Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Y. R. Sood

12 Condition Based Assessment of Power Transformer with Modern Techniques

Authors: Piush Verma, Y. R. Sood


This paper provides the information on the diagnostics techniques for condition monitoring of power transformer (PT). This paper deals with the practical importance of the transformer diagnostic in the Electrical Engineering field. The life of the transformer depends upon its insulation i.e paper and oil. The major testing techniques applies on transformer oil and paper i.e dissolved gas analysis, furfural analysis, radio interface, acoustic emission, infra-red emission, frequency response analysis, power factor, polarization spectrum, magnetizing currents, turn and winding ratio. A review has been made on the modern development of this practical technology.

Keywords: temperature, condition monitoring, diagnostics methods, paper analysis techniques, oil analysis techniques

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11 Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy Analysis on Transformer Oil by Correlating It with Various Oil Parameters

Authors: Rajnish Shrivastava, Y. R. Sood, Priti Pundir, Rahul Srivastava


Power transformer is one of the most important devices that are used in power station. Due to several fault impending upon it or due to ageing, etc its life gets lowered. So, it becomes necessary to have diagnosis of oil for fault analysis. Due to the chemical, electrical, thermal and mechanical stress the insulating material in the power transformer degraded. It is important to regularly assess the condition of oil and the remaining life of the power transformer. In this paper UV-VIS absorption graph area is correlated with moisture content, Flash point, IFT and Density of Transformer oil. Since UV-VIS absorption graph area varies accordingly with the variation in different transformer parameters. So by obtaining the correlation among different oil parameters for oil with respect to UV-VIS absorption area, decay contents of transformer oil can be predicted

Keywords: breakdown voltage (BDV), interfacial Tension (IFT), moisture content, ultra violet-visible rays spectroscopy (UV-VIS)

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10 Health Assessment of Power Transformer Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Yog Raj Sood, Rajnish Shrivastava, Anchal Wadhwa


Power transformer is one of the electrical equipment that has a central and critical role in the power system. In order to avoid power transformer failure, information system that provides the transformer condition is needed. This paper presents an information system to know the exact situations prevailing within the transformer by declaring its health index. Health index of a transformer is decided by considering several diagnostic tools. The current work deals with UV-Vis, IFT, FP, BDV and Water Content. UV/VIS results have been pre-accessed using separate FL controller for concluding with the Furan contents. It is broadly accepted that the life of a power transformer is the life of the oil/ paper insulating system. The method relies on the use of furan analysis (insulation paper), and other oil analysis results as a means to declare health index. Fuzzy logic system is used to develop the information system. The testing is done on 5 samples of oil of transformers of rating 132/66 KV to obtain the results and results are analyzed using fuzzy logic model.

Keywords: interfacial tension analyzer (ift), flash point (fp), furfuraldehyde (fal), health index

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9 An Investigation on Material Removal Rate of EDM Process: A Response Surface Methodology Approach

Authors: Azhar Equbal, Anoop Kumar Sood, M. Asif Equbal, M. Israr Equbal


In the present work response surface methodology (RSM) based central composite design (CCD) is used for analyzing the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. For experimentation, mild steel is selected as work piece and copper is used as electrode. Three machining parameters namely current (I), spark on time (Ton) and spark off time (Toff) are selected as the input variables. The output or response chosen is material removal rate (MRR) which is to be maximized. To reduce the number of runs face centered central composite design (FCCCD) was used. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of parameter and interactions. The suitability of model is tested using Anderson darling (AD) plot. The results conclude that different parameters considered i.e. current, pulse on and pulse off time; all have dominant effect on the MRR. At last, the optimized parameter setting for maximizing MRR is found through main effect plot analysis.

Keywords: EDM, electrode, MRR, RSM, ANOVA

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8 Statistical Tools for SFRA Diagnosis in Power Transformers

Authors: Rahul Srivastava, Priti Pundir, Y. R. Sood, Rajnish Shrivastava


For the interpretation of the signatures of sweep frequency response analysis(SFRA) of transformer different types of statistical techniques serves as an effective tool for doing either phase to phase comparison or sister unit comparison. In this paper with the discussion on SFRA several statistics techniques like cross correlation coefficient (CCF), root square error (RSQ), comparative standard deviation (CSD), Absolute difference, mean square error(MSE),Min-Max ratio(MM) are presented through several case studies. These methods require sample data size and spot frequencies of SFRA signatures that are being compared. The techniques used are based on power signal processing tools that can simplify result and limits can be created for the severity of the fault occurring in the transformer due to several short circuit forces or due to ageing. The advantages of using statistics techniques for analyzing of SFRA result are being indicated through several case studies and hence the results are obtained which determines the state of the transformer.

Keywords: absolute difference (DABS), cross correlation coefficient (CCF), mean square error (MSE), min-max ratio (MM-ratio), root square error (RSQ), standard deviation (CSD), sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA)

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7 Pharmacovigilance: An Empowerment in Safe Utilization of Pharmaceuticals

Authors: Pankaj Prashar, Bimlesh Kumar, Ankita Sood, Anamika Gautam


Pharmacovigilance (PV) is a rapidly growing discipline in pharmaceutical industries as an integral part of clinical research and drug development over the past few decades. PV carries a breadth of scope from drug manufacturing to its regulation with safer utilization. The fundamental steps of PV not only includes data collection and verification, coding of drugs with adverse drug reactions, causality assessment and timely reporting to the authorities but also monitoring drug manufacturing, safety issues, product quality and conduction of due diligence. Standardization of adverse event information, collaboration of multiple departments in different companies, preparation of documents in accordance to both governmental as well as non-governmental organizations (FDA, EMA, GVP, ICH) are the advancements in discipline of PV. De-harmonization, lack of predictive drug safety models, improper funding by government, non-reporting, and non-acceptability of ADRs by developing countries and reports directly from patients to the monitoring centres respectively are the major road backs of PV. Mandatory pharmacovigilance reporting, frequent inspections, funding by government, educating and training medical students, pharmacists and nurses in this segment can bring about empowerment in PV. This area needs to be addressed with a sense of urgency for the safe utilization of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: pharmacovigilance, regulatory, adverse event, drug safety

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6 Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery and Therapy of Alzeheimer's Disease

Authors: Nirupama Dixit, Anyaa Mittal, Neeru Sood


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive form of dementia, contributing to up to 70% of cases, mostly observed in elderly but is not restricted to old age. The pathophysiology of the disease is characterized by specific pathological changes in brain. The changes (i.e. accumulation of metal ions in brain, formation of extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregates and tangle of hyper phosphorylated Tau protein inside neurons) damage the neuronal connections irreversibly. The current issues in improvement of life quality of Alzheimer's patient lies in the fact that the diagnosis is made at a late stage of the disease and the medications do not treat the basic causes of Alzheimer's. The targeted delivery of drug through the blood brain barrier (BBB) poses several limitations via traditional approaches for treatment. To overcome these drug delivery limitation, nanoparticles provide a promising solution. This review focuses on current strategies for efficient targeted drug delivery using nanoparticles and improving the quality of therapy provided to the patient. Nanoparticles can be used to encapsulate drug (which is generally hydrophobic) to ensure its passage to brain; they can be conjugated to metal ion chelators to reduce the metal load in neural tissue thus lowering the harmful effects of oxidative damage; can be conjugated with drug and monoclonal antibodies against BBB endogenous receptors. Finally this review covers how the nanoparticles can play a role in diagnosing the disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, β-amyloid plaques, blood brain barrier, metal chelators, nanoparticles

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5 A Look into Surgical Site Infections: Impact of Collective Interventions

Authors: Lisa Bennett, Cynthia Walters, Cynthia Argani, Andy Satin, Geeta Sood, Kerri Huber, Lisa Grubb, Woodrow Noble, Melissa Eichelberger, Darlene Zinalabedini, Eric Ausby, Jeffrey Snyder, Kevin Kirchoff


Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) within the obstetric population pose a variety of complications, creating clinical and personal challenges for the new mother and her neonate during the postpartum period. Our journey to achieve compliance with the SSI core measure for cesarean sections revealed many opportunities to improve these outcomes. Objective: Achieve and sustain core measure compliance keeping surgical site infection rates below the national benchmark pooled mean of 1.8% in post-operative patients, who delivered via cesarean section at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. Methods: A root cause analysis was performed and revealed several environmental, pharmacologic, and clinical practice opportunities for improvement. A multidisciplinary approach led by the OB Safety Nurse, OB Medical Director, and Infectious Disease Department resulted in the implementation of fourteen interventions over a twenty-month period. Interventions included: post-operative dressing changes, standardizing operating room attire, broadening pre-operative antibiotics, initiating vaginal preps, improving operating room terminal cleaning, testing air quality, and re-educating scrub technicians on technique. Results: Prior to the implementation of our interventions, the SSI quarterly rate in Obstetrics peaked at 6.10%. Although no single intervention resulted in dramatic improvement, after implementation of all fourteen interventions, the quarterly SSI rate has subsequently ranged from to 0.0% to 2.70%. Significance: Taking an introspective look at current practices can reveal opportunities for improvement which previously were not considered. Collectively the benefit of these interventions has shown a significant decrease in surgical site infection rates. The impact of this quality improvement project highlights the synergy created when members of the multidisciplinary team work in collaboration to improve patient safety, and achieve a high quality of care.

Keywords: cesarean section, surgical site infection, collaboration and teamwork, patient safety, quality improvement

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4 Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of the Pathogens Isolated from Hospital Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in North India

Authors: M. S. Raza, A. Kapil, Sonu Tyagi, H. Gautam, S. Mohapatra, R. Chaudhry, S. Sood, V. Goyal, R. Lodha, V. Sreenivas, B. K. Das


Background: Acute bacterial meningitis remains the major cause of mortality and morbidity. More than half of the survivors develop the significant lifelong neurological abnormalities. Diagnosis of the hospital acquired acute bacterial meningitis (HAABM) is challenging as it appears either in the post operative patients or patients acquire the organisms from the hospital environment. In both the situations, pathogens are exposed to high dose of antibiotics. Chances of getting multidrug resistance organism are very high. We have performed this experiment to find out the etiological agents of HAABM and its antibiotics susceptibility pattern. Methodology: A perspective study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. From March 2015 to April 2018 total 400 Cerebro spinal fluid samples were collected aseptically. Samples were processed for cell count, Gram staining, and culture. Culture plates were incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours. Organism grown on blood and MacConkey agar were identified by MALDI-TOF Vitek MS (BioMerieux, France) and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method as per CLSI 2015 guideline. Results: Of the 400 CSF samples processed, 43 (10.75%) were culture positive for different bacteria. Out of 43 isolates, the most prevalent Gram-positive organisms were S. aureus 4 (9.30%) followed by E. faecium 3 (6.97%) & CONS 2 (4.65%). Similarly, E. coli 13 (30.23%) was the commonest Gram-negative isolates followed by A. baumannii 12 (27.90%), K. pneumonia 5 (11.62%) and P. aeruginosa 4(9.30%). Most of the antibiotics tested against the Gram-negative isolates were resistance to them. Colistin was most effective followed by Meropenem and Imepenim for all Gram-negative HAABM isolates. Similarly, most of antibiotics tested were susceptible to S. aureus and CONS. However, E. faecium (100%) were only susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusion: Hospital acquired acute bacterial meningitis (HAABM) is becoming the emerging challenge as most of isolates are showing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Gram-negative organisms are emerging as the major player of HAABM. Great care needs to be taken especially in tertiary care hospitals. Similarly, antibiotic stewardship should be followed and antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) should be performed regularly to update the antibiotic patter and to prevent from the emergence of resistance. Updated information of the AST will be helpful for the better management of the meningitis patient.

Keywords: CSF, MALDI-TOF, hospital acquired acute bacterial meningitis, AST

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3 Management of Hypoglycemia in Von Gierke’s Disease

Authors: Makda Aamir, Sood Aayushi, Syed Omar, Nihan Khuld, Iskander Peter, Ijaz Naeem, Sharma Nishant


Introduction:Glycogen Storage Disease Type-1 (GSD-1) is a rare phenomenon primarily affecting the liver and kidney. Excessive accumulation of glycogen and fat in liver, kidney, and intestinal mucosa is noted in patients with deficiency of Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency. Patients with GSD-1 have a wide spectrum of symptoms, including hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, lactic acidemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, and growth retardation. Age of onset, rate of disease progression and its severity is variable in this disease.Case:An 18-year-old male with GSD-1a, Von Gierke’s disease, hyperuricemia, and hypertension presented to the hospital with nausea and vomiting. The patient followed an hourly cornstarch regimen during the day and overnight through infusion via a PEG tube. The complaints started at work, where he was unable to tolerate oral cornstarch. He washemodynamically stable on arrival. ABG showed pH 7.372, PaCO2 30.3, and PaO2 92.2. WBC 16.80, K+ 5.8, HCO3 13, BUN 28, Cr 2.2, Glucose 60, AST 115, ALT 128, Cholesterol 352, Triglycerides >1000, Uric Acid 10.6, Lactic Acid 11.8 which trended down to 8.0. CT abdomen showed hepatomegaly and fatty infiltration with the PEG tube in place.He was admitted to the ICU and started on D5NS for hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis. Per request by the patient’s pediatrician, he was transitioned to IV D10/0.45NS at 110mL/Hr to maintain blood glucose above 75 mg/L. Frequent accuchecks were done till he could tolerate his dietary regimen with cornstarch. Lactic acid downtrend to 2.9, and accuchecks ranged between 100-110. Cr improved to 1.3, and his home medications (Allopurinol and Lisinopril) were resumed. He was discharged in stable condition with plans for further genetic therapy work up.Discussion:Mainstay therapy for Von Gierke’s Disease is the prevention of metabolic derangements for which dietary and lifestyle changes are recommended. A low fructose and sucrose diet is recommended by limiting the intake of galactose and lactose to one serving per day. Hypoglycemia treatment in such patients is two-fold, utilizing both quick and stable release sources. Cornstarch has been one such therapy since the 1980s; its slow digestion provides a steady release of glucose over a longer period of time as compared with other sources of carbohydrates. Dosing guidelines vary from age to age and person to person, but it is highly recommended to check BG levels frequently to maintain a BG > 70 mg/dL. Associated high levels of triglycerides and cholesterol can be treated with statins, fibrates, etc. Conclusion:The management of hypoglycemia in GSD 1 disease presents various obstacles which could prove to be fatal. Due to the deficiency of G6P, treatment with a specialized hypoglycemic regimen is warranted. A D10 ½ NS infusion can be used to maintain blood sugar levels as well as correct metabolic or lactate imbalances. Infusion should be gradually weaned off after the patient can tolerate oral feeds as this can help prevent the risk of hypoglycemia and other derangements. Further research is needed in regards to these patients for more sustainable regimens.

Keywords: von gierke, glycogen storage disease, hypoglycemia, genetic disease

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2 Ultrasonic Atomizer for Turbojet Engines

Authors: Aman Johri, Sidhant Sood, Pooja Suresh


This paper suggests a new and more efficient method of atomization of fuel in a combustor nozzle of a high bypass turbofan engine, using ultrasonic vibrations. Since atomization of fuel just before the fuel spray is injected into the combustion chamber is an important and crucial aspect related to functioning of a propulsion system, the technology suggested by this paper and the experimental analysis on the system components eventually proves to assist in complete and rapid combustion of the fuel in the combustor module of the engine. Current propulsion systems use carburetors, atomization nozzles and apertures in air intake pipes for atomization. The idea of this paper is to deploy new age hybrid technology, namely the Ultrasound Field Effect (UFE) to effectively atomize fuel before it enters the combustion chamber, as a viable and effective method to increase efficiency and improve upon existing designs. The Ultrasound Field Effect is applied axially, on diametrically opposite ends of an atomizer tube that gloves onto the combustor nozzle, where the fuel enters and exits under a pre-defined pressure. The Ultrasound energy vibrates the fuel particles to a breakup frequency. At reaching this frequency, the fuel particles start disintegrating into smaller diameter particles perpendicular to the axis of application of the field from the parent boundary layer of fuel flow over the baseplate. These broken up fuel droplets then undergo swirling effect as per the original nozzle design, with a higher breakup ratio than before. A significant reduction of the size of fuel particles eventually results in an increment in the propulsive efficiency of the engine. Moreover, the Ultrasound atomizer operates within a control frequency such that effects of overheating and induced vibrations are least felt on the overall performance of the engine. The design of an electrical manifold for the multiple-nozzle system over a typical can-annular combustor is developed along with this study, such that the product can be installed and removed easily for maintenance and repairing, can allow for easy access for inspections and transmits least amount of vibrational energy to the surface of the combustor. Since near-field ultrasound is used, the vibrations are easily controlled, thereby successfully reducing vibrations on the outer shell of the combustor. Experimental analysis is carried out on the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on flowing jet turbine fuel using an ultrasound generator probe and results of an effective decrease in droplet size across a constant diameter, away from the boundary layer of flow is noted using visual aid by observing under ultraviolet light. The choice of material for the Ultrasound inducer tube and crystal along with the operating range of temperatures, pressures, and frequencies of the Ultrasound field effect are also studied in this paper, while taking into account the losses incurred due to constant vibrations and thermal loads on the tube surface.

Keywords: atomization, ultrasound field effect, titanium mesh, breakup frequency, parent boundary layer, baseplate, propulsive efficiency, jet turbine fuel, induced vibrations

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1 Septic Pulmonary Emboli as a Complication of Peripheral Venous Cannula Insertion

Authors: Ankita Baidya, Vanishri Ganakumar, Ranveer S. Jadon, Piyush Ranjan, Rita Sood


Septic embolism can have varied presentations and clinical considerations. Infected central venous catheters are commonly associated with septic emboli but peripheral vascular catheters are rarely implicated. We describe a rare case of septic pulmonary emboli related to infected peripheral venous cannulation caused by an unusual etiological agent. A young male presented with complaints of fever, productive cough, sudden onset shortness of breath and cellulitis in both the upper limbs. He was recently hospitalised for dengue fever and administered intravenous fluids through peripheral venous line. The patient was febrile, tachypneic and in respiratory distress, there were multiple pus filled bullae in left hand alongwith swelling and erythema involving right forearm that started at the site of cannulation. Chest examination showed active accessory muscles of respiration, stony dull percussion at the base of right lung and decreased breath sounds at right infrascapular, infraaxillary and mammary area. Other system examination was within normal limits. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral multiple patchy heterogenous peripheral opacities and infiltrates with right-sided pleural effusion. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) chest showed feeding vessel sign confirming the diagnosis as septic emboli. Venous Doppler and 2D-echocardiogarm were normal. Laboratory findings showed marked leucocytosis (22000/mm3). Pus aspirate, blood sample, and sputum sample were sent for microbiological testing. The patient was started empirically on ceftriaxone, vancomycin, and clindamycin. The Pus culture and sputum culture showed Klebsiella pneumoniae sensitive to cefoperazone-sulbactum, piperacillin-tazobactum, meropenem and amikacin. The antibiotics were modified accordingly to antimicrobial sensitivity profile to Cefoperazone-sulbactum. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was done and sent for microbiological investigations. BAL culture showed Klebsiella pneumoniae with same antimicrobial resistance profile. On day 6 of starting cefoperazone-sulbactum, he became afebrile. The skin lesions improved significantly. He was administered 2 weeks of cefoperazone–sulbactum and discharged on oral faropenem for 4 weeks. At the time of discharge, TLC was 11200/mm3 with marked radiological resolution of infection and healed skin lesions. He was kept in regular follow up. Chest X-ray and skin lesions showed complete resolution after 8 weeks. Till date, only couple of case reports of septic emboli through peripheral intravenous line have been reported in English literature. This case highlights that a simple procedure of peripheral intravenous cannulation can lead to catastrophic complication of septic pulmonary emboli and widespread cellulitis if not done with proper care and precautions. Also, the usual pathogens in such clinical settings are gram positive bacteria, but with the history of recent hospitalization, empirical therapy should also cover drug resistant gram negative microorganisms. It also emphasise the importance of appropriate healthcare practices to be taken care during all procedures.

Keywords: antibiotics, cannula, Klebsiella pneumoniae, septic emboli

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