Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: tick infestations

45 Comparative Acaricidal Efficacy of Fluralaner vs Oral Ivermectin Against Tick Infestation in Dogs

Authors: Tayyaba Zahra, Shehla Gul Bokhari, Asim Khalid Mahmood, Raheela Akhtar, Khizar Matloob

Abstract:

In Pakistan, dogs are commonly infested with ticks, especially in summers, causing not only dermatological issues but also systemic problems. Persistence of tick infestation often leads to heavy losses. Different acaricides are locally available with variable efficacy; however, recurrence of infestation is commonly reported. The present study was thus designed to compare the efficacy of a novel drug Fluralaner and conventionally used Ivermectin against tick infestation. Dogs positive for tick infestation were randomly divided into 2 groups viz, Groups A and B having 8 dogs each. Ticks were enumerated manually from the whole body of dogs at day 0 before the administration of drugs Dogs in Group A were treated with Fluralaner at day 0, and dogs in Group B were treated with Ivermectin. Post-treatment, ticks were counted again at days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. At day 07 of the study, no tick was found on the dogs treated with Fluralaner, while many ticks were present on the dogs treated with Ivermectin showing an efficacy up to 50%. On the consecutive follow-up evaluations, similar results were found for Fluralaner while the efficacy of Ivermectin was further reduced to less than 50%. Furthermore, Fluralaner treated dogs had better RBC counts, PCV, Hgb concentration, LFTs, RFTs post-treatment than the dogs treated with Ivermectin. Statistically, oral Fluralaner proved a more effective drug (P≤0.05)than oral Ivermectin against tick infestation in dogs.

Keywords: fluralaner, ivermectin, dogs, tick infestations

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
44 Tick Induced Facial Nerve Paresis: A Narrative Review

Authors: Jemma Porrett

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Background: We present a literature review examining the research surrounding tick paralysis resulting in facial nerve palsy. A case of an intra-aural paralysis tick bite resulting in unilateral facial nerve palsy is also discussed. Methods: A novel case of otoacariasis with associated ipsilateral facial nerve involvement is presented. Additionally, we conducted a review of the literature, and we searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for relevant literature published between 1915 and 2020. Utilising the following keywords; 'Ixodes', 'Facial paralysis', 'Tick bite', and 'Australia', 18 articles were deemed relevant to this study. Results: Eighteen articles included in the review comprised a total of 48 patients. Patients' ages ranged from one year to 84 years of age. Ten studies estimated the possible duration between a tick bite and facial nerve palsy, averaging 8.9 days. Forty-one patients presented with a single tick within the external auditory canal, three had a single tick located on the temple or forehead region, three had post-auricular ticks, and one patient had a remarkable 44 ticks removed from the face, scalp, neck, back, and limbs. A complete ipsilateral facial nerve palsy was present in 45 patients, notably, in 16 patients, this occurred following tick removal. House-Brackmann classification was utilised in 7 patients; four patients with grade 4, one patient with grade three, and two patients with grade 2 facial nerve palsy. Thirty-eight patients had complete recovery of facial palsy. Thirteen studies were analysed for time to recovery, with an average time of 19 days. Six patients had partial recovery at the time of follow-up. One article reported improvement in facial nerve palsy at 24 hours, but no further follow-up was reported. One patient was lost to follow up, and one article failed to mention any resolution of facial nerve palsy. One patient died from respiratory arrest following generalized paralysis. Conclusions: Tick paralysis is a severe but preventable disease. Careful examination of the face, scalp, and external auditory canal should be conducted in patients presenting with otalgia and facial nerve palsy, particularly in tropical areas, to exclude the possibility of tick infestation.

Keywords: facial nerve palsy, tick bite, intra-aural, Australia

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
43 Design of SAE J2716 Single Edge Nibble Transmission Digital Sensor Interface for Automotive Applications

Authors: Jongbae Lee, Seongsoo Lee

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Modern sensors often embed small-size digital controller for sensor control, value calibration, and signal processing. These sensors require digital data communication with host microprocessors, but conventional digital communication protocols are too heavy for price reduction. SAE J2716 SENT (single edge nibble transmission) protocol transmits direct digital waveforms instead of complicated analog modulated signals. In this paper, a SENT interface is designed in Verilog HDL (hardware description language) and implemented in FPGA (field-programmable gate array) evaluation board. The designed SENT interface consists of frame encoder/decoder, configuration register, tick period generator, CRC (cyclic redundancy code) generator/checker, and TX/RX (transmission/reception) buffer. Frame encoder/decoder is implemented as a finite state machine, and it controls whole SENT interface. Configuration register contains various parameters such as operation mode, tick length, CRC option, pause pulse option, and number of nibble data. Tick period generator generates tick signals from input clock. CRC generator/checker generates or checks CRC in the SENT data frame. TX/RX buffer stores transmission/received data. The designed SENT interface can send or receives digital data in 25~65 kbps at 3 us tick. Synthesized in 0.18 um fabrication technologies, it is implemented about 2,500 gates.

Keywords: digital sensor interface, SAE J2716, SENT, verilog HDL

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
42 Black-Legged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Impacts on Hematology and Ectoparasite Communities of Peromyscus Mice

Authors: Erica Fellin, Albrecht Schulte-Hostedde

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As the climate warms, the black-legged tick’s (Ixodes scapularis) range expands further north in Ontario, Canada, reaching new host populations that have not previously interacted with this blood-feeding parasite. Peromyscus mice in these northern areas are unfamiliar and inexperienced to the effects of these ticks compared to their southern counterparts that have adapted to living with these organisms. The purpose of this study was to see if there is a difference in physiology between these two groups – deer mice living in areas where tick populations have established and deer mice living in black-legged tick-free environments – looking specifically to see if there is significant variation in hemoglobin levels, which can negatively impact how these mice function in their environment. Along with this, a comparison of the parasite community structure on these mice hosts was analyzed to see if ticks change the composition of these micro-environments. Blood samples were collected from individual mice from populations where black-legged ticks were either present or absent to assess haemoglobin levels. At the same time, ectoparasites were collected from these same mice to determine parasite loads and species diversity. Haemoglobin levels were found to be lower when tick loads were high, and parasite diversity appeared to be higher when ticks were absent. Since black-legged ticks are carriers of many pathogens that can be passed on to humans, including Lyme’s disease, it is important to understand their movement and distribution across Ontario as well as their interactions with their hosts (and co-occurring parasites) in their environments.

Keywords: community ecology, hematology, hosts, parasites

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
41 Avian and Rodent Pest Infestations of Lowland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Evaluation of Attributable Losses in Savanna Transition Environment

Authors: Okwara O. S., Osunsina I. O. O., Pitan O. R., Afolabi C. G.

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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) belongs to the family poaceae and has become the most popular food. Globally, this crop is been faced with the menace of vertebrate pests, of which birds and rodents are the most implicated. The study avian and rodents’ infestations and the evaluation of attributable losses was carried out in 2020 and 2021 with the objectives of identifying the types of bird and rodent species associated with lowland rice and to determine the infestation levels, damage intensity, and the crop loss induced by these pests. The experiment was laid out in a split plot arrangement fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), with the main plots being protected and unprotected groups and the sub-plots being four rice varieties, Ofada, WITA-4, NERICA L-34, and Arica-3. Data collection was done over a 16-week period, and the data obtained were transformed using square root transformation model before Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was done at 5% probability level. The results showed the infestation levels of both birds and rodents across all the treatment means of thevarieties as not significantly different (p > 0.05) in both seasons. The damage intensity by these pests in both years were also not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the means of the varieties, which explains the diverse feeding nature of birds and rodents when it comes to infestations. The infestation level under the protected group was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the infestation level recorded under the unprotected group.Consequently, an estimated crop loss of 91.94 % and 90.75 % were recorded in 2020 and 2021, respectively, andthe identified pest birds were Ploceus melanocephalus, Ploceus cuculatus, and Spermestes cucullatus. Conclusively, vertebrates pest cause damage to lowland rice which could result to a high percentage crop loss if left uncontrolled.

Keywords: pests, infestations, evaluation, losses, rodents, avian

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40 Jigger Flea (Tunga penetrans) Infestations and Use of Soil-Cow Dung-Ash Mixture as a Flea Control Method in Eastern Uganda

Authors: Gerald Amatre, Julius Bunny Lejju, Morgan Andama

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Despite several interventions, jigger flea infestations continue to be reported in the Busoga sub-region in Eastern Uganda. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that expose the indigenous people to jigger flea infestations and evaluate the effectiveness of any indigenous materials used in flea control by the affected communities. Flea compositions in residences were described, factors associated with flea infestation and indigenous materials used in flea control were evaluated. Field surveys were conducted in the affected communities after obtaining preliminary information on jigger infestation from the offices of the District Health Inspectors to identify the affected villages and households. Informed consent was then sought from the local authorities and household heads to conduct the study. Focus group discussions were conducted with key district informants, namely, the District Health Inspectors, District Entomologists and representatives from the District Health Office. A GPS coordinate was taken at central point at every household enrolled. Fleas were trapped inside residences using Kilonzo traps. A Kilonzo Trap comprised a shallow pan, about three centimetres deep, filled to the brim with water. The edges of the pan were smeared with Vaseline to prevent fleas from crawling out. Traps were placed in the evening and checked every morning the following day. The trapped fleas were collected in labelled vials filled with 70% aqueous ethanol and taken to the laboratory for identification. Socio-economic and environmental data were collected. The results indicate that the commonest flea trapped in the residences was the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) (50%), followed by Jigger flea (Tunga penetrans) (46%) and rat flea (Xenopsylla Cheopis) (4%), respectively. The average size of residences was seven squire metres with a mean of six occupants. The residences were generally untidy; with loose dusty floors and the brick walls were not plastered. The majority of the jigger affected households were headed by peasants (86.7%) and artisans (13.3%). The household heads mainly stopped at primary school level (80%) and few at secondary school level (20%). The jigger affected households were mainly headed by peasants of low socioeconomic status. The affected community members use soil-cow dung-ash mixture to smear floors of residences as the only measure to control fleas. This method was found to be ineffective in controlling the insects. The study recommends that home improvement campaigns be continued in the affected communities to improve sanitation and hygiene in residences as one of the interventions to combat flea infestations. Other cheap, available and effective means should be identified to curb jigger flea infestations.

Keywords: cow dung-soil-ash mixture, infestations, jigger flea, Tunga penetrans

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39 Distribution of Spotted Fever Group in Ixodid Ticks, Domestic Cattle and Buffalos of Faisalabad District, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Qurat-ul-Ain, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Asma Kausar, Adil Ejaz

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Rickettsiosis, caused by a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (SFGR), is considered as an emerging infectious disease from public and veterinary perspective. The present study reports distribution of SFGR in the host (buffalo and cattle) and vector (ticks) population determined through gene specific amplification through PCR targeting outer membrane protein (ompA). Tick and blood samples were collected using standard protocols through convenient sampling from district Faisalabad. Ticks were dissected to extract salivary glands (SG). Blood and tick SG pools were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification of ompA using PCR. Overall prevalence of SFGR was reported as 21.5% and 33.6 % from blood and ticks, respectively. Hyalomma anatolicum was more prevalent tick associated with SFGR as compared to Rhipicephalus sp. Higher prevalence of SFGR was reported in cattle (25%) population as compared to that of buffalo (17.07%). On seasonal basis, high SFGR prevalence was recorded during spring season (48.1%, 26.32%, 17.76%) as compared to winter (27.9%, 21.43%, 15.38%) in vector and host (cattle and buffalo respectively) population. Sequencing analysis indicated that rickettsial endo-symbionts were associated with ticks of the study area. These results provided baseline information about the prevalence of SFGR in vector and host population.

Keywords: Rickettsia, livestock, polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, ticks, vectors

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38 Resistance of Field Populations of Rhipicephalus bursa (Acari:Ixodidae) to Lambda-Cyhalothrin Acaricide in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

Authors: Seyyed Payman Ziapour, Ahmadali Enayati, Sadegh Kheiri, Farzaneh Sahraei-Rostami, Reza Ali Mohammadpour, Mahmoud Fazeli-Dinan, Mohsen Aarabi, Fatemeh Asgarian, Seyed Hassan Nikookar, Mohammad Sarafrazi

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Rhipicephalus bursa (R. bursa) is a two-host ixodid tick with wide distribution in north of Iran especially in domestic animals of Mazandaran Province. The prolonged or incorrect use of chemical insecticides has led to build up of resistance in hard ticks in many areas of the world. Lack of basic information on resistance status of R. bursa was the reason behind this study to determine the susceptibility status of the species to lambda-cyhalothrin insecticide in Mazandaran Province. From May 2013 to March 2014, R. bursa ticks were collected on sheep, goat and cattle in different districts of Mazandaran Province. The engorged female ticks were reared in a controlled insectary for producing 12-18 days old larvae for larval packet test (LPT) bioassay against discriminant doses of lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC (MAC SILAT®). 80% of ten pooled tick populations were susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin as resistance ratios (RR50s) varied from 1 to 2.94 when compared with the most susceptible population NH-16. Only GK-12 and BF-6 populations (from plain areas of Galugah and Fereydunkenar Counties, respectively) were classified as resistant level I at LC50 level. Population NK-2 (from woodland areas of Kojour district in Nowshahr County) showed the highest resistance ratio of RR99 = 4.32 and 30% of tick populations were resistant at LC99 level. Our research showed initiation of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in Rhipicephalus bursa populations in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. This is considered a warning to policy makers for disease control in the study area. This research is a part of the PhD thesis of SP. Ziapour by grant No. 92-89 in Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Keywords: Rhipicephalus bursa, hard tick, lambda-cyhalothrin resistance, Iran

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37 Molecular Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Ticks of Golestan Province, Iran

Authors: Nariman Shahhosseini, Sadegh Chinikar

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Introduction: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) causes severe disease with fatality rates of 30%. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick, direct contact with the products of infected livestock and nosocomially. The disease occurs sporadically throughout many of African, Asian, and European countries. Different species of ticks serve either as vector or reservoir for CCHFV. Materials and Methods: A molecular survey was conducted on hard ticks (Ixodidae) in Golestan province, north of Iran during 2014-2015. Samples were sent to National Reference Laboratory of Arboviruses (Pasteur Institute of Iran) and viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR. Results: Result revealed the presence of CCHFV in 5.3% of the selected ticks. The infected ticks belonged to Hy. dromedarii, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. marginatum, and Rh. sanguineus. Conclusions: These data demonstrates that Hyalomma ticks are the main vectors of CCHFV in Golestan province. Thus, preventive strategies such as using acaricides and repellents in order to avoid contact with Hyalomma ticks are proposed. Also, personal protective equipment (PPE) must be utilized at abattoirs.

Keywords: tick, CCHFV, surveillance, vector diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
36 Molecular Screening of Piroplasm from Ticks Collected from Sialkot, Gujranwala and Gujarat Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Mahvish Maqbool, Muhmmad Sohail Sajid

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Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae); bloodsucking parasites of domestic animals, have significant importance in the transmission of diseases and causing huge economic losses. This study aimed to screen endophilic ticks for the Piroplasms using polymerase chain reaction in three districts Sialkot, Gujranwala and Gujarat of Punjab, Pakistan. Ticks were dissected under a stereomicroscope, and internal organs (midguts& salivary glands) were procured to generate pools of optimum weights. DNA extraction was done through standard protocol followed by primer specific PCR for Piroplasma spp. A total of 22.95% tick pools were found positive for piroplasma spp. In districts, Sialkot and Gujranwala Piroplasma prevalence are higher in riverine animals while in Gujarat Prevalence is higher in non-riverine animals. Female animals were found more prone to piroplasma as compared to males. This study will provide useful data on the distribution of Piroplasma in the vector population of the study area and devise future recommendations for better management of ruminants to avoid subclinical and clinical infections and vector transmitted diseases.

Keywords: babesia, hyalomma, piroplasmposis, tick infectivity

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35 Infectivity of Hyalomma Ticks for Theileria annulata Using 18s rRNA PCR

Authors: Muhammad S. Sajid, A. Iqbal, A. Kausar, M. Jawad-ul-Hassan, Z. Iqbal, Hafiz M. Rizwan, M. Saqib

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Among the ixodid ticks, species of genus Hyalomma are of prime importance as they can survive in harsh conditions better than those of other species. Similarly, among various tick-borne pathogens, Theileria (T.) annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis in large ruminants, is responsible for reduced productivity and ultimately substantial economic losses due to morbidity and mortality. The present study was planned to screening of vector ticks through molecular techniques for determination of tick-borne theileriosis in district Toba Tek Singh (T. T. Singh), Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, among the collected ticks (n = 2252) from livestock and their microclimate, Hyalomma spp. were subjected to dissection for procurement of salivary glands (SGs) and formation of pool (averaged 8 acini in each pool). Each pool of acini was used for DNA extraction, quantification and primer-specific amplification of 18S rRNA of Theileria (T.) annulata. The amplicons were electrophoresed using 1.8% agarose gel following by imaging to identify the band specific for T. annulata. For confirmation, the positive amplicons were subjected to sequencing, BLAST analysis and homology search using NCBI software. The number of Theileria-infected acini was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in female ticks vs male ticks, infesting ticks vs questing ticks and riverine-collected vs non-riverine collected. The data provides first attempt to quantify the vectoral capacity of ixodid ticks in Pakistan for T. annulata which can be helpful in estimation of risk analysis of theileriosis to the domestic livestock population of the country.

Keywords: Hyalomma anatolicum, ixodids, PCR, Theileria annulata

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34 Effect of Metarhizium robertsii in Rhipicephalus microplus hemocytes

Authors: Jessica P. Fiorotti, Maria C. Freitas, Caio J. B. Coutinho-Rodrigues, Mariana G. Camargo, Emily S. Mesquita, Amanda R. C. Corval, Ricardo O. B. Bitencourt, Allan F. Marciano, Diva D. Spadacci-Morena, Patricia S. Golo, Isabele C. Angelo, Vania R. E. P. Bittencourt

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The bovine tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is an arthropod of great importance in veterinary medicine leading to anemia, weight loss, animals' leather depreciation and also acting as a vector of many pathogens. In this way, the parasitism causes a loss of 3.24 billion dollars per year in Brazil. Knowingly, entomopathogenic fungi act as natural controller of some arthropods, acting mainly by active penetration through the cuticle. However, it can also act on the hemolymph and through the production of mycotoxins. Hemocytes are responsible for the cellular immune response and participate in the processes of phagocytosis, nodulation and encapsulation and may undergo changes when challenged by pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in R. microplus hemocytes after inoculation of Metarhizium robertsii using transmission electron microscopy. The isolate ARSEF 2575 and 200 engorged R. microplus females were used. The groups were divided into control, in which the females were inoculated with 5 μL of sterile distilled water solution and 0.1% Tween 80, and a group inoculated with 5 μL of fungal suspension at the concentration of 10⁷ conidia mL⁻¹. The experiment was performed in duplicate and each group contained 50 females. Twenty-four hours after fungal inoculation, hemolymph was collected through the cuticle dorsal surface perforation of the tick females. After collection, the hemolymph samples were centrifuged at 500 x g for 3 minutes at 4 °C, the plasma was discarded and the hemocyte pellet was resuspended in 50 μl PBS. The suspension material was fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in Millonig buffer for three hours. After fixation, the material was centrifuged at 500 x g for 3 minutes, the supernatant was discarded and the cells were resuspended in a wash solution. Subsequently, the cells were post-fixed with 1% osmium tetroxide in phosphate buffer for one hour at room temperature and dehydrated in increasing concentrations of ethanol, and then embedded in Epon resin. The ultrathin sections were examined under the LEO EM 906E transmission electron microscopy at 80kV. The ultrastructural results revealed that.in control group, the cells were considered intact, in which the granulocytes were observed with granules of different electrodensities, intact mitochondria and cytoplasm without vacuolization. In addition, granulocytes showed plasma membrane projections similar to pseudopodia. Plasmatocytes presented as irregularly shaped cells, with the eccentric nucleus, agranular cytoplasm and some cells presented pseudopodia. Nevertheless, in the group exposed to the fungus, most of the cells presented in degeneration. The granulocytes found had fewer granules in the cytoplasm and more vacuoles. Plasmatocytes, after treatment, presented many vacuoles also in the cytoplasm and the lysosomes presented great amount of electrodense material in their interior. Thus, the results suggest that the fungus has a depressant action in the immune system of the tick, not only by the cell degranulation, but also suggesting that this leads to morphological changes in the hemocytes and may even trigger processes such as phagocytosis.

Keywords: bovine tick, cellular defense, entomopathogenic fungi, immune response

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33 Use of Pheromones, Active Surveillance and Treated Cattle to Prevent the Establishment of the Tropical Bont Tick in Puerto Rico and the Americas

Authors: Robert Miller, Fred Soltero, Sandra Allan, Denise Bonilla

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The Tropical Bont Tick (TBT), Amblyomma variegatum, was introduced to the Caribbean in the mid-1700s. Since it has spread throughout the Caribbean dispersed by cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). Tropical Bont Ticks vector many pathogens to livestock and humans. However, only the livestock diseases heartwater, Ehrlichia (Cowdria) ruminantium, and dermatophilosis, Dermatophilus congolensis, are associated with TBT in the Caribbean. African tick bite fever (Rickettsia africae) is widespread in Caribbean TBT but human cases are rare. The Caribbean Amblyomma Programme (CAP) was an effort led by the Food and Agricultural Organization to eradicate TBTs from participating islands. This 10-year effort successfully eradicated TBT from many islands. However, most are reinfested since its termination. Pheromone technology has been developed to aid in TBT control. Although not part of the CAP treatment scheme, this research established that pheromones in combination with pesticide greatly improves treatment efficiencies. Additionally, pheromone combined with CO₂ traps greatly improves active surveillance success. St. Croix has a history of TBT outbreaks. Passive surveillance detected outbreaks in 2016 and in May of 2021. Surveillance efforts are underway to determine the extent of TBT on St Croix. Puerto Rico is the next island in the archipelago and is at a greater risk of re-infestation due to active outbreaks in St Croix. Tropical Bont Ticks were last detected in Puerto Rico in the 1980s. The infestation started on the small Puerto Rican island of Vieques, the closest landmass to St Croix, and spread to the main island through cattle movements. This infestation was eradicated with the help of the Tropical Cattle Tick (TCT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, eradication program. At the time, large percentages of Puerto Rican cattle were treated for ticks along with the necessary material and manpower mobilized for the effort. Therefore, a shift of focus from the TCT to TBT prevented its establishment in Puerto Rico. Currently, no large-scale treatment of TCTs occurs in Puerto Rico. Therefore, the risk of TBT establishment is now greater than it was in the 1980s. From Puerto Rico, the risk of TBT movement to the American continent increases significantly. The establishment of TBTs in the Americas would cause $1.2 billion USD in losses to the livestock industry per year. The USDA Agricultural Research Service recently worked with the USDA Animal Health Inspection Service and the Puerto Rican Department of Agriculture to modernize the management of the TCT. This modernized program uses safer pesticides and has successfully been used to eradicate pesticide-susceptible and -resistant ticks throughout the island. The objective of this work is to prevent the infestation of Puerto Rico by TBTs by combining the current TCT management efforts with TBT surveillance in Vieques. The combined effort is designed to eradicate TCT from Vieques while using the treated cattle as trap animals for TBT using pheromone impregnated tail tags attached to treated animals. Additionally, active surveillance using CO₂-baited traps combined with pheromone will be used to actively survey the environment for free-living TBT. Knowledge gained will inform TBT control efforts in St. Croix.

Keywords: Amblyomma variegatum, caribbean, eradication, Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, pheromone

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32 Regeneration Nature of Rumex Species Root Fragment as Affected by Desiccation

Authors: Khalid Alshallash

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Small fragments of the roots of some Rumex species including R. obtusifolius and R. crispus have been found to regenerate readily, contributing to the severity of infestations by these very common, widespread and difficult to control perennial weeds of agricultural crops and grasslands. Their root fragments are usually created during routine agricultural practices. We found that fresh root fragments of both species containing 65-70 % of moisture, progressively lose their moisture content when desiccated under controlled growth room conditions matching summer weather of southeast England, with the greatest reduction occurring in the first 48 hours. Probability of shoot emergence and the time taken for emergence in glasshouse conditions were also reduced significantly by desiccation, with R. obtusifolius least affected up to 48-hour. However, the effects converged after 120 hours. In contrast, R. obtusifolius was significantly slower to emerge after up to 48 hours desiccation, again effects converging after longer periods, R. crispus entirely failed to emerge at 120 hours. The dry weight of emerged shoots was not significantly different between the species, until desiccated for 96 hours when R. obtusifolius was significantly reduced. At 120 hours, R. obtusifolius did not emerge. In outdoor trials, desiccation for 24 or 48 hours had less effect on emergence when planted at the soil surface or up to 10 cm of depth, compared to deeper plantings. In both species, emergence was significantly lower when desiccated fragments were planted at 15 or 20 cm. Time taken for emergence was not significantly different between the species until planted at 15 or 20 cm when R. obtusifolius was slower than R. crispus and reduced further by increasing desiccation. Similar variation in effects of increasing soil depth interacting with increasing desiccation was found in reductions in dry weight, the number of tillers and leaf area, with R obtusifolius generally but not exclusively better able to withstand more extreme trial conditions. Our findings suggest that infestations of these highly troublesome weeds may be partly controlled by appropriate agricultural practices, notably exposing cut fragments to drying environmental conditions followed by deep burial.

Keywords: regeneration, root fragment, rumex crispus, rumex obtusifolius

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31 Molecular Identification of Camel Tick and Investigation of Its Natural Infection by Rickettsia and Borrelia in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reem Alajmi, Hind Al Harbi, Tahany Ayaad, Zainab Al Musawi

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Hard ticks Hyalomma spp. (family: Ixodidae) are obligate ectoparasite in their all life stages on some domestic animals mainly camels and cattle. Ticks may lead to many economic and public health problems because of their blood feeding behavior. Also, they act as vectors for many bacterial, viral and protozoan agents which may cause serious diseases such as tick-born encephalitis, Rocky-mountain spotted fever, Q-fever and Lyme disease which can affect human and/or animals. In the present study, molecular identification of ticks that attack camels in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia based on the partial sequence of mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene was applied. Also, the present study aims to detect natural infections of collected camel ticks with Rickessia spp. and Borelia spp. using PCR/hybridization of Citrate synthase encoding gene present in bacterial cells. Hard ticks infesting camels were collected from different camels located in a farm in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. Results of the present study showed that the collected specimens belong to two species: Hyalomma dromedari represent 99% of the identified specimens and Hyalomma marginatum which account for 1 % of identified ticks. The molecular identification was made through blasting the obtained sequence of this study with sequences already present and identified in GeneBank. All obtained sequences of H. dromedarii specimens showed 97-100% identity with the same gene sequence of the same species (Accession # L34306.1) which was used as a reference. Meanwhile, no intraspecific variations of H. marginatum mesured because only one specimen was collected. Results also had shown that the intraspecific variability between individuals of H. dromedarii obtained in 92 % of samples ranging from 0.2- 6.6%, while the remaining 7 % of the total samples of H. dromedarii showed about 10.3 % individual differences. However, the interspecific variability between H. dromedarii and H. marginatum was approximately 18.3 %. On the other hand, by using the technique of PCR/hybridization, we could detect natural infection of camel ticks with Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. Results revealed the natural presence of both bacteria in collected ticks. Rickettsial spp. infection present in 29% of collected ticks, while 35% of collected specimen were infected with Borrelia spp. The valuable results obtained from the present study are a new record for the molecular identification of camel ticks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and their natural infection with both Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. These results may help scientists to provide a good and direct control strategy of ticks in order to protect one of the most important economic animals which are camels. Also results of this project spotlight on the disease that might be transmitted by ticks to put out a direct protective plan to prevent spreading of these dangerous agents. Further molecular studies are needed to confirm the results of the present study by using other mitochondrial and nuclear genes for tick identification.

Keywords: Camel ticks, Rickessia spp. , Borelia spp. , mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene

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30 RussiAnglicized© Slang and Translation: A Clockwork Orange Tick-Tock

Authors: Mahnaz Movahedi

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Slang argot plays a fundamental role in Burgess’ teenage special sociolect in his novel A Clockwork Orange, offered a wide variety of instances to be analyzed. Consequently, translation of the notions and keeping the effect would be of great importance. Burgess named his interesting RussiAnglicized©-slang word as Nadsat, stands for –teen, mostly derived from Russian and Cockney rhyming. The paper discusses the lexical origin and Persian translation of his weird slang words illustrating a teenage-gang argot. The product depicts creativity but mistranslation that leads to the loss of slang meaning load and atmosphere in the target text.

Keywords: argot, mistranslation, slang, sociolect

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
29 Impact of Rising Temperatures on Wheat Production in the MENA Region

Authors: Assaad Ghazouani, Nidham Ghazouani

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The current vulnerability to climate change and extreme events, is a major threat to agricultural systems. This vulnerability depends on the sensitivity and exposure to weather conditions, and the ability to adapt to changes in these conditions. The MENA region is an example of a region that is currently highly vulnerable to food insecurity. Floods, drought conditions and pest infestations are some of the current stressors on food security that can be influenced by future climate change. All development initiatives related to agriculture and the ongoing response options may be limited by inefficient institutional structures and the lack of information with potentially negative consequences for future adaptations to increased stress. Therefore, in this context, we tried to analyze the impact of climate change (temperature rise) on wheat in the MENA region, and there is evidence that climate change will have a disastrous impact on the yield of wheat this will increase the vulnerability to food insecurity countries, hence the need to develop adaptation strategies.

Keywords: climate change, mena, wheat production, temperature

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28 Main Puteri Traditional Malay Healing Ceremony

Authors: M. G. Nasuruddin, S. Ishak

Abstract:

This paper deals with the traditional Malay healing ritualistic ceremony known as Main Puteri. This non-invasive intervention uses the vehicle of performance to administer the healing process. It employs the performance elements of Makyung, that is, music, movements/dance, and dramatic dialogue to heal psychosomatic maladies. There are two perspectives to this therapeutic healing process, one traditional and the other scientific. From the traditional perspective, the psychosomatic illness is attributed to the infestations/possessions by malevolent spirits. To heal such patients, these spirits must be exorcised through placating them by making offerings. From the scientific perspective, the music (sonic orders), movements (kinetic energy), and smell (olfactory) connect with the brain waves to release the chemicals that would activate the internal healing energy. Currently, in Main Puteri, the therapeutic healing ritual is no longer relevant as modern clinical medicine has proven to be more effective. Thus, Main Puteri is an anachronism in today’s technologically advanced Malaysia.

Keywords: exorcism, main puteri, shamans, therapeutic healing

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27 Ectoparasites Infestation of Free-Ranging Hedgehog (Etelerix Algirus) in North Western Libya

Authors: M. M. Hosni, A. A. El Maghrbi

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The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human.

Keywords: ectoparasites, etelerix algirus, hedgehogs, Libya

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26 Evaluation of South African Plants with Acaricide Activity against Ticks

Authors: G. Fouché, J. N. Eloff, K. Wellington

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Acaricides are commonly used to control ticks but are toxic, harmful to the environment and too expensive to resource-limited farmers. Traditionally, many communities in South Africa rely on a wide range of indigenous practices to keep their livestock healthy. One of these health care practices includes the use of medicinal plants and this offers an alternative to conventional medicine. An investigation was conducted at the CSIR in South Africa, and selected indigenous plants used in communities were scientifically evaluated for the management of ticks in animals. 17 plants were selected from 239 plants used traditionally in South Africa. Two different organic extracts were prepared from the 17 samples, resulting in 34 plant samples. These were tested for efficacy against two tick species, namely Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The plant extracts were also screened against Vero cells and most were found to have low cytotoxicity. This study has shown that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against ticks that are non-toxic and environmentally benign.

Keywords: South Africa, ticks, plant extracts, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

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25 Big Data-Driven Smart Policing: Big Data-Based Patrol Car Dispatching in Abu Dhabi, UAE

Authors: Oualid Walid Ben Ali

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Big Data has become one of the buzzwords today. The recent explosion of digital data has led the organization, either private or public, to a new era towards a more efficient decision making. At some point, business decided to use that concept in order to learn what make their clients tick with phrases like ‘sales funnel’ analysis, ‘actionable insights’, and ‘positive business impact’. So, it stands to reason that Big Data was viewed through green (read: money) colored lenses. Somewhere along the line, however someone realized that collecting and processing data doesn’t have to be for business purpose only, but also could be used for other purposes to assist law enforcement or to improve policing or in road safety. This paper presents briefly, how Big Data have been used in the fields of policing order to improve the decision making process in the daily operation of the police. As example, we present a big-data driven system which is sued to accurately dispatch the patrol cars in a geographic environment. The system is also used to allocate, in real-time, the nearest patrol car to the location of an incident. This system has been implemented and applied in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in the UAE.

Keywords: big data, big data analytics, patrol car allocation, dispatching, GIS, intelligent, Abu Dhabi, police, UAE

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24 Availability and the Utilization of Recreational Facilities for Prison Inmate Rehabilitation

Authors: Thomas Ejobowah Boye, Philip Oghenetega Ekpon

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The paper examines the availability and the utilization of recreational facilities for prison inmate’s rehabilitation in Nigeria. In order to carry out the study the researchers visited sampled prisons in the six geo-political zones in Nigeria. Instant assessment of available recreational facilities was carried out. Inmates were asked to tick a self-design questionnaire that was validated by experts in the Departments of Physical and Health Education, Delta State University and the College of Physical Education, Mosogar on available recreational facilities and activities engaged in by them. The data collected was subjected to percentage analysis. The study revealed that there is little or no standard recreational facilities in all the prisons visited. Considering the role physical activities play in the overall development of individuals physically, mentally, emotionally, morally, and socially it was recommended that the authorities of the Nigerian prisons should as a matter of urgency include recreational activities as a means of reforming and rehabilitating prison inmates. To achieve the desire to rehabilitate prison inmates the researchers also recommended that facilities and equipment should be made available in all prisons in Nigeria.

Keywords: facility, prison, recreation, rehabilitation

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23 Studies on the Prevalence and Determination of Associated Risk Factors of Babesia in Goats of District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Tauseef-ur-Rehman, Rao Zahid Abbas, Wasim Babar, Arbab Sikandar

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Babesiosis is an infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host (variety of vertebrates) including small ruminants and is responsible for decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. A cross-sectional study was designed in order to evaluate the prevalence of Babesia and its relation with various associated factors in district Toba Tek Singh, Central Punjab, Pakistan in 2009-2010. A total 10.84% (50/461) out of 461 examined cases for Babesia were found positive for Babesia infection. Month-wise peak prevalence was observed in July (17.95%), while no positive case was recorded in Dec-2009 and Jan-2010. The prevalence of infection in different goat breeds was found as non-significant (P < 0.05) for Babesia infection. The prevalence of Babesia was found significantly (P < 0.05) dependent to the goat age and sex. The feeding system, housing system, floor type and herd size revealed strong correlation with Babesia prevalence, while watering system and body conditions were found to be non-significant (P < 0.05), and hence it is suggested that with the improvement of management precautions Babesiosis can be avoided.

Keywords: Babesia, goat, prevalence, Pakistan, risk factors

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22 Infestations of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Different Olive Cultivars in Çanakkale, Turkey

Authors: Hanife Genç

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The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is an economically important and endemic pest in olive (Oleae europae) orchards in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine olive fruit fly infestation in different olive cultivars in the laboratory. Olive fly infested fruits were collected in Çanakkale province to establish wild fly population. After having reproductive olive fly colonies, 14 olive cultivars were tested in the controlled laboratory conditions, at 23±2 °C, 65% RH and 16:8 h (light: dark) photoperiod. The olive samples from 14 different olive cultivars were collected in October 2015, in Campus of Dardanos, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. Observations were carried out detecting some biological parameters such as the number of oviposition stings, active infestation, total infestation, the number of pupae and the adult emergence. The results indicated that oviposition stings were not associated with pupal yield. A few pupae were found within olive fruits which were not able to exit. Screening of the varieties suggested that less susceptible cultivar to olive fruit fly attacks was Arbequin while Gemlik-2M 2/3 showed significant susceptibility. Ovipositional preference of olive fly females and the success of larval development in different olive varieties are crucial for establishing new olive orchards to prevent high olive fruit fly infestation.

Keywords: infestation, olive fruit fly, olive cultivars, oviposition sting

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21 Descriptive Epidemiology of Mortality in Certain Species of Captive Deer in Pakistan

Authors: Musadiq Idris, Sajjad Ali, Syed A. Khaliq, Umer Farooq

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Postmortem record of 217 captive ungulates including Black-buck (n=31), Chinkara (n=20), Hog deer (n=116), Spotted deer (n=35), Red Deer n=(04), and Rusa deer (n=11) submitted to the Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan was analyzed to determine the primary cause of mortality in these animals. The submissions included temporal distribution from Government wildlife captive farms, zoo, and private ownerships, over a three year period (2007-2009). The most common cause of death was found to be trauma (20.27%), followed by parasitic diseases (15.67%), bacterial diseases (11.98%), stillbirths (9.21%), snakebites (2.76%), gut affections (2.30%), neoplasia (1.38%) and starvation (0.92%). The exact cause of death could not be determined in 77 of 217 animals. Pneumonia (8.29%) and tuberculosis (3.69%) were the most common bacterial diseases. Analyses for parasitic infestation revealed tapeworms to be highest (11.05%), followed by roundworms (8.29%) and hemoparasitism (5.07%) (babesiosis and theileriosis). The mortality rate in young ungulates was lower as compared to adults (32.26% and 67.74%). Gender wise data presented higher mortality in females (55.30%) compared to males (44.70%). In conclusion, highest mortality factor in captive ungulates was trauma, followed by parasitic and bacterial infestations/infections of tapeworms and pneumonia, respectively. Furthermore, necropsies provided substantial information on etiology of death and other related epidemiological aspects.

Keywords: age, epidemiology, gender, mortality, ungulates

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20 Effect of Four Medicinal Plant Extracts on Chickpea Leaf Miner Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani)

Authors: Sabraoui Abdelhadi, El Bouhssini Mustapha, Lhaloui Saadia, El Fakhouri Karim, Bouchelta Aziz

Abstract:

The surveys carried out in 2014, 2015 in the regions of Abda- Doukala, Chaouia- Ouardigha, Zemour- Zair and Fes- Sais have confirmed that the leaf miner was the main insect pest attacking chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Morocco. The grain yield losses caused by this pest could be more than 20% for winter planting and more than 42% for spring-sown crop. To reduce the chickpea leaf miner infestations, four essential oils, as biopesticide alternatives, were tested for their insecticidal effect on L. ciccerina, adults and larvae under laboratory conditions. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of these essential oils with and without adjuvant against this pest in comparison to three insecticides under field conditions. Mentha pulegium, with a dose of 33 µl/l of air caused 100% mortality on adults and larvae, after three hours and six hours of exposure, respectively. Eucalyptus showed 100% mortality on adults and larvae, with doses of 33 and 83 µl/l, after six and three hours of exposure, respectively. In the field conditions M. pulegium and E. globulus with adjuvant showed promising results compared with Abamectin, Azadirachtin and Spinetoram respectively. Essential oils could be used as one of the IPM components for the control of chickpea leaf miner.

Keywords: Liriomyza cicerina, chickpea, essential oils, insecticidal activity, Morocco

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19 Spatial Cluster Analysis of Human Cases of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Reported in Pakistan

Authors: Tariq Abbas, Younus Muhammad, Sayyad Aun Muhammad

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Background : Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick born viral zoonotic disease that has been notified from almost all regions of Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate spatial distribution of CCHF cases reported to National Institue of Health , Islamabad during year 2013. Methods : Spatial statistics tools were applied to detect extent spatial auto-correlation and clusters of the disease based on adjusted cumulative incidence per million population for each district. Results : The data analyses revealed a large multi-district cluster of high values in the uplands of Balochistan province near Afghanistan border. Conclusion : The cluster included following districts: Pishin; Qilla Abdullah; Qilla Saifullah; Quetta, Sibi; Zhob; and Ziarat. These districts may be given priority in CCHF surveillance, control programs, and further epidemiological research . The location of the cluster close to border of Afghanistan and Iran highlight importance of the findings for organizations dealing with disease at national, regional and global levels.

Keywords: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Pakistan, spatial autocorrelation, clusters , adjusted cumulative incidence

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18 An Evaluation of Different Weed Management Techniques in Organic Arable Systems

Authors: Nicola D. Cannon

Abstract:

A range of field experiments have been conducted since 1991 to 2017 on organic land at the Royal Agricultural University’s Harnhill Manor Farm near Cirencester, UK to explore the impact of different management practices on weed infestation in organic winter and spring wheat. The experiments were designed using randomised complete block and some with split plot arrangements. Sowing date, variety choice, crop height and crop establishment technique have all shown a significant impact on weed infestations. Other techniques have also been investigated but with less clear, but, still often significant effects on weed control including grazing with sheep, undersowing with different legumes and mechanical weeding techniques. Tillage treatments included traditional plough based systems, minimum tillage and direct drilling. Direct drilling had significantly higher weed dry matter than the other two techniques. Taller wheat varieties which do not contain Rht1 or Rht2 had higher weed populations than the wheat without dwarfing genes. Early sown winter wheat had greater weed dry matter than later sown wheat. Grazing with sheep interacted strongly with sowing date, with shorter varieties and also late sowing dates providing much less forage but, grazing did reduce weed biomass in June. Undersowing had mixed impacts which were related to the success of establishment of the undersown legume crop. Weeds are most successfully controlled when a range of techniques are implemented to give the wheat crop the greatest chance of competing with weeds.

Keywords: crop establishment, drilling date, grazing, undersowing, varieties, weeds

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17 Sublethal Effect of Tebufenozide, an Ecdysteroid Agonist, on the Reproduction of German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae)

Authors: Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Amina Badi, Nadia Aribi

Abstract:

German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is known to be an important pest due to its high reproductive potential and its ability to build up large infectious populations. The infestations were generally controlled by neurotoxic insecticides including organophosphates (OP), carbamate and pyrethroids. An alternative cockroach’s control approach is the use insect growth regulators (IGRs). The relative fewer effects of these chemicals on non-target insects and animals, and their favourable environmental fate, make them attractive insecticides for inclusion in integrated pest management programmes. The juvenoids and chitin synthesis inhibitors are two classes of IGRs that have received the most attention for useful chemicals to manage German cockroaches while ecdysone agonists were mostly used to control Lepidopteran species. In the present study, the sublethal effects of the non-sreroidal ecdysone agonist tebufenozide were evaluated topically on adults of the B. germanica. The effects on reproduction were observed in adults females of cockroaches that survived exposure to LD25 (146 µg/g of insect) of tebufenozide. Dissection of treated females showed a clear reduction in both the number of oocytes per paired ovaries and the size of basal oocytes, as compared to controls. In addition, tebufenozide significantly reduced the mating success of pairs and altered the fertility as shown through the reduction of ootheca development and total absence of viable nymph. Tebufenozide disrupted the German cockroach reproduction by interfering with homeostasis of the insect hormones. In conclusion, the overall results suggested that tebufenozide can be used as a biorational insecticide for controlling cockroaches.

Keywords: B. germanica, ecdysteroid agonist, tebufenozide, reproduction

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16 A Remotely Piloted Aerial Application System to Control Rangeland Grasshoppers

Authors: Daniel Martin, Roberto Rodriguez, Derek Woller, Chris Reuter, Lonnie Black, Mohamed Latheef

Abstract:

The grasshoppers comprised of heterogeneous assemblages of Acrididae (Family: Orthoptera) species periodically reach outbreak levels by their gregarious behavior and voracious feeding habits, devouring stems and leaves of food crops and rangeland pasture. Cattle consume about 1.5-2.5% of their body weight in forage per day, so pound for pound, a grasshopper will eat 12-20 times as much plant material as a steer and cause serious economic damage to the cattle industry, especially during a drought when forage is already scarce. Grasshoppers annually consume more than 20% of rangeland forages in the western United States at an estimated loss of $1.25 billion per year in forage. A remotely piloted aerial application system with both a spreader and spray application system was used to apply granular insect bait and a liquid formulation of Carbaryl for control of grasshopper infestations on rangeland in New Mexico, United States. Pattern testing and calibration of both the granular and liquid application systems were conducted to determine proper application rate set up and distribution pattern. From these tests, an effective swath was calculated. Results showed that 14 days after application, granular baits were only effective on those grasshopper species that accepted the baits. The liquid formulation at 16 ounces per acre was highly successful at controlling all grasshopper species. Results of this study indicated that a remotely piloted aerial application system can be used to effectively deliver grasshopper control products in both granular and liquid form. However, the spray application treatment proved to be most effective and efficient for all grasshopper species present.

Keywords: Carbaryl, Grasshopper, Insecticidal Efficacy, Remotely Piloted Aerial Application System

Procedia PDF Downloads 115