Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Muhammed-Badar Salihu Jibrin

20 An Ideational Grammatical Metaphor of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe's 'There Was a Country'

Authors: Muhammed-Badar Salihu Jibrin, Chibabi Makedono Darlington

Abstract:

This paper studied Ideational Grammatical Metaphor (IGM) of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe’s There Was a Country. It started with a narrative historical style as a recent genre out of the conventional historical writings. In order to explore the linguistic phenomenon using a particular lexico-grammatical tool of IGM, the theoretical background was examined based on Hallidayan Systemic Functional Linguistics. Furthermore, the study considered the possibility of applying IGM to the Part 4 of Achebe’s historical text with recourse to the concept of congruence in IGM and research questions before formulating a working methodology. The analysis of Achebe’s memoir was, thus, presented in tabular forms to account for the quantitative content analysis with qualitative research technique, as well as the metaphorical and congruent wording through nominalization and process types with samples. The frequencies and percentage were given appropriately with respect to each subheadings of the text. To this end, the findings showed that material and relational types indicated dominance. The discussion and implications were that the findings confirmed earlier study by MAK Halliday and C.I.M.I.M. Matthiessen’s suggestion that IGM should show dominance of material type process. The implication is that IGM can be an effective tool for the analysis of a narrative historical text. In conclusion, it was observed that IGM does not only carry grammatical function but also an ideological role in shaping the historical discourse within the narrative mode between writers and readers.

Keywords: ideational grammatical metaphor, nominalization, narrative history, memoire, dominance

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19 Current Environmental Accounting Disclosure Requirements and Compliance by Nigerian Oil Companies

Authors: Amina Jibrin Ahmed

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The environment is mankind's natural habitat. Industrial activities over time have taken their toll on it in the form of deterioration and degradation. The petroleum industry is particularly notorious for its negative impact on its host environments. The realization that this poses a threat to sustainability led to the increased awareness and subsequent recognition of the importance of environmental disclosure in financial statements. This paper examines the laws and regulations put in place by the Nigerian Government to mitigate this impact, and the level of compliance by Shell Nigeria, the pioneer and largest oil company in the country. Based on the disclosure made, this paper finds there is indeed a high level of compliance by that company, and voluntary disclosure moreover.

Keywords: environmental accounting, legitimacy theory, environmental impact assessment, environmental disclosure, host communities

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18 Fabrication of a Continuous Flow System for Biofilm Studies

Authors: Mohammed Jibrin Ndejiko

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Modern and current models such as flow cell technology which enhances a non-destructive growth and inspection of the sessile microbial communities revealed a great understanding of biofilms. A continuous flow system was designed to evaluate possibility of biofilm formation by Escherichia coli DH5α on the stainless steel (type 304) under continuous nutrient supply. The result of the colony forming unit (CFU) count shows that bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation on stainless steel coupons with average surface roughness of 1.5 ± 1.8 µm and 2.0 ± 0.09 µm were both significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of the stainless steel coupon with lower surface roughness of 0.38 ± 1.5 µm. These observations support the hypothesis that surface profile is one of the factors that influence biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces. The SEM and FESEM micrographs of the stainless steel coupons also revealed the attached Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm and dehydrated extracellular polymeric substance on the stainless steel surfaces. Thus, the fabricated flow system represented a very useful tool to study biofilm formation under continuous nutrient supply.

Keywords: biofilm, flowcell, stainless steel, coupon

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17 The Role of Tourism Industry in the Creation of Youth Employment Opportunities in Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria

Authors: Isiya Salihu Shinkafi

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The focus of this paper is to elaborate on employment opportunities within the tourism sector and the solutions to youth unemployment in Africa and Nigeria in particular. Youth unemployment creates a monumental social problem to African continent, the world over and Nigeria in particular. The intelligence of this paper was collected from secondary sources using previews researches and analysis of scholars to gather empirical data. The findings revealed that unemployment in Africa and specifically Nigeria among youths were caused by certain factors which constitute a greater challenge to the economy and the existence of the continent. The tourism sector provides the enabling environment to address the different categories of unemployment among the youths. One of the unique characteristics of the tourism industry that makes it a prime sector from which employment can be engineered; especially in the case of the African countries, are its labour intensive characteristics of both experts, skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour.

Keywords: tourism industry, employment opportunities, youth employment

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16 Assessment of Digital Literacy Skills of Librarians in Tertiary Institutions Inniger State

Authors: Mustapha Abdulkadir Gana, Jibrin Attahiru Alhassan, Adamu Musa Baba

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The exponential growth of information sources, resources and the continued Communication Technology (ICT) sophistication of libraries all over the world call for capable and ICT compliant librarians in Nigeria, this article assesses the digital literacy skills of librarians in tertiary institutions in Niger state. The survey research method was applied in the study using a random sampling technique to draw the sample. Fifty-eight copies of the questionnaire were administered while forty-nine copies were completed, returned, and used in the study, which represents 84% of the response rate. Two research questions were answered, and data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The finding uncovered that the librarians lack the requisite digital literacy skills to access the wealth of digital information resources available. The study recommends some steps to turn around the situations amongst; librarians must be empowered with all necessary digital literacy skills, embark on rigorous training and retraining programs, workshops, conferences, and seminars, there should also be a coherent training policy for the librarians on a sustainable basis to increase their requisite digital literacy skills.

Keywords: digital, information, literacy, skills

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15 Textile Cottage Industry: A Facilitator for Capacity Building and Youth Empowerment

Authors: Salihu Maiwada

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The large scale textile industry in Nigeria was at one time the second largest employer of labor after government. With recent developments and changing situations, there is a serious decline in this sector which consequently forced the local textile industries to close down and the workers retrenched. the category of people worst hit was the youths and the middle age. This paper examines the potentials of the textile cottage industry as a facilitator for capacity building and economic empowerment among the Nigerian youths. The paper focuses on economic viability, persistence, and above-all, its potentials for poverty reduction as well as self employment. The methodology used in the study is the survey method and the instrument used to collect the necessary information is field interview. The results obtained showed that the textile cottage industries are flourishing and the Nigerian youths are engaged in the practice. In addition, the paper suggests areas that require government's financial intervention which will facilitate the establishment and ensure the sustainability of the textile cottage industry. The paper concludes with some recommendations for the youths and for the government.

Keywords: capacity building, economic, empowerment, persistence, sustainability, youths

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14 Enterpreneurship as a Strategic Tool for Higher Productivity in Nigerian Universities System

Authors: Yahaya Salihu Emeje, Amuchie Austine Anthony

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The topic examined the prospects of entrepreneurship as an emerging dynamic and strategic tool in the upliftment of human and non-human resources in the Nigerian university system, with a view of showcasing the abundant positive impact, on the Nigerian University system in particular and Nigerian economy at large. It is end at bringing out the benefits of entrepreneurship in the university system which includes, namely cultivating the culture of enterprise in University system; improvement in the quality and quantity of both human and non-human resources; innovative and creative methods of production; new employment strategies in the University system; improved sources of internal generated revenue; entrepreneurship as the culture of sustainability within and outside the university system. Secondary data was used in analyzing entrepreneurship as a productivity tool in the Nigeria University system. From the findings, the university system could be enriched through innovative ideas and technical revenue and employment generation; sustainable financial and economic base; university autonomy and improved international ranking of Nigerian Universities system; therefore, recommended that entrepreneurship is necessary therapy for reviving the ailing, Nigerian universities system.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, strategic, productivity, universities

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13 Green Materials for Hot Mixed Asphalt Production

Authors: Salisu Dahiru, Jibrin M. Kaura, Abubakar I. Jumare, Sulaiman M. Mahmood

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Reclaimed asphalt, used automobile tires and rice husk, were regarded as waste. These materials could be used in construction of new roads and for roads rehabilitation. Investigation into the production of a Green Hot Mixed Asphalt (GHMA) pavement using Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) as partial replacement for coarse aggregate, Crumb Rubber (CR) from waste automobile tires as modifier for bitumen binder and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) as partial replacement of ordinary portland cement (OPC) filler, for roads construction and rehabilitation was presented. 30% Reclaimed asphalt of total aggregate, 15% Crumb Rubber of total binder content, 5% Rice Husk Ash of total mix, and 5.2% Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen content were recommended for optimum performance. Loss of marshal stability was investigated on mix with the recommended optimum CRMB. The mix revealed good performance with only about 13% loss of stability after 24 hours of immersion in hot water bath, as against about 24% marshal stability lost reported in previous studies for conventional Hot Mixed Asphalt (HMA).

Keywords: rice husk, reclaimed asphalt, filler, crumb rubber, bitumen content green hot mix asphalt

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12 Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Root Bark Extracts from Glossonema boveanum (Decne.)

Authors: Ahmed Jibrin Uttu, Maimuna Waziri

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The root bark of Glossonema boveanum (Decne), a member of Apocynaceae family, is used by traditional medicine practitioner to treat urinary and respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, diarrhea and stomach pain. This present study aims to validate the medicinal claims ascribed to the root bark of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study of the root bark extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extracts) showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Antimicrobial study of the extracts showed activities against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhii, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans while Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumoniae showed resistance to all the extracts. The inhibitory effect was compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. MIC and MBC for both extracts were also determined using the tube dilution method. This study concluded that the root bark of G. boveanum, used traditionally as a medicinal plant, has antimicrobial activities against some causative organisms.

Keywords: Glossonema boveanum (Decne.), phytochemical, antimicrobial, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration

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11 An Evaluation of the Impact of Epoxidized Neem Seed Azadirachta indica Oil on the Mechanical Properties of Polystyrene

Authors: Salihu Takuma

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Neem seed oil has high contents of unsaturated fatty acids which can be converted to epoxy fatty acids. The vegetable oil – based epoxy material are sustainable, renewable and biodegradable materials replacing petrochemical – based epoxy materials in some applications. Polystyrene is highly brittle with limited mechanical applications. Raw neem seed oil was obtained from National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT), Zaria, Nigeria. The oil was epoxidized at 60 0C for three (3) hours using formic acid generated in situ. The epoxidized oil was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The disappearance of C = C stretching peak around 3011.7 cm-1and formation of a new absorption peak around 943 cm-1 indicate the success of epoxidation. The epoxidized oil was blended with pure polystyrene in different weight percent compositions using solution casting in chloroform. The tensile properties of the blends demonstrated that the addition of 5 wt % ENO to PS led to an increase in elongation at break, but a decrease in tensile strength and modulus. This is in accordance with the common rule that plasticizers can decrease the tensile strength of the polymer.

Keywords: biodegradable, elongation at break, epoxidation, epoxy fatty acids, sustainable, tensile strength and modulus

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10 Allometric Models for Biomass Estimation in Savanna Woodland Area, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Jibrin, Aishetu Abdulkadir

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The development of allometric models is crucial to accurate forest biomass/carbon stock assessment. The aim of this study was to develop a set of biomass prediction models that will enable the determination of total tree aboveground biomass for savannah woodland area in Niger State, Nigeria. Based on the data collected through biometric measurements of 1816 trees and destructive sampling of 36 trees, five species specific and one site specific models were developed. The sample size was distributed equally between the five most dominant species in the study site (Vitellaria paradoxa, Irvingia gabonensis, Parkia biglobosa, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Pterocarpus erinaceous). Firstly, the equations were developed for five individual species. Secondly these five species were mixed and were used to develop an allometric equation of mixed species. Overall, there was a strong positive relationship between total tree biomass and the stem diameter. The coefficient of determination (R2 values) ranging from 0.93 to 0.99 P < 0.001 were realised for the models; with considerable low standard error of the estimates (SEE) which confirms that the total tree above ground biomass has a significant relationship with the dbh. The F-test value for the biomass prediction models were also significant at p < 0.001 which indicates that the biomass prediction models are valid. This study recommends that for improved biomass estimates in the study site, the site specific biomass models should preferably be used instead of using generic models.

Keywords: allometriy, biomass, carbon stock , model, regression equation, woodland, inventory

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9 Removal of Mixed Heavy Metals from Contaminated Clay Soils Using Pulsed Electrokinetic Process

Authors: Nuhu Dalhat Mu’azu, Abdullahi Usman, A. Bukhari, Muhammad Hussain Essa, Salihu Lukman

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Electrokinetic remediation process was employed for the removal of four (4) heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb) from contaminated clay and bentonite soils under pulsed current supply mode. The effects of voltage gradient, pulse duty cycle and bentonite/clay ratio on the simultaneous removal efficiencies of the heavy metals were investigated. A total of thirteen experiments were designed and conducted according to factorial design with each experiment allowed to continuously ran for 3 weeks. Results obtained showed that increase in bentonite ratio decreased the removal efficiency of the heavy metals with no significant effect on the energy consumption. Conversely, increase in both voltage gradient and pulse duty cycle increased the heavy metals removal efficiencies with increased in energy consumption. Additionally, increase in voltage gradient increased the electrical conductivity and the soil pH due to due to continuous refill and replacement of process fluids as they decomposed under the induced voltage gradient. Under different operating conditions, the maximum removal efficiencies obtained for Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb were 21.87, 83.2, 62.4, 78.06 and 16.65% respectively.

Keywords: clay, bentonite, soil remediation, mixed contaminants, heavy metals, and electrokinetic-adsorption

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8 Open Education Resources a Gateway for Accessing Hospitality and Tourism Learning Materials

Authors: Isiya Shinkafi Salihu

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Open education resources (OER) are open learning materials in different formats, course content and context to support learning globally. This study investigated the level of awareness of Hospitality and Tourism OER among students in the Department of Tourism and Hotel Management in a University. Specifically, it investigated students’ awareness, use and accessibility of OER in learning. The research design method used was the quantitative approach, using an online questionnaire. The thesis research shows that respondents frequently use OER but with little knowledge of the content and context of the material. Most of the respondents’ have little knowledge about the concept even though they use it. Information and communication technologies are tools for information gathering, social networking and knowledge sharing and transfer. OER are open education materials accessible online such as curriculum, maps, course materials, and videos that users create, adapt, reuse for learning and research. Few of the respondents that used OER in learning faced some challenges such as high cost of data, poor connectivity and lack of proper guidance. The results suggest a lack of awareness of OER among students in the faculty of tourism and the need for support from the teachers in the utilization of OER. The thesis also reveals that some of the international students are accessing the internet as beginners in their studies which require guidance. The research, however, recommends that further studies should be conducted to other faculties.

Keywords: creative commons, open education resources, open licenses, information and communication technology

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7 Review of Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in Organisation

Authors: Mariya Salihu Ingawa, Sani Suleiman Isah

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The assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organisation is an important initiative to enable the Information System (IS) managers, as well as top management to understand the success status of their investment in IS integration efforts. However, without a proper assessment, an organisation will not know its IIS status, which may affect their judgment on what action should be taken onwards. Current research on IIS assessment is lacking and those related literature on IIS assessment focus more on assessing the technical aspect of IIS. It is argued that assessing technical aspect alone is inadequate since organisational and strategic aspects in IIS should also be considered. Current methods, techniques and tools used by vendors for IIS assessment also are lack of comprehensive measures to fully assess the Integrated Information System in term of technical, organisational and strategic domains. The purpose of this study is to establish critical success factors for measuring success of an Integrated Information System. These factors are used as the basis for constructing an approach to comprehensively assess IIS in an organisation. A comprehensive list of success factors for IIS assessment, established from literature, was initially presented. An expert surveys using both manual and online methods were conducted to verify the factors. Based on the factors, an instrument for IIS assessment was constructed. The results from a case study indicate that through comprehensive assessment approach, not only the level of success been known, but also reveals the contributing factors. This research contributes to the field of Information Systems specifically in the area of Integrated Information System assessment.

Keywords: integrated information system, expert surveys, organisation, assessment

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6 Evidence Based Policy Studies: Examining Alternative Policy Practice towards Improving Enrolment to Higher Education in Nigeria

Authors: Muftahu Jibirin Salihu, Hazri Jamil

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The persisting challenge of access and enrolment to higher education in commonwealth countries has been reported in several studies, including reports of the international organization such as World Bank, UNESCO among others however from the macro perspective. The overarching aim of this study is to examine alternative policy practices towards improving access to university education in Nigeria at meso level of policy practice from evidence base policy studies using one university as a case. The study adopted a qualitative approach to gain insightful understanding on the issue of the study employing a semi-structure interview and policy documents as the means for obtaining the data and other relevant information for the study. The participants of the study were purposively chosen which comprise of a number of individuals from the selected university and other related organization which responsible for the policies development and implementation of Nigerian higher education system. From the findings of the study, several initiatives have been taken at meso level to address this challenge including the introduction of the University Matriculation Program as an alternative route for enhancing to access to the university education. However, the study further provided a number of recommendations which aimed at improving access to university education such as improving the entry requirements, society orientation on university education and the issue of ranking of certificate among the Nigerian higher institutions of learning.

Keywords: policy practice, access, enrolment, university, education, Nigeria

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5 Perceived Physical Exercise Benefits among Staff of Tertiary Institutions in Adamawa State

Authors: Salihu Mohammed Umar

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Perceived physical exercise benefits among staff of tertiary institutions in Adamawa State was investigated as a basis for formulating proper exercise intervention strategies. The study utilized descriptive survey design. The purpose of the study was to determine perceived exercise benefits among staff of tertiary institutions in Adamawa state, Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire adapted from Exercise Benefit/Barrier Scale (EBBS) developed by Sechrist, Walker and Pender (1985) which was validated by five experts. Three hundred and thirty (330) copies of the questionnaire were distributed among study participants in six institutions of higher learning in Adamawa state. The scale comprised two components; Benefits and Barriers dimensions. To achieve this purpose, three research questions were posed. The instrument had a four response forced-choice Likert-type format with responses ranging from 4 = strongly agree (SA), 3 = Agree (A), 2 = Disagree (D) and 1 = Strongly Disagree (SD). The findings of the study revealed that both male and female staff in institutions of higher learning in Adamawa state perceived exercise as highly beneficial. However, male staff had higher perceived benefits score than their female counterparts. (Male: x̄ = 95.02. SD = 3.08) > female: x̄ = 94.04, SD = 4.35. There was also no significant difference in perceived exercise barriers between staff and students of tertiary institutions in Adamawa state. Based on the finding of the study, it was concluded that staff of tertiary institutions perceived exercise as highly beneficial. It was recommended that since staff of institutions of higher learning in Adamawa State irrespective of gender and religious affiliations have basic knowledge of perceived benefits of exercise, there is the need to explore programmes that will enable staff across the sub-groups to overcome barriers that could discourage physical exercise participation.

Keywords: perception, physical exercise, staff, benefits

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4 Investigating the Effect of Using Amorphous Silica Ash Obtained from Rice Husk as a Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar

Authors: Aliyu Usman, Muhaammed Bello Ibrahim, Yusuf D. Amartey, Jibrin M. Kaura

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This research is aimed at investigating the effect of using amorphous silica ash (ASA) obtained from rice husk as a partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the mechanical and microstructure properties of cement paste and mortar. ASA was used in partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement in the following percentages 3 percent, 5 percent, 8 percent and 10 percent. These partial replacements were used to produce Cement-ASA paste and Cement-ASA mortar. ASA was found to contain all the major chemical compounds found in cement with the exception of alumina, which are SiO2 (91.5%), CaO (2.84%), Fe2O3 (1.96%), and loss on ignition (LOI) was found to be 9.18%. It also contains other minor oxides found in cement. Consistency of Cement-ASA paste was found to increase with increase in ASA replacement. Likewise, the setting time and soundness of the Cement-ASA paste also increases with increase in ASA replacements. The test on hardened mortar were destructive in nature which include flexural strength test on prismatic beam (40mm x 40mm x 160mm) at 2, 7, 14 and 28 days curing and compressive strength test on the cube size (40mm x 40mm, by using the auxiliary steel platens) at 2,7,14 and 28 days curing. The Cement-ASA mortar flexural and compressive strengths were found to be increasing with curing time and decreases with cement replacement by ASA. It was observed that 5 percent replacement of cement with ASA attained the highest strength for all the curing ages and all the percentage replacements attained the targeted compressive strength of 6N/mm2 for 28 days. There is an increase in the drying shrinkage of Cement-ASA mortar with curing time, it was also observed that the drying shrinkages for all the curing ages were greater than the control specimen all of which were greater than the code recommendation of less than 0.03%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the Cement-ASA mortar microstructure and to also look for hydration product and morphology.

Keywords: amorphous silica ash, cement mortar, cement paste, scanning electron microscope

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3 Moderating Effects of Family Ownership on the Relationship between Corporate Governance Mechanisms and Financial Performance of Publicly Listed Companies in Nigeria

Authors: Ndagi Salihu

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Corporate governance mechanisms are the control measures for ensuring that all the interests groups are equally represented and management are working towards wealth creation in the interest of all. Therefore, there are many empirical studies during the last three decades on corporate governance and firm performance. However, little is known about the effects of family ownership on the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance, especially in the developing economy like Nigeria. This limit our understanding of the unique governance dynamics of family ownership with regards firm performance. This study examined the impact of family ownership on the relationship between governance mechanisms and financial performance of publicly listed companies in Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative research methodology using correlational ex-post factor design and secondary data from annual reports and accounts of a sample of 23 listed companies for a period of 5 years (2014-2018). The explanatory variables are the board size, board composition, board financial expertise, and board audit committee attributes. Financial performance is proxy by Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE). Multiple panel regression technique of data analysis was employed in the analysis, and the study found that family ownership has a significant positive effect on the relationships between corporate governance mechanisms and financial performance of publicly listed firms in Nigeria. This finding is the same for both the ROA and ROE. However, the findings indicate that board size, board financial expertise, and board audit committee attributes have a significant positive impact on the ROA and ROE of the sample firms after the moderation. Moreover, board composition has significant positive effect on financial performance of the sample listed firms in terms of ROA and ROE. The study concludes that the use of family ownership in the control of firms in Nigeria could improve performance by reducing the opportunistic actions managers as well as agency problems. The study recommends that publicly listed companies in Nigeria should allow significant family ownership of equities and participation in management.

Keywords: profitability, board characteristics, agency theory, stakeholders

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2 High Rate of Dual Carriage of Hepatitis B Surface and Envelope Antigen in Gombe in Infants and Young Children, North-East Nigeria: 2000-2015

Authors: E. Isaac, I. Jalo, Y. Alkali, A. Ajani, A. Rasaki, Y. Jibrin, K. Mustapha, S. Charanchi, A. Kudi, H. Danlami

Abstract:

Introduction: Hepatitis B infection is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where transmission predominantly occurs in infants and children by perinatal and horizontal routes. The risk of chronic infection peaks when infection is acquired early. Materials and Methods: Records of Hepatitis B surface and envelope antigen results in Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe between May 2000 and May 2015 were retrieved and analyzed. Results: Paediatric outpatient visits and in-patient admissions were 64,193 accounting for 13% of total. Individuals tested for Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia were 23,866. Children aged 0-18 years constituted 11% (2,626). Among children tested, males accounted for 52.8% (1386/2626) and females 47.2% (1240/2626). Infants contributed 65 (2.3%); 1-4 year old children 309 (11.7%); 5-9 year old children 564 (21.4%) and adolescents 1717 (65.1%). HbSAg sero-positivity was 18% (496/2626) among children tested. The highest number of children tested per year was in 2009 (518) and 2014 (569) and the lowest, in the first study year (62). The highest sero-positivity rate was in 2010; 21.7% (54/255). Children aged 0-18years accounted for 10.5% (496/4720) of individuals with Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia. Sero-positivity was 3.1% (2/65); 12.9% (40/309); 18.1% (102/564); and 20.5% (352/1717) in infants, children ages 1-4years, 5-9years and adolescents respectively. 2.5% (1/40) and 4% (1/25) of male and female infants respectively had HbSAg. Among children aged 1-4years, 15.1% (30/198) of males and 9.0% (10/111) of females were seropositive; 14.8% (52/350) and 22% (50/224) of male and female 5-9year old children respectively has HbSAg. 14.3% (138/943) of adolescent females had Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia. Adolescent males demonstrated the highest sero-positivity rate 27.6% (214/774). 97.3% (483/496) of children who demonstrated Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia were tested for dual carriage with the e antigen. Males accounted for 296/483 (63.1%) and females 187/483 (36.9%). Infants constituted 0.97% (4/482); children aged 1-4years, 5-9years and adolescents were 6.8% (33/483); 20.9% (100/483) and 71.3% (342/483) respectively. 17.6% (85/483) of children tested had HBe antigenaemia. Of these, males accounted for 69.4% (59/85). 1.2% (1/85) were infants; 9.4% (8/85%) 1-4years; 22.3% (19/85) 5-9years and 68.2% (58/85) adolescents. 25% (1/4) infants; 24% (8/33) children aged 1-4 years; 19% (19/100) 5-9 year old children and 16.9% (58/342) adolescents had dual carriage. Infants and young children demonstrated the highest rate of dual carriage but were less likely to be tested for dual carriage 37/42 (88%) than their 5-9 year old 98% (100/102) and adolescent 342/352 (97%) counterparts. HB e antigen positivity rate was 45.4% (59/130) males and 36.0% (27/75) in females. Conclusion: Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia is high among adolescent males. Infants and young children who had HBSAg had the highest rate of envelope antigen carriage. Testing in pregnancy, vaccination programmes and prophylaxis need to be strengthened.

Keywords: children, dual carriage, Gombe, hepatitis B

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1 Dual Carriage of Hepatitis B Surface and Envelope Antigen in Adults in the Poorest Region of Nigeria: 2000-2015

Authors: E. Isaac, I. Jalo, Y. Alkali, A. Ajani, A. Rasaki, Y. Jibrin, K. Mustapha, A. Ayuba, S. Charanchi, H. Danlami

Abstract:

Introduction: Hepatitis B infection continues to be a serious global health problem with about 2 billion people infected worldwide, many of these in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria is one of the countries with the highest incidence, with a prevalence of 10-15%. Methods: Records of Hepatitis B surface and envelope antigen test results in adults in Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe between May 2000 and May 2015 were retrieved and analyzed. Findings: Adult out-patient consultations and in-patient admissions were 343,083 and 67,761 respectively, accounting for 87% of total. Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia was tested for in 23,888 adults and children. 88.9% (21240) were adults. Males constituted 56% (11902/21240) and females 44% (9211/21240). 5104 (24.0%) of tested individuals were 19-25years; 12,039 (56.7%) 26-45years; 21119 (9.0%) 46-55years; 2.8% (590/21240) and 766 (3.6%) >65years. Among adult males, 17% (2133/11902) was contributed by ages 19-25. 58% (7017/11902), 11.9% (1421/11902), 6.4% (765/11902) and 4.7% (563/11902) of males were 26-45 years old, 46-55 years old and 56-65 years and >65year old respectively. Adults aged 19-25years, 26-45 years, 46-55years, 56-65 and > 65years each constituted 32% (2966/9211); 54.4% (5009/9211); 7.4% (684/9211), 3.8% (350/9211) and 2.2% (201/9211) of females respectively. 16.2% (3431/21,240) demonstrated Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia. The sero-positivity rate was 16.9% (865//5104) between 19-25years, 21.2% (2559/12,039) among 26-45year old individuals. 17.9% (377/2111); 14.1% (83/590) and 7.3% (56/766) of 46-55year old, 56-65year old and >65year old individuals screened were seropositive. The highest sero-positivity rate was found in male young adults aged 19-25years 27.9% (398/1426) and lowest in elderly males 7.4% (28/377). HBe antigen testing rate among HbSAg seropositive individuals was 97.3% (3338/3431). Males constituted 59.7% (1992/3338) and females 40.3% (1345/3338). 25.3% (844/3338) were aged 19-25years; 61.1% (2039/3338) 26-45years; 10.2% (340/3338) 46-55years; 2.7% (90/3338) 56-65years and 0.7% >65years old. HB e antigenaemia was positive in 8.2% (275/3338) of those tested. 41% (113/275); 50.2% (138/275); 5.4% (15/275); 1.8% (5/275) and 1.1 (3/275) of HB e sero-positivity was among age groups 19-25, 26-45, 46-55, 56-65 and > 65year old individuals. Dual sero-positivity rate was highest 13% (113/844) in young adults 19-25years and lowest between 46-55years; 15/340 (4.4%). 4.2% (15/360); 13.5% (69/512); 6.7% (90/1348); 4.6% (10/214); 5% (2/40) and 6.7% (1/15) of males aged 19-25; 26-45; 46-55; 56-65; and >65years had HB e antigenaemia respectively. Among females - 27/293 (9.2%) aged 19-25; 26/500 (5.2%) 26-45; 2/84 (2.4%) 46-55; 1/12 (8.3%) 56-65 and 1/9(11.1%) >65years had dual antigenaemia. In women of childbearing age, 6.9% (53/793) had a dual carriage. Conclusion: Dual hepatitis B surface and envelope antigenaemia are highest in young adult males. This will have significant implications for the development of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Keywords: adult, Hepatitis B, Nigeria, dual carriage

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