Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 661

Search results for: discussions

661 An Analysis of Turn-Taking in ESL Classrooms

Authors: Nursuhaila Ibrahim, Noor Hanim Rahmat, Nurul Ain Hasni, Nursyuhada Zakaria

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Past studies have shown that class discussions in the ESL classrooms not only helped students exchange ideas with their peers. Students also learn turn taking skills throughout the discussion. Through interacting with their peers, learners learn to use turn-taking strategies. They learn to wait for their turn, to listen to the ideas of others, to disagree, or to agree, and to add on more points in the conversation. This quantitative research explores students’ perception on class discussions and how the discussions influence their choice of turn-taking strategies. Findings of this research will have interesting implications towards the use of class discussions in the ESL classrooms.

Keywords: ESL, class discussions, turn-taking skills, peers

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660 Analysis of the Main Concepts and Discussions Involving Sustainable Tourism

Authors: Veruska C. Dutra, Mary L. G. S. Senna

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The development of tourism is on the use of landscapes, natural or constructed, which involves a number of factors that contribute to the deterioration of nature. Tourist activity coupled with sustainable development has led to the emergence of many questions about these terms, since they are not well defined in this sense through literature searches. The present study was to analyze the main concepts and discussions involving sustainable tourism, providing reflections that can cause answers about one of the main questions in today's activity sector on whether its sustainability is a myth or reality. The methodology of this study is discussions, theoretical studies and bibliographic research. The results showed that the scholars who address the issue, often leave uncertainty about some discussions that demonstrate that there are still many studies to be conducted in order to prove that the claims so as to form the basis of what will be Tourism sustainable.

Keywords: tourism, sustainability, development, discussions

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659 Relationship between Learning Methods and Learning Outcomes: Focusing on Discussions in Learning

Authors: Jaeseo Lim, Jooyong Park

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Although there is ample evidence that student involvement enhances learning, college education is still mainly centered on lectures. However, in recent years, the effectiveness of discussions and the use of collective intelligence have attracted considerable attention. This study intends to examine the empirical effects of discussions on learning outcomes in various conditions. Eighty eight college students participated in the study and were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 was told to review material after a lecture, as in a traditional lecture-centered class. Students were given time to review the material for themselves after watching the lecture in a video clip. Group 2 participated in a discussion in groups of three or four after watching the lecture. Group 3 participated in a discussion after studying on their own. Unlike the previous two groups, students in Group 3 did not watch the lecture. The participants in the three groups were tested after studying. The test questions consisted of memorization problems, comprehension problems, and application problems. The results showed that the groups where students participated in discussions had significantly higher test scores. Moreover, the group where students studied on their own did better than that where students watched a lecture. Thus discussions are shown to be effective for enhancing learning. In particular, discussions seem to play a role in preparing students to solve application problems. This is a preliminary study and other age groups and various academic subjects need to be examined in order to generalize these findings. We also plan to investigate what kind of support is needed to facilitate discussions.

Keywords: discussions, education, learning, lecture, test

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658 Modeling and Analyzing Controversy in Large-Scale Cyber-Argumentation

Authors: Najla Althuniyan

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Online discussions take place across different platforms. These discussions have the potential to extract crowd wisdom and capture the collective intelligence from a different perspective. However, certain phenomena, such as controversy, often appear in online argumentation that makes the discussion between participants heated. Heated discussions can be used to extract new knowledge. Therefore, detecting the presence of controversy is an essential task to determine if collective intelligence can be extracted from online discussions. This paper uses existing measures for estimating controversy quantitatively in cyber-argumentation. First, it defines controversy in different fields, and then it identifies the attributes of controversy in online discussions. The distributions of user opinions and the distance between opinions are used to calculate the controversial degree of a discussion. Finally, the results from each controversy measure are discussed and analyzed using an empirical study generated by a cyber-argumentation tool. This is an improvement over the existing measurements because it does not require ground-truth data or specific settings and can be adapted to distribution-based or distance-based opinions.

Keywords: online argumentation, controversy, collective intelligence, agreement analysis, collaborative decision-making, fuzzy logic

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657 A Bibliographical Research on the Use of Social Media Websites by the Deaf in Brazil

Authors: Juliana Guimarães Faria

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The article focus on social networks and deaf people. It aims to analyze the studies done about this topic published in journals, as well as the ones done through dissertations and theses. It also aims to identify the thematic focus of the studies produced and to identify how the deaf relates to social networks, more specifically, trying to identify, starting with those productions, what are the benefits, or not, of social networks for the deaf and if there is some reflection about the way the deaf community has been organizing politically in search of bilingual education and inclusion, making use of the softwares of social networks. After reading, description and analysis of the eleven works identified about social networks and the deaf, we detected three thematic groups: four studies presented discussions about social networks and the socialization of the deaf; four works presented discussions about the contribution of social networks to the linguistic and cognitive development of the deaf; and three works presented discussions about the political bias of the use of social networks in favor of the deaf. We also identified that the works presented an optimistic view of social networks.

Keywords: social networks, deaf, internet, Brazil

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656 Investigating Non-suicidal Self-Injury Discussions on Twitter

Authors: Muhammad Abubakar Alhassan, Diane Pennington

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Social networking sites have become a space for people to discuss public health issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). There are thousands of tweets containing self-harm and self-injury hashtags on Twitter. It is difficult to distinguish between different users who participate in self-injury discussions on Twitter and how their opinions change over time. Also, it is challenging to understand the topics surrounding NSSI discussions on Twitter. We retrieved tweets using #selfham and #selfinjury hashtags and investigated those from the United kingdom. We applied inductive coding and grouped tweeters into different categories. This study used the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) algorithm to infer the optimum number of topics that describes our corpus. Our findings revealed that many of those participating in NSSI discussions are non-professional users as opposed to medical experts and academics. Support organisations, medical teams, and academics were campaigning positively on rais-ing self-injury awareness and recovery. Using LDAvis visualisation technique, we selected the top 20 most relevant terms from each topic and interpreted the topics as; children and youth well-being, self-harm misjudgement, mental health awareness, school and mental health support and, suicide and mental-health issues. More than 50% of these topics were discussed in England compared to Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Northern Ireland. Our findings highlight the advantages of using the Twitter social network in tackling the problem of self-injury through awareness. There is a need to study the potential risks associated with the use of social networks among self-injurers.

Keywords: self-harm, non-suicidal self-injury, Twitter, social networks

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655 Sexual Violence against Men in Conflicts: A Neglected Serious Issue

Authors: Olalekan Olaluwoye, Joanne Williams, Elizabeth Hoban, Sonia Brockington

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Cases of sexual violence against men have been reported in at least twenty-five conflict situations in history. However, there is a paucity of academic literature and minimal media, policy and legal discussions on sexual violence against men. Most studies and discussions remain locked in the ‘male perpetrators, female victims’ paradigm. Male victims continue to suffer the consequences of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings in silence. A rigorous narrative systematic review of the literature revealed few studies on the subject and those that exist have a narrow focus on rape as the only form of sexual violence despite the existence of other forms of sexual violence that have equally devastating effects. This paper argues that while research and discussions on sexual violence against women should continue, it is time to conduct rigorous mixed methods research to understand the experiences of men and boys survivors of sexual violence. There is a need to study sexual violence more broadly, without limiting it to rape, and to understand the determinants and health implications of sexual violence perpetrated on men. The paper concludes by proposing a research approach that gives voice to the experiences of male survivors of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings.

Keywords: conflict, male survivors, post-conflict settings, sexual violence

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654 Gawa Gawa Lang ‘Yan: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Mental Health between Generations X and Z in Metro Manila, Philippines

Authors: Pierre Angelo Alino, Rafael Alejandro Ang, Maria Carmela Espanol, Dominic Gerard Ferreol, Jendrietch Adrian Lopez

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This study aims to explore the differences in perception between Generation X and Generation Z towards mental health and mental health illnesses. Through this study, the researchers seek to identify and explore the differences that exist in the generational perception and determine the possible factors that influence the difference in perception. In order to achieve this, we conducted two focus group discussions (FGD), one composed of Generation X and the other composed of Generation Z. Participants for both focus group discussions were recruited through purposive sampling and online recruitment methods. In these discussions, they were asked questions relating to their personal history, experiences with mental health, and related illnesses, as well as their opinions regarding the subject matter. Afterwhich, we analyzed our data through a thematic analysis. Our study’s findings indicate notable differences in the perception of mental health as well as mental illness between the members of Generations X and Z. Additionally, factors such as culture, personal history, and intimate relationships influence the perceptions of mental health between generation groups.

Keywords: generational difference, mental health, mental health illness, perception

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653 Iqbal's Philosophy of Action in the Light of Contemporary Philosophy of Action

Authors: Sevcan Ozturk

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The aim of this paper is to analyze the twentieth-century Muslim philosopher Muhammad Iqbal’s philosophy of action in the light of the main issues of contemporary philosophy of action. Iqbal is one of the most celebrated and eminent figures of modern Islamic thought. However, a review of the works on Iqbal shows that most of the central concepts of his philosophy have not received enough attention. His notion of ‘action’ in its philosophical context is one of these concepts. One of the main characteristics of Iqbal’s approach is that he develops his discussion around the main themes of contemporary philosophy of action, which includes ontological and conceptual questions regarding the nature of human actions. He also discusses that action is the only way to develop human personality, and that the human being can only achieve immortality promised by Islam through his actions. Therefore, while presenting an approach that can be read in the light of contemporary philosophy of action, which has become one of the significant parts of modern philosophical discussions in the west particularly since the nineteenth century, he, at the same time, develops his own philosophy of action in the light of Islamic resources. Consequently, these two main characteristics of his discussion of the notion of action make his philosophy of action an important contribution to contemporary philosophy of action, a field that ignores the discussions of Muslim philosophers on action. Therefore, this paper aims at highlighting Iqbal’s contribution to the modern debate of action by analysing Iqbal’s notion of action in the light of the contemporary issues of philosophy of action. This will, first of all, include an examination of contemporary action theory. Although the main discussions of contemporary philosophy of action will provide the methodology of this study, the main paradigms of Iqbal’s approach to the notion of action will also be considered during the examination of the discussions of philosophy of action. Then, Iqbal’s own philosophy of action will be established in the light of the contemporary philosophy of action. It is hoped that this paper will cultivate a dialogue between Iqbal scholars and those working in the field of philosophy of action, and that it will be a contribution to the fields of Iqbal studies, philosophy of action, and intercultural philosophy.

Keywords: action, development of personality, Muhammad Iqbal, philosophy of action

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652 Introducing Standardized Nursing Language in Reporting Nursing Care in Resource-Limited Care Environments: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Naomi Mutea, Jossete Jones

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The project aimed at exploring the views and perceptions of nurse leaders and educators regarding use of International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) in an informal approach which involved face to face discussions, after which a decision would be made on whether to proceed and propose introduction of ICNP project in Kenya as a pilot project which would mean all nurses would use a standard approach to reporting and documenting nursing care. In addition the project was to determine the best approaches/methods that can be used to introduce ICNP in the Kenyan nursing education and practice environment using the findings of the pilot project. Further four cardex reports were reviewed to establish if nurses on the bedside used a standardized language in documenting and reporting care processes. The cardex reports showed that nurses do not use ICNP or any other standardized language. The results of the discussions revealed that this would be a challenge due to several challenges experienced in conducting nursing research in resource-limited environments. The following questions were asked during the informal discussions with the educators/leaders: •What is currently being taught in terms of standardized nursing language? •Are you familiar with ICNP? •Do you view it advantageous to have a standardized language? •What is the greatest need at the moment in terms of curriculum development for BSN regarding use of standardized nursing language? •If you had a wish to change something in your curriculum, what would that be?

Keywords: nursing, standardized language, ICNP, resource-limited care environments

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651 Film, Globalization, Resistance: Emirati Film Production as a Medium of Localization

Authors: Chrysavgi Papagianni

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The tension between global and local has been a usual topic in discussions regarding globalization. Instead of reproducing the usual ‘gloom and doom’ arguments surrounding many of these discussions, the present paper will focus on Emirati film production and more particularly on the work of the acclaimed director Nojoom Alghanem, in order to highlight how local culture can, in fact, become a force of resistance, or else a medium of localization. As a matter of fact, Alghanem’s films, especially Sounds of the Sea, Hamama and Nearby Sky are apt examples of a localizing force in action as they tap into the audience’s dormant memories of the pre-oil past, in a country that has been swept by unprecedented development and globalization in the last 60 years. What becomes evident is that the remediation of memories in Alghanem’s films makes them more ‘mobile’ and thus allows them to circulate better in today’s network society.

Keywords: culture, film, globalization, identity

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650 Of Love and Isolation: Narratives of Siblings of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Sri Lanka

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi

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Aim: Siblings of children with cerebral palsy are often in the periphery of discussions; their views not always taken into account. The aim of this study was to uncover the narratives of young siblings of children with cerebral palsy in Sri Lanka. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and artwork were gathered from 10 children who have siblings diagnosed with cerebral palsy. The data was analyzed using the key principles of Framework Analysis to determine the key themes within the narratives. Results: The key themes to emerge were complex and nuanced. These included themes of love and feeling of protectiveness; jealousy and uncertainly; guilt and hope. Conclusions: The results highlight the need to take document the views of siblings who are often on the margins of the family and of family decisions and discussions. It also supports the need to offer safe spaces and opportunities for siblings of children with disabilities to express their feelings and to receive support where required.

Keywords: disability, grandmothers, mothers, narratives, women

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649 Students' Perspectives on Quality of Course Evaluation Practices and Feedbacks in Eritrea

Authors: Ermias Melake Tesfay

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The importance of evaluation practice and feedback to student advancement and retention has gained importance in the literature over the past ten years. So many issues and cases have been raised about the quality and types of evaluation carried out in higher education and the quality and quantity of student feedback. The aim of this study was to explore the students’ perspectives on the quality of course evaluation practice and feedback in College of Education and College of Science. The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data. Data were collected from third-year and fourth-year students of 13 departments in the College of Education and College of Science in Eritrea. A modified Service Performance (SERVPERF) questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to collect the data. The sample population comprised of 135 third-year and fourth-year students’ from both Colleges. A questionnaire using a 5 point Likert-scale was administered to all respondents whilst two focus group discussions were conducted. Findings from survey data and focus group discussions showed that the majority of students hold a positive perception of the quality of course evaluation practice but had a negative perception of methods of awarding grades and administrators’ role in listening to the students complain about the course. Furthermore, the analysis from the questionnaire showed that there is no statistically significant difference between third-year and fourth-year students, College of Education and College of Science and male and female students on the quality of course evaluation practice and feedback. The study recommends that colleges improve the quality of fairness and feedback during course assessment.

Keywords: evaluation, feedback, quality, students' perception

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648 Using the World Cafe Discussion Method to Practice Professional Ethics Courses: Taking Life Education as an Example

Authors: Li-Jia Chiu

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The purpose of this study is to integrate the content of professional ethics curriculum into life education. This course is a required course for the third-year students of the university. The curriculum is based on professional ethics, which can help students gain insights into a conceptual understanding of professional theory, learning the meaning and the value of life. This study enhances students' attitude toward learning through multi-teaching methods. It takes ‘professionalism’ as the subject of discussion. Additionally, the course combines the connotation and issues of the student's career development. Using the world cafe discussion method, students can think about the role of the future career, and inspire students to integrate their career development and life value reflection and connection. This study recruited the third-year undergraduate students as samples to collect data. This study was conducted in the course of the fall semester in 2016 for thematic discussions, classroom observations, course study forms, coursework, and results in publication reports, etc. The researcher conducted induction data analysis to reflect the practice and reflection of the course. The subjects included 117 students from two classes, including 54 male and 63 female students. The findings of this study comprised the following two parts: the student’s learning and teacher’s teaching reflection. The students’ gains were that: 1) The curriculum design is different from that of other subjects; 2) The curriculum is highly interactive with teachers and classmates; 3) These students are willing to actively participate and share ideas in group discussions; 4 ) They thought the possibility of further discussions with other groups of students through table-to-table discussions; 5) They experienced the respect from other students in the learning process and their appreciation of other students in the same group. The instruction reflections were as follows: 1) Students learned to get link to the value of life and future development through topical discussions; 2) After the main course design guided through gradual guidance, the students’ psychology reached a certain degree of cognition, and further themes then added would cause more sensuous learning effects; 3) Combining students’ expertise in drawing in this department (digital media design department) into curriculum design is effective in stimulating learning motivation and sense of accomplishment; 4) In order to compare and explore learning benefits, future researches are recommended to conduct the similar studies with different departments. Finally, the researcher looks forward to providing research results and findings to the related curriculum teachers as a reference for practical curriculum planning and teaching methods.

Keywords: life education, World Cafe, professional ethics, professionalism

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647 The Importance of Organized and Non-Organized Bildung for a Comprehensive Term of Bildung

Authors: Christine Pichler

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The German word Bildung in a comprehensive understanding can be defined as the development of the personality and as a process, which lasts from birth, or even before birth, until death. Gaining experience, acquiring abilities and knowledge as a lifelong learning process is what Bildung means. The development of the personality is intransitive because of the personality’s development itself, and transitive because of influences on the formation of a person by individuals and institutions. In public and political discussions, the term Bildung is understood with a constricted usage as education at schools. This leads to the research question, which consequences this limited comprehension of the term Bildung implies and how a comprehensive term of Bildung has to be defined. In discussions, Bildung is limited to its formal part. The limited understanding prevents from accurate analyses and discussions as well as adequate actions. This hypothesis and the research issue will be processed by theoretical analyses of the factors of Bildung, guideline-controlled expert interviews and a qualitative content analysis. The limited understanding on the term Bildung is a methodological problem. This results in inaccuracies in the analysis of the processes of Bildung and their effects on the development of personality structures. On the one hand, an individual is influenced by formal structures in the system of Bildung (e.g. schools) and on the other hand an individual is influenced by gained individual and informal personality and character attributes. In general, too little attention is given to these attributes and individual qualifications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate informative terms so the educational process with all its facets could be considered and applicable analyses can be made. If the informative terms can be defined, it´s also possible to identify and discuss the components of a comprehensive term Bildung to enable correct action.

Keywords: Bildung, development of personality, education, formative process, organized and non-organized Bildung

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646 Stakeholders Views on Why Childhood Obesity is Rising in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: A. A. Adedini, B. A. Aina, P. U. Ogbo

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Child obesity is on the rise globally. According to the World Health Organization, the number of obese children would increase to 70 million by 2025 if no intervention is made. An increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst school children in Lagos State, Nigeria has been established but specific factors promoting its prevalence are unknown. This aim of this study is to identify the commonly expressed factor(s) responsible for the rise in prevalence of child overweight and obesity in Lagos, Nigeria. Five focus group discussions were conducted with different groups of stake-holders involved in child care, namely: parents, teachers and health workers. Participants were recruited using a purposive sampling method; a validated question guide was employed for the discussion sessions. The discussions were recorded, collated, analysed using Grounded theory to extract themes. Six themes emerged from the discussions as follows: Civilization and lifestyle imbalance resulting from busy work schedules of young mothers leading to adoption of westernized culture promoting preference for processed and fast food meals; insecurity and congestion of the state which discourages out-door activities; ignorance of the populace on the prevalence of child obesity in the state; inadequate educative and enlightenment programmes in schools and by the Nigerian government; myths on child care and body physique and societal perceptions of the children born into affluent homes. Some of the factors responsible for the rise in the prevalence of child obesity in Lagos, Nigeria have been identified. Preventive strategies to control the prevalence of obesity in children residing in Lagos state is considered for further studies.

Keywords: Childhood Obesity, factors, lagos state, stakeholders

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645 The Importance of Conserving Pre-Historical, Historical and Cultural Heritage and Its Tourist Exploitation

Authors: Diego Renan G. Tudela, Veruska C. Dutra, Mary Lucia Gomes Silveira de Senna, Afonso R. Aquino

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Tourism in the present is the largest industry in the world, being an important global activity that has grown a lot in recent times. In this context, the activity of cultural tourism is growing, being seen as an important source of knowledge and information enjoyed by visitors. This article aims to discuss the cultural tourism, archaeological records and indigenous communities and the importance of preserving these invaluable sources of information, focusing on the records of the first peoples inhabiting the South American and North American lands. The study was based on discussions, theoretical studies, bibliographical research. Archaeological records are an important source of knowledge and information. Indigenous ethnic tourism represents a rescue of the authenticity of indigenous traditional cultures and their relation to the natural habitat. Cultural and indigenous tourism activity requires long-term planning to make it a sustainable activity.

Keywords: tourism, culture, preservation, discussions

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644 Exploring a Teaching Method for Elementary Students to Promote Cross-Cultural Understanding: Utilizing an American Film

Authors: Mikako Nobuhara

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This study explores the effective methods of nurturing elementary students’ cross-cultural understanding. The delivery lecture was conducted in a private elementary school class for understanding cross-cultural differences through the film E.T. (1982). Interviews of care supporters and students were conducted, as well as student discussions were held after the class. The results were carefully observed and analyzed. Suitable findings were obtained, for instance, students’ listening skills improved; further, they deeply thought about the main character’s feelings after watching the movie. Moreover, their interest in studying English as a foreign language increased. In conclusion, more classes where students can express their opinions in front of the class need to be offered; this would enable the students to nurture their critical thinking abilities and build a sense of accomplishment when they are in elementary school. Utilizing films is one of the best ways to provide students good opportunities to engage in discussions on a specific theme. This is particularly true for elementary school students.

Keywords: cross-cultural understanding, English education, elementary schools, films

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643 Conspiracy Theory in Discussions of the Coronavirus Pandemic in the Gulf Region

Authors: Rasha Salameh

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In light of the tense relationship between Saudi Arabia and Iran, this research paper sheds some light on Al-Arabiya’s reporting of Coronavirus in the Gulf. Particularly because most of the cases, in the beginning, were coming from Iran, some programs of this Saudi channel embraced a conspiracy theory. Hate speech has been used in talking about the topic and discussing it. The results of these discussions will be detailed in this paper in percentages with regard to the research sample, which includes five programs on Al-Arabiya channel: ‘DNA’, ‘Marraya’ (Mirrors), ‘Panorama’, ‘Tafaolcom’ (Your Interaction) and the ‘Diplomatic Street’, in the period between January 19, that is, the date of the first case in Iran, and April 10, 2020. The research shows the use of a conspiracy theory in the programs, in addition to some professional violations. The surveyed sample also shows that the matter receded due to the Arab Gulf states' preoccupation with the successively increasing cases that have appeared there since the start of the pandemic. The results indicate that hate speech was present in the sample at a rate of 98.1% and that most of the programs that dealt with the Iranian issue under the Corona pandemic on Al Arabiya used the conspiracy theory at a rate of 75.5%.

Keywords: Al-Arabiya, Iran, Corona, hate speech, conspiracy theory, politicization of the pandemic

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642 Ethical Discussions on Prenatal Diagnosis: Iranian Case of Thalassemia Prevention Program

Authors: Sachiko Hosoya

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Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the social policy of preventive genetic medicine in Iran, by following the legalization process of abortion law and the factors affecting the process in wider Iranian contexts. In this paper, ethical discussions of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion in Iran will be presented, by exploring Iranian social policy to control genetic diseases, especially a genetic hemoglobin disorder called Thalassemia. The ethical dilemmas in application of genetic medicine into social policy will be focused. Method: In order to examine the role of the policy for prevention of genetic diseases and selective abortion in Iran, various resources have been sutudied, not only academic articles, but also discussion in the Parliament and documents related to a court case, as well as ethnographic data on living situation of Thalassemia patients. Results: Firstly, the discussion on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion is overviewed from the viewpoints of ethics, disability rights activists, and public policy for lower-resources countries. As a result, it should be noted that the point more important in the discussion on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion in Iran is the allocation of medical resources. Secondly, the process of implementation of national thalassemia screening program and legalization of ‘Therapeutic Abortion Law’ is analyzed, through scrutinizing documents such as the Majlis record, government documents and related laws and regulations. Although some western academics accuse that Iranian policy of selective abortion seems to be akin to eugenic public policy, Iranian government carefully avoid to distortions of the policy as ‘eugenic’. Thirdly, as a comparative example, discussions on an Iranian court case of patient’s ‘right not to be born’ will be introduced. Along with that, restrictive living environments of people with Thalassemia patients and the carriers are depicted, to understand some disabling social factors for people with genetic diseases in the local contexts of Iran.

Keywords: abortion, Iran, prenatal diagnosis, public health ethics, Thalassemia prevention program

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641 The Effectiveness of Implementing Interactive Training for Teaching Kazakh Language

Authors: Samal Abzhanova, Saule Mussabekova

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Today, a new system of education is being created in Kazakhstan in order to develop the system of education and to satisfy the world class standards. For this purpose, there have been established new requirements and responsibilities to the instructors. Students should not be limited with providing only theoretical knowledge. Also, they should be encouraged to be competitive, to think creatively and critically. Moreover, students should be able to implement these skills into practice. These issues could be resolved through the permanent improvement of teaching methods. Therefore, a specialist who teaches the languages should use up-to-date methods and introduce new technologies. The result of the investigation suggests that an interactive teaching method is one of the new technologies in this field. This paper aims to provide information about implementing new technologies in the process of teaching language. The paper will discuss about necessity of introducing innovative technologies and the techniques of organizing interactive lessons. At the same time, the structure of the interactive lesson, conditions, principles, discussions, small group works and role-playing games will be considered. Interactive methods are carried out with the help of several types of activities, such as working in a team (with two or more group of people), playing situational or role-playing games, working with different sources of information, discussions, presentations, creative works and learning through solving situational tasks and etc.

Keywords: interactive education, interactive methods, system of education, teaching a language

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640 Manifestations of Moral Imagination during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Debates of Lithuanian Parliament

Authors: Laima Zakaraite, Vaidas Morkevicius

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The COVID-19 pandemic brought important and pressing challenges for politicians around the world. Governments, parliaments, and political leaders had to make quick decisions about containment of the pandemic, usually without clear knowledge about the factual spread of the virus, the possible expected speed of spread, and levels of mortality. Opinions of experts were also divided, as some advocated for ‘herd immunity’ without closing down the economy and public life, and others supported the idea of strict lockdown. The debates about measures of pandemic containment were heated and involved strong moral tensions with regard to the possible outcomes. This paper proposes to study the manifestations of moral imagination in the political debates regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Importantly, moral imagination is associated with twofold abilities of a decision-making actor: the ability to discern the moral aspects embedded within a situation and the ability to envision a range of possibilities alternative solutions to the situation from a moral perspective. The concept was most thoroughly investigated in business management studies. However, its relevance for the study of political decision-making is also rather clear. The results of the study show to what extent politicians are able to discern the wide range of moral issues related to a situation (in this case, consequences of COVID-19 pandemic in a country) and how broad (especially, from a moral perspective) are discussions of the possible solutions proposed for solving the problem (situation). Arguably, political discussions and considerations are broader and affected by a wider and more varied range of actors and ideas compared to decision making in the business management sector. However, the debates and ensuing solutions may also be restricted by ideological maxims and advocacy of special interests. Therefore, empirical study of policy proposals and their debates might reveal the actual breadth of moral imagination in political discussions. For this purpose, we carried out the qualitative study of the parliamentary debates related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Lithuania during the first wave (containment of which was considered very successful) and at the beginning and consequent acceleration of the second wave (when the spread of the virus became uncontrollable).

Keywords: decision making, moral imagination, political debates, political decision

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639 Improving the Quality of Discussion and Documentation of Advance Care Directives in a Community-Based Resident Primary Care Clinic

Authors: Jason Ceavers, Travis Thompson, Juan Torres, Ramanakumar Anam, Alan Wong, Andrei Carvalho, Shane Quo, Shawn Alonso, Moises Cintron, Ricardo C. Carrero, German Lopez, Vamsi Garimella, German Giese

Abstract:

Introduction: Advance directives (AD) are essential for patients to communicate their wishes when they are not able to. Ideally, these discussions should not occur for the first time when a patient is hospitalized with an acute life-threatening illness. There is a large number of patients who do not have clearly documented ADs, resulting in misutilization of resources and additional patient harm. This is a nationwide issue, and the Joint Commission has it as one of its national quality metrics. Presented here is a proposed protocol to increase the number of documented AD discussions in a community-based, internal medicine residency primary care clinic in South Florida. Methods: The smart aim for this quality improvement project is to increase documentation of AD discussions in the outpatient setting by 25% within three months in medicare patients. A survey was sent to stakeholders (clinic attendings, residents, medical assistants, front desk staff, and clinic managers), asking them for three factors they believed contributed most to a low documentation rate of AD discussions. The two most important factors were time constraints and systems issues (such as lack of a standard method to document ADs and ADs not being uploaded to the chart) which were brought up by 25% and 21.2% of the 32 survey responders, respectively. Pre-intervention data from clinic patients in 2020-2021 revealed that 17.05% of patients had clear, actionable ADs documented. To address these issues, an AD pocket card was created to give to patients. One side of the card has a brief explanation of what ADs are. The other side has a column of interventions (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, dialysis, tracheostomy, feeding tube) with boxes patients check off if they want the intervention done, do not want the intervention, do not want to discuss the topic, or need more information. These cards are to be filled out and scanned into their electronic chart to be reviewed by the resident before their appointment. The interventions that patients want more information on will be discussed by the provider. If any changes are made, the card will be re-scanned into their chart. After three months, we will chart review the patients seen in the clinic to determine how many medicare patients have a pocket card uploaded and how many have advance directives discussions documented in a progress note or annual wellness note. If there is not enough time for AD discussion, a follow-up appointment can be scheduled for that discussion. Discussion: ADs are a crucial part of patient care, and failure to understand a patient’s wishes leads to improper utilization of resources, avoidable litigation, and patient harm. Time constraints and systems issues were identified as two major factors contributing to the lack of advance directive discussion in our community-based resident primary care clinic. Our project aims at increasing the documentation rate for ADs through a simple pocket card intervention. These are self-explanatory, easy to read and allow the patients to clearly express what interventions they desire or what they want to discuss further with their physician.

Keywords: advance directives, community-based, pocket card, primary care clinic

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638 Insufficiency Fracture of Femoral Head in Patients Treated With Intramedullary Nailing for Proximal Femur Fracture

Authors: Jai Hyung Park, Eugene Kim, Jin Hun Park, Min Joon Oh

Abstract:

Introduction: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head (SIF) is a rare complication; however, it has been recognized to cause femoral head collapse. Subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is caused by normal or physiological stress without any trauma. It has been reported in osteoporotic patients after the fixation of the proximal femur with an Intramedullary nail. Case presentation: We reported 5 cases with SIF of the femoral head after proximal femur fracture fixation with Intra-medullary nail. All patients had osteoporosis as an underlying disease. Good reduction was achieved in all 5 patients. SIF was found from about 3 months to 4 years after the initial operation, and all the fractures were solidly united at the final diagnosis. We investigated retrospectively the feature of those cases and several factors that affected the occurrence of SIF. Discussion: There are a few discussions regarding the SIF of the femoral head. These discussions may include the predisposing risk factors, how to diagnose the SIF in osteoporotic patients, and the peri-operative factors to prevent SIF. Conclusion: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head is a considerable complication after the internal fixation of the proximal femur. There are several factors that can be modified. If they could be controlled in the peri-operative period, SIF could be prevented or handled in advance. Other options related to arthroplasty can be considered in old osteoporotic patients.

Keywords: insufficiency fracture of femoral head, intra-medullary nail, osteoporosis, proximal femur fracture

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637 Understanding Chances and Challenges of Family Planning: Qualitative Study in Indonesia's Banyumas District

Authors: Utsamani Cintyamena, Sandra Frans Olivia, Shita Lisyadewi, Ariane Utomo

Abstract:

Family planning is one of fundamental aspects in preventing maternal morbidity and mortality. However, the prevalence rate of Indonesia’s married women in choosing contraception is low. This study purpose to assess opportunities and challenges in family planning. Methodology: We conducted a qualitative study in Banyumas District which has huge reduction of maternal mortality rate from 2013 to 2015. Four focus group discussions and four small group discussions were conducted to assess knowledge and attitude of women in using contraceptive and their method of choice, as well as in-depth interview to four health workers and two family planning field officers as triangulation. Thematic content analysis was done manually. Results: Key themes emerge across interviews including (1) first choice of contraception is the one that they previously had, provided that they did not encountered problems with it, (2) rumor and fear of side effect affected their method of choice, (3) selection of contraceptive method was influenced by approval of husband, believes, and role model in community. Conclusion: Collaboration of health worker, family planning field officers, community, as well as support from stakeholder, must be increased to socializing family planning.

Keywords: attitude, challenge, chance, family planning, knowledge

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636 Using Focus Groups to Identify Mon Set Menus of Bang Kadi Community in Bangkok

Authors: S. Nitiworakarn

Abstract:

In recent years, focus-group discussions, as a resources of qualitative facts collection, have gained popularity amongst practices within social science studies. Despite this popularity, studying qualitative information, particularly focus-group meetings, creates a challenge to most practitioner inspectors. The Mons, also known as Raman is considered to be one of the earliest peoples in mainland South-East Asia and to be found in scattered communities in Thailand, around the central valley and even in Bangkok. The present project responds to the needs identified traditional Mon set menus based on the participation of Bang Kadi community in Bangkok, Thailand. The aim of this study was to generate Mon food set menus based on the participation of the community and to study Mon food in set menus of Bang Kadi population by focus-group interviews and discussions during May to October 2015 of Bang Kadi community in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected using (1) focus group discussion between the researcher and 147 people in the community, including community leaders, women of the community and the elderly of the community (2) cooking between the researcher and 22 residents of the community. After the focus group discussion, the results found that Mon set menus of Bang Kadi residents involved of Kang Neng Kua-dit, Kang Luk-yom, Kang Som-Kajaeb, Kangleng Puk-pung, Yum Cha-cam, Pik-pa, Kao-new dek-ha and Num Ma-toom and the ingredients used in cooking are mainly found in local and seasonal regime. Most of foods in set menus are consequent from local wisdom.

Keywords: focus groups, Mon Food, set menus, Bangkok

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635 Impact of Traditional Male Circumcision Mishaps Towards Newly Initiated Men's Advancement in Education in South Africa

Authors: Thanduxolo Nomngcoyiya, Simon M. Kang’ethe

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to explore whether a relationship exists between traditional male circumcision mishaps and level of education in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, exemplified by an empirical case study. The study used qualitative paradigm; was exploratory in nature and used case study design that was descriptive and exploratory; and entailed interviewing twenty-eight (28) research participants comprising of eleven (11) newly initiated men and their families on one-on-one in-depth interviews, twelve (12) traditional nurses and community members in focus group discussions; and five (5) society key informants on key informant method. An interview guide served as a data collection instrument for focus group discussions, key informant method and in-depth interviews with unstructured open-ended questions. Findings indicated an array of traditional male circumcision (TMC) gaps, some of which were indicative of a relationship between the mishaps and level of education: the phenomenon of schooling became secondary in newly initiated men’s lives; TMC mishaps became a drawback towards the newly initiated men’s education progression; the newly initiated men are sacrificed at the altar of culture, and TMC mishaps ushered in socioeconomic setback to the newly initiated men. The study suggested that: TMC be developmental; TMC as a cultural endeavor be educational and human rights friendly; and the need to identify and integrate all other players with diverse specialties.

Keywords: culture, education for all, EFA, millennium development goals, traditional male circumcision

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634 Legal Feminism, Modernity and Their Impact on Some African Countries

Authors: Umulisa Linda, Andy Cons Matata

Abstract:

The origin of legal feminism can be attributed to an attempt to provide a safe space for women such as voting, parental, and inheritance rights, among others. It was also a rebellion against male supremacy. However, with the development of technology and especially in the era of the internet, it appears that both legal feminism and the modernism are losing their luster. While these movements had their origin either in the United States of America or western Europe, their impacts have been felt as far as Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In Africa, different countries have different levels of penetration of these movements. This study, therefore, had its focus on how legal feminism and modernism have influenced legal developments in Kenya and Rwanda. The study adopted a qualitative approach with the respondents being asked about their feelings and perceptions on how the two movements had affected legal developments in their countries. In order to gauge the opinion of different categories of people such as the youth, middle-aged and the elderly people as well as being gender-sensitive, the study adopted a purpose method of sampling. The questionnaires and the focus group discussions were employed as the main tools for data gathering. From the questionnaires, the focus group discussions, and the data analysis that followed, the study concluded that both legal feminism and modernity had penetrated the legal systems of both Kenya and Rwanda so deeply. The study further found that the proponents of the two movements were mostly urban based and educated women. The men were generally opposed to the movements.

Keywords: legal development, legal feminsim, modernism, voting, parental and inheritance rights

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633 Communicating Nuclear Energy in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Country Comparison of Communication Channels and Source Credibility

Authors: Shirley S. Ho, Alisius X. L. D. Leong, Jiemin Looi, Agnes S. F. Chuah

Abstract:

Nuclear energy is a contentious technology that has attracted much public debate over the years. The prominence of nuclear energy in Southeast Asia (SEA) has burgeoned due to the surge of interest and plans for nuclear development in the region. Understanding public perceptions of nuclear energy in SEA is pertinent given the limited number of studies conducted. In particular, five SEA nations – Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam are of immediate interest as that they are amongst the most economically developed or developing nations in the SEA region. High energy demands from economic development in these nations have led to considerations of adopting nuclear energy as an alternative source of energy. This study aims to explore whether differences in the nuclear developmental stage in each country affects public perceptions of nuclear energy. In addition, this study seeks to find out about the type and importance of communication credibility as a judgement heuristic in facilitating message acceptance across these five countries. Credibility of a communication channel is a crucial component influencing public perception, acceptance, and attitudes towards nuclear energy. Aside from simply identifying the frequently used communication channels, it is of greater significance to understand public perception of source and media credibility. Given the lack of studies conducted in SEA, this exploratory study adopts a qualitative approach to elicit a spectrum of opinions and insights regarding the key communication aspects influencing public perceptions of nuclear energy. Specifically, the capitals of each of the abovementioned countries - Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok, and Hanoi - were selected, with the exception of Singapore, an island city-state, and Yogyakarta, the most populous island of Indonesia to better understand public perception towards nuclear energy. Focus group discussions were utilized as the mode of data collection to elicit a wide variety of viewpoints held by the participants, which is well-suited for exploratory research. In total, 156 participants took part in the 13 focus group discussions. The participants were either local citizens or permanent residents aged between 18 and 69 years old. Each of the focus groups consists of 8-10 participants, including both male and female participants. The transcripts from each focus group were analysed using NVivo 10, and the text was organised according to the emerging themes or categories. The general public in all the countries was familiar but had no in-depth knowledge with nuclear energy. Four dimensions of nuclear energy communication were identified based on the focus group discussions: communication channels, perceived credibility of sources, circumstances for discussion, and discussion style. The first dimension, communication channels refers to the medium through which participants receive information about nuclear energy. Four types of media emerged from the discussions. They included online and social media, broadcast media, print media, and word-of- mouth (WOM). Collectively, across all five countries, participants were found to engage in different types of knowledge acquisition and information seeking behavior depending on the communication channels used.

Keywords: nuclear energy, public perception, communication, Southeast Asia, source credibility

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632 Graphene Based Electronic Device

Authors: Ali Safari, Pejman Hosseiniun, Iman Rahbari, MohamadReza Kalhor

Abstract:

The semiconductor industry is placing an increased emphasis on emerging materials and devices that may provide improved performance, or provide novel functionality for devices. Recently, graphene, as a true two-dimensional carbon material, has shown fascinating applications in electronics. In this paper detailed discussions are introduced for possible applications of grapheme Transistor in RF and digital devices.

Keywords: graphene, GFET, RF, digital

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