plain jersey structure. Core spun cotton yarn and cotton spun yarn of same linear density were used. Core spun cotton yarn, contains cotton fiber in the sheath and elastase filament in the core. The both yarn were fed at regular interval to feeders on the machine. The loop length and yarn tension were kept constant at each feeder. The samples were then scoured and bleached. After wet processing, the fabric samples were washed and tumble dried. Parameters like loop length, stitch density and areal density were measured after conditioning these samples for 24 hours in Standard atmospheric condition. Produced sample has a regular puckering stripe along the width of the fabric with same height. The stitch density of both the flat and puckered area of relaxed fabric was found to be different .Air permeability and moisture management tests were performed. The results indicated that the knitted seersucker fabric has better wicking and moisture management properties as the flat area contact, whereas puckered area held away from the skin. Seersucker effect in knitted fabric was achieved by the difference of contraction of both sets of courses produced from different types of yarns. The seer sucker fabric produce by knitting technique is less expensive as compared to woven seer sucker fabric as there is no need of yarn preparation. The knitted seersucker fabric is more practicable for summer dresses, skirts, blouses, shirts, trousers and shorts.

Keywords: air permeability, knitted structure, moisture management, seersucker

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
201 Atmospheric Plasma Treatment to Improve Water and Oil Repellent Finishing for PET and PET/Spandex Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan

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In this study, the effects of an atmospheric plasma treatment on the durability of water and oil repellent finishes of PET and PET/Spandex fabrics were tested. Fabrics were treated with a low-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge. After plasma treatments, the water and oil repellent finishes were applied using pad-dry-cure method. It was observed that plasma treatments improved the durability finish for all fabrics.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma, durable coating, oil repellency, PET/spandex fabrics, water repellency

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
200 Investigation of Antibacterial Property of Bamboo In-Terms of Percentage on Comparing with ZnO Treated Cotton Fabric

Authors: Arjun Dakuri, J. Hayavadana

Abstract:

The study includes selection of 100 % bamboo fabric and cotton fabric for the study. The 100% bamboo fabrics were of 127 g/m², and 112 g/m² and 100% cotton grey fabric were of 104 g/m². The cotton fabric was desized, scoured, bleached and then treated with ZnO (as antimicrobial agent) with 1%, 2% and 3% using pad-dry cure method, whereas the bamboo fabrics were only desized. The antimicrobial activity of bamboo and ZnO treated cotton fabrics were evaluated and compared against E. coli and S. aureus as per the standard AATCC - 147. Moisture management properties of selected fabrics were also analyzed. Further, the selected fabric samples were tested for comfort properties like bending length, tearing strength, drape-ability, and specific handle force and air permeability. It was observed that bamboo fabrics show significant antibacterial activity and the same was shown by 3% ZnO treated cotton fabric. Both cotton and bamboo fabrics show improved moisture management properties than the cotton fabric. The comfort properties of bamboo fabrics are found to be superior to cotton fabrics making it more suitable for applications in place of cotton.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bamboo, cotton, comfort properties, moisture management, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
199 Evaluation Criteria for Performance of Knitted Terry Fabrics and Building Elements of Fashion: A Critical Review

Authors: Harpinder Kaur, Amit Madahar

Abstract:

The terry fabric is one of the fastest growing and challenging sub-sectors of the textile industry. Terry fabrics are produced using ground weft, ground warp, and pile yarns. The terry fabrics not only finds applications in towels but also in home textile products, sauna dressing- gowns, slippers, jackets, garments, apparels, outerwears, overcoats, sweatshirts, children’s clothes, and hygiene products for babies, beachwear, sleepwear, gloves, scarfs, shawls, etc. In some cases, these wide ranges of applications not only demand a high degree of absorption but also necessitate the due consideration for the handle properties of the fabrics. These fabrics are required to be accessed for their performance in terms of absorbency and comfort characteristics. Since material (yarns, colors, fabrics, fashion, patrons, accessories and fittings) are the core elements of structure of fashion, hence textile and fashion go hand in hand. This paper throws some light on the performance evaluation of terry fabrics. Here, characteristics/features that are required to be achieved for satisfactory performance of the terry fabrics with reference to fashion are discussed. The terry fabrics are being modified over the years in terms of the raw material requirements such as 100% cotton or blends or cotton with other fibers in order to obtain better performance as well as their structural parameters including stitch length and stitch density etc.

Keywords: absorbency, comfort, cotton, performance, terry fabrics, fashion

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
198 Comparison of Compression Properties of Stretchable Knitted Fabrics and Bi-Stretch Woven Fabrics for Compression Garments

Authors: Muhammad Maqsood, Yasir Nawab, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani

Abstract:

Stretchable fabrics have diverse applications ranging from casual apparel to performance sportswear and compression therapy. Compression therapy is the universally accepted treatment for the management of hypertrophic scarring after severe burns. Mostly stretchable knitted fabrics are used in compression therapy but in the recent past, some studies have also been found on bi-stretch woven fabrics being used as compression garments as they also have been found quite effective in the treatment of oedema. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to compare the compression properties of stretchable knitted and bi-stretch woven fabrics for compression garments. For this purpose four woven structures and four knitted structures were produced having the same areal density and their compression, comfort and mechanical properties were compared before and after 5, 10 and 15 washes. Four knitted structures used were single jersey, single locaste, plain pique and the honeycomb, whereas four woven structures produced were 1/1 plain, 2/1 twill, 3/1 twill and 4/1 twill. The compression properties of the produced samples were tested by using kikuhime pressure sensor and it was found that bi-stretch woven fabrics possessed better compression properties before and after washes and retain their durability after repeated use, whereas knitted stretchable fabrics lost their compression ability after repeated use and the required sub garment pressure of the knitted structures after 15 washes was almost half to that of woven bi-stretch fabrics.

Keywords: compression garments, knitted structures, medical textiles, woven bi-stretch

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
197 Development and Characterisation of Nonwoven Fabrics for Apparel Applications

Authors: Muhammad Cheema, Tahir Shah, Subhash Anand

Abstract:

The cost of making apparel fabrics for garment manufacturing is very high because of their conventional manufacturing processes and new methods/processes are being constantly developed for making fabrics by unconventional methods. With the advancements in technology and the availability of the innovative fibres, durable nonwoven fabrics by using the hydroentanglement process that can compete with the woven fabrics in terms of their aesthetic and tensile properties are being developed. In the work reported here, the hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics were developed through a hybrid nonwoven manufacturing processes by using fibrillated Tencel® and bi-component (sheath/core) polyethylene/polyester (PE/PET) fibres, in which the initial nonwoven fabrics were prepared by the needle-punching method followed by hydroentanglement process carried out at optimal pressures of 50 to 250bars. The prepared fabrics were characterized according to the British Standards (BS 3356:1990, BS 9237:1995, BS 13934-1:1999) and the attained results were compared with those for a standard plain-weave cotton, polyester woven fabric and commercially available nonwoven fabric (Evolon®). The developed hydroentangled fabrics showed better drape properties owing to their flexural rigidity of 252 mg.cm in the machine direction, while the corresponding commercial hydroentangled fabric displayed a value of 1340 mg.cm in the machine direction. The tensile strength of the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed an approximately 200% increase than the commercial hydroentangled fabrics. Similarly, the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed higher properties in term of air permeability, such as the developed hydroentangled fabric exhibited 448 mm/sec and Evolon fabric exhibited 69 mm/sec at 100 Pa pressure. Thus for apparel fabrics, the work combining the existing methods of nonwoven production, provides additional benefits in terms of cost, time and also helps in reducing the carbon footprint for the apparel fabric manufacture.

Keywords: hydroentanglement, nonwoven apparel, durable nonwoven, wearable nonwoven

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
196 Wicking and Evaporation of Liquids in Knitted Fabrics: Analytic Solution of Capillary Rise Restrained by Gravity and Evaporation

Authors: N. S. Achour, M. Hamdaoui, S. Ben Nasrallah

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Wicking and evaporation of water in porous knitted fabrics is investigated by combining experimental and analytical approaches: The standard wicking model from Lucas and Washburn is enhanced to account for evaporation and gravity effects. The goal is to model the effect of gravity and evaporation on wicking using simple analytical expressions and investigate the influence of fabrics geometrical parameters, such as porosity and thickness on evaporation impact on maximum reachable height values. The results show that fabric properties have a significant influence on evaporation effect. In this paper, an experimental study of determining water kinetics from different knitted fabrics were gravimetrically investigated permitting the measure of the mass and the height of liquid rising in fabrics in various atmospheric conditions. From these measurements, characteristic pore parameters (capillary radius and permeability) can be determined.

Keywords: evaporation, experimental study, geometrical parameters, model, porous knitted fabrics, wicking

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
195 Investigation of Knitted Fabric Properties Effect on Evaporation Rate

Authors: N. S. Achour, M. Hamdaoui, S. Ben Nasrallah

Abstract:

Evaporation kinetics of water from porous knitted fabrics are studied: An experimental study of determining evaporated water mass (g) versus time (s) from different knitted fabrics was gravimetrically investigated in various atmospheric conditions. Then evaporation rates are calculated. The goal is to determine the effect of fabric composition, knit structure and yarns properties on evaporation rate. The results show that fabrics geometrical properties, such as porosity and thickness, have a significant influence on evaporated water quantities.

Keywords: evaporation rate, experimental study, geometrical properties, porous knitted fabrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
194 Microwave Sanitization of Polyester Fabrics

Authors: K. Haggag, M. Salama, H. El-Sayed

Abstract:

Polyester fabrics were sanitized by exposing them to vaporized water under the influence of conventional heating or microwave irradiation. Hydrogen peroxide was added the humid sanitizing environment as a disinfectant. The said sanitization process was found to be effective towards two types of bacteria, namely Escherichia coli ATCC 2666 (G –ve) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (G +ve). The effect of the sanitization process on some of the inherent properties of polyester fabrics was monitored.

Keywords: polyester, fabric, sanitization, microwave, bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
193 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Capacity of Fabric Treated with Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato Extract

Authors: Kyung Hwa Hong, Eunmi Koh

Abstract:

Wool and cotton fabrics are pretreated by a tannic acid aqueous solution to increase their dyeability and then dyed by Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato (PSP) extract. The dyed fabrics are then investigated by various analysis techniques. The results revealed that wool and cotton fabrics can be dyed bluish red through the pretreatment and dyeing process. Both wool and cotton fabrics only pretreated with tannic acid display decreased L* value but no significant changes in a* and b* values as the concentration of tannic acid increases. And, as expected, the pretreated fabrics are even darker and show a richer purple color after the dyeing process with the PSP extract. With regard to the colorfastness of wool and cotton fabrics dyed by PSP extract in cleaning circumstances, such as dry-cleaning (for wool) and washing (for cotton), the wool and cotton fabrics had a 4.0 and 4.0 grade of colorfastness to dry-cleaning and washing, respectively. However, they both exhibited significantly inferior colorfastness to light (grade of 1.5). Thus, it was found that there is still a need for improvement with regard to color fastness, particularly against light. On the other hand, the wool and cotton fabrics also showed antibacterial and antioxidant characteristics. In addition, both the wool and cotton fabrics showed potential antibacterial ability (>99%) against Staphylococcus aureus; however, they showed somewhat insufficient antibacterial ability (60.8% for wool and 94.8% for cotton) against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Also, their antioxidant abilities increased up to ca. 90% with an increase in the tannic acid concentration (up to 0.5%). However, after the dyeing process, the antibacterial and antioxidant ability tended to decrease. This is assumed to have occurred because functional moieties such as phenolic acids were detached from the pretreated fabrics into the hot water (the dyeing solution) during the dyeing process. Therefore, further study would be necessary to derive the optimum treatment and dyeing conditions so as to maximize the coloring effect and functionalities of the fabrics.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, purple-fleshed sweet potato, fabrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
192 Surface Coating of Polyester Fabrics by Sol Gel Synthesized ZnO Particles

Authors: Merve Küçük, M. Lütfi Öveçoğlu

Abstract:

Zinc oxide particles were synthesized using the sol-gel method and dip coated on polyester fabric. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a single crystal phase of ZnO particles. Chemical characteristics of the polyester fabric surface were investigated using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Morphology of ZnO coated fabric was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After particle analysis, the aqueous ZnO solution resulted in a narrow size distribution at submicron levels. The deposit of ZnO on polyester fabrics yielded a homogeneous spread of spherical particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results also affirmed the presence of ZnO particles on the polyester fabrics.

Keywords: dip coating, polyester fabrics, sol gel, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
191 Microwave-Assisted Eradication of Wool

Authors: M. Salama, K. Haggag, H. El-Sayed

Abstract:

An environmentally and ecologically acceptable method for eradication of wool fabrics based on microwave irradiation (MWI) was described. The process would be a suitable alternative for mothproofing of wool using toxic degradative chemical or biological methods. The effect of microwave irradiation and exposure time on the extent of eradication of wool fabrics from moth larvae was monitored. The inherent properties of the MW-irradiated wool fabrics; viz. tensile properties, alkali solubility, and yellowing index, were not adversely altered.

Keywords: microwave, wool, fabric, moth, eradication, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
190 Porosity and Ultraviolet Protection Ability of Woven Fabrics

Authors: Polona Dobnik Dubrovski, Abhijit Majumdar

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The increasing awareness of negative effects of ultraviolet radiation and regular, effective protection are actual themes in many countries. Woven fabrics as clothing items can provide convenient personal protection however not all fabrics offer sufficient UV protection. Porous structure of the material has a great effect on UPF. The paper is focused on an overview of porosity in woven fabrics, including the determination of porosity parameters on the basis of an ideal geometrical model of porous structure. Our experiment was focused on 100% cotton woven fabrics in a grey state with the same yarn fineness (14 tex) and different thread densities (to achieve relative fabric density between 59 % and 87 %) and different type of weaves (plain, 4-end twill, 5-end satin). The results of the research dealing with the modelling of UPF and the influence of volume and open porosity of tested samples on UPF are exposed. The results show that open porosity should be lower than 12 % to achieve good UV protection according to AS/NZ standard of tested samples. The results also indicate that there is no direct correlation between volume porosity and UPF, moreover, volume porosity namely depends on the type of weave and affects UPF as well. Plain fabrics did not offer any UV protection, while twill and satin fabrics offered good UV protection when volume porosity was less than 64 % and 66 %, respectively.

Keywords: fabric engineering, UV radiation, porous materials, woven fabric construction, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
189 Investigation of Moisture Management Properties of Cotton and Blended Knitted Fabrics

Authors: N. S. Achour, M. Hamdaoui, S. Ben Nasrallah, A. Perwuelz

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The main idea of this work is to investigate the effect of knitted fabrics characteristics on moisture management properties. Wetting and transport properties of single jersey, Rib 1&1 and English Rib fabrics made out of cotton and blended Cotton/Polyester yarns were studied. The dynamic water sorption of fabrics was investigated under same isothermal and terrestrial conditions at 20±2°C-65±2% by using the Moisture Management Tester (MMT) which can be used to quantitatively measure liquid moisture transfer in one step in a fabric in multi directions: Absorption rate, moisture absorbing time of the fabric's inner and outer surfaces, one-way transportation capability, the spreading/drying rate, the speed of liquid moisture spreading on fabric's inner and outer surfaces are measured, recorded and discussed. The results show that fabric’s composition and knit’s structure have a significant influence on those phenomena.

Keywords: knitted fabrics characteristics, moisture management properties, multi directions, the moisture management tester

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
188 Effect of 3-Dimensional Knitted Spacer Fabrics Characteristics on Its Thermal and Compression Properties

Authors: Veerakumar Arumugam, Rajesh Mishra, Jiri Militky, Jana Salacova

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The thermo-physiological comfort and compression properties of knitted spacer fabrics have been evaluated by varying the different spacer fabric parameters. Air permeability and water vapor transmission of the fabrics were measured using the Textest FX-3300 air permeability tester and PERMETEST. Then thermal behavior of fabrics was obtained by Thermal conductivity analyzer and overall moisture management capacity was evaluated by moisture management tester. Spacer Fabrics compression properties were also tested using Kawabata Evaluation System (KES-FB3). In the KES testing, the compression resilience, work of compression, linearity of compression and other parameters were calculated from the pressure-thickness curves. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed using new statistical software named QC expert trilobite and Darwin in order to compare the influence of different fabric parameters on thermo-physiological and compression behavior of samples. This study established that the raw materials, type of spacer yarn, density, thickness and tightness of surface layer have significant influence on both thermal conductivity and work of compression in spacer fabrics. The parameter which mainly influence on the water vapor permeability of these fabrics is the properties of raw material i.e. the wetting and wicking properties of fibers. The Pearson correlation between moisture capacity of the fabrics and water vapour permeability was found using statistical software named QC expert trilobite and Darwin. These findings are important requirements for the further designing of clothing for extreme environmental conditions.

Keywords: 3D spacer fabrics, thermal conductivity, moisture management, work of compression (WC), resilience of compression (RC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
187 Effect of Weave Structure and Picking Sequence on the Comfort Properties of Woven Fabrics

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Tanveer Hussain, Khubab Shaker, Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Maqsood, Madeha Jabbar

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The term comfort is defined as 'the absence of unpleasantness or discomfort' or 'a neutral state compared to the more active state'. Comfort mainly is of three types: sensorial (tactile) comfort, psychological comfort and thermo-physiological comfort. Thermophysiological comfort is determined by the air permeability and moisture management properties of the garment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weave structure and picking sequence on the comfort properties of woven fabrics. Six woven fabrics with two different weave structures i.e. 1/1 plain and 3/1 twill and three different picking sequences: (SPI, DPI, 3PI) were taken as input variables whereas air permeability, wetting time, wicking behavior and overall moisture management capability (OMMC) of fabrics were taken as response variables and a comparison is made of the effect of weave structure and picking sequence on the response variables. It was found that fabrics woven in twill weave design and with simultaneous triple pick insertion (3PI) give significantly better air permeability, shorter wetting time and better water spreading rate, as compared to plain woven fabrics and those with double pick insertion (DPI) or single pick insertion (SPI). It could be concluded that the thermophysiological comfort of woven fabrics may be significantly improved simply by selecting a suitable weave design and picking sequence.

Keywords: air permeability, picking sequence, thermophysiological comfort, weave design

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
186 Fungal Pigments For Fabrics Dyeing: Initial Tests Using Industrial Dyeing Conditions

Authors: Vicente A. Hernandez, Felipe Galleguillos, Rene Thibaut, Alejandro Muller

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Natural pigments have been proposed as an eco-friendly alternative to artificial pigments. Among the diverse organisms able to synthesize natural pigments, several wood colonizing fungi produce extracellular pigments which have been tested to dye fabrics at laboratory conditions with good results. However, the dyeing conditions used at laboratory level not necessary meet the real conditions in which dyeing of fabrics is conducted at industrial level. In this work, yellow and red pigments from the fungi Penicillium murcianum and Talaromyces australis, respectively, were used to dye yarn and linen fabrics using dyeing processes optimized according to the standard conditions used at industrial level. After dyeing treatments, fabrics were tested for color fastness to wash and to wet and dry rubbing, but also to tensile strength tests. Satisfactory result was obtained with both yellow and red pigments in yarn and linen, when used alone or mixed to different proportions. According to these results, natural pigments synthesized by both wood colonizing fungi have a great potential to be used in dyeing processes at industrial level.

Keywords: natural pigments, fungal pigments, yarn, linen

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
185 Linear Regression Estimation of Tactile Comfort for Denim Fabrics Based on In-Plane Shear Behavior

Authors: Nazli Uren, Ayse Okur

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Tactile comfort of a textile product is an essential property and a major concern when it comes to customer perceptions and preferences. The subjective nature of comfort and the difficulties regarding the simulation of human hand sensory feelings make it hard to establish a well-accepted link between tactile comfort and objective evaluations. On the other hand, shear behavior of a fabric is a mechanical parameter which can be measured by various objective test methods. The principal aim of this study is to determine the tactile comfort of commercially available denim fabrics by subjective measurements, create a tactile score database for denim fabrics and investigate the relations between tactile comfort and shear behavior. In-plane shear behaviors of 17 different commercially available denim fabrics with a variety of raw material and weave structure were measured by a custom design shear frame and conventional bias extension method in two corresponding diagonal directions. Tactile comfort of denim fabrics was determined via subjective customer evaluations as well. Aforesaid relations were statistically investigated and introduced as regression equations. The analyses regarding the relations between tactile comfort and shear behavior showed that there are considerably high correlation coefficients. The suggested regression equations were likewise found out to be statistically significant. Accordingly, it was concluded that the tactile comfort of denim fabrics can be estimated with a high precision, based on the results of in-plane shear behavior measurements.

Keywords: denim fabrics, in-plane shear behavior, linear regression estimation, tactile comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
184 Investigation of the Drying Times of Blood under Different Environmental Conditions and on Different Fabrics and the Transfer of Blood at Different Times of the Drying Process

Authors: Peter Parkinson

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The research investigates the effects of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and fabric composition on the drying times of blood and assesses the degree of blood transfer that can occur during the drying process. An assortment of fabrics, of different composition and thicknesses, were collected and stained using two blood volumes and exposed to varying environmental conditions. The conclusion reached was that temperature, humidity, wind speed, and fabric thickness do have an effect on drying times. An increase in temperature and wind speed results in a decrease in drying times while an increase in fabric thickness and humidity extended the drying times of blood under similar conditions. Transfer experimentation utilized three donor fabrics, 100% white cotton, 100% acrylic, and 100% cotton denim, which were bloodstained using two blood volumes. The fabrics were subjected to both full and low/light force contact from the donor fabrics onto the recipient fabric, under different environmental conditions. Transfer times onto the 100% white cotton (recipient fabric) from all donor fabrics were shorter than the drying times observed. The intensities of the bloodstains decreased from high to low with time during the drying process. The degree of transfer at high, medium, and low intensities varied significantly between different materials and is dependent on the environmental conditions, fabric compositions, blood volumes, the type of contact (full or light force), and the drying times observed for the respective donor fabrics. These factors should be considered collectively and conservatively when assessing the time frame of secondary transfer in casework.

Keywords: blood, drying time, blood stain transfer, different environmental conditions, fabrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
183 Development of Stretchable Woven Fabrics with Auxetic Behaviour

Authors: Adeel Zulifqar, Hong Hu

Abstract:

Auxetic fabrics are a special kind of textile materials which possess negative Poisson’s ratio. Opposite to most of the conventional fabrics, auxetic fabrics get bigger in the transversal direction when stretched or get smaller when compressed. Auxetic fabrics are superior to conventional fabrics because of their counterintuitive properties, such as enhanced porosity under the extension, excellent formability to a curved surface and high energy absorption ability. Up till today, auxetic fabrics have been produced based on two approaches. The first approach involves using auxetic fibre or yarn and weaving technology to fabricate auxetic fabrics. The other method to fabricate the auxetic fabrics is by using non-auxetic yarns. This method has gained extraordinary curiosity of researcher in recent years. This method is based on realizing auxetic geometries into the fabric structure. In the woven fabric structure auxetic geometries can be realized by creating a differential shrinkage phenomenon into the fabric structural unit cell. This phenomenon can be created by using loose and tight weave combinations within the unit cell of interlacement pattern along with elastic and non-elastic yarns. Upon relaxation, the unit cell of interlacement pattern acquires a non-uniform shrinkage profile due to different shrinkage properties of loose and tight weaves in designed pattern, and the auxetic geometry is realized. The development of uni-stretch auxetic woven fabrics and bi-stretch auxetic woven fabrics by using this method has already been reported. This study reports the development of another kind of bi-stretch auxetic woven fabric. The fabric is first designed by transforming the auxetic geometry into interlacement pattern and then fabricated, using the available conventional weaving technology and non-auxetic elastic and non-elastic yarns. The tensile tests confirmed that the developed bi-stretch auxetic woven fabrics exhibit negative Poisson’s ratio over a wide range of tensile strain. Therefore, it can be concluded that the auxetic geometry can be realized into the woven fabric structure by creating the phenomenon of differential shrinkage and bi-stretch woven fabrics made of non-auxetic yarns having auxetic behavior and stretchability are possible can be obtained. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (grant number 15205514).

Keywords: auxetic, differential shrinkage, negative Poisson's ratio, weaving, stretchable

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
182 Impact of Sericin Treatment on Perfection Dyeing of Polyester Viscose Blend

Authors: Omaima G. Allam, O. A. Hakeim, K. Haggag, N. S. Elshemy

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In the midst of the two decades the use of microwave dielectric warming in the field of science has transformed into a powerful methodology to redesign compound procedures. The potential benefit of the application of these modern methods of treatment emphasize so as to reach to optimum treatment conditions and the best results, especially hydrophobicity, moisture content and increase dyeing processing while maintaining the physical and chemical properties of each textile. Moreover, polyester fibres are sometimes spun together with natural fibres to produce a cloth with blended properties. So that at the present task, the polyester/viscose mix fabrics (60 /40) were pretreated with 4 g/l of KOH for 2 min in microwave irradiation with a liquor ratio 1:25. Subsequently fabrics were inundated with different concentrations of sericin (10, 30, 50 g/l). Treated fabrics were coloured with the commercial dyes samples: Reactive Red 84(Dye 1). C. I. Acid Blue 203(Dye 2) and C.I. Reactive violet 5 (Dye 3). Colour value was specified as well as fastness properties. Likewise, the physical properties of untreated and treated fabrics such as moisture content %, tensile strength, elongation % and were evaluated. The untreated and treated fabrics are described by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: polyester viscose blends fabric, sericin, dyes, colour value

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
181 Reactive Dyed Superhydrophobic Cotton Fabric Production by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Kuddis Büyükakıllı

Abstract:

The pretreated and bleached mercerized cotton fabric was dyed with reactive Everzol Brilliant Yellow 4GR (C.I. Yellow 160) dyestuff. Superhydrophobicity is provided to white and reactive dyed fabrics by using a nanotechnological sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane and fluorcarbon water repellent agents by the two-step method. The effect of coating on color yield, fastness and functional properties of fabric was investigated. It was observed that water drop contact angles were higher in colorless coated fabrics compared to colored coated fabrics, there was no significant color change in colored superhydrophobic fabric and high color fastness values. Although there are no significant color losses in the fabrics after multiple washing and dry cleaning processes, water drop contact angles are greatly reduced.

Keywords: fluorcarbon water repellent agent, colored cotton fabric, sol-gel, superhydrophobic

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
180 Green Synthesis Approach for Renewable Textile Coating and Their Mechanical and Thermal Properties

Authors: Heba Gamal Abd Elhaleem Elsayed, Nour F Attia

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The extensive use of textile and textile based materials in various applications including industrial applications are increasing regularly due to their interesting properties which require rapid development in their functions to be adapted to these applications [1-3]. Herein, green, new and renewable smart coating was developed for furniture textile fabrics. Facile and single step method was used for synthesis of green coating based on mandarin peel and chitosan. As, the mandarin peel as fruit waste material was dried, grinded and directly dispersed in chitosan solution producing new green coating composite and then coated on textile fabrics. The mass loadings of green mandarin peel powder was varied on 20-70 wt% and optimized. Thermal stability of coated textile fabrics was enhanced and char yield was improved compared to uncoated one. The charring effect of mandarin peel powder coated samples was significantly enhanced anticipating good flame retardancy effect. The tensile strength of the coated textile fabrics was improved achieved 35% improvement compared to uncoated sample. The interaction between the renewable coating and textile was evaluated. The morphology of uncoated and coated textile fabrics was studied using microscopic technique. Additionally, based on thermal properties of mandarin peel powder it could be promising flame retardant for textile fabrics. This study open new avenues for finishing textile fabrics with enhanced thermal, flame retardancy and mechanical properties with cost-effective and renewable green and effective coating

Keywords: flame retardant , Thermal Properties, Textile Coating , Renewable Textile

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
179 Natural Dyeing on Wool Fabrics Using Some Red Rose Petals

Authors: Emrah Çimen, Mustafa Demirelli, Burcu Yilmaz Şahinbaşkan, Mahmure Üstün Özgür

Abstract:

Natural colours are used on a large area such as textile, food and pharmaceutical industries by many researchers. When tannic acid is used together with metal salts for dyeing with natural dyes, antibacterial and fastness properties of textile materials are increased. In addition, the allegens are removed on wool fabrics. In this experimental work, some red rose petals were applied as a natural dye with three different dyeing methods and eight different mordant salts. The effect of tannic acid and different metal salts on dyeing of wool fabric was studied. Colour differences ΔECMC (2:1) and fastness properties of dyed fabrics were investigated and compared with each other. Finally, dark colours and adequate colour fastness results (4+) were obtained after dyeing of wool fabrics with FeSO4.7H2O, FeCl3.6H2O and CuCl2.2H2O in the presence of the tannic acid.

Keywords: natural dye, red rose petals, tannic acid, mordant salts, wool fabric

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178 Developing Mathematical Relationships to Evaluate the Amount of Added Ease to the Basic Pattern of Weft Knitting Fabrics and Its Fitting to the Upper Part of Egyptian Women's Bodies

Authors: Hebatullah Ali Abdel-Aleem Abdel-Hamid, Camellia Mousa Mohamed Elzean

Abstract:

Knitted garments recently became a key component in wardrobes of the Egyptian woman. Many Egyptian women depend on garments made of knitted fabrics in their outer appearance because of its specific properties including flexibility. Through observation and application, it was noticed that knitwear blocks that used for knitted fabrics somehow does not fit the figures of the Egyptian women. Moreover, the pattern makers are usually confused and unable to choose the suitable blocks for different knitting fabrics taking into consideration its physical and mechanical properties. This study seeks to develop mathematical relationships for evaluation of the amount of added- or subtracted ease to Aldrich’s basic fitting blocks for some weft knitting fabrics and its fitting to the upper part of Egyptian women's bodies. To achieve this goal, 12 samples were used to evaluate fitting of Aldrich’s Basic Fitting Block to the upper part of Egyptian women's bodies. The samples were evaluated before and after alterations, through wear trials on the standard mannequins of size 48 and 56, and judged by experienced assessors using fit evaluation scale. The data obtained were statistically analyzed to identify the efficiency of the adjustments. The Aldrich’s Basic Fitting Block was selected because his method is known internationally and easy to use.

Keywords: Aldrich basic fitting block, clothing industry, knitted fabrics, pattern construction

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177 Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Properties of Viscose Single Jersey Fabrics

Authors: Merve Kucukali Ozturk, Yesim Beceren, Banu Nergis

Abstract:

The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate effects of different drying methods (line dry and tumble dry) on viscose single jersey fabrics knitted with ring yarn.

Keywords: color change, dimensional properties, drying method, fabric tightness, physical properties

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176 Microscopic Features Influences on Textile Fabrics Self-Cleaning Ability

Authors: Ayat Adnan Atwah

Abstract:

Self-cleaning ability in textile fabrics was comprehensively investigated in the last decade. Most of these investigations have used surface roughness, and low surface energy features to establish a self-cleaning mechanism. Extensive research articles and reviews have been published to describe these processes along with their microscopic features. When these reviewed with a critical eye, it has been found that a comprehensive effort is still required to compile all these previous research, emphasizing how textile fabrics' microscopic features can influence their self-cleaning ability. No research has been conducted to explore the self-cleaning potential of microscopic geometrical features of fabric at the woven structural level. Researchers used microscopic features to increase the mechanical strength of the fabric. However, they did not change the microscopic features at a woven level to evaluate the self-cleaning ability. In the existing literature, researchers have tried to develop self-cleaning textiles with the help of coatings on the fabric. These coatings are applied to the fabrics by using spray and nanoparticle processing. The coatings create a different surface on the fabric, and hence the changes in the microscopic features of this surface control the self-cleaning ability. Instead of using an additional coating, the microscopic features of the fabric itself can also influence the surface roughness and low surface energy and provide self-cleaning ability at the woven structural level. Key microscopic features like surface roughness, porosity, and wettability of a textile fabric are still not comprehensively investigated for their influence on fabric’s self-cleaning ability. Significantly, the interdependencies between these features with overall fabric geometry at the woven level have not been explored quantitatively. Qualitative observations have been made mainly in the past literature. However, fabrics with self-cleaning ability to be produced in mass production require extensive empirical studies. These studies must involve parametric analysis on varying values of the microscopic features and their quantitative influence on the desired self-cleaning feature.

Keywords: self-cleaning ability, influence, microscopic features, textile fabrics

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175 Wash Fastness of Textile Fibers Dyed with Natural Dye from Eucalyptus Wood Steaming Waste

Authors: Ticiane Rossi, Maurício C. Araújo, José O. Brito, Harold S. Freeman

Abstract:

Natural dyes are gaining interest due their expected low risk to human health and to the environment. In this study, the wash fastness of a natural coloring matter from the liquid waste produced in the steam treatment of eucalyptus wood in textile fabrics was investigated. Specifically, eucalyptus wood extract was used to dye cotton, nylon and wool in an exhaust dyeing process without the addition of the traditional mordanting agents and then submitted to wash fastness analysis. The resulting dyed fabrics were evaluated for color fastness. It was found that wash fastness of dyed fabrics was very good to cotton and excellent to nylon and wool.

Keywords: eucalyptus, natural dye, textile fibers, wash fastness

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174 Validation of the Recovery of House Dust Mites from Fabrics by Means of Vacuum Sampling

Authors: A. Aljohani, D. Burke, D. Clarke, M. Gormally, M. Byrne, G. Fleming

Abstract:

Introduction: House Dust Mites (HDMs) are a source of allergen particles embedded in textiles and furnishings. Vacuum sampling is commonly used to recover and determine the abundance of HDMs but the efficiency of this method is less than standardized. Here, the efficiency of recovery of HDMs was evaluated from home-associated textiles using vacuum sampling protocols.Methods/Approach: Living Mites (LMs) or dead Mites (DMs) House Dust Mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: FERA, UK) were separately seeded onto the surfaces of Smooth Cotton, Denim and Fleece (25 mites/10x10cm2 squares) and left for 10 minutes before vacuuming. Fabrics were vacuumed (SKC Flite 2 pump) at a flow rate of 14 L/min for 60, 90 or 120 seconds and the number of mites retained by the filter (0.4μm x 37mm) unit was determined. Vacuuming was carried out in a linear direction (Protocol 1) or in a multidirectional pattern (Protocol 2). Additional fabrics with LMs were also frozen and then thawed, thereby euthanizing live mites (now termed EMs). Results/Findings: While there was significantly greater (p=0.000) recovery of mites (76% greater) in fabrics seeded with DMs than LMs irrespective of vacuuming protocol or fabric type, the efficiency of recovery of DMs (72%-76%) did not vary significantly between fabrics. For fabrics containing EMs, recovery was greatest for Smooth Cotton and Denim (65-73% recovered) and least for Fleece (15% recovered). There was no significant difference (p=0.99) between the recovery of mites across all three mite categories from Smooth Cotton and Denim but significantly fewer (p=0.000) mites were recovered from Fleece. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of HMD-seeded fabrics showed that live mites burrowed deeply into the Fleece weave which reduced their efficiency of recovery by vacuuming. Research Implications: Results presented here have implications for the recovery of HDMs by vacuuming and the choice of fabric to ameliorate HDM-dust sensitization.

Keywords: allergy, asthma, dead, fabric, fleece, live mites, sampling

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