Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 512

Search results for: anticipatory emotions

512 Emotion and Risk Taking in a Casino Game

Authors: Yulia V. Krasavtseva, Tatiana V. Kornilova

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Risk-taking behaviors are not only dictated by cognitive components but also involve emotional aspects. Anticipatory emotions, involving both cognitive and affective mechanisms, are involved in decision-making in general, and risk-taking in particular. Affective reactions are prompted when an expectation or prediction is either validated or invalidated in the achieved result. This study aimed to combine predictions, anticipatory emotions, affective reactions, and personality traits in the context of risk-taking behaviors. An experimental online method Emotion and Prediction In a Casino (EPIC) was used, based on a casino-like roulette game. In a series of choices, the participant is presented with progressively riskier roulette combinations, where the potential sums of wins and losses increase with each choice and the participant is given a choice: to 'walk away' with the current sum of money or to 'play' the displayed roulette, thus accepting the implicit risk. Before and after the result is displayed, participants also rate their emotions, using the Self-Assessment Mannequin [Bradley, Lang, 1994], picking a picture, representing the intensity of pleasure, arousal, and dominance. The following personality measures were used: 1) Personal Decision-Making Factors [Kornilova, 2003] assessing risk and rationality; 2) I7 – Impulsivity Questionnaire [Kornilova, 1995] assessing impulsiveness, risk readiness, and empathy and 3) Subjective Risk Intelligence Scale [Craparo et al., 2018] assessing negative attitude toward uncertainty, emotional stress vulnerability, imaginative capability, and problem-solving self-efficacy. Two groups of participants took part in the study: 1) 98 university students (Mage=19.71, SD=3.25; 72% female) and 2) 94 online participants (Mage=28.25, SD=8.25; 89% female). Online participants were recruited via social media. Students with high rationality rated their pleasure and dominance before and after choices as lower (ρ from -2.6 to -2.7, p < 0.05). Those with high levels of impulsivity rated their arousal lower before finding out their result (ρ from 2.5 - 3.7, p < 0.05), while also rating their dominance as low (ρ from -3 to -3.7, p < 0.05). Students prone to risk-rated their pleasure and arousal before and after higher (ρ from 2.5 - 3.6, p < 0.05). High empathy was positively correlated with arousal after learning the result. High emotional stress vulnerability positively correlates with arousal and pleasure after the choice (ρ from 3.9 - 5.7, p < 0.05). Negative attitude to uncertainty is correlated with high anticipatory and reactive arousal (ρ from 2.7 - 5.7, p < 0.05). High imaginative capability correlates negatively with anticipatory and reactive dominance (ρ from - 3.4 to - 4.3, p < 0.05). Pleasure (.492), arousal (.590), and dominance (.551) before and after the result were positively correlated. Higher predictions positively correlated with reactive pleasure and arousal. In a riskier scenario (6/8 chances to win), anticipatory arousal was negatively correlated with the pleasure emotion (-.326) and vice versa (-.265). Correlations occur regardless of the roulette outcome. In conclusion, risk-taking behaviors are linked not only to personality traits but also to anticipatory emotions and affect in a modeled casino setting. Acknowledgment: The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 19-29-07069.

Keywords: anticipatory emotions, casino game, risk taking, impulsiveness

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511 A Discussion on Urban Planning Methods after Globalization within the Context of Anticipatory Systems

Authors: Ceylan Sozer, Ece Ceylan Baba

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The reforms and changes that began with industrialization in cities and continued with globalization in 1980’s, created many changes in urban environments. City centers which are desolated due to industrialization, began to get crowded with globalization and became the heart of technology, commerce and social activities. While the immediate and intense alterations are planned around rigorous visions in developed countries, several urban areas where the processes were underestimated and not taken precaution faced with irrevocable situations. When the effects of the globalization in the cities are examined, it is seen that there are some anticipatory system plans in the cities about the future problems. Several cities such as New York, London and Tokyo have planned to resolve probable future problems in a systematic scheme to decrease possible side effects during globalization. The decisions in urban planning and their applications are the main points in terms of sustainability and livability in such mega-cities. This article examines the effects of globalization on urban planning through 3 mega cities and the applications. When the applications of urban plannings of the three mega-cities are investigated, it is seen that the city plans are generated under light of past experiences and predictions of a certain future. In urban planning, past and present experiences of a city should have been examined and then future projections could be predicted together with current world dynamics by a systematic way. In this study, methods used in urban planning will be discussed and ‘Anticipatory System’ model will be explained and relations with global-urban planning will be discussed. The concept of ‘anticipation’ is a phenomenon that means creating foresights and predictions about the future by combining past, present and future within an action plan. The main distinctive feature that separates anticipatory systems from other systems is the combination of past, present and future and concluding with an act. Urban plans that consist of various parameters and interactions together are identified as ‘live’ and they have systematic integrities. Urban planning with an anticipatory system might be alive and can foresight some ‘side effects’ in design processes. After globalization, cities became more complex and should be designed within an anticipatory system model. These cities can be more livable and can have sustainable urban conditions for today and future.In this study, urban planning of Istanbul city is going to be analyzed with comparisons of New York, Tokyo and London city plans in terms of anticipatory system models. The lack of a system in İstanbul and its side effects will be discussed. When past and present actions in urban planning are approached through an anticipatory system, it can give more accurate and sustainable results in the future.

Keywords: globalization, urban planning, anticipatory system, New York, London, Tokyo, Istanbul

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510 Study on the Role of Positive Emotions in Developmental Psychology

Authors: Hee Soo Kim, Ha Young Kyung

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This paper examines the role of positive emotions in human psychology. By understanding Fredrickson and Lyubomirsky et al.’s on positive emotions, one can better understand people’s intuitive understanding, mental health and well-being. Fredrickson asserts that positive emotions create positive affects and personal resources, and Lyubomirsky et al. relate such positive resources to the creation of happiness and personal development. This paper finds that positive emotions play a significant role in the learning process, and they are instrumental in creating a long-lasting repertoire of personal resources and play an essential role in the development of the intuitive understanding of life variables, resilience in coping with life challenges, and ability to build more successful lives.

Keywords: Positive emotions, positive affects, personal resources, negative emotions, development

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509 Can Illusions of Control Make Us Happy?

Authors: Martina Kaufmann, Thomas Goetz, Anastasiya A. Lipnevich, Reinhard Pekrun

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Positive emotions have been shown to benefit from optimistic perceptions, even if these perceptions are illusory. The current research investigated the impact of illusions of control on positive emotions. There is empirical evidence showing that people are more emotionally attentive to losses than to gains. Hence, we expected that, compared to gains, losses in illusory control would have a stronger impact on positive emotions. The results of two experimental studies support this assumption: Participants who experienced gains in illusory control showed no substantial change in positive emotions. However, positive emotions decreased when they perceived a loss in illusory control. These results suggest that a loss of illusory control (but not a gain thereof) mediates the impact of the situation on individuals’ positive emotions. Implications for emotion theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords: cognitive appraisal, control, illusions, optimism, positive emotions

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508 A Study on Green Building Certification Systems within the Context of Anticipatory Systems

Authors: Taner Izzet Acarer, Ece Ceylan Baba

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This paper examines green building certification systems and their current processes in comparison with anticipatory systems. Rapid growth of human population and depletion of natural resources are causing irreparable damage to urban and natural environment. In this context, the concept of ‘sustainable architecture’ has emerged in the 20th century so as to establish and maintain standards for livable urban spaces, to improve quality of urban life, and to preserve natural resources for future generations. The construction industry is responsible for a large part of the resource consumption and it is believed that the ‘green building’ designs that emerge in construction industry can reduce environmental problems and contribute to sustainable development around the world. A building must meet a specific set of criteria, set forth through various certification systems, in order to be eligible for designation as a green building. It is disputable whether methods used by green building certification systems today truly serve the purposes of creating a sustainable world. Accordingly, this study will investigate the sets of rating systems used by the most popular green building certification programs, including LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Methods), DGNB (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen System), in terms of ‘Anticipatory Systems’ in accordance with the certification processes and their goals, while discussing their contribution to architecture. The basic methodology of the study is as follows. Firstly analyzes of brief historical and literature review of green buildings and certificate systems will be stated. Secondly, processes of green building certificate systems will be disputed by the help of anticipatory systems. Anticipatory Systems is a set of systems designed to generate action-oriented projections and to forecast potential side effects using the most current data. Anticipatory Systems pull the future into the present and take action based on future predictions. Although they do not have a claim to see into the future, they can provide foresight data. When shaping the foresight data, Anticipatory Systems use feedforward instead of feedback, enabling them to forecast the system’s behavior and potential side effects by establishing a correlation between the system’s present/past behavior and projected results. This study indicates the goals and current status of LEED, BREEAM and DGNB rating systems that created by using the feedback technique will be examined and presented in a chart. In addition, by examining these rating systems with the anticipatory system that using the feedforward method, the negative influences of the potential side effects on the purpose and current status of the rating systems will be shown in another chart. By comparing the two obtained data, the findings will be shown that rating systems are used for different goals than the purposes they are aiming for. In conclusion, the side effects of green building certification systems will be stated by using anticipatory system models.

Keywords: anticipatory systems, BREEAM, certificate systems, DGNB, green buildings, LEED

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507 Epistemological Functions of Emotions and Their Relevance to the Formation of Citizens and Scientists

Authors: Dení Stincer Gómez, Zuraya Monroy Nasr

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Pedagogy of science historically has given priority to teaching strategies that mobilize the cognitive mechanisms leaving out emotional. Modern epistemology, cognitive psychology and psychoanalysis begin to argue and prove that emotions are relevant epistemological functions. They are 1) the selection function: that allows the perception and reason choose, to multiple alternative explanation of a particular fact, those are relevant and discard those that are not, 2) heuristic function: that is related to the activation cognitive processes that are effective in the process of knowing; and 3) the function that called carrier content: on the latter it arises that emotions give the material reasoning that later transformed into linguistic propositions. According to these hypotheses, scientific knowledge seems to come from emotions that meet these functions. In this paper I argue that science education should start from the presence of certain emotions in the learner if it is to form citizens with scientific or cultural future scientists.

Keywords: epistemic emotions, science education, formation of citizens and scientists., philosophy of emotions

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506 Hourly Solar Radiations Predictions for Anticipatory Control of Electrically Heated Floor: Use of Online Weather Conditions Forecast

Authors: Helene Thieblemont, Fariborz Haghighat

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Energy storage systems play a crucial role in decreasing building energy consumption during peak periods and expand the use of renewable energies in buildings. To provide a high building thermal performance, the energy storage system has to be properly controlled to insure a good energy performance while maintaining a satisfactory thermal comfort for building’s occupant. In the case of passive discharge storages, defining in advance the required amount of energy is required to avoid overheating in the building. Consequently, anticipatory supervisory control strategies have been developed forecasting future energy demand and production to coordinate systems. Anticipatory supervisory control strategies are based on some predictions, mainly of the weather forecast. However, if the forecasted hourly outdoor temperature may be found online with a high accuracy, solar radiations predictions are most of the time not available online. To estimate them, this paper proposes an advanced approach based on the forecast of weather conditions. Several methods to correlate hourly weather conditions forecast to real hourly solar radiations are compared. Results show that using weather conditions forecast allows estimating with an acceptable accuracy solar radiations of the next day. Moreover, this technique allows obtaining hourly data that may be used for building models. As a result, this solar radiation prediction model may help to implement model-based controller as Model Predictive Control.

Keywords: anticipatory control, model predictive control, solar radiation forecast, thermal storage

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505 Discursive Psychology of Emotions in Mediation

Authors: Katarzyna Oberda

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The aim of this paper is to conceptual emotions in the process of mediation. Although human emotions have been approached from various disciplines and perspectives, e.g. philosophy, linguistics, psychology and neurology, this complex phenomenon still needs further investigation into its discursive character with the an open mind and heart. To attain this aim, the theoretical and practical considerations are taken into account both to contextualize the discursive psychology of emotions in mediation and show how cognitive and linguistic activity expressed in language may lead to the emotional turn in the process of mediation. The double directions of this research into the discursive psychology of emotions have been partially inspired by the evaluative components of mediation forms. In the conducted research, we apply the methodology of discursive psychology with the discourse analysis as a tool. The practical data come from the recorded mediations online. The major findings of the conducted research result in the reconstruction of the emotional transformation model in mediation.

Keywords: discourse analysis, discursive psychology, emotions, mediation

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504 An Assessment of Electrical Activities of Students' Brains toward Teacher’s Specific Emotions

Authors: Hakan Aydogan, Fatih Bozkurt, Huseyin Coskun

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In this study, the signal of brain electrical activities of the sixteen students selected from the Department of Electrical and Energy at Usak University have been recorded during a lecturer performed happiness emotions for the first group and anger emotions for the second group in different time while the groups were in the classroom separately. The attention and meditation data extracted from the recorded signals have been analyzed and evaluated toward the teacher’s specific emotion states simultaneously. Attention levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer have a positive trend and attention levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer have a negative trend. The meditation or mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer are 34.3% higher comparing with the mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer.

Keywords: brainwave, attention, meditation, education

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503 The Role of Emotions in the Consumer: Theoretical Review and Analysis of Components

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

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The early eighties saw the rise of a new research trend in several prestigious journals, mainly articles that related emotions with the decision-making processes of the consumer, and stopped treating them as external elements. That is why we ask questions such as: what are emotions? Are there different types of emotions? What components do they have? Which theories exist about them? In this study, we will review the main theories and components of emotion analysing the cognitive factor and the different emotional states that are generally recognizable with a focus in the classic debate as to whether they occur before the cognitive process or the affective process.

Keywords: emotion, consumer behaviour, feelings, decision making

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502 Support of Syrian Refugees: The Roles of Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, Perception of Threat, and Negative Emotions

Authors: Senay Yitmen

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This research investigated individual’s support and helping intentions towards Syrian refugees in Turkey. This is examined in relation to perceived threat and negative emotions, and also to the perceptions of whether one’s intimate social network (family and friends) considers Syrians a threat (descriptive network norm) and whether this network morally supports Syrian refugees (injunctive norms). A questionnaire study was conducted among Turkish participants (n= 565) and the results showed that perception of threat was associated with negative emotions which, in turn, were related to less support of Syrian refugees. Additionally, descriptive norms moderated the relationship between perceived threat and negative emotions towards Syrian refugees. Furthermore, injunctive norms moderated the relationship between negative emotions and support to Syrian refugees. Specifically, the findings indicate that perceived threat is associated with less support of Syrian refugees through negative emotions when descriptive norms are weak and injunctive norms are strong. Injunctive norms appear to trigger a dilemma over the decision to conform or not to conform: when one has negative emotions as a result of perceived threat, it becomes more difficult to conform to the moral obligation of injunctive norms which is associated with less support of Syrian refugees. Hence, these findings demonstrate that both descriptive and injunctive norms are important and play different roles in individual’s support of Syrian refugees.

Keywords: descriptive norms, emotions, injunctive norms, the perception of threat

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501 Analyzing the Perceptions of Emotions in Aesthetic Music

Authors: Abigail Wiafe, Charles Nutrokpor, Adelaide Oduro-Asante

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The advancement of technology is rapidly making people more receptive to music as computer-generated music requires minimal human interventions. Though algorithms are applied to generate music, the human experience of emotions is still explored. Thus, this study investigates the emotions humans experience listening to computer-generated music that possesses aesthetic qualities. Forty-two subjects participated in the survey. The selection process was purely arbitrary since it was based on convenience. Subjects listened and evaluated the emotions experienced from the computer-generated music through an online questionnaire. The Likert scale was used to rate the emotional levels after the music listening experience. The findings suggest that computer-generated music possesses aesthetic qualities that do not affect subjects' emotions as long as they are pleased with the music. Furthermore, computer-generated music has unique creativity, and expressioneven though the music produced is meaningless, the computational models developed are unable to present emotional contents in music as humans do.

Keywords: aesthetic, algorithms, emotions, computer-generated music

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500 The Effect of Emotion Self-Confidence and Perceived Social Support on Hong Kong Higher-Education Students' Suicide-Related Emotional Experiences

Authors: K. C. Ching

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There is growing public concern over the increasing prevalence of student suicide in Hong Kong. Some identify the problem with insufficient social support, while some attribute it to the vast fluctuations in emotional experience and the hindrances to emotion-regulation, both typical of adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study is thus designed to explore the respective effect of perceived social support and emotion self-confidence, on positive emotions and negative emotions. Fifty-seven Hong Kong higher-education students (17 males, 40 females) aged between 18 and 25 (M = 21.78) responded to an online questionnaire consisted of self-reported measures of perceived social support, emotional self-confidence, positive emotions, and negative emotions. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that emotional self-confidence positively associated with positive emotions and negatively with negative emotions, while perceived social support positively associated with positive emotions but was not related to negative emotions. Perceived social support and emotional self-confidence both predicted positive emotions, but did not interact to predict any emotional outcome. It is concluded that students’ positive and negative emotional experiences are closely related to their emotion-regulation process. But for social support, its effect is merely protective, meaning that although perceived social support generally promotes positive emotions, it alone does not suffice to alleviate students’ negative emotions. These conclusions carry profound implications to suicide prevention practices, including that most existing suicide prevention campaigns should advance from merely fostering mutual support to directly promoting adaptive coping of emotional negativity.

Keywords: emerging adulthood, emotional self-confidence, hong kong, perceived social support, suicide prevention

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499 The Emotions in Consumers’ Decision Making: Review of Empirical Studies

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

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This paper explores, in depth, the idea that emotions are present in all consumer decision making processes, meaning that purchase decisions have never been purely cognitive or as they traditionally have been defined, rational. Human beings, in all kinds of decisions, has "always" used neural systems related to emotions along with neural systems related to cognition, regardless of the type of purchase or the product or service in question. Therefore, all purchase decisions are, at the same time, cognitive and emotional. This paper presents an analysis of the main contributions of researchers in this regard.

Keywords: emotions, decision making, consumer behaviour, emotional behaviour

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498 Emotion Motives Predict the Mood States of Depression and Happiness

Authors: Paul E. Jose

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A new self-report measure named the General Emotion Regulation Measure (GERM) assesses four key goals for experiencing broad valenced groups of emotions: 1) trying to experience positive emotions (e.g., joy, pride, liking a person); 2) trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions; 3) trying to experience negative emotions (e.g., anger, anxiety, contempt); and 4) trying to avoid experiencing negative emotions. Although individual differences in GERM motives have been identified, evidence of validity with common mood outcomes is lacking. In the present study, whether GERM motives predict self-reported subjective happiness and depressive symptoms (CES-D) was tested with a community sample of 833 young adults. It was predicted that the GERM motive of trying to experience positive emotions would positively predict subjective happiness, and analogously trying to experience negative emotions would predict depressive symptoms. An initial path model was constructed in which the four GERM motives predicted both subjective happiness and depressive symptoms. The fully saturated model included three non-significant paths, which were subsequently pruned, and a good fitting model was obtained (CFI = 1.00; RMR = .007). Two GERM motives significantly predicted subjective happiness: 1) trying to experience positive emotions ( = .38, p < .001) and 2) trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions ( = -.48, p <.001). Thus, individuals who reported high levels of trying to experience positive emotions reported high levels of happiness, and individuals who reported low levels of trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions also reported high levels of happiness. Three GERM motives significantly predicted depressive symptoms: 1) trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions ( = .20, p <.001); 2) trying to experience negative emotions ( = .15, p <.001); and 3) trying to experience positive emotions (= -.07, p <.001). In agreement with predictions, trying to experience positive emotions was positively associated with subjective happiness and trying to experience negative emotions was positively associated with depressive symptoms. In essence, these two valenced mood states seem to be sustained by trying to experience similarly valenced emotions. However, the three other significant paths in the model indicated that emotional motives play a complicated role in supporting both positive and negative mood states. For subjective happiness, the GERM motive of not trying to avoid positive emotions, i.e., not avoiding happiness, was also a strong predictor of happiness. Thus, people who report being the happiest are those individuals who not only strive to experience positive emotions but also are not ambivalent about them. The pattern for depressive symptoms was more nuanced. Individuals who reported higher depressive symptoms also reported higher levels of avoiding positive emotions and trying to experience negative emotions. The strongest predictor for depressed mood was avoiding positive emotions, which would suggest that happiness aversion or fear of happiness is an important motive for dysphoric people. Future work should determine whether these patterns of association are similar among clinically depressed people, and longitudinal data are needed to determine temporal relationships between motives and mood states.

Keywords: emotions motives, depression, subjective happiness, path model

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497 Emotions Evoked by Robots - Comparison of Older Adults and Students

Authors: Stephanie Lehmann, Esther Ruf, Sabina Misoch

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Background: Due to demographic change and shortage of skilled nursing staff, assistive robots are built to support older adults at home and nursing staff in care institutions. When assistive robots facilitate tasks that are usually performed by humans, user acceptance is essential. Even though they are an important aspect of acceptance, emotions towards different assistive robots and different situations of robot-use have so far not been examined in detail. The appearance of assistive robots can trigger emotions that affect their acceptance. Acceptance of robots is assumed to be greater when they look more human-like; however, too much human similarity can be counterproductive. Regarding different groups, it is assumed that older adults have a more negative attitude towards robots than younger adults. Within the framework of a simulated robot study, the aim was to investigate emotions of older adults compared to students towards robots with different appearances and in different situations and so contribute to a deeper view of the emotions influencing acceptance. Methods: In a questionnaire study, vignettes were used to assess emotions toward robots in different situations and of different appearance. The vignettes were composed of two situations (service and care) shown by video and four pictures of robots varying in human similarity (machine-like to android). The combination of the vignettes was randomly distributed to the participants. One hundred forty-two older adults and 35 bachelor students of nursing participated. They filled out a questionnaire that surveyed 30 positive and 30 negative emotions. For each group, older adults and students, a sum score of “positive emotions” and a sum score of “negative emotions” was calculated. Mean value, standard deviation, or n for sample size and % for frequencies, according to the scale level, were calculated. For differences in the scores of positive and negative emotions for different situations, t-tests were calculated. Results: Overall, older adults reported significantly more positive emotions than students towards robots in general. Students reported significantly more negative emotions than older adults. Regarding the two different situations, the results were similar for the care situation, with older adults reporting more positive emotions than students and less negative emotions than students. In the service situation, older adults reported significantly more positive emotions; negative emotions did not differ significantly from the students. Regarding the appearance of the robot, there were no significant differences in emotions reported towards the machine-like, the mechanical-human-like and the human-like appearance. Regarding the android robot, students reported significantly more negative emotions than older adults. Conclusion: There were differences in the emotions reported by older adults compared to students. Older adults reported more positive emotions, and students reported more negative emotions towards robots in different situations and with different appearances. It can be assumed that older adults have a different attitude towards the use of robots than younger people, especially young adults in the health sector. Therefore, the use of robots in the service or care sector should not be rejected rashly based on the attitudes of younger persons, without considering the attitudes of older adults equally.

Keywords: emotions, robots, seniors, young adults

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496 An Exploratory Survey Questionnaire to Understand What Emotions Are Important and Difficult to Communicate for People with Dysarthria and Their Methodology of Communicating

Authors: Lubna Alhinti, Heidi Christensen, Stuart Cunningham

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People with speech disorders may rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technologies to help them communicate. However, the limitations of the current AAC technologies act as barriers to the optimal use of these technologies in daily communication settings. The ability to communicate effectively relies on a number of factors that are not limited to the intelligibility of the spoken words. In fact, non-verbal cues play a critical role in the correct comprehension of messages and having to rely on verbal communication only, as is the case with current AAC technology, may contribute to problems in communication. This is especially true for people’s ability to express their feelings and emotions, which are communicated to a large part through non-verbal cues. This paper focuses on understanding more about the non-verbal communication ability of people with dysarthria, with the overarching aim of this research being to improve AAC technology by allowing people with dysarthria to better communicate emotions. Preliminary survey results are presented that gives an understanding of how people with dysarthria convey emotions, what emotions that are important for them to get across, what emotions that are difficult for them to convey, and whether there is a difference in communicating emotions when speaking to familiar versus unfamiliar people.

Keywords: alternative and augmentative communication technology, dysarthria, speech emotion recognition, VIVOCA

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495 Sequential and Simultaneous Mixed Emotion Experiences for Self or Another Person in Adolescence

Authors: Burkitt E., Watling D., Cocks F.

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There is growing evidence to suggest that young children and adults experience opposite valence mixed emotions in various simultaneous ways which vary in intensity for two emotions over an experience. Models of mixed emotion do not specify types of simultaneous experiences across adolescent populations. This study examined types of simultaneous mixed emotion experiences for the first time in adolescence. It also examined the impacts of high and low-intensity emotion pairs on types of mixed emotion experiences using an Analogue Emotion Scale (AES) which permits the graphical mapping of opposite valence emotions across an event duration. 163 participants were randomly allocated to two age groups (12 years, 5 months-16 years, 9 months vs. 16 years, 10 months-18 years, 8 months) across two conditions considering their own (n=83) or another adolescent’s (n= 80) experience divided equally for high (n=80) or low (n= 83) intensity mixed emotion experiences. Findings showed that children experienced mixed emotions both sequentially and simultaneously. In particular older adolescents recorded that others experience emotions in a more sequential manner, while they themselves would experience emotions in a highly simultaneous way. Emotion experience was different depending on the intensity of the emotion pair and age group. Findings are discussed in relation to an evaluative space model of mixed emotion and extended developmental models of emotion processing. Applications of the AES with adolescent populations are considered.

Keywords: adolescence, mixed emotions, graphing, AES

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494 Emotions in Health Tweets: Analysis of American Government Official Accounts

Authors: García López

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The Government Departments of Health have the task of informing and educating citizens about public health issues. For this, they use channels like Twitter, key in the search for health information and the propagation of content. The tweets, important in the virality of the content, may contain emotions that influence the contagion and exchange of knowledge. The goal of this study is to perform an analysis of the emotional projection of health information shared on Twitter by official American accounts: the disease control account CDCgov, National Institutes of Health, NIH, the government agency HHSGov, and the professional organization PublicHealth. For this, we used Tone Analyzer, an International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) tool specialized in emotion detection in text, corresponding to the categorical model of emotion representation. For 15 days, all tweets from these accounts were analyzed with the emotional analysis tool in text. The results showed that their tweets contain an important emotional load, a determining factor in the success of their communications. This exposes that official accounts also use subjective language and contain emotions. The predominance of emotion joy over sadness and the strong presence of emotions in their tweets stimulate the virality of content, a key in the work of informing that government health departments have.

Keywords: emotions in tweets, emotion detection in the text, health information on Twitter, American health official accounts, emotions on Twitter, emotions and content

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493 Review of Models of Consumer Behaviour and Influence of Emotions in the Decision Making

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

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In order to begin the process of studying the task of making consumer decisions, the main decision models must be analyzed. The objective of this task is to see if there is a presence of emotions in those models, and analyze how authors that have created them consider their impact in consumer choices. In this paper, the most important models of consumer behavior are analysed. This review is useful to consider an unproblematic background knowledge in the literature. The order that has been established for this study is chronological.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, emotions, decision making, consumer psychology

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492 Swahili Codification of Emotions: A Cognitive Linguistic Analysis

Authors: Rosanna Tramutoli

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Studies on several languages have demonstrated how different emotions are categorized in various linguistic constructions. It exists in several writings on the codification of emotions in Western African languages. A recent study on the semantic description of Swahili body terminology has demonstrated that body part terms, such as moyo (heart), uso (face) and jicho (eye) are involved in several metaphorical expressions describing emotions. However, so far hardly anything has been written on the linguistic description of emotions in Swahili. Thus, this study describes how emotional concepts, such as ‘love’ and ‘anger’ are codified in Swahili, in order to highlight common semantic and syntactic patterns, etymological sources and metaphorical expressions. The research seeks to answer a number of questions, such as which are the Swahili terms for ‘emotions’? Is there a distinction between ‘emotions’ and ‘feelings’? Which emotional lexical items have Bantu origin and which come from Arabic? Which metaphorical expressions/cognitive schemas are used to codify emotions? (e.g. kumpanda mtu kichwani, lit. ‘to climb on somebody’s head’, to make somebody feel angry, kushuka moyo, lit. ‘to be down the heart’, to feel discouraged, kumpa mtu moyo lit. ‘to give someone heart’, to encourage someone). Which body terms are involved as ‘containers/locus of emotions’? For instance, it has been shown that moyo (‘heart’) occurs as container of ‘love’ (e.g. kumtia mtu moyoni, lit. ‘to put somebody in the heart’, to love somebody very much) and ‘kindness’ (moyo wake ulijaa hisani, ‘his heart was filled with kindness’). The study also takes into account the syntactic patterns used to code emotions. For instance, when does the experiencer occur in subject position? (e.g. nina furaha, nimefurahi, ‘I am happy’) and when in object position (e.g. Huruma iliniingia moyoni, lit. ‘Pity entered me inside my heart’, ‘I felt pity’)? Data have been collected mostly through the analysis of Swahili digital corpora, containing different kinds of Swahili texts (e.g. novels, drama, political essays).

Keywords: emotions, cognitive linguistics, metaphors, Swahili

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491 Impact of Expressive Writing on Creativity

Authors: Małgorzata Osowiecka

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Negative emotions are rather seen as creativity inhibitor. On the other hand, it is worth noting that negative emotions may be good for our functioning. Negative emotions enhance cognitive resources and improve evaluative processes. Moreover maintaining a negative emotional state allow for cognitive reinterpretation of the emotional stimuli, what is good for our creativity, especially cognitive flexibility. Writing a diary or writing about difficult emotional experiences in general can be the way to not only improve psychical health, but also – enhance creative behaviors. Thanks to translating difficult emotions to the verbal level and giving them ‘a name’ or ‘a label’, we can get easier access to both emotional content of an experience and to the semantic content, without the need of speaking out loud. Expressive writing improves academic results and the efficiency of working memory. The classical method of writing about emotions consists in a long-term process of describing negative experiences. Present research demonstrate the efficiency of this process over a shorter period of time - one writing session, on school children sample. Participants performed writing task. Writing task had two different topics: emotions connected with their negative emotions (expressive writing) and content not connected with negative emotional state (writing about one’s typical day). Creativity was measured by Guilford’s Alternative Uses Task. Results have shown that writing about negative emotions results in the higher level of divergent thinking in all three parameters: fluency, flexibility and originality. After the writing task mood of expressive writing participants remained negative more than the mood of the controls. Taking an expressive action after a difficult emotional experience can support functioning, which can be observed in enhancement of divergent thinking. Writing about emotions connected with negative experience makes one more creative, than writing about something unrelated with difficult emotional moments. Research has shown that young people should not demonize negative emotions. Sometimes, properly applied, negative emotions can be the basis of creation. Preparation was supported by a The Young Scientist University grant titled ‘Dynamics of emotions in the creative process’ from The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: creativity, divergent thinking, emotions, expressive writing

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490 The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Consumer Behaviour: Reviewing Recent Research

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

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In the first decade of the twenty-first century, advanced imaging techniques began to be applied for neuroscience research. The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is one of the most important and most used research techniques for the investigation of emotions, because of its ease to observe the brain areas that oxygenate when performing certain tasks. In this research, we make a review about the main research carried out on the influence of the emotions in the decision-making process that is exposed by using the fMRI.

Keywords: decision making, emotions, fMRI, consumer behaviour

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489 Determinants of Probability Weighting and Probability Neglect: An Experimental Study of the Role of Emotions, Risk Perception, and Personality in Flood Insurance Demand

Authors: Peter J. Robinson, W. J. Wouter Botzen

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Individuals often over-weight low probabilities and under-weight moderate to high probabilities, however very low probabilities are either significantly over-weighted or neglected. Little is known about factors affecting probability weighting in Prospect Theory related to emotions specific to risk (anticipatory and anticipated emotions), the threshold of concern, as well as personality traits like locus of control. This study provides these insights by examining factors that influence probability weighting in the context of flood insurance demand in an economic experiment. In particular, we focus on determinants of flood probability neglect to provide recommendations for improved risk management. In addition, results obtained using real incentives and no performance-based payments are compared in the experiment with high experimental outcomes. Based on data collected from 1’041 Dutch homeowners, we find that: flood probability neglect is related to anticipated regret, worry and the threshold of concern. Moreover, locus of control and regret affect probabilistic pessimism. Nevertheless, we do not observe strong evidence that incentives influence flood probability neglect nor probability weighting. The results show that low, moderate and high flood probabilities are under-weighted, which is related to framing in the flooding context and the degree of realism respondents attach to high probability property damages. We suggest several policies to overcome psychological factors related to under-weighting flood probabilities to improve flood preparations. These include policies that promote better risk communication to enhance insurance decisions for individuals with a high threshold of concern, and education and information provision to change the behaviour of internal locus of control types as well as people who see insurance as an investment. Multi-year flood insurance may also prevent short-sighted behaviour of people who have a tendency to regret paying for insurance. Moreover, bundling low-probability/high-impact risks with more immediate risks may achieve an overall covered risk which is less likely to be judged as falling below thresholds of concern. These measures could aid the development of a flood insurance market in the Netherlands for which we find to be demand.

Keywords: flood insurance demand, prospect theory, risk perceptions, risk preferences

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488 News Publication on Facebook: Emotional Analysis of Hooks

Authors: Gemma Garcia Lopez

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The goal of this study is to perform an emotional analysis of the hooks used in Facebook by three of the most important daily newspapers in the USA. These hook texts are used to get the user's attention and invite him to read the news and linked contents. Thanks to the emotional analysis in text, made with the tool of IBM, Tone Analyzer, we discovered that more than 30% of the hooks can be classified emotionally as joy, sadness, anger or fear. This study gathered the publications made by The New York Times, USA Today and The Washington Post during a random day. The results show that the choice of words by the journalist, can expose the reader to different emotions before clicking on the content. In the three cases analyzed, the absence of emotions in some cases, and the presence of emotions in text in others, appear in very similar percentages. Therefore, beyond the objectivity and veracity of the content, a new factor could come into play: the emotional influence on the reader as a mediatic manipulation tool.

Keywords: emotional analysis of newspapers hooks, emotions on Facebook, newspaper hooks on Facebook, news publication on Facebook

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487 The Influence of Emotion on Numerical Estimation: A Drone Operators’ Context

Authors: Ludovic Fabre, Paola Melani, Patrick Lemaire

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The goal of this study was to test whether and how emotions influence drone operators in estimation skills. The empirical study was run in the context of numerical estimation. Participants saw a two-digit number together with a collection of cars. They had to indicate whether the stimuli collection was larger or smaller than the number. The two-digit numbers ranged from 12 to 27, and collections included 3-36 cars. The presentation of the collections was dynamic (each car moved 30 deg. per second on the right). Half the collections were smaller collections (including fewer than 20 cars), and the other collections were larger collections (i.e., more than 20 cars). Splits between the number of cars in a collection and the two-digit number were either small (± 1 or 2 units; e.g., the collection included 17 cars and the two-digit number was 19) or larger (± 8 or 9 units; e.g., 17 cars and '9'). Half the collections included more items (and half fewer items) than the number indicated by the two-digit number. Before and after each trial, participants saw an image inducing negative emotions (e.g., mutilations) or neutral emotions (e.g., candle) selected from International Affective Picture System (IAPS). At the end of each trial, participants had to say if the second picture was the same as or different from the first. Results showed different effects of emotions on RTs and percent errors. Participants’ performance was modulated by emotions. They were slower on negative trials compared to the neutral trials, especially on the most difficult items. They errored more on small-split than on large-split problems. Moreover, participants highly overestimated the number of cars when in a negative emotional state. These findings suggest that emotions influence numerical estimation, that effects of emotion in estimation interact with stimuli characteristics. They have important implications for understanding the role of emotions on estimation skills, and more generally, on how emotions influence cognition.

Keywords: drone operators, emotion, numerical estimation, arithmetic

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486 Effects of Crisis-Induced Emotions on in-Crisis Protective Behavior and Post-Crisis Perception: An Analysis of Survey Data for the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in South Korea

Authors: Myoungsoon You, Heejung Son

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Background: In the current study, we investigated the effects of emotions induced by an infectious disease outbreak on the various protective behaviors taken during the crisis and on the perception after the crisis. The investigation was based on two psychological theories of appraisal tendency and action tendency. Methods: A total of 900 participants in South Korea who experienced the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak were sampled by a professional survey agency. To assess the influence of the emotions fear and anger, a regression approach was used. The effect of emotions on various protective behaviors and perceptions was observed using a hierarchical regression method. Results: Fear and anger induced by the infectious disease outbreak were both associated with increased protective behaviors during the crisis. However, the differences between the emotions were observed. While protective behaviors with avoidance tendency (adherence to recommendations, self-mitigation), were raised by both fear and anger, protective behaviors with approach tendency (information-seeking) were increased by anger, but not fear. Regarding the effect of emotion on the risk perception after the crisis, only fear was associated with a higher level of risk perception. Conclusions: This study confirmed the role of emotions in crisis protective behaviors and post-crisis perceptions regarding an infectious disease outbreak. These findings could enhance understanding of the public’s protective behaviors during infectious disease outbreaks and afterward risk perception corresponding to emotions. The results also suggested strategies for communicating with the public that takes into account emotions that are prominently induced by crises associated with disease outbreaks.

Keywords: crisis communication, emotion, infectious disease outbreak, protective behavior, risk perception

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485 OPEN-EmoRec-II-A Multimodal Corpus of Human-Computer Interaction

Authors: Stefanie Rukavina, Sascha Gruss, Steffen Walter, Holger Hoffmann, Harald C. Traue

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OPEN-EmoRecII is an open multimodal corpus with experimentally induced emotions. In the first half of the experiment, emotions were induced with standardized picture material and in the second half during a human-computer interaction (HCI), realized with a wizard-of-oz design. The induced emotions are based on the dimensional theory of emotions (valence, arousal and dominance). These emotional sequences - recorded with multimodal data (mimic reactions, speech, audio and physiological reactions) during a naturalistic-like HCI-environment one can improve classification methods on a multimodal level. This database is the result of an HCI-experiment, for which 30 subjects in total agreed to a publication of their data including the video material for research purposes. The now available open corpus contains sensory signal of: video, audio, physiology (SCL, respiration, BVP, EMG Corrugator supercilii, EMG Zygomaticus Major) and mimic annotations.

Keywords: open multimodal emotion corpus, annotated labels, intelligent interaction

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484 [Keynote Talk]: The Emotional Life of Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Framework for Health Promotion Strategies

Authors: Leslie Beale

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Being a patient with a chronic disease is both a physical and emotional experience. The ability to recognize a patient’s emotional health is an important part of a health care provider’s skills. For the purposes of this paper, emotional health is viewed as the way that we feel, and the way that our feelings affect us. Understanding the patient’s emotional health leads to improved provider-patient relationships and health outcomes. For example, when a patient first hears his or her diagnosis from a provider, they might find it difficult to cope with their emotions. Struggling to cope with emotions interferes with the patient’s ability to read, understand, and act on health information and services. As a result, the patient becomes more frustrated and confused, creating barriers to accessing healthcare services. These barriers are challenging for both the patient and their healthcare providers. There are five basic emotions that are part of who we are and are always with us: fear, anger, sadness, joy, and compassion. Living with a chronic disease however can cause a patient to experience and express these emotions in new and unique ways. Within the provider-patient relationship, there needs to be an understanding that each patient experiences these five emotions and, experiences them at different times. In response to this need, the paper highlights a health promotion framework for patients with chronic disease. This framework emphasizes the emotional health of patients.

Keywords: health promotion, emotional health, patients with chronic disease, patient-centered care

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483 Neuro-Fuzzy Based Model for Phrase Level Emotion Understanding

Authors: Vadivel Ayyasamy

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The present approach deals with the identification of Emotions and classification of Emotional patterns at Phrase-level with respect to Positive and Negative Orientation. The proposed approach considers emotion triggered terms, its co-occurrence terms and also associated sentences for recognizing emotions. The proposed approach uses Part of Speech Tagging and Emotion Actifiers for classification. Here sentence patterns are broken into phrases and Neuro-Fuzzy model is used to classify which results in 16 patterns of emotional phrases. Suitable intensities are assigned for capturing the degree of emotion contents that exist in semantics of patterns. These emotional phrases are assigned weights which supports in deciding the Positive and Negative Orientation of emotions. The approach uses web documents for experimental purpose and the proposed classification approach performs well and achieves good F-Scores.

Keywords: emotions, sentences, phrases, classification, patterns, fuzzy, positive orientation, negative orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 304