Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2290

Search results for: degree

2290 Weighted G2 Multi-Degree Reduction of Bezier Curves

Authors: Salisu ibrahim, Abdalla Rababah


In this research, we use Weighted G2-Multi-degree reduction of Bezier curve of degree n to a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. The degree reduction of Bezier curves is used to represent a given Bezier curve of n by a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. Exact degree reduction is not possible, and degree reduction is approximate process in nature. We derive a weighted degree reducing method that is geometrically continuous at the end points. Different norms will be considered, several error minimizations will be given. The proposed methods produce error function that are less than the errors of existing methods.

Keywords: Bezier curves, multiple degree reduction, geometric continuity, error function

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
2289 On the Zeros of the Degree Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: S. R. Nayaka, Putta Swamy


Graph polynomial is one of the algebraic representations of the Graph. The degree polynomial is one of the simple algebraic representations of graphs. The degree polynomial of a graph G of order n is the polynomial Deg(G, x) with the coefficients deg(G,i) where deg(G,i) denotes the number of vertices of degree i in G. In this article, we investigate the behavior of the roots of some families of Graphs in the complex field. We investigate for the graphs having only integral roots. Further, we characterize the graphs having single roots or having real roots and behavior of the polynomial at the particular value is also obtained.

Keywords: degree polynomial, regular graph, minimum and maximum degree, graph operations

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
2288 The Vertex Degree Distance of One Vertex Union of the Cycle and the Star

Authors: Ying Wang, Haiyan Xie, Aoming Zhang


The degree distance of a graph is a graph invariant that is more sensitive than the Wiener index. In this paper, we calculate the vertex degree distances of one vertex union of the cycle and the star, and the degree distance of one vertex union of the cycle and the star. These results lay a foundation for further study on the extreme value of the vertex degree distances, and the distribution of the vertices with the extreme value in one vertex union of the cycle and the star.

Keywords: degree distance, vertex-degree-distance, one vertex union of a cycle and a star, graph

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2287 The Effect of Phonetics Factors in Interpretation of Japanese Degree Adverbs

Authors: Yan Lyu


Japanese degree adverbs can be explained in different ways, which is hard for Japanese learners to comprehend. For instance, when ‘tyotto’ is used as a degree word, it can be interpreted literally or not. In the sentence ‘Ano mise, tyotto oishi yo. zehi iku to ii yo.’, ‘tyotto’ can be interpreted as a high degree contextually. Despite pragmatic factors, phonetics factors can also affect the interpretation of such ‘tyotto’. Concentrating on the pattern of ‘tyotto +adjective’, the paper aims to investigate the correlation between the interpretation of ‘tyotto’ and the phonetic factors in some specific contexts based on a listening experiment via PRAAT. It is also investigated that how the phonetic factors affect the interpretation of high degree adverbs, including ‘soutou’ , ‘totemo’ , ‘kanari’ and ‘sugoku’. In the experiment, Japanese speakers listened to sentences which were composed of degree adverbs and adjectives in different intonations and judged which degree the sentences expressed. Two conclusions can be drawn from the experiment results. Firstly, for adverbs expressing a high degree, in the pattern of ‘degree adverb + adjective’, either degree adverb or adjective is pronounced in a higher pitch, or both are highly pronounced, a higher degree can be expressed. Besides, with the insertion of geminate consonant and the extension of the vowel, the longer the duration of the degree adverb becomes, the higher degree can be expressed. Secondly, for ‘tyotto’, which expresses a low degree, the interpretation will be influenced by both phonetic and contextual factors. Phonetically, there are three factors causing ‘tyotto’ to be interpreted as a common degree or a high degree. The three factors are the high pitch of the modified adjective, the extended silence period of the geminate consonant and the change in the intonations of ‘tyotto’. In some contexts just like the comparison sentences, no matter how ‘tyotto + adjective’ is pronounced, ‘tyotto’ tends to be interpreted as a low degree literally.

Keywords: contextual interpretation, Japanese degree adverbs, phonetic interpretation, PRAAT

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2286 Evaluating the Topsoil and Subsoil Physical Quality Using Relative Bulk Density in Urmia Plain

Authors: Hossein Asgarzadeh, Ayoub Osmani, Farrokh Asadzadeh, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi


This study was conducted to evaluate the topsoil and subsoil physical quality using relative bulk density (RBD) in Urmia plain in Iran. Undisturbed samples were collected from two layers (topsoil and subsoil) of thirty agricultural soils. Categories of 0.72 ≥ RBD (low degree of compactness), 0.82 > RBD > 0.72 (moderate/optimum degree of compactness), and RBD ≥ 0.82 (high degree of compactness) were used to evaluate soil physical quality (SPQ). Two topsoils had a low degree of compactness, fourteen topsoils had an optimum degree of compactness, and the rest (i.e., fourteen topsoils) had a high degree of compactness. Only one subsoil had an optimum degree of compactness, and twenty-eight subsoils (i.e., 93%) had a high degree of compactness, indicating poor SPQ of the subsoil layer in the studied region. It seems that conventional tillage in the past decades destroyed the pore system in the majority of studied subsoils. The high degree of compactness would reduce soil aeration and increase soil penetration resistance which could restrict root and plant growth. Conversely, a low degree of soil compactness is expected to reduce the root-soil contact.

Keywords: compactness, relative bulk density, soil physical quality

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2285 Increasing the Apparent Time Resolution of Tc-99m Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin Dynamic SPECT by Use of an 180-Degree Interpolation Method

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Maya Yamashita, Kyoko Saito


In general, dynamic SPECT data acquisition needs a few minutes for one rotation. Thus, the time-activity curve (TAC) derived from the dynamic SPECT is relatively coarse. In order to effectively shorten the interval, between data points, we adopted a 180-degree interpolation method. This method is already used for reconstruction of the X-ray CT data. In this study, we applied this 180-degree interpolation method to SPECT and investigated its effectiveness.To briefly describe the 180-degree interpolation method: the 180-degree data in the second half of one rotation are combined with the 180-degree data in the first half of the next rotation to generate a 360-degree data set appropriate for the time halfway between the first and second rotations. In both a phantom and a patient study, the data points from the interpolated images fell in good agreement with the data points tracking the accumulation of 99mTc activity over time for appropriate region of interest. We conclude that data derived from interpolated images improves the apparent time resolution of dynamic SPECT.

Keywords: dynamic SPECT, time resolution, 180-degree interpolation method, 99mTc-GSA.

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2284 Levels of Anxiety during the 1st Stage of Labour, Respectively Cervical Effacement

Authors: Shpresa Agani, Nysret Agani


Studies have found that women, during the 1st stage of labour, respectively cervical effacement, experience anxiety. This study aims to measure the degree of anxiety during cervical effacement, using Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) for measuring anxiety symptoms (HSCL-25). A randomized prospective study with 300 women during the 1st stage of labour was conducted where cervical effacement percentage in parallel with the symptoms of anxiety was examined. Anxiety degree levels were examined by HSCL-25. Results showed that 81% were primiparous, while 19% were multiparous. All participants experienced anxiety symptoms, and the degree of anxiety depended on the stage of the birth process. Groups-based modeling according to HSCL- 2 identified three distinct groups of anxiety symptoms: group 1 (low degree, 32 cases or 11%), group 2 (mild degree, 186 cases or 62%), and group 3 (high degree, 82 cases or 27%). Depending on the percentage of cervical effacement, the anxiety degree increased. In a cervical effacement of 0-60-%, 125 cases or 41.6% had symptoms of anxiety, while in a cervical effacement of 60-100%, 174 cases or 58.4% had symptoms of anxiety (Chi-Square X2 (4,N=300)=10.755, p=0.02). This study showed a correlation between cervical effacement and the degree of anxiety. Further, it was found that the majority of participants experienced symptoms of anxiety during the cervical effacement process. The degree of anxiety increased in direct proportion to the degree of the cervical effacement process. The higher the percentage of cervical effacement, the higher the degree of anxiety. A continuing assessment of the psychological well-being of women throughout the birth process.

Keywords: anxiety, cervical effacement, pregnancy, HSCL-25

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2283 Degree in Translation and Years of Professional Experience: Predictors of Translation Quality

Authors: Mohsen Varzande


Translators’ professional and academic characteristics may directly influence their translation quality. The present study aimed at investigating whether translators’ degree in translation and years of professional experience predict their translation quality. Following a causal-comparative study, a sample of one hundred professional translators was selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups each containing individuals with and without a degree in translation, respectively. The participants were asked to translate a paragraph to assess their translation quality. For data analysis, appropriate statistical procedures including correlation and regression were used. Results showed that both degree in translation and years of professional experience significantly predict translation quality. Also, the interaction of translators’ years of professional experience and degree in translation significantly affect their translation quality. An implication could be that besides providing translators with academic knowledge and theories, practical training in translation is necessary as a prerequisite for a competent translator.

Keywords: translation, degree in translation, translation quality, professional experience

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
2282 A Problem with IFOC and a New PWM Based 180 Degree Conduction Mode

Authors: Usman Nasir, Minxiao Han, S. M. R. Kazmi


Three phase inverters being used today are based on field orientation control (FOC) and sine wave PWM (SPWM) techniques because 120 degree or 180 degree conduction methods produce high value of THD (total harmonic distortion) in the power system. The indirect field orientation control (IFOC) method is difficult to implement in real systems due to speed sensor accuracy issue. This paper discusses the problem with IFOC and a PWM based 180 degree conduction mode for the three phase inverter. The modified control method improves THD and this paper also compares the results obtained using modified control method with the conventional 180 degree conduction mode.

Keywords: three phase inverters, IFOC, THD, sine wave PWM (SPWM)

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2281 Synthesis of the Robust Regulators on the Basis of the Criterion of the Maximum Stability Degree

Authors: S. A. Gayvoronsky, T. A. Ezangina


The robust control system objects with interval-undermined parameters is considers in this paper. Initial information about the system is its characteristic polynomial with interval coefficients. On the basis of coefficient estimations of quality indices and criterion of the maximum stability degree, the methods of synthesis of a robust regulator parametric is developed. The example of the robust stabilization system synthesis of the rope tension is given in this article.

Keywords: interval polynomial, controller synthesis, analysis of quality factors, maximum degree of stability, robust degree of stability, robust oscillation, system accuracy

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2280 Similarity Based Membership of Elements to Uncertain Concept in Information System

Authors: M. Kamel El-Sayed


The process of determining the degree of membership for an element to an uncertain concept has been found in many ways, using equivalence and symmetry relations in information systems. In the case of similarity, these methods did not take into account the degree of symmetry between elements. In this paper, we use a new definition for finding the membership based on the degree of symmetry. We provide an example to clarify the suggested methods and compare it with previous methods. This method opens the door to more accurate decisions in information systems.

Keywords: information system, uncertain concept, membership function, similarity relation, degree of similarity

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2279 The Availability Degree of Transformational Leadership Dimensions among Heads of Scientific Departments in the Education Faculty at King Saud University

Authors: Yahya Al-Gabri


This study aimed to identify the availability degree of transformational leadership dimensions among heads of scientific departments in the Education Faculty at King Saud University. It also aimed to identify the degree of opinions divergence of the study sample on the availability degree of transformational leadership dimensions among the department heads according to the variable of scientific rank. The researcher used the descriptive approach. The study sample consisted of (34) members of education faculty which chosen randomly. To collect the data, the researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of (47) items distributed on four areas after ensuring validity and reliability. Results showed that the degree of practicing the dimensions of transformational leadership by the heads of scientific departments was medium and the mean was (3.21). The dimension of Individualized consideration came first and had a high degree of availability with a mean of (3.31) and the dimension of idealized influence came secondly and had a medium degree (near of high) of availability with a mean of (3.25), also and the dimension of inspirational motivation came thirdly and had a medium degree of availability with a mean of (3.16), whereas the dimension of intellectual stimulation came finally and had a medium degree of availability with a mean of (3.13). The study also showed that there are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05) in the availability degree of transformational leadership dimensions among the heads of scientific departments at the Faculty of Education according to the scientific rank variable. Finally, the researcher made a number of recommendations and suggestions.

Keywords: transformational leadership, heads of scientific departments, individualized consideration, idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation

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2278 Degree of Approximation of Functions by Product Means

Authors: Hare Krishna Nigam


In this paper, for the first time, (E,q)(C,2) product summability method is introduced and two quite new results on degree of approximation of the function f belonging to Lip (alpha,r)class and W(L(r), xi(t)) class by (E,q)(C,2) product means of Fourier series, has been obtained.

Keywords: Degree of approximation, (E, q)(C, 2) means, Fourier series, Lebesgue integral, Lip (alpha, r)class, W(L(r), xi(t))class of functions

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2277 Degree of Approximation by the (T.E^1) Means of Conjugate Fourier Series in the Hölder Metric

Authors: Kejal Khatri, Vishnu Narayan Mishra


We compute the degree of approximation of functions\tilde{f}\in H_w, a new Banach space using (T.E^1) summability means of conjugate Fourier series. In this paper, we extend the results of Singh and Mahajan which in turn generalizes the result of Lal and Yadav. Some corollaries have also been deduced from our main theorem and particular cases.

Keywords: conjugate Fourier series, degree of approximation, Hölder metric, matrix summability, product summability

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2276 Assessment of Master's Program in Technology

Authors: Niaz Latif, Joy L. Colwell


Following implementation of a master’s level graduate degree program in technology, a research-based assessment of the program was undertaken to determine how well the program met its goals and objectives, and the impact of the degree program on the objectives and the needs of its graduates. Upon review of the survey data, it was concluded that the program was meeting its goals and objectives and that the directed project option should be encouraged.

Keywords: master’s degree, graduate program, assessment, master's program in technology

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2275 A Study of Curriculum for a Dual Bachelor’s Degree Including a Teaching Certificate

Authors: Hyeon Seok Kim, Inhoi Lee, Seong Baeg Kim, Kyunghee Ko, Kyung Eon Lee, Dong Sik Kang


In the age of globalization, higher education institutions attempt to equip students with global competence. In response, most universities have been developing and running various international programs. However, teacher education has been a neglected area in this trend. Therefore, in this study, we suggest a program that offers a dual bachelor’s degree from both universities located on different countries, focusing on teacher education institutions with different policies and regulations of teacher education programs that may become obstacles to designing a dual degree program. We discuss a possible way to get a dual degree including a teaching certificate at a specialized college, college of secondary education. To be specific, this research presents a way to attain two diplomas from Jeju National University (JNU) in Korea and Boise State University (BSU) in the U.S. It attempts to build an effective plan for students to declare simultaneous degrees at both universities. From the study, we find that it takes about 5 years to fulfill requirements for the dual degree at the undergraduate level.

Keywords: dual degree, curriculum, teaching certificate, college of secondary education, international program

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2274 Study on the Carboxymethylation of Glucomannan from Porang

Authors: Fadilah Fadilah, Sperisa Distantina, Santi T. Wijayanti, Rahmawati Andayani


Chemical modification process on glucomannan from porang via carboxymethylation have been conducted. The process was done in two stages, the alkalization, and the carboxymethylation. The alkalization was done by adding NaOH solution into the medium which was contained glucomannan and then stirred it in ambient temperature for thirty minutes. The carboxymethylation process was done by adding sodium mono chloroacetate solution into the alkalization product. The carboxymethylation process was conducted for a certain time, and the product was then analyzed for determining the degree of substitution. In this research, the influence of medium to the degree of substitution was studied. Three different medium were used, namely water, 70% ethanol, and 90% ethanol. The results show that 70% ethanol was a better medium than two others because give a higher degree of substitution. Using 70% ethanol as a medium, the experiments for studying the influence of temperature on the carboxymethylation stages were conducted. The results show that the degree of substitution at 65°C is higher than at 45°C.

Keywords: carboxymethylation, degree of substitution, ethanol medium, glucomannan

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2273 The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils Around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan, K. V. Grigoryan


The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz, Armenia was aessessed. The results of the study showed that heavy metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump. The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.

Keywords: Armenia, Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine, soil, heavy metal pollution degree

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2272 Thoughts on the Degree of Openness for Opening Residential District from the Perspective of Landscape Design

Authors: Yajing Jiang, Jing Wu, Siyu Bu


The development of opening residential district is the inevitable trend in China. The landscape resources in opening districts are the main resource for their sharing. However, there is a certain contradiction between the ideal of urban development and the reality of constraints. How to find a balance, to ensure a reasonable open ‘degree’ is particularly important. The opening residential district landscape design should reflect the relative independence of living space, taking into account the basic needs of residents; but also the integration of space, resource sharing, to ensure that the order of daily life on the basis of social interaction and adapt to the dynamic development of the city changes. And ultimately to achieve a reasonable degree of openness to settlements.

Keywords: degree of openness, landscape design, opening residential district, urban design

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2271 The Clinical Manifestations of Myocardial Bridging in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Alexey Yu. Martynov, Sulejman Bayramov


Introduction: The myocardial bridging is the most common anomaly of the coronary arteries (CA). Depending on the examination method, the frequency of detected myocardial bridges (MB) varies in a rather wide range. The typical clinical manifestations of MB are angina pectoris, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death. Objective: To study the incidence of MB in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). To assess clinical manifestations of MB in patients admitted with CAD. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 19159 case histories of patients admitted at clinical city hospital in Moscow from 01.01.2018 to 31.12 2019 with CAD was performed. 9384 patients’ coronary angiographies (CAG) were examined for MB. The localization of MB, the degree of coronary contraction by MB, the number of MB, isolated MB and combined with CAD were assessed. The clinical manifestations of MB were determined. Results: MB was detected in 52 patients all with one myocardial bridge. 20 patients with MB have intact CA, and 32 patients have MB combined with CAD. Among 20 patients with intact CA: I degree of MB contraction (up to 50%) was detected in 9 patients. Clinical manifestations in five cases were angina pectoris, in 3 myocardial infarction (MI) - 1 patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), 2 without ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI), 1 post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS). Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, vasospastic angina (VSA) in 1 patient. II degree of MB contraction (up to 50-70%) was determined in 9 patients: in seven cases angina pectoris was detected, 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, VSA in 3 patients. III degree of MB contraction (> 70%) detected in 2 patients. II FC stable angina in one case, PICS in another. Among 32 patients having MB combined with CAD I degree of MB contraction was observed in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations in 12 cases were angina pectoris in 8 II FC and in 4 III FC, 7 MI 6 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. II degree of MB contraction was detected in 7 patients, 4 of them had angina pectoris, 3 MI 2 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI. Stable angina II FC in 3, VSA in 1 patients. III degree of MB contraction was diagnosed in five patients. In two cases, II FC and III FC stable angina were observed, 2 MI with STEMI and NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Conclusions: MB incidence is one in 368 patients with CAD. The most common involvement (68%) is MB combined with CA atherosclerotic lesions. MB with intact CA are detected in one-third (32%) of patients. The first-degree MB contraction is most frequent condition. MI is more often detected in intact CA with first degree MB than in the second degree. The degree of MB contraction was not correlated with the severity of the clinical manifestations.

Keywords: clinical manifestations, coronary angiography, coronary artery disease, myocardial bridging, myocardial infarction, stable angina

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2270 Degree of Hydrolysis of Proteinaceous Components of Porang Flour Using Papain

Authors: Fadilah Fadilah, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Siti Syamsiah, Djagal W. Marseno


Glucomannan can be found in the tuber of porang together with starch and proteinaceous components which were regarded as impurities. An enzymatic process for obtaining higher glucomannan content from Porang flour have been conducted. Papain was used for hydrolysing proteinaceous components in Porang flour which was conducted after a simultaneous extraction of glucomannan and enzymatic starch hydrolysis. Three variables affecting the rate were studied, i.e. temperature, the amount of enzyme and the stirring speed. The ninhydrin method was used to determine degree of protein hydrolysis. Results showed that the rising of degree of hydrolysis were fast in the first ten minutes of the reaction and then proceeded slowly afterward. The optimum temperature for hydrolysis was 60 oC. Increasing the amount of enzyme showed a remarkable effect to degree of hydrolysis, but the stirring speed had no significant effect. This indicated that the reaction controlled the rate of hydrolysis.

Keywords: degree of hydrolysis, ninhydrin, papain, porang flour, proteinaceous components

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2269 Complex Rigid-Plastic Deformation Model of Tow Degree of Freedom Mechanical System under Impulsive Force

Authors: Abdelouaheb Rouabhi


In order to study the plastic resource of structures, the elastic-plastic single degree of freedom model described by Prandtl diagram is widely used. The generalization of this model to tow degree of freedom beyond the scope of a simple rigid-plastic system allows investigating the plastic resource of structures under complex disproportionate by individual components of deformation (earthquake). This macro-model greatly increases the accuracy of the calculations carried out. At the same time, the implementation of the proposed macro-model calculations easier than the detailed dynamic elastic-plastic calculations existing software systems such as ANSYS.

Keywords: elastic-plastic, single degree of freedom model, rigid-plastic system, plastic resource, complex plastic deformation, macro-model

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2268 The Bernstein Expansion for Exponentials in Taylor Functions: Approximation of Fixed Points

Authors: Tareq Hamadneh, Jochen Merker, Hassan Al-Zoubi


Bernstein's expansion for exponentials in Taylor functions provides lower and upper optimization values for the range of its original function. these values converge to the original functions if the degree is elevated or the domain subdivided. Taylor polynomial can be applied so that the exponential is a polynomial of finite degree over a given domain. Bernstein's basis has two main properties: its sum equals 1, and positive for all x 2 (0; 1). In this work, we prove the existence of fixed points for exponential functions in a given domain using the optimization values of Bernstein. The Bernstein basis of finite degree T over a domain D is defined non-negatively. Any polynomial p of degree t can be expanded into the Bernstein form of maximum degree t ≤ T, where we only need to compute the coefficients of Bernstein in order to optimize the original polynomial. The main property is that p(x) is approximated by the minimum and maximum Bernstein coefficients (Bernstein bound). If the bound is contained in the given domain, then we say that p(x) has fixed points in the same domain.

Keywords: Bernstein polynomials, Stability of control functions, numerical optimization, Taylor function

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2267 Swelling Behaviour of Kappa Carrageenan Hydrogel in Neutral Salt Solution

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina


Hydrogel films were prepared from kappa carrageenan by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Carrageenan films extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed were immersed in glutaraldehyde solution for 2 min and then cured at 110 °C for 25 min. The obtained crosslinked films were washed with ethanol to remove the unreacted glutaraldehyde and then air dried to constant weights. The aim of this research was to study the swelling degree behaviour of the hydrogel film to neutral salts solution, namely NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2. The results showed that swelling degree of crosslinked films varied non-monotonically with salinity of NaCl. Swelling degree decreased with the increasing of KCl concentration. Swelling degree of crosslinked film in CaCl2 solution was lower than that in NaCl and in KCl solutions.

Keywords: carrageenan, hydrogel, glutaraldehyde, salt, swelling

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2266 Comparison of Depth of Cure and Degree of Conversion between Opus Bulk Fill and X-Tra Fill Bulk Fill Composites

Authors: Yasaman Samani, Ali Golmohammadi


Introduction: The degree of conversion and depth of cure affects the clinical success of resin composite restorations directly. One of the main challenges in achieving a successful composite restoration is the achievement of sufficient depth of cure. The insufficient polymerization may lead to a decrease in the physical/mechanical and biological properties of resin composites and, as a result of that, unsuccessful composite restoration. Thus, because of the importance of studying and evaluating the depth of cure and degree of conversion in bulk-fill composites, we decided to evaluate and compare the degree of conversion and depth of cure in two bulk-fill composites; x-tra fill (Voco, Germany) and Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil). Materials and Methods: Composite resin specimens (n=10) per group were prepared as cylinder blocks (4×8 mm) with bulk-fill composites, x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) designated as Group A, and Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil) designated as Group B. Depth of cure was determined according to “ISO 4049; Depth of Cure” method, In which each specimen were cured (iLED, Woodpecker, China) 40 seconds and FTIR spectroscopy method was used to estimate the degree of conversion of both the bulk-fill composites. The degree of conversion of monomer to polymer was estimated individually in the coronal half (Group A1 and B1) and pulpal half (Group A2 and Group B2) by dividing each specimen into two halves. The data were analyzed using a Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA at a 5% level of significance. Results: The mean depth of cure in x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) was 3.99 (±0.16), and for Opus Bulk fill, APS (FGM, Brazil) was 2.14 (±0.3). The degree of conversion percentage in Group A1 was 82.7 (±6.1), in group A2 was 73.4 (±5.2), in group B1 was 63.3 (±4.7) and in Group B2 was 56.5 (±7.7). Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the depth of cure between the two bulk-fill composites with x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) higher than Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil) (P<0.001). The degree of conversion percentage also showed a significant difference, Group A1 being higher than A2 (P=0.0085), B1, and B2 (P<0.001). Group A2 was also higher than B1 (P=0.003) and B2 (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between B1 and B2 (P=0.072). Conclusion: The results indicate that x-tra fill has more depth of cure and a higher percentage of the degree of conversion than Opus Bulk fill APS. The coronal half of x-tra fil had the highest depth of cure percentage (82.66%), and the pulpal half of Opus Bulk fill APS had the lowest percentage (56.45%). Even though both bulk-fill composite materials had an acceptable degree of conversion (55% and higher), x-tra fill has shown better results.

Keywords: depth of cure, degree of conversion, bulk-fill composite, FTIR

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2265 Network Coding with Buffer Scheme in Multicast for Broadband Wireless Network

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy


Broadband Wireless Network (BWN) is the promising technology nowadays due to the increased number of smartphones. Buffering scheme using network coding considers the reliability and proper degree distribution in Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) multi-hop network. Using network coding, a secure way of transmission is performed which helps in improving throughput and reduces the packet loss in the multicast network. At the outset, improved network coding is proposed in multicast wireless mesh network. Considering the problem of performance overhead, degree distribution makes a decision while performing buffer in the encoding / decoding process. Consequently, BuS (Buffer Scheme) based on network coding is proposed in the multi-hop network. Here the encoding process introduces buffer for temporary storage to transmit packets with proper degree distribution. The simulation results depend on the number of packets received in the encoding/decoding with proper degree distribution using buffering scheme.

Keywords: encoding and decoding, buffer, network coding, degree distribution, broadband wireless networks, multicast

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2264 Study of Microstructure of Weldment Obtained by Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) on IS 2062 Grade B Mild Steel Plate at Zero Degree Celsius

Authors: Ajay Biswas, Swapan Bhaumik, Abhijit Bhowmik


Present experiment has been carried out to study the microstructure of weldment obtained by submerged arc welding on mild steel plate at zero degree Celsius. To study this, bead on plate welding is done by submerged arc welding on the sample plate of heavy duty mild steel of designation IS 2062 grade B, fitted on the special fixture ensuring the plate temperature at zero degree Celsius. Sixteen numbers of such samples are welded by varying the most influencing parameters viz. travel speed, voltage, wire feed rate and electrode stick-out at four different levels. Taguchi’s design of experiment is applied by selecting Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array to restrict the number of experimental runs. Cross sectioned samples are polished and etched to view the weldment. Finally, different zone of the weldment is observed by optical microscope. From the type of microstructure of weldment it is concluded that submerged arc welding is feasible at zero degree Celsius on mild steel plate.

Keywords: Submerged Arc Welding, zero degree Celsius, Taguchi’s design of experiment, microstructure of weldment

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2263 Challenges Associated with Recruitment of Professional Doctorate Degree Holders into Ghanaian Universities

Authors: Joseph E. Cobbinah, Abigail A. Aryeh-Adjei


Over the years, entry into the academia in any Ghanaian university requires an advanced research degree, more preferably traditional doctorate (PhD or DPhil). It is however argued that PhD is more research intensive, so since university teaching involves a lot of research, those having traditional doctorate have good research background to teach in a university and are thus recruited as lecturers. However, in the last ten years, a reasonable number of academics enter Ghanaian universities with professional doctorate degrees, which hitherto was considered to be only suitable for industry, because it gives individuals with just basic research skills needed for professional practice, unlike the traditional PhD which is research intensive degree. Currently, there are a reasonable number of professional doctorate degree holders with qualifications like DBA, EdD, PsychD, DPharm, EngD, among others in various departments in many Ghanaian universities. Maybe, because such degree holders also use the title Dr, some university authorities put them at par with their counterparts with traditional doctorate, although some lecturers with PhD seem to look down upon those with traditional doctorate degrees and this has created some tension amongst those academics. This makes their promotions and holding of university academic positions very problematic in some ways. This paper therefore seeks to investigate the types of professional doctorate degree holders working as lecturers in some selected universities in Ghana and the challenges associated with their recruitment, acceptability and proper integration into universities’ teaching and learning. The paper adopted qualitative research methodology. In all, respondents from three state-owned and privately owned universities were involved in the study. Administrators, lecturers, heads of departments and deans of faculty were interviewed to assess the challenges associated with the recruitment of professional doctorate degree holders and any problems they face in the departments they work. It became evident that, although some lecturers enter the academia with professional doctorate degrees, their counterparts seem not to give them the recognition and respect they deserve. Although there is little or no evidence that professional doctorate degree holders are under performing, recruiting professional doctorate degree holders does not only become a challenge, but also their progression into the university’s promotion ladder become very slow compared to their counterparts with traditional PhD degrees.

Keywords: professional doctorate, academia, lecturers, Ghanaian universities, orate

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2262 Overview of the CRM Market in Tunisia

Authors: Mohamed Amine Bouraoui


The aim of this paper is to realize the importance of a CRM approach, to detect the degree of awareness of Tunisian managers of this importance and analyse the degree of integration of CRM in the Tunisian companies. Initially, we focus on the definition and components of CRM, then we focus on the level of integration of CRM within Tunisian enterprises.

Keywords: CRM, operational tools, analytical tools, Tunisian company

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2261 Human-Induced Vibration and Degree of Human Comfortability Analysis of Intersection Pedestrian Bridge

Authors: Yaowen Sheng, Jiuxian Liu


In order to analyze the pedestrian bridge dynamic characteristics and degree of comfortability, the finite element method and live load time history method is used to calculate the dynamic response of the bridge. The example bridge’s dynamic characteristics and degree of human comfortability need to be analyzed. The project background is a three-way intersection. The intersection has three side blocks. An intersection bridge is designed to help people cross the streets. The finite element model of the bridge is established by the Midas/Civil software, and the analysis of the model is done. The strength, stiffness, and stability checks are also completed. Apart from the static analysis of the bridge, the dynamic analysis of the bridge is also completed to avoid the problems resulted from vibrations. The results show that the pedestrian bridge has different dynamic characteristics compared to other normal bridges. The degree of human comfortability satisfies the requirements of Chinese and British specifications. The live load time history method can be used to calculate the dynamic response of the bridge.

Keywords: pedestrian bridge, steel box girder, human-induced vibration, finite element analysis, degree of human comfortability

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