Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 218

Search results for: ecology

68 Simulation of Nano Drilling Fluid in an Extended Reach Well

Authors: Robiah Yunus, Lina Jassim, and Amran Salleh


Since nano particles have been assessed as thermo stabilizer, rheology enhancer, and ecology safer, nano drilling fluid can be utilized to overcome the complexity of hole cleaning in highly deviated interval of an extended reach wells. The eccentric annular flow is a flow with special considerations; it forms a vital part of drilling fluid flow analysis in an extended reach wells. In this work eccentric, dual phase flow (different types of rock cuttings with different size were blended with nano fluid) through horizontal well (an extended reach well) are simulated with the help of CFD, Fluent package. In horizontal wells flow occurs in an adverse pressure gradient condition, that makes the particle inside it susceptible to reversed flow. Thus the flow has to be analyzed in a three dimensional manner. Moreover the non-Newtonian behavior of the nano fluid makes the problem really challenging in numerical and physical aspects. The primary objective of the work is to establish a relationship between different flow characteristics with the speed of inner wall rotation. The nano fluid flow characteristics include swirl of flow and its effect on wellbore cleaning ability , wall shear stress and its effect on fluid viscosity to suspend and carry the rock cuttings, axial velocity and its effect on transportation of rock cuttings to the wellbore surface, finally pressure drop and its effect on managed of drilling pressure. The importance of eccentricity of the inner cylinder has to be analyzed as a part of it. Practical horizontal well flows contain a good amount of particles (rock cuttings) with moderate axial velocity, which verified nano drilling fluid ability of carrying and transferring cuttings particles in the highly deviated eccentric annular flow is also of utmost importance.

Keywords: CFD, non-Newtonian, dual phase, eccentric annular

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67 Smart Growth Solution to Curb Urban Sprawl: A Case Study of Kozhikode Urban Agglomeration

Authors: K.S. Krishnaveni, P.P. Anilkumar


As the world’s urban population increases, cities start to sprawl outwards at an alarming pace causing numerous social, economic, environmental, and ecological problems. Urban sprawl, which can be elaborated as low-density, non-contiguous, unplanned, uncontrolled, uncoordinated and uneven peripheral growth of cities is related to all sorts of problems like farmland loss, environmental degradation, increase in transportation costs, the decay of the city core and many more. Smart Growth can be considered as a potential antidote to undesirable urban sprawl impacts. The smart growth concept focuses on developing more vibrant, competitive, and livable cities to tackle the social, economic, and environmental havoc created by urban land sprawl. Smart growth communities offer a range of housing options, compact building designs, high density mixed land uses, walkable neighborhoods, farmland and open space preservation, public transportation, and many more. This paper describes the potentials and prospects of Smart Growth strategies as a tool to curb urban sprawl of the undesired type. Besides, this study attempts to identify the potential smart growth locations in Calicut district of Kerala using Geographic Information System (GIS). For that, three sub-models, namely neighborhood, community form, and transport options with numerous feature classes, were selected based on their level of influence on smart growth development. Finally, a smart growth suitability model with potential smart growth locations is developed by combining the outputs from the three sub-models. Future development activities must concentrate more on those identified possible smart growth locations to get the best of smart growth capabilities and thereby eliminating sprawled growth of cities. We can conclude that smart growth strategies serve the environment, ecology, economy, and the community by eliminating the impacts of haphazard urban sprawl to a considerable extent.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Sustainability, urban sprawl, GIS, Smart Growth

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66 The Visualization of Hydrological and Hydraulic Models Based on the Platform of Autodesk Civil 3D

Authors: Xiyue Wang, Shaoning Yan


Cities in China today is faced with an increasingly serious river ecological crisis accompanying with the development of urbanization: waterlogging on account of the fragmented urban natural hydrological system; the limited ecological function of the hydrological system caused by a destruction of water system and waterfront ecological environment. Additionally, the eco-hydrological processes of rivers are affected by various environmental factors, which are more complex in the context of urban environment. Therefore, efficient hydrological monitoring and analysis tools, accurate and visual hydrological and hydraulic models are becoming more important basis for decision-makers and an important way for landscape architects to solve urban hydrological problems, formulating sustainable and forward-looking schemes. The study mainly introduces the river and flood analysis model based on the platform of Autodesk Civil 3D. Taking the Luanhe River in Qian'an City of Hebei Province as an example, the 3D models of the landform, river, embankment, shoal, pond, underground stream and other land features were initially built, with which the water transfer simulation analysis, river floodplain analysis, and river ecology analysis were carried out, ultimately the real-time visualized simulation and analysis of rivers in various hypothetical scenarios were realized. Through the establishment of digital hydrological and hydraulic model, the hydraulic data can be accurately and intuitively simulated, which provides basis for rational water system and benign urban ecological system design. Though, the hydrological and hydraulic model based on Autodesk Civil3D own its boundedness: the interaction between the model and other data and software is unfavorable; the huge amount of 3D data and the lack of basic data restrict the accuracy and application range. The hydrological and hydraulic model based on Autodesk Civil3D platform provides more possibility to access convenient and intelligent tool for urban planning and monitoring, a solid basis for further urban research and design.

Keywords: Visualization, hydrological and hydraulic model, Autodesk Civil 3D, urban river

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65 Forensic Entomology in Algeria

Authors: Meriem Taleb, Ghania Tail, Fatma Zohra Kara, Brahim Djedouani, T. Moussa


Forensic entomology is the use of insects and their arthropod relatives as silent witnesses to aid legal investigations by interpreting information concerning a death. The main purpose of forensic entomology is to establish the postmortem interval or PMI Postmortem interval is a matter of crucial importance in the investigations of homicide and other untimely deaths when the body found is after three days. Forensic entomology has grown immensely as a discipline in the past thirty years. In Algeria, forensic entomology was introduced in 2010 by the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology of the National Gendarmerie (NICC). However, all the work that has been done so far in this growing field in Algeria has been unknown at both the national and international levels. In this context, the aim of this paper is to describe the state of forensic entomology in Algeria. The Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC is the only one of its kind in Algeria. It started its activities in 2010, consisting of two specialists. The main missions of the laboratory are estimation of the PMI by the analysis of entomological evidence, and determination if the body was moved. Currently, the laboratory is performing different tasks such as the expert work required by investigators to estimate the PMI using the insects. The estimation is performed by the accumulated degree days method (ADD) in most of the cases except for those where the cadaver is in dry decay. To assure the quality of the entomological evidence, crime scene personnel are trained by the laboratory of Entomology of the NICC. Recently, undergraduate and graduate students have been studying carrion ecology and insect activity in different geographic locations of Algeria using rabbits and wild boar cadavers as animal models. The Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC has also been involved in some of these research projects. Entomotoxicology experiments are also conducted with the collaboration of the Toxicology Department of the NICC. By dint of hard work that has been performed by the Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC, official bodies have been adopting more and more the use of entomological evidence in criminal investigations in Algeria, which is commendable. It is important, therefore, that steps are taken to fill in the gaps in the knowledge necessary for entomological evidence to have a useful future in criminal investigations in Algeria.

Keywords: Insects, Forensic Entomology, expertise, Algeria, postmortem interval, corpse

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64 Building Education Leader Capacity through an Integrated Information and Communication Technology Leadership Model and Tool

Authors: Sousan Arafeh


Educational systems and schools worldwide are increasingly reliant on information and communication technology (ICT). Unfortunately, most educational leadership development programs do not offer formal curricular and/or field experiences that prepare students for managing ICT resources, personnel, and processes. The result is a steep learning curve for the leader and his/her staff and dissipated organizational energy that compromises desired outcomes. To address this gap in education leaders’ development, Arafeh’s Integrated Technology Leadership Model (AITLM) was created. It is a conceptual model and tool that educational leadership students can use to better understand the ICT ecology that exists within their schools. The AITL Model consists of six 'infrastructure types' where ICT activity takes place: technical infrastructure, communications infrastructure, core business infrastructure, context infrastructure, resources infrastructure, and human infrastructure. These six infrastructures are further divided into 16 key areas that need management attention. The AITL Model was created by critically analyzing existing technology/ICT leadership models and working to make something more authentic and comprehensive regarding school leaders’ purview and experience. The AITL Model then served as a tool when it was distributed to over 150 educational leadership students who were asked to review it and qualitatively share their reactions. Students said the model presented crucial areas of consideration that they had not been exposed to before and that the exercise of reviewing and discussing the AITL Model as a group was useful for identifying areas of growth that they could pursue in the leadership development program and in their professional settings. While development in all infrastructures and key areas was important for students’ understanding of ICT, they noted that they were least aware of the importance of the intangible area of the resources infrastructure. The AITL Model will be presented and session participants will have an opportunity to review and reflect on its impact and utility. Ultimately, the AITL Model is one that could have significant policy and practice implications. At the very least, it might help shape ICT content in educational leadership development programs through curricular and pedagogical updates.

Keywords: ICT, Information and Communications Technology, Leadership Development, education leadership, leadership capacity building

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63 Adaptation Mechanism and Planning Response to Resiliency Shrinking of Small Towns Based on Complex Adaptive System by Taking Wuhan as an Example

Authors: Yanqun Li, Hong Geng


The rapid urbanization process taking big cities as the main body leads to the unequal configuration of urban and rural areas in the aspects of land supply, industrial division of labor, service supply and space allocation, and induces the shrinking characterization of service energy, industrial system and population vitality in small towns. As an important spatial unit in the spectrum of urbanization that serves, connects and couples urban and rural areas, the shrinking phenomenon faced by small towns has an important influence on the healthy development of urbanization. Based on the census of small towns in Wuhan metropolitan area, we have found that the shrinking of small towns is a passive contraction of elastic tension under the squeeze in cities. Once affected by the external forces such as policy regulation, planning guidance, and population return, small towns will achieve expansion and growth. Based on the theory of complex adaptive systems, this paper comprehensively constructs the development index evaluation system of small towns from five aspects of population, economy, space, society and ecology, measures the shrinking level of small towns, further analyzes the shrinking characteristics of small towns, and identifies whether the shrinking is elastic or not. And then this paper measures the resilience ability index of small town contract from the above-mentioned five aspects. Finally, this paper proposes an adaptive mechanism of urban-rural interaction evolution under fine division of labor to response the passive shrinking in small towns of Wuhan. Based on the above, the paper creatively puts forward the planning response measures of the small towns on the aspects of spatial layout, function orientation and service support, which can provide reference for other regions.

Keywords: Complex Adaptive Systems, resiliency shrinking, adaptation mechanism, planning response

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62 Distribution Patterns of the Renieramycin-M-Producing Blue Sponge, Xestospongia sp. (De Laubenfels, 1932) (Phylum: Porifera, Class: Demospongiae) in Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro, Philippines

Authors: Geminne Manzano, Clairecynth Yu, Lilibeth Salvador-Reyes, Viviene Santiago, Porfirio AliñO


The distribution and abundance patterns of many marine sessile organisms such as sponges vary among and within reefs. Determining the factors affecting its distribution is essential especially for organisms that produce secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical importance. In this study, the small-scale distribution patterns of the Philippine blue sponge, Xestospongia sp. in relation to some ecological factors were examined. The relationship between the renieramycin-M production and their benthic attributes were also determined. Ecological surveys were conducted on two stations with varying depth and exposure located in Oriental Mindoro, Philippines. Three 30 by 6m belt transect were used to assess the sponge abundance at each station. The substratum of the sponges was also characterized. Fish visual census observations were also taken together with the photo transect methods benthic surveys. Sponge samples were also collected for the extraction of Renieramycin-M and for further chemical analysis. Varying distribution patterns were observed to be attributed to the combination of different ecological and environmental factors. The amount of Renieramycin-production also varied in each station. The common substratum for blue sponges includes hard and soft corals, as well as, dead coral with algal patches. Blue sponges from exposed habitat frequently grow associated with massive and branching corals, Porites sp., while the most frequent substrate found on sheltered habitats is the coral Pavona sp. Exploring the influence of ecological and environmental parameters on the abundance and distribution of sponge assemblages provide ecological insights and their potential applications to pharmaceutical studies. The results of this study provide further impetus in pursuing studies into patterns and processes of the Philippine blue sponge, Xestospongia sp. distribution in relation to the chemical ecology of its secondary metabolites.

Keywords: Distribution Patterns, Xestospongia sp, Porifera, Renieramycin-M, sponge assemblages

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61 Evaluating the Challenges of Large Scale Urban Redevelopment Projects for Central Government Employee Housing in Delhi

Authors: DHEERAJ BHARDWAJ, Parul Kapoor


Delhi and other Indian cities accommodate thousands of Central Government employees in housing complexes called ‘General Pool Residential Accommodation’ (GPRA), located in prime parcels of the city. These residential colonies are now undergoing redevelopment at a massive scale, significantly impacting the ecology of the surrounding areas. Essentially, these colonies were low-rise, low-density planned developments with a dense tree cover and minimal parking requirements. But with increasing urbanisation and spike in parking demand, the proposed built form is an aggregate of high-rise gated complexes, redefining the skyline of the city which is a huge departure from the mediocre setup of Low-rise Walk-up apartments. The complexity of these developments is further aggravated by the need for parking which necessitates cutting huge number of trees to accommodate multiple layers of parking beneath the structures thus sidelining the authentic character of these areas which is laden with a dense tree cover. The aftermath of this whole process is the generation of a huge carbon footprint on the surrounding areas, which is unaccounted for, in the planning and design practice. These developments are currently planned as mix-use compounds with large commercial built-up spaces which have additional parking requirements over and above the residential parking. Also, they are perceived as gated complexes and not as neighborhood units, thus project isolated images of high-rise, dense systems with little context to the surroundings. The paper would analyze case studies of GPRA Redevelopment projects in Delhi, and the lack of relevant development control regulations which have led to abnormalities and complications in the entire redevelopment process. It would also suggest policy guidelines which can establish comprehensive codes for effective planning of these settlements.

Keywords: gated complexes, GPRA Redevelopment projects, increased densities, huge carbon footprint, mixed-use development

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60 Ecological Evaluation and Conservation Strategies of Economically Important Plants in Indian Arid Zone

Authors: Sher Mohammed, Purushottam Lal, Pawan K. Kasera


The Thar Desert of Rajasthan covers a wide geographical area spreading between 23.3° to 30.12°, North latitude and 69.3◦ to 76◦ Eastern latitudes; having a unique spectrum of arid zone vegetation. This desert is spreading over 12 districts having a rich source of economically important/threatened plant diversity interacting and growing with adverse climatic conditions of the area. Due to variable geological, physiographic, climatic, edaphic and biotic factors, the arid zone medicinal flora exhibit a wide collection of angiosperm families. The herbal diversity of this arid region is medicinally important in household remedies among tribal communities as well as in traditional systems. The on-going increasing disturbances in natural ecosystems are due to climatic and biological, including anthropogenic factors. The unique flora and subsequently dependent faunal diversity of the desert ecosystem is losing its biotic potential. A large number of plants have no future unless immediate steps are taken to arrest the causes, leading to their biological improvement. At present the potential loss in ecological amplitude of various genera and species is making several plant species as red listed plants of arid zone vegetation such as Commmiphora wightii, Tribulus rajasthanensis, Calligonum polygonoides, Ephedra foliata, Leptadenia reticulata, Tecomella undulata, Blepharis sindica, Peganum harmala, Sarcostoma vinimale, etc. Mostly arid zone species are under serious pressure against prevailing ecosystem factors to continuation their life cycles. Genetic, molecular, cytological, biochemical, metabolic, reproductive, germination etc. are the several points where the floral diversity of the arid zone area is facing severe ecological influences. So, there is an urgent need to conserve them. There are several opportunities in the field to carry out remarkable work at particular levels to protect the native plants in their natural habitat instead of only their in vitro multiplication.

Keywords: Ecology, Conservation, Evaluation, xerophytes, economically, threatened plants

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59 Impacts of Community Forest on Forest Resources Management and Livelihood Improvement of Local People in Nepal

Authors: Samipraj Mishra


Despite the successful implementation of community forestry program, a number of pros and cons have been raised on Terai community forestry in the case of lowland locally called Terai region of Nepal, which is climatically belongs to tropical humid and possessed high quality forests in terms of ecology and economy. The study aims to investigate the local pricing strategy of forest products and its impacts on equitable forest benefit sharing, collection of community fund and carrying out livelihood improvement activities. The study was carried out on six community forests revealed that local people have substantially benefited from the community forests. However, being the region is heterogeneous by socio-economic conditions and forest resources have higher economical potential, the decision of low pricing strategy made by the local people have created inequality problems while sharing the forest benefits, and poorly contributed to community fund collection and consequently carrying out limited activities of livelihood improvement. The paper argued that the decision of low pricing strategy of forest products is counter-productive to promote the equitable benefit sharing in the areas of heterogeneous socio-economic conditions with high value forests. The low pricing strategy has been increasing accessibility of better off households at higher rate than poor; as such households always have higher affording capacity. It is also defective to increase the community fund and carry out activities of livelihood improvement effectively. The study concluded that unilateral decentralized forest policy and decision-making autonomy to the local people seems questionable unless their decision-making capacities are enriched sufficiently. Therefore, it is recommended that empowerment of decision-making capacity of local people and their respective institutions together with policy and program formulation are prerequisite for efficient and equitable community forest management and its long-term sustainability.

Keywords: livelihood, Nepal, community forest, socio-economy, pricing system

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58 Eco-Biological Study of Artemia salina (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) in Sahline Salt Lake, Tunisia

Authors: Khalil Trigui, Rafik Ben Said, Fourat Akrout, Neji Aloui


In this study, we examined in the first part the eco-biology of Artemia (A.salina) collected from Sahline Salt Lake (governorate of Monastir: Tunisia) during an annual cycle. The correlations between environmental factors and some biological parameters of Artemia were determined. The results obtained showed that the environmental factors affected the biology of Artemia. The highest abundance was recorded in May (550 ± 2,16 ind/l) and all life history stages existed with different seasonal proportions. The Artemia population is bisexual with ovoviviparous reproduction at the beginning and oviparous at the end of the life cycle. We also recorded the dominance of males at the start and the females at the end of the cycle. During all the study period, the size of mature females is bigger than that of males. The fertility obtained resulted in a significant production of cysts compared to the nauplii. A negative correlation with highly significant effect was deduced between environmental factors (temperature and salinity) and the production of nauplii (ovoviviparity) in contrast with dissolved oxygen. In the second part of our work is consecrated to the mastery of breeding Artemia. For this, we tested the effect of five external factors (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, light intensity and food) on the survival of this crustacean. Thereby, the survival rates of Artemia were affected by the different values of studied factors. The recorded results showed that Artemia salina has an optimum temperature ranged from 25 to 27°C with a survival rate ranging from 84 to 88%. The optimal salinity to breed Artemia salina was 37 psu (62 ± 0,23%). Nevertheless, this crustacean was able to survive and withstand the salinity of 0 psu (freshwater). The optimum concentration of dissolved oxygen was 7mg/l with a survival rate of 87,11 ± 0,04%. An optimum light intensity of 10 lux revealed a survival rate equal to 85,33 ± 0,01%. The results also showed that the preferred micro-algae by Artemia is Dunaliella salina with a maximum survival rate of the order of 80 ± 0,15%. There is a significant effect for all experienced parameters on the survival of Artemia reared except the nature of food.

Keywords: Biology, Ecology, Breeding, Artemia salina, Sahline salt lake

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57 Forest Products Pricing System in Community Forestry Program: An Analysis of Its Impacts on Forest Resources Management and Livelihood Improvement of Local People

Authors: Mohan Bikram Thapa


Despite the successful implementation of community forestry program, a number of pros and cons have been raised on Terai community forestry in the case of lowland locally called Terai region of Nepal, which climatically belongs to tropical humid and possessed high-quality forests in terms of ecology and economy. The study aims to investigate the local pricing strategy of forest products and its impacts on equitable forest benefits sharing, the collection of community fund and carrying out livelihood improvement activities. The study was carried out on six community forests revealed that local people have substantially benefited from the community forests. However, being the region is heterogeneous by socio-economic conditions and forest resources have higher economic potential, the decision of low pricing strategy made by the local people have created inequality problems while sharing the forest benefits, and poorly contributed to community fund collection and consequently carrying out limited activities of livelihood improvement. The paper argued that the decision of low pricing strategy of forest products is counterproductive to promote the equitable benefit-sharing in the areas of heterogeneous socio-economic conditions with high-value forests. The low pricing strategy has been increasing accessibility of better off households at a higher rate than poor, as such households always have the higher affording capacity. It is also defective to increase the community fund and carry out activities of livelihood improvement effectively. The study concluded that unilateral decentralized forest policy and decision-making autonomy to the local people seems questionable unless their decision-making capacities are enriched sufficiently. Therefore, it is recommended that empowerments of decision-making capacity of local people and their respective institutions together with policy and program formulation are prerequisite for efficient and equitable community forest management and its long-term sustainability.

Keywords: pricing mechanism, livelihood, Nepal, benefit sharing, community forest

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56 Advances in the Studies on Evaluation of Diversity and Habitat Preferences of Amphibians of Nigeria

Authors: Md Mizanur Rahman, Lotanna Micah Nneji, Adeola C. Adeniyi, Edem Archibong Eniang, Abiodun B. Onadeko, Felista Kasyoka Kilunda, Babatunde E. Adedeji, Ifeanyi C. Nneji, Adiaha A. A. Ugwumba, Jie-Qiong Jin, Min-Sheng Peng, Caroline Olory, Nsikan Eninekit, Jing Che


Nigeria contains a number of forest habitats that believed to host highly rich amphibian diversity. However, a dearth of herpetological studies has restricted information on the amphibian diversity in Nigeria. To cover the gap of knowledge, this study focused field surveys on relatively less studied forests–Afi Forest Reserve and Ikpan forest ecosystem. The goal of this study is to make a checklist and to investigate the habitat preferences of amphibians in these two forests. The study areas were surveyed between August 2018 and July 2019 following visual and acoustic methods. Individuals were identified using the morphological and molecular (16S ribosomal RNA) approach. Literature searches were conducted to document additional species that were not encountered during the current field surveys. Using the observational records and arrays of diversity indices, the patterns of species richness and abundance across habitat types were evaluated. Voucher specimens and tissue samples were deposited in the museums of the Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan Nigeria, and the remainder at the Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China. The result of this study revealed the presence of 30 and 31 amphibian species from the Afi Forest Reserve and the Ikpan Forest Ecosystem, respectively. There were two unidentified species from AFR and one from IFE. In total, 324 individuals of amphibian species were observed from the two study areas. Forest and swamps showed high species diversity and richness than the agricultural field and savannah. Savannah and agricultural fields had the highest similarity in the species composition. Given the increased human disturbances and consequent threats to these forests, this study offers recommendations for the initiation of conservation plans immediately.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Ecology, Conservation, cryptic species, integrated taxonomy, species inventory

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55 Systematic Analysis of Logistics Location Search Methods under Aspects of Sustainability

Authors: Theresa Steiner, Markus Pajones, Matthias Neubauer


Selecting a logistics location is vital for logistics providers, food retailing and other trading companies since the selection poses an essential factor for economic success. Therefore various location search methods like cost-benefit analysis and others are well known and under usage. The development of a logistics location can be related to considerable negative effects for the eco system such as sealing the surface, wrecking of biodiversity or CO2 and noise emissions generated by freight and commuting traffic. The increasing importance of sustainability demands for taking an informed decision when selecting a logistics location for the future. Sustainability considers economic, ecologic and social aspects which should be equally integrated in the process of location search. Objectives of this paper are to define various methods which support the selection of sustainable logistics locations and to generate knowledge about the suitability, assets and limitations of the methods within the selection process. This paper investigates the role of economical, ecological and social aspects when searching for new logistics locations. Thereby, related work targeted towards location search is analyzed with respect to encoded sustainability aspects. In addition, this research aims to gain knowledge on how to include aspects of sustainability and take an informed decision when searching for a logistics location. As a result, a decomposition of the various location search methods in there components leads to a comparative analysis in form of a matrix. The comparison within a matrix enables a transparent overview about the mentioned assets and limitations of the methods and their suitability for selecting sustainable logistics locations. A further result is to generate knowledge on how to combine the separate methods to a new method for a more efficient selection of logistics locations in the context of sustainability. Future work will especially investigate the above mentioned combination of various location search methods. The objective is to develop an innovative instrument, which supports the search for logistics locations with a focus on a balanced sustainability (economy, ecology, social). Because of an ideal selection of logistics locations, induced traffic should be reduced and a mode shift to rail and public transport should be facilitated.

Keywords: freight traffic, commuting traffic, logistics location search, location search method

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54 Learning from Flood: A Case Study of a Frequently Flooded Village in Hubei, China

Authors: Da Kuang


Resilience is a hotly debated topic in many research fields (e.g., engineering, ecology, society, psychology). In flood management studies, we are experiencing the paradigm shift from flood resistance to flood resilience. Flood resilience refers to tolerate flooding through adaptation or transformation. It is increasingly argued that our city as a social-ecological system holds the ability to learn from experience and adapt to flood rather than simply resist it. This research aims to investigate what kinds of adaptation knowledge the frequently flooded village learned from past experience and its advantages and limitations in coping with floods. The study area – Xinnongcun village, located in the west of Wuhan city, is a linear village and continuously suffered from both flash flood and drainage flood during the past 30 years. We have a field trip to the site in June 2017 and conducted semi-structured interviews with local residents. Our research summarizes two types of adaptation knowledge that people learned from the past floods. Firstly, at the village scale, it has formed a collective urban form which could help people live during both flood and dry season. All houses and front yards were elevated about 2m higher than the road. All the front yards in the village are linked and there is no barrier. During flooding time, people walk to neighbors through houses yards and boat to outside village on the lower road. Secondly, at individual scale, local people learned tacit knowledge of preparedness and emergency response to flood. Regarding the advantages and limitations, the adaptation knowledge could effectively help people to live with flood and reduce the chances of getting injuries. However, it cannot reduce local farmers’ losses on their agricultural land. After flood, it is impossible for local people to recover to the pre-disaster state as flood emerges during June and July will result in no harvest. Therefore, we argue that learning from past flood experience could increase people’s adaptive capacity. However, once the adaptive capacity cannot reduce people’s losses, it requires a transformation to a better regime.

Keywords: Flood Resilience, Transformation, Adaptation, tacit knowledge

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53 Buddhism: Its Socio-Economic Relevance in the Present Changing World

Authors: Bandana Bhattacharya


‘Buddhism’, as such signifies the ‘ism’ that is based on Buddha’s life and teachings or that is concerned with the gospel of Buddha as recorded in the literature available in Pali, Sanskrit, Buddhist Sanskrit, Prakrit and even in the other non-Indian languages wherein it has been described a very abstruse, complex and lofty philosophy of life or ‘the way of life’ preached by Him (Buddha). It has another side too, i.e., the applicability of the tenets of Buddha according to the needs of the present society, where human life and outlook has been totally changed. Applied Buddhism signifies the applicability of the Buddha’s noble tenets. Along with the theological exposition and textual criticism of the Buddha’s discourses, it has now become almost obligatory for the Buddhist scholars to re-interpret Buddhism from modern perspectives. Basically Applied Buddhism defined a ‘way of life’ which may transform the higher quality of life or essence of life due to changed circumstances, places and time. Nowadays, if we observe the present situation of the world, we will find the current problems such as health, economic, politic, global warming, population explosion, pollution of all types including cultural scarcity essential commodities and indiscriminate use of human, natural and water resources are becoming more and more pronounced day by day, under such a backdrop of world situation. Applied Buddhism rather Buddhism may be the only instrument left now for mankind to address all such human achievements, lapses, and problems. Buddha’s doctrine is itself called ‘akālika, timeless’. On the eve of the Mahāparinibbāṇa at Kusinara, the Blessed One allows His disciples to change, modify and alter His minor teachings according to the needs of the future, although He has made some utterances, which would eternally remain fresh. Hence Buddhism has been able to occupy a prominent place in modern life, because of its timeless applicability, emanating from a set of eternal values. The logical and scientific outlook of Buddha may be traced in His very first sermon named the Dhammacakkapavattana-Sutta where He suggested to avoid the two extremes, namely, constantly attachment to sensual pleasures (Kāmasukhallikānuyoga) and devotion to self-mortification that is painful as well as unprofitable and asked to adopt Majjhimapaṭipadā, ‘Middle path’, which is very much applicable even today in every spheres of human life; and the absence of which is the root cause of all problems event at present. This paper will be a humble attempt to highlight the relevance of Buddhism in the present society.

Keywords: Ecology, Value, Self-Awareness, applied Buddhism

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52 Distribution and Population Status of Canis spp. Threats and Conservation in Lehri Nature Park, Salt Range, District Jhelum

Authors: Muhammad Saad, AzherBaig, Anwar Maqsood, Muhammad Waseem


The grey wolf has been ranked endangered and Asiatic jackal as near threatened in Pakistan. Scientific data on population and threats to these species are not available in Pakistan, which is required for their proper management and conservation. The present study was conducted to collect data on distribution range, population status and threats to both of these Canis species in Lehri Nature Park. The data were collected using direct observations and indirect signs in the field. The population of grey wolf and Asiatic jackal were scattered into pocket of the study area and its surroundings. The current population of grey wolf was estimated 06 individuals and that of Asiatic jackal 28 individuals in the study area. The present study showed that grey wolf and Asiatic jackal were distributed in the northern and southern part of the study area having dense vegetation cover of tress and shrub between the altitudes of 330 m and 515 m. The research finding revealed that the scrub forest is the most preferred habitat of both the species but due to anthropogenic pressure the scrub forest is under severe threat. The dominant trees species were Acacia modesta, Zizyphus nummularia, and Prosopis juliflora and shrubs species of Dodonea-viscosa, Calotropis procera and Adhatoda vasica. Urial is one of the natural prey species: their population is low due to a number of reasons and therefore the maximum dependence of the wolves was on the livestock of the local and nomadic shepherds. The main prey species in the livestock was goats and sheep. The interviews were conducted with the eye witnesses of wolf attacks including livestock being killed by 5-6 numbers of wolves in different hamlets in the study area. The killing rate of the livestock by the wolves was greater when the nomadic shepherds were present in the area and decreased when they left the area. Presence of nomadic shepherds and killing rate has relation with the shifting of the wolves from the study area. It is further concluded that the population of the grey wolf and Asiatic jackal has decreased over time due to less availability of the natural prey species and habitat destruction.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Conservation, Wildlife Ecology, population conservation

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51 Filling the Policy Gap for Coastal Resources Management: Case of Evidence-Based Mangrove Institutional Strengthening in Cameroon

Authors: Julius Niba Fon, Jean Hude E. Moudingo


Mangrove ecosystems in Cameroon are valuable both in services and functions as they play host to carbon sinks, fishery breeding grounds and natural coastal barriers against storms. In addition to the globally important biodiversity that they contain, they also contribute to local livelihoods. Despite these appraisals, a reduction of about 30 % over a 25 years period due to anthropogenic and natural actions has been recorded. The key drivers influencing mangrove change include population growth, climate change, economic and political trends and upstream habitat use. Reversing the trend of mangrove loss and growing vulnerability of coastal peoples requires a real commitment by the government to develop and implement robust level policies. It has been observed in Cameroon that special ecosystems like mangroves are insufficiently addressed by forestry and/or environment programs. Given these facts, the Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) in partnership with the Government of Cameroon and other development actors have put in place the project for sustainable community-based management and conservation of mangrove ecosystems in Cameroon. The aim is to address two issues notably the present weak institutional and legal framework for mangrove management, and the unrestricted and unsustainable harvesting of mangrove resources. Civil society organizations like the Cameroon Wildlife Conservation Society, Cameroon Ecology and Organization for the Environment and Development have been working to reduce the deforestation and degradation trend of Cameroon mangroves and also bringing the mangrove agenda to the fore in national and international arenas. Following a desktop approach, we found out that in situ and ex situ initiatives on mangrove management and conservation exist on propagation of improved fish smoke ovens to reduce fuel wood consumption, mangrove forest regeneration, shrimps farming and mangrove protected areas management. The evidence generated from the field experiences are inputs for processes of improving the legal and institutional framework for mangrove management in Cameroon, such as the elaboration of norms for mangroves management engaged by the government.

Keywords: Climate Change, mangrove ecosystem, legal and institutional framework, civil society organizations

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50 Taxonomy of Araceous Plants on Limestone Mountains in Lop Buri and Saraburi Provinces, Thailand

Authors: Sutida Maneeanakekul, Duangchai Sookchaloem


Araceous plant or Araceae is a monocotyledon family having numerous potential useful plants. Two hundred and ten species of Araceae were reported in Thailand, of which 43 species were reported as threatened plants. Fifty percent of endemic status and rare status plants were recorded in limestone areas. Currently, these areas are seriously threatened by land-use changes. The study on taxonomy of Araceous plants was carried out in Lop Buri and Saraburi limestone mountains from February 2011 to May 2015. The purposes of this study were to study species diversity, taxonomic character and ecological habitat. 55 specimens collected from various limestone areas including Pra Phut Tabat National forest (Pra Phut Tabat Mountain, Khao Pra Phut Tabat Noi Mountains, Wat Thum Krabog Mountain), Tab Khwang and Muak Lek Natinal forest (Pha Lad mountain, and Muak Lek waterfall) in Saraburi province ,and Wang Plaeng Ta Muang and Lumnarai National forest (Wat Thum chang phuk mountain), Panead National forest (Wat Khao Samo Khon Mountain), Lan Ta Ridge National forest (Khao Wong Prachan mountain, Wat Pa Chumchon) in Lop Buri province. Twenty species of Araceous plants were identified using characteristics of underground stem, phyllotaxis and leaf blade, spathe and spadix. Species list are Aglaonema cochinchinense, A. simplex, Alocasia acuminata, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, A. albispathus, A. saraburiensis, A. pseudoharmandii, Pycnospatha arietina, Hapaline kerri, Lasia spinosa, Pothos scandens, Typhonium laoticum, T. orbifolium, T. saraburiense, T. trilobatum, T. sp.1, T. sp. 2, Cryptocoryne crispatula var. balansae, Scindapsus sp., and Rhaphidophora peepla. Five species are new locality records. One species (Typhonium sp.1) is considered as a new species. Seven species were reported as threatened plants in Thailand Red Data Book. Taxonomic features were used for key to species constructions. Araceous specimens were found in mixed deciduous forests, dry evergreen forests with 50-470 m. elevation. New ecological habitat of Typhonium laoticum, T. orbifolium, and T. saraburiense were reported in this study.

Keywords: Ecology, Species Diversity, limestone mountains, Lopburi and Saraburi provinces, taxonomic character

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49 The Infiltration Interface Structure of Suburban Landscape Forms in Bimen Township, Anji, Zhejiang Province, China

Authors: Ke Wang, Zhu Wang


Coordinating and promoting urban and rural development has been a new round of institutional change in Zhejiang province since 2004. And this plan was fully implemented, which showed that the isolation between the urban and rural areas had gradually diminished. Little by little, an infiltration interface that is dynamic, flexible and interactive is formed, and this morphological structure starts to appear on the landscape form in the surrounding villages. In order to study the specific function and formation of the structure in the context of industrial revolution, Bimen village located on the interface between Anji Township, Huzhou and Yuhang District, Hangzhou is taken as the case. Anji township is in the cross area between Yangtze River delta economic circle and innovation center in Hangzhou. Awarded with ‘Chinese beautiful village’, Bimen has witnessed the growing process of infiltration in ecology, economy, technology and culture on the interface. Within the opportunity, Bimen village presents internal reformation to adapt to the energy exchange with urban areas. In the research, the reformation is to adjust the industrial structure, to upgrade the local special bamboo crafts, to release space for activities, and to establish infrastructures on the interface. The characteristic of an interface is elasticity achieved by introducing an Internet platform using ‘O2O’ agriculture method to connect cities and farmlands. There is a platform of this kind in Bimen named ‘Xiao Mei’. ‘Xiao’ in Chinese means small, ‘Mei’ means beautiful, which indicates the method to refine the landscape form. It turns out that the new agriculture mode will strengthen the interface by orienting the Third Party Platform upon the old dynamic basis and will bring new vitality for economy development in Bimen village. The research concludes opportunities and challenges generated by the evolution of the infiltration interface. It also proposes strategies for how to organically adapt to the urbanization process. Finally it demonstrates what will happen by increasing flexibility in the landscape forms of suburbs in the Bimen village.

Keywords: Flexibility, Bimen village, infiltration interface, suburban landscape form

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48 Diplomacy in Times of Disaster: Management through Reputational Capital

Authors: Liza Ireni-Saban


The 6.6 magnitude quake event that occurred in 2003 (Bam, Iran) made it impossible for the Iranian government to handle disaster relief efforts domestically. In this extreme event, the Iranian government reached out to the international community, and this created a momentum that had to be carried out by trust-building efforts on all sides, often termed ‘Disaster Diplomacy’. Indeed, the circumstances were even more critical when one considers the increasing political and economic isolation of Iran within the international community. The potential for transformative political space to be opened by disaster has been recognized by dominant international political actors. Despite the fact that Bam 2003 post-disaster relief efforts did not catalyze any diplomatic activities on all sides, it is suggested that few international aid agencies have successfully used disaster recovery to enhance their popular legitimacy and reputation among the international community. In terms of disaster diplomacy, an actor’s reputational capital may affect his ability to build coalitions and alliances to achieve international political ends, to negotiate and build understanding and trust with foreign publics. This study suggests that the post-disaster setting may benefit from using the ecology of games framework to evaluate the role of bridging actors and mediators in facilitating collaborative governance networks. Recent developments in network theory and analysis provide means of structural embeddedness to explore how reputational capital can be built through brokerage roles of actors engaged in a disaster management network. This paper then aims to structure the relations among actors that participated in the post-disaster relief efforts in the 2003 Bam earthquake (Iran) in order to assess under which conditions actors may be strategically utilized to serve as mediating organizations for future disaster events experienced by isolated nations or nations in conflict. The results indicate the strategic use of reputational capital by the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs as key broker to build a successful coordinative system for reducing disaster vulnerabilities. International aid agencies rarely played brokerage roles to coordinate peripheral actors. U.S. foreign assistance (USAID), despite coordination capacities, was prevented from serving brokerage roles in the system.

Keywords: coordination, Iran, disaster diplomacy, international aid organizations

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47 The Mapping of Pastoral Area as a Basis of Ecological for Beef Cattle in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf, Jasmal A. Syamsu, Hikmah M. Ali, Mawardi A. Asja, Zulkharnaim


This study was conducted and aimed in identifying and mapping the pasture as an ecological base of beef cattle. A survey was carried out during a period of April to June 2016, in Suppa, Mattirobulu, the district of Pinrang, South Sulawesi province. The mapping process of grazing area was conducted in several stages; inputting and tracking of data points into Google Earth Pro (version, affirmation and confirmation of tracking line visualized by satellite with a variety of records at the point, a certain point and tracking input data into ArcMap Application (ArcGIS version 10.1), data processing DEM/SRTM (S04E119) with respect to the location of the grazing areas, creation of a contour map (a distance of 5 m) and mapping tilt (slope) of land and land cover map-making. Analysis of land cover, particularly the state of the vegetation was done through the identification procedure NDVI (Normalized Differences Vegetation Index). This procedure was performed by making use of the Landsat-8. The results showed that the topography of the grazing areas of hills and some sloping surfaces and flat with elevation vary from 74 to 145 above sea level (asl), while the requirements for growing superior grass and legume is an altitude of up to 143-159 asl. Slope varied between 0 - > 40% and was dominated by a slope of 0-15%, according to the slope/topography pasture maximum of 15%. The range of NDVI values for pasture image analysis results was between 0.1 and 0.27. Characteristics of vegetation cover of pasture land in the category of vegetation density were low, 70% of the land was the land for cattle grazing, while the remaining approximately 30% was a grove and forest included plant water where the place for shelter of the cattle during the heat and drinking water supply. There are seven types of graminae and 5 types of legume that was dominant in the region. Proportionally, graminae class dominated up 75.6% and legume crops up to 22.1% and the remaining 2.3% was another plant trees that grow in the region. The dominant weed species in the region were Cromolaenaodorata and Lantana camara, besides that there were 6 types of floor plant that did not include as forage fodder.

Keywords: Ecology, Mapping, beef cattle, pastoral

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46 Opening of North Sea Route and Geopolitics in Arctic: Impact and Possibilities of Route

Authors: Nikkey Keshri


Arctic is a polar region located at the north of the earth. This consists of the Arctic Ocean and other parts of Canada, Russia, the United States, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. Arctic has vast natural resources which are exploited with modern technology, and the economic opening up of Russia has given new opportunities. All these states have connected with the Arctic region for economic activities and this effect the region ecology. The pollution problem is a serious threat to the people health living around pollution sources. Due to the prevailing worldwide sea and air currents, the Arctic area is the fallout region for long-range transport pollutants, and in some places the concentrations exceed the levels of densely populated urban areas. The Arctic is especially vulnerable to the effects of global warming, as has become apparent in the melting sea ice in recent years. Climate models predict much greater warming in the Arctic than the global average, resulting in significant international attention to the region. The global warming has an adverse impact on the climate, indigenous people, wildlife, and infrastructure. However, there are several opportunities that have emerged in the form of shipping routes, resources, and new territories. The shipping route through the Arctic is a reality and is currently navigable for a few weeks during summers. There are large deposits of oil and gas, minerals and fish and the surrounding countries with Arctic coastlines are becoming quite assertive about exercising their sovereignty over the newfound wealth. The main part of the research is that how the opening of Northern Sea Route is providing opportunities or problem in the Arctic and it is becoming geopolitically important. It focuses on the interest Arctic and non Arctic states, their present and anticipated global geopolitical aims. The Northern Sea Route might open up due to climate changes and that Iceland might benefit or has an impact from the situation. Efforts will be made to answer the research question: ‘Whether Opening of North Sea Route is providing opportunities or becoming a risk for Arctic region?’ Every research has a structure which usually called design. In this research, both Qualitative and Quantitative method is used in terms of various literature, maps, pie- charts, etc to find out the answer for the research question. The aim of this research is to find out the impact of Opening of North Sea Route over Arctic region and how this make arctic geopolitically important. The aim behind this research is to find out the impact of climate change and how the particular geographical area is being affected.

Keywords: Climate Change, Geopolitics, International Relation, Northern Sea Route

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45 Changes in Skin Microbiome Diversity According to the Age of Xian Women

Authors: Hanbyul Kim, Hye-Jin Kin, Taehun Park, Woo Jun Sul, Susun An


Skin is the largest organ of the human body and can provide the diverse habitat for various microorganisms. The ecology of the skin surface selects distinctive sets of microorganisms and is influenced by both endogenous intrinsic factors and exogenous environmental factors. The diversity of the bacterial community in the skin also depends on multiple host factors: gender, age, health status, location. Among them, age-related changes in skin structure and function are attributable to combinations of endogenous intrinsic factors and exogenous environmental factors. Skin aging is characterized by a decrease in sweat, sebum and the immune functions thus resulting in significant alterations in skin surface physiology including pH, lipid composition, and sebum secretion. The present study gives a comprehensive clue on the variation of skin microbiota and the correlations between ages by analyzing and comparing the metagenome of skin microbiome using Next Generation Sequencing method. Skin bacterial diversity and composition were characterized and compared between two different age groups: younger (20 – 30y) and older (60 - 70y) Xian, Chinese women. A total of 73 healthy women meet two conditions: (I) living in Xian, China; (II) maintaining healthy skin status during the period of this study. Based on Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database, skin samples of 73 participants were enclosed with ten most abundant genera: Chryseobacterium, Propionibacterium, Enhydrobacter, Staphylococcus and so on. Although these genera are the most predominant genus overall, each genus showed different proportion in each group. The most dominant genus, Chryseobacterium was more present relatively in Young group than in an old group. Similarly, Propionibacterium and Enhydrobacter occupied a higher proportion of skin bacterial composition of the young group. Staphylococcus, in contrast, inhabited more in the old group. The beta diversity that represents the ratio between regional and local species diversity showed significantly different between two age groups. Likewise, The Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) values representing each phylogenetic distance in the two-dimensional framework using the OTU (Operational taxonomic unit) values of the samples also showed differences between the two groups. Thus, our data suggested that the composition and diversification of skin microbiomes in adult women were largely affected by chronological and physiological skin aging.

Keywords: age, Next Generation Sequencing, Xian, skin microbiome

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44 Strategy and Mechanism for Intercepting Unpredictable Moving Targets in the Blue-Tailed Damselfly (Ischnura elegans)

Authors: Ziv Kassner, Gal Ribak


Members of the Odonata order (dragonflies and damselflies) stand out for their maneuverability and superb flight control, which allow them to catch flying prey in the air. These outstanding aerial abilities were fine-tuned during millions of years of an evolutionary arms race between Odonata and their prey, providing an attractive research model for studying the relationship between sensory input – and aerodynamic output in a flying insect. The ability to catch a maneuvering target in air is interesting not just for insect behavioral ecology and neuroethology but also for designing small and efficient robotic air vehicles. While the aerial prey interception of dragonflies (suborder: Anisoptera) have been studied before, little is known about how damselflies (suborder: Zygoptera) intercept prey. Here, high-speed cameras (filming at 1000 frames per second) were used to explore how damselflies catch unpredictable targets that move through air. Blue-tailed damselflies - Ischnura elegans (family: Coenagrionidae) were introduced to a flight arena and filmed while landing on moving targets that were oscillated harmonically. The insects succeeded in capturing targets that were moved with an amplitude of 6 cm and frequencies of 0-2.5 Hz (fastest mean target speed of 0.3 m s⁻¹) and targets that were moved in 1 Hz (an average speed of 0.3 m s⁻¹) but with an amplitude of 15 cm. To land on stationary or slow targets, damselflies either flew directly to the target, or flew sideways, up to a point in which the target was fixed in the center of the field of view, followed by direct flight path towards the target. As the target moved in increased frequency, damselflies demonstrated an ability to track the targets while flying sideways and minimizing the changes of their body direction on the yaw axis. This was likely an attempt to keep the targets at the center of the visual field while minimizing rotational optic flow of the surrounding visual panorama. Stabilizing rotational optic flow helps in estimation of the velocity and distance of the target. These results illustrate how dynamic visual information is used by damselflies to guide them towards a maneuvering target, enabling the superb aerial hunting abilities of these insects. They also exemplifies the plasticity of the damselfly flight apparatus which enables flight in any direction, irrespective of the direction of the body.

Keywords: insect flight, Bio-Mechanics, target fixation, tracking and interception

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43 System Transformation: Transitioning towards Low Carbon, Resource Efficient, and Circular Economy for Global Sustainability

Authors: Anthony Halog


In the coming decades the world that we know today will be drastically transformed. Population and economic growth, particularly in developing countries, are radically changing the demand for food and natural resources. Due to the transformations caused by these megatrends, especially economic growth which is rapidly expanding the middle class and changing consumption patterns worldwide, it is expected that this will result to an increase of approximately 40 percent in the demand for food, water, energy and other resources in the next decades. To fulfill this demand in a sustainable and efficient manner while avoiding food and water scarcity as well as environmental catastrophes in the near future, some industries, particularly the ones involved in food and energy production, have to drastically change its current production systems towards circular and green economy. In Australia, the agri-food industry has played a very important role in the scenario described above. It is one of the major food exporters in the world, supplying fast growing international markets in Asia and the Middle East. Though the Australian food supply chains are economically and technologically developed, it has been facing enduring challenges about its international competitiveness and environmental burdens caused by its production processes. An integrated framework for sustainability assessment is needed to precisely identify inefficiencies and environmental impacts created during food production processes. This research proposes a combination of industrial ecology and systems science based methods and tools intending to develop a novel and useful methodological framework for life cycle sustainability analysis of the agri-food industry. The presentation highlights circular economy paradigm aiming to implement sustainable industrial processes to transform the current industrial model of agri-food supply chains. The results are expected to support government policy makers, business decision makers and other stakeholders involved in agri-food-energy production system in pursuit of green and circular economy. The framework will assist future life cycle and integrated sustainability analysis and eco-redesign of food and other industrial systems.

Keywords: Green Economy, Circular economy, Eco-Efficiency, Agri-Food Systems, life cycle sustainability assessment

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42 Clustering Ethno-Informatics of Naming Village in Java Island Using Data Mining

Authors: Atje Setiawan Abdullah, Budi Nurani Ruchjana, I. Gede Nyoman Mindra Jaya, Eddy Hermawan


Ethnoscience is used to see the culture with a scientific perspective, which may help to understand how people develop various forms of knowledge and belief, initially focusing on the ecology and history of the contributions that have been there. One of the areas studied in ethnoscience is etno-informatics, is the application of informatics in the culture. In this study the science of informatics used is data mining, a process to automatically extract knowledge from large databases, to obtain interesting patterns in order to obtain a knowledge. While the application of culture described by naming database village on the island of Java were obtained from Geographic Indonesia Information Agency (BIG), 2014. The purpose of this study is; first, to classify the naming of the village on the island of Java based on the structure of the word naming the village, including the prefix of the word, syllable contained, and complete word. Second to classify the meaning of naming the village based on specific categories, as well as its role in the community behavioral characteristics. Third, how to visualize the naming of the village to a map location, to see the similarity of naming villages in each province. In this research we have developed two theorems, i.e theorems area as a result of research studies have collected intersection naming villages in each province on the island of Java, and the composition of the wedge theorem sets the provinces in Java is used to view the peculiarities of a location study. The methodology in this study base on the method of Knowledge Discovery in Database (KDD) on data mining, the process includes preprocessing, data mining and post processing. The results showed that the Java community prioritizes merit in running his life, always working hard to achieve a more prosperous life, and love as well as water and environmental sustainment. Naming villages in each location adjacent province has a high degree of similarity, and influence each other. Cultural similarities in the province of Central Java, East Java and West Java-Banten have a high similarity, whereas in Jakarta-Yogyakarta has a low similarity. This research resulted in the cultural character of communities within the meaning of the naming of the village on the island of Java, this character is expected to serve as a guide in the behavior of people's daily life on the island of Java.

Keywords: Data Mining, Clustering, ethnoscience, ethno-informatics, Java island culture

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41 Ecological Crisis: A Buddhist Approach

Authors: Jaharlal Debbarma


The ecological crisis has become a threat to earth’s well-being. Man’s ambitious desire of wealth, pleasure, fame, longevity and happiness has extracted natural resources so vastly that it is unable to sustain a healthy life. Man’s greed for wealth and power has caused the setting up of vast factories which further created the problem of air, water and noise pollution, which have adversely affected both fauna and flora.It is no secret that man uses his inherent powers of reason, intelligence and creativity to change his environment for his advantage. But man is not aware that the moral force he himself creates brings about corresponding changes in his environment to his weal or woe whether he likes it or not. As we are facing the global warming and the nature’s gift such as air and water has been so drastically polluted with disastrous consequences that man seek for a ways and means to overcome all this pollution problem as his health and life sustainability has been threaten and that is where man try to question about the moral ethics and value.It is where Buddhist philosophy has been emphasized deeply which gives us hope for overcoming this entire problem as Buddha himself emphasized in eradicating human suffering and Buddhism is the strongest form of humanism we have. It helps us to learn to live with responsibility, compassion, and loving kindness.It teaches us to be mindful in our action and thought as the environment unites every human being. If we fail to save it we will perish. If we can rise to meet the need to all which ecology binds us - humans, other species, other everything will survive together.My paper will look into the theory of Dependent Origination (Pratītyasamutpāda), Buddhist understanding of suffering (collective suffering), and Non-violence (Ahimsa) and an effort will be made to provide a new vision to Buddhist ecological perspective. The above Buddhist philosophy will be applied to ethical values and belief systems of modern society. The challenge will be substantially to transform the modern individualistic and consumeristic values. The stress will be made on the interconnectedness of the nature and the relation between human and planetary sustainability. In a way environmental crisis will be referred to “spiritual crisis” as A. Gore (1992) has pointed out. The paper will also give important to global consciousness, as well as to self-actualization and self-fulfillment. In the words of Melvin McLeod “Only when we combine environmentalism with spiritual practice, will we find the tools to make the profound personal transformations needed to address the planetary crisis?”

Keywords: Remediation, dependent arising, collective ecological suffering, Buddhist approach

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40 Effects of Poultry Manure Rates on Some Growth and Yield Attributes of Cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Pearl Poly-Mbah, Evelyn Obioma, Juliet Amajuoyi


The investigation here reported examined growth and yield responses of Cucumber to manure rates in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Fruit vegetables are widely cultivated and produced in Northern Nigeria but greatly consumed in Southern Nigeria where cucumbers command high demand and price but are minimally cultivated. Unfortunately, farmers in northern Nigeria incur lots of losses because cucumber is a perishable vegetable and is transported all the way from the northern Nigeria where cucumbers are produced to Southern Nigeria where cucumbers are consumed, hence the high cost of cucumber fruits in Southern Nigeria. There is a need, therefore, to evolve packages that will enhance cucumber production in Southern Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of poultry manure rates on the growth and yield of cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. Specifically, this study was designed to assess the effect of poultry manure rates on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length/plant, leaf area per plant and the number of leaves produced per plant. The design used for the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three blocks (replications). Treatment consisted of four rates of well-decomposed poultry manure at the rate of 0 tons/ha, 2 tons/ha, 4 tons/ha and 6 tons/ha. Data were collected on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant at two weeks interval, leaf number per plant at two weeks interval, leaf area per plant at two weeks interval, number of fruits produced per plant, and fresh weight of fruits per plant at harvest. Results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were highly significant effects (P=0.05) of poultry manure on growth and yield parameters studied which include number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant, leaf number per plant, leaf area per plant, fruit number and fruit weight per plant such that increase in poultry manure rates lead to increase in growth and yield parameters studied. Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected, while the alternative hypothesis was accepted. Farmers should be made to know that growing cucumber with poultry manure in southeastern Nigeria agro ecology is a successful enterprise

Keywords: Manure, effects, cucumber, growth and yield

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39 A webGIS Methodology to Support Sediments Management in Wallonia

Authors: Nathalie Stephenne, Mathieu Veschkens, Stéphane Palm, Christophe Charlemagne, Jacques Defoux


According to Europe’s first River basin Management Plans (RBMPs), 56% of European rivers failed to achieve the good status targets of the Water Framework Directive WFD. In Central European countries such as Belgium, even more than 80% of rivers failed to achieve the WFD quality targets. Although the RBMP’s should reduce the stressors and improve water body status, their potential to address multiple stress situations is limited due to insufficient knowledge on combined effects, multi-stress, prioritization of measures, impact on ecology and implementation effects. This paper describes a webGis prototype developed for the Walloon administration to improve the communication and the management of sediment dredging actions carried out in rivers and lakes in the frame of RBMPs. A large number of stakeholders are involved in the management of rivers and lakes in Wallonia. They are in charge of technical aspects (client and dredging operators, organizations involved in the treatment of waste…), management (managers involved in WFD implementation at communal, provincial or regional level) or policy making (people responsible for policy compliance or legislation revision). These different kinds of stakeholders need different information and data to cover their duties but have to interact closely at different levels. Moreover, information has to be shared between them to improve the management quality of dredging operations within the ecological system. In the Walloon legislation, leveling dredged sediments on banks requires an official authorization from the administration. This request refers to spatial information such as the official land use map, the cadastral map, the distance to potential pollution sources. The production of a collective geodatabase can facilitate the management of these authorizations from both sides. The proposed internet system integrates documents, data input, integration of data from disparate sources, map representation, database queries, analysis of monitoring data, presentation of results and cartographic visualization. A prototype of web application using the API geoviewer chosen by the Geomatic department of the SPW has been developed and discussed with some potential users to facilitate the communication, the management and the quality of the data. The structure of the paper states the why, what, who and how of this communication tool.

Keywords: Web Application, GIS, Sediments, rivers management

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