Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2635

Search results for: master’s degree

2635 Assessment of Master's Program in Technology

Authors: Niaz Latif, Joy L. Colwell


Following implementation of a master’s level graduate degree program in technology, a research-based assessment of the program was undertaken to determine how well the program met its goals and objectives, and the impact of the degree program on the objectives and the needs of its graduates. Upon review of the survey data, it was concluded that the program was meeting its goals and objectives and that the directed project option should be encouraged.

Keywords: master’s degree, graduate program, assessment, master's program in technology

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2634 Assessment of Educational Service Quality at Master's Level in an Iranian University Using Based on HEdPERF Model

Authors: Faranak Omidian


The aim of this research was to examine the quality of education service at master's level in the Islamic Azad University of Dezful. In terms of objective, this is an applied research and in regard to methodology, it is a descriptive analytical research. The statistical population included all students of master's degree in the Islamic Azad University of Dezful. The sample size was determined using stratified random sampling method in different fields of study. The research questionnaire is the translated version of standardized Abdullah's HEdPERF 41-item scale which is based on a 5-point Likert scale. In order to determine the validity, the translated questionnaire was given to the professors of educational sciences. The correlation among all questions has been regarded at a value of 0.644. The results showed that the quality of educational service at master's level in this university, based on chi-square goodness of fit test, was equal to 73.36 and its degree of freedom was 2 at a significant level of 0.001, indicating the low desirability of the services. According to Friedman test, academic responsiveness has been reported to be in a higher status than other dimensions with an average rank of 3.94 while accessibility, with an average rank of 2.15, has been in the lowest status from master's students' viewpoint.

Keywords: educational service quality, master's level, Iranian university

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2633 The Meta–Evaluation of Master Degree Theses in Science Program of Evaluation Methodology, Srinakharinwirot University

Authors: Panwasn Mahalawalert


The objective of this study was to meta-evaluation of Master Degree theses in Science Program of Evaluation Methodology at Srinakharinwirot University, published during 2008-2011. This study was summative meta-evaluation that evaluated all theses of Master Degree in Science Program of Evaluation Methodology. Data were collected using the theses characteristics recording form and the evaluation meta-evaluation checklist. The collected data were analyzed by two parts: 1) Quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistics presented in frequency, percentages, mean, and standard deviation and 2) Qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis. The results of this study were found the theses characteristics was results revealed that most of theses were published in 2011. The largest group of theses researcher were female and were from the government office. The evaluation model of all theses were Decision-Oriented Evaluation Model. The objective of all theses were evaluate the project or curriculum. The most sampling technique were used the multistage random sampling technique. The most tool were used to gathering the data were questionnaires. All of the theses were analysed by descriptive statistics. The meta-evaluation results revealed that most of theses had fair on Utility Standards and Feasibility Standards, good on Propriety Standards and Accuracy Standards.

Keywords: meta-evaluation, evaluation, master degree theses, Srinakharinwirot University

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2632 A Development of Online Lessons to Strengthen the Learning Process of Master's Degree Students Majoring in Curriculum and Instruction at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Chaiwat Waree


The purposes of the research were to develop online lessons to strengthen the learning process of Master's degree students majoring in Curriculum and Instruction at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University; to achieve the efficiency criteria of 80/80; and to study the satisfaction of students who use online lessons to strengthen the learning process of Master’s degree students majoring in Curriculum and Instruction at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The sample consisted of 40 University students studying in semester 1, academic year 2012. The sample was determined by Purposive Sampling. Selected students were from the class which the researcher was the homeroom tutor. The tutor was responsible for the teaching of learning process. Tools used in the study were online lessons, 60-point performance test, and evaluation test of satisfaction of students on online lessons. Data analysis yielded the following results; 83.66/88.29 efficiency of online lessons measured against the criteria; the comparison of performance before and after taking online lessons using t-test yielded 29.67. The statistical significance was at 0.05; the average satisfaction level of forty students on online lessons was 4.46 with standard deviation of 0.68.

Keywords: online, lessons, curriculum, instruction

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2631 I²C Master-Slave Integration

Authors: Rozita Borhan, Lam Kien Sieng


This paper describes I²C Slave implementation using I²C master obtained from the OpenCores website. This website provides free Verilog and VHDL Codes to users. The design implementation for the I²C slave is in Verilog Language and uses EDA tools for ASIC design known as ModelSim from Mentor Graphic. This tool is used for simulation and verification purposes. Common application for this I²C Master-Slave integration is also included. This paper also addresses the advantages and limitations of the said design.

Keywords: I²C, master, OpenCores, slave, Verilog, verification

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2630 Weighted G2 Multi-Degree Reduction of Bezier Curves

Authors: Salisu ibrahim, Abdalla Rababah


In this research, we use Weighted G2-Multi-degree reduction of Bezier curve of degree n to a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. The degree reduction of Bezier curves is used to represent a given Bezier curve of n by a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. Exact degree reduction is not possible, and degree reduction is approximate process in nature. We derive a weighted degree reducing method that is geometrically continuous at the end points. Different norms will be considered, several error minimizations will be given. The proposed methods produce error function that are less than the errors of existing methods.

Keywords: Bezier curves, multiple degree reduction, geometric continuity, error function

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2629 Constructing Practices for Lifestyle Journalism Education

Authors: Lucia Vodanovic, Bryan Pirolli


The London College of Communication is one of the only universities in the world to offer a lifestyle journalism master’s degree. A hybrid originally constructed largely out of a generic journalism program crossed with numerous cultural studies approaches, the degree has developed into a leading lifestyle journalism education attracting students worldwide. This research project seeks to present a framework for structuring the degree as well as to understand how students in this emerging field of study value the program. While some researchers have addressed questions about journalism and higher education, none have looked specifically at the increasingly important genre of lifestyle journalism, which Folker Hanusch defines as including notions of consumerism and critique among other identifying traits. Lifestyle journalism, itself poorly researched by scholars, can relate to topics including travel, fitness, and entertainment, and as such, arguably a lifestyle journalism degree should prepare students to engage with these topics. This research uses the existing Masters of Arts and Lifestyle Journalism at the London College of Communications as a case study to examine the school’s approach. Furthering Hanusch’s original definition, this master’s program attempts to characterizes lifestyle journalism by a specific voice or approach, as reflected in the diversity of student’s final projects. This framework echoes the ethos and ideas of the university, which focuses on creativity, design, and experimentation. By analyzing the current degree as well as student feedback, this research aims to assist future educators in pursuing the often neglected field of lifestyle journalism. Through a discovery of the unique mix of practical coursework, theoretical lessons, and broad scope of student work presented in this degree program, researchers strive to develop a framework for lifestyle journalism education, referring to Mark Deuze’s ten questions for journalism education development. While Hanusch began the discussion to legitimize the study of lifestyle journalism, this project strives to go one step further and open up a discussion about teaching of lifestyle journalism at the university level.

Keywords: education, journalism, lifestyle, university

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2628 An Online Master's Degree Program for the Preparation of Adapted Physical Education Teachers for Children with Significant Developmental Disabilities

Authors: Jiabei Zhang


Online programs developed for preparing qualified teachers have significantly increased over the years in the United States of America (USA). However, no online graduate programs for training adapted physical education (APE) teachers for children with significant developmental disabilities are currently available in the USA. The purpose of this study was to develop an online master’s degree program for the preparation of APE teachers to serve children with significant developmental disabilities. The characteristics demonstrated by children with significant developmental disabilities, the competencies required for certified APE teachers, and the evidence-based positive behavioral interventions (PBI) documented for teaching children with significant developmental disabilities were fully reviewed in this study. An online graduate program with 14 courses for 42 credit hours (3 credit hours per course) was then developed for training APE teachers to serve children with significant developmental disabilities. Included in this online program are five components: (a) 2 capstone courses, (b) 4 APE courses, (c) 4 PBI course, (d) 2 elective courses, and (e) 2 capstone courses. All courses will be delivered online through Desire2Learn administered by the Extended University Programs at Western Michigan University (WMU). An applicant who has a bachelor’s degree in physical education or special education is eligible for this proposed program. A student enrolled in this program is expected to complete all courses in 2.5 years while staying in their local area. This program will be submitted to the WMU curriculum committee for approval in the fall of 2018.

Keywords: adapted physical education, online program, teacher preparation, and significant disabilities

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2627 Remote Wireless Communications Lab in Real Time

Authors: El Miloudi Djelloul


Technology nowadays enables the remote access to laboratory equipment and instruments via Internet. This is especially useful in engineering education, where students can conduct laboratory experiment remotely. Such remote laboratory access can enable student to use expensive laboratory equipment, which is not usually available to students. In this paper, we present a method of creating a Web-based Remote Laboratory Experimentation in the master degree course “Wireless Communications Systems” which is part of “ICS (Information and Communication Systems)” and “Investment Management in Telecommunications” curriculums. This is done within the RIPLECS Project and the NI2011 FF005 Research Project “Implementation of Project-Based Learning in an Interdisciplinary Master Program”.

Keywords: remote access, remote laboratory, wireless telecommunications, external antenna-switching controller board (EASCB)

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2626 Methods of Livable Goal-Oriented Master Urban Design: A Case Study on Zibo City

Authors: Xiaoping Zhang, Fengying Yan


The implementation of the 'Urban Design Management Measures' requires that the master urban design should aim at creating a livable urban space. However, to our best knowledge, the existing researches and practices of master urban design not only focus less on the livable space but also face a number of problems such as paying more attention to the image of the city, ignoring the people-oriented and lacking dynamic continuity. In order to make the master urban design can better guide the construction of city. Firstly, the paper proposes the livable city hierarchy system to meet the needs of different groups of people and then constructs the framework of livable goal-oriented master urban design based on the theory of livable content and the ideological origin of people-oriented. Secondly, the paper takes the master urban design practice of Zibo as a sample and puts forward the design strategy of strengthening the pattern, improve the quality of space, shape the feature, and establish a series of action plans based on the strategy of urban space development. Finally, the paper explores the method system of livable goal-oriented master urban design from the aspects of safety pattern, morphology pattern, neighborhood scale, open space, street space, public interface, style feature, public participation and action plans.

Keywords: livable, master urban design, public participation, zibo city

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2625 On the Zeros of the Degree Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: S. R. Nayaka, Putta Swamy


Graph polynomial is one of the algebraic representations of the Graph. The degree polynomial is one of the simple algebraic representations of graphs. The degree polynomial of a graph G of order n is the polynomial Deg(G, x) with the coefficients deg(G,i) where deg(G,i) denotes the number of vertices of degree i in G. In this article, we investigate the behavior of the roots of some families of Graphs in the complex field. We investigate for the graphs having only integral roots. Further, we characterize the graphs having single roots or having real roots and behavior of the polynomial at the particular value is also obtained.

Keywords: degree polynomial, regular graph, minimum and maximum degree, graph operations

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2624 The Vertex Degree Distance of One Vertex Union of the Cycle and the Star

Authors: Ying Wang, Haiyan Xie, Aoming Zhang


The degree distance of a graph is a graph invariant that is more sensitive than the Wiener index. In this paper, we calculate the vertex degree distances of one vertex union of the cycle and the star, and the degree distance of one vertex union of the cycle and the star. These results lay a foundation for further study on the extreme value of the vertex degree distances, and the distribution of the vertices with the extreme value in one vertex union of the cycle and the star.

Keywords: degree distance, vertex-degree-distance, one vertex union of a cycle and a star, graph

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2623 Master Di-Chiao: A Great Practitioner of Earth Store Bodhisattva's Compassion

Authors: Mei-Hsia Dai


Venerable Master Di-Chiao has been devoted all her life practicing the Earth Store Bodhisattva’s spirit and is one of the greatest masters in modern Buddhism. All Buddha and Bodhisattvas pay great respect to the Earth Store Bodhisattva because He vowed that He would not become Buddha until the hell is empty, and He would only achieve Bodhi until all sentient beings have been saved. The aim of this study is to investigate Venerable Master Di-Chiao, who actualizes the Buddha’s teaching and practices the Earth Store Bodhisattva’s compassion and apply them to help people. In fact, she has integrated her learning to teach people how to eliminate their karmic suffering with her close attention and full effort, even though she would be hurt all over or she had to sacrifice her own life. This qualitative research gathers data in terms of a field study, including an interview with Venerable Master Di-Chiao, a book about the Master and three books about true stories of people saved by the Master, and about 300 online feedbacks from her disciples and followers explaining how they were helped by the Master through their difficulties, together with a year-long observation at the Dharma services held in Taipei Di-Zang Temple. This article is divided into four parts: The first part depicts Master Di-Chiao’s original intent of being a nun and her three-step-one-bow pilgrimage experience around Taiwan. Part two illustrates the invitation of the Master’s being the Abbess of Tsiang-Te Temple, which was designated by Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara in a manager’s dream of the temple, and many unexpected difficulties ahead of the cultivation in the Master’s Buddha Path. In addition to maintenance of Tsiang-Te Temple, the third part will discuss the purpose of founding Taipei Di-Zang Temple, in which the Master always tries her best with various methods to cultivate good seeds for her disciples and followers and watches out for their karma and does her utmost effort to help them overcome it. The final part will briefly explain the Three Buddhalization: Buddhist wedding, Buddhist prenatal education and Buddhist family, which the Master has been advocating and considers them the essence of constructing a harmonious society and having a meaningful and enlightening life. Extraordinary results of practicing the Three Buddhalization will be given. Findings show that Master’s Di-Chiao’s actualization of Buddha’s teaching and Bodhisattva’s compassion is incredibly amazing and powerful, and she has helped countless people to conquer their difficulties and purify their evil habits. With the Master’s assistance and their hardworking and faith to the Master’s teaching, some of her disciples and followers have gone to the Maitreya Inside Realm, where the future Buddha has resided, and continue their cultivation. True stories will be presented to illuminate the incredibility of the Master’s compassion, her brevity and perseverance in the course of the Buddhahood. Venerable Master Di-Chiao is the embodiment of the Earth Store Bodhisattva for her disciples and followers.

Keywords: compassion, the Earth Store Bodhisattva, three Buddhalization, venerable Master Di-Chiao

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2622 The Development of Micro Patterns Using Benchtop Lithography for Marine Antifouling Applications

Authors: Felicia Wong Yen Myan, James Walker


Development of micro topographies usually begins with the fabrication of a master stamp. Fabrication of such small structures can be technically challenging and expensive. These techniques are often used for applications where patterns only cover a small surface area (e.g. semiconductors, microfluidic channels). This research investigated the use of benchtop lithography to fabricate patterns with average widths of 50 and 100 microns on silicon wafer substrates. Further development of this method will attempt to layer patterns to create hierarchical structures. Photomasks consisted of patterns printed onto transparency films with a high resolution printer and a fully patterned 10cm by 10cm area has been successfully developed. UV exposure was carried out with a self-made array of ultraviolet LEDs that was positioned a distance above a glass diffuser. Observations under a light microscope and SEM showed that developed patterns exhibit an adequate degree of fidelity with patterns from the master stamp.

Keywords: lithography, antifouling, marine, microtopography

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2621 Analysis of Changes in Land Uses Planning for Bangalore City as per Master Plans

Authors: Minakshi Goswami, M. V. Khire


The urban land use is an outcome of geographical and socio economic factors over the decades. Hence, spatial information on land use and possibilities of alternate use is essential for the selection, planning and implementation to meet the increasing demands of human needs and welfare of the urban area. This information assists in monitoring the land use resulting out of charging demands of increasing urban population over the decades. So in this paper, a detailed work on urban land use pattern, with a special reference to build up land in Bangalore city is analyzed in view of the various master plans from 1975to 2011. An attempt has been made to study the status of urban land use of Bangalore city during this period to detect the changes on land utilization rate that has taken place in each master plan period, particularly in the built-up land. The set of measures taken by the city corporation to contain the problems regarding the extremely bothering existing land use in Bangalore city is analyzed.

Keywords: built up land, land use changes, master plan, population

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2620 Collective Strategies Dominate in Spatial Iterated Prisoners Dilemma

Authors: Jiawei Li


How cooperation emerges and persists in a population of selfish agents is a fundamental question in evolutionary game theory. Our research shows that Collective Strategies with Master-Slave Mechanism (CSMSM) defeat Tit-for-Tat and other well-known strategies in spatial iterated prisoner’s dilemma. A CSMSM identifies kin members by means of a handshaking mechanism. If the opponent is identified as non-kin, a CSMSM will always defect. Once two CSMSMs meet, they play master and slave roles. A mater defects and a slave cooperates in order to maximize the master’s payoff. CSMSM outperforms non-collective strategies in spatial IPD even if there is only a small cluster of CSMSMs in the population. The existence and performance of CSMSM in spatial iterated prisoner’s dilemma suggests that cooperation first appears and persists in a group of collective agents.

Keywords: Evolutionary game theory, spatial prisoners dilemma, collective strategy, master-slave mechanism

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2619 Developing an Indigenous Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Program: A Three Universities Collaboration

Authors: Mishack Thiza Gumbo


The participatory action research study reported in this paper aims to explore indigenous mathematics, science, and technology to develop an indigenous Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Programme ultimately. The study is based on an ongoing collaborative project between the Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Departments of the University of South Africa, University of Botswana and Chinhoyi University of Technology. The study targets the Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s students and indigenous knowledge holders in these three contexts as research participants. They will be interviewed; documents of existing Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Programmes will be analysed; mathematics, science and technology-related artefacts will also be collected and analysed. Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education are traditionally referred to as gateway subjects because the world economy revolves around them. Scores of scholars call for the indigenisation of research and methodologies so that research can suit and advance indigenous knowledge and sustainable development. There are ethnomathematics, ethnoscience and ethnotechnology which exist in indigenous contexts such as blacksmithing, woodcarving, textile-weaving and dyeing, but the current curricula and research in institutions of learning reflect the Western notions of these subjects. Indigenisation of the academic programmecontributes toward the decolonisation of education. Hence, the development of an indigenous Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Programme, which will be jointly offered by the three universities mentioned above, will contribute to the transformation of higher education in this sense.

Keywords: indigenous, mathematics, science, technology, master's program, universities, collaboration

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2618 The Effect of Phonetics Factors in Interpretation of Japanese Degree Adverbs

Authors: Yan Lyu


Japanese degree adverbs can be explained in different ways, which is hard for Japanese learners to comprehend. For instance, when ‘tyotto’ is used as a degree word, it can be interpreted literally or not. In the sentence ‘Ano mise, tyotto oishi yo. zehi iku to ii yo.’, ‘tyotto’ can be interpreted as a high degree contextually. Despite pragmatic factors, phonetics factors can also affect the interpretation of such ‘tyotto’. Concentrating on the pattern of ‘tyotto +adjective’, the paper aims to investigate the correlation between the interpretation of ‘tyotto’ and the phonetic factors in some specific contexts based on a listening experiment via PRAAT. It is also investigated that how the phonetic factors affect the interpretation of high degree adverbs, including ‘soutou’ , ‘totemo’ , ‘kanari’ and ‘sugoku’. In the experiment, Japanese speakers listened to sentences which were composed of degree adverbs and adjectives in different intonations and judged which degree the sentences expressed. Two conclusions can be drawn from the experiment results. Firstly, for adverbs expressing a high degree, in the pattern of ‘degree adverb + adjective’, either degree adverb or adjective is pronounced in a higher pitch, or both are highly pronounced, a higher degree can be expressed. Besides, with the insertion of geminate consonant and the extension of the vowel, the longer the duration of the degree adverb becomes, the higher degree can be expressed. Secondly, for ‘tyotto’, which expresses a low degree, the interpretation will be influenced by both phonetic and contextual factors. Phonetically, there are three factors causing ‘tyotto’ to be interpreted as a common degree or a high degree. The three factors are the high pitch of the modified adjective, the extended silence period of the geminate consonant and the change in the intonations of ‘tyotto’. In some contexts just like the comparison sentences, no matter how ‘tyotto + adjective’ is pronounced, ‘tyotto’ tends to be interpreted as a low degree literally.

Keywords: contextual interpretation, Japanese degree adverbs, phonetic interpretation, PRAAT

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2617 Discussion about Frequent Adjustment of Urban Master Planning in China: A Case Study of Changshou District, Chongqing City

Authors: Sun Ailu, Zhao Wanmin


Since the reform and opening, the urbanization process of China has entered a rapid development period. In recent years, the authors participated in some projects of urban master planning in China and found a phenomenon that the rapid urbanization area of China is experiencing frequent adjustment process of urban master planning. This phenomenon is not the natural process of urbanization development. It may be caused by different government roles from different levels. Through the methods of investigation, data comparison and case study, this paper aims to explore the reason why the rapid urbanization area is experiencing frequent adjustment of master planning and give some solution strategies. Firstly, taking Changshou district of Chongqing city as an example, this paper wants to introduce the phenomenon about frequent adjustment process in China. And then, discuss distinct roles in the process between national government, provincial government and local government of China. At last, put forward preliminary solutions strategies for this area in China from the aspects of land use, intergovernmental cooperation and so on.

Keywords: urban master planning, frequent adjustment, urbanization development, problems and strategies, China

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2616 Current Account on Teaching Psychology and Career Psychology in Portuguese Higher Education

Authors: Sivia Amado Cordeiro, Bruna Rodrigues, Maria Do Ceu Taveira, Catia Marques, Iris Oliveira, Ana Daniela Silva, Cristina Costa-Lobo


This work intends to analyse the teaching of Psychology in Portugal and, particularly, the teaching of Career Psychology, reflecting about the changes that have occurred to date. Were analysed the educational offerings of 31 Portuguese higher education institutions, 12 public and 19 private, who teach the course of Psychology. The three degrees of study were considered, namely, bachelors, masters and doctoral. The analysis of the data focused on the curricular plans of the different degrees of studies in Psychology made available online by higher education institutions. Through them, we identified the curricular units with themes related to the teaching of Career Psychology. The results show the existence of 89 higher psychology courses in Portugal, distributed throughout the three degrees of studies. Concerning to the teaching of Career Psychology there were registered 49 curricular units with themes dedicated to this area of knowledge. There were identified 16 curricular units in the bachelor’s degree, 31 in master’s degree, and two in doctoral degree. It was observed a reduction in the number of degrees in Psychology in the last nine years in Portugal. We discuss the current situation of Psychology teaching, particularly the teaching of Career Psychology. The aim is to stimulate reflection about future perspectives of Psychology teaching, and specifically, specialized training in Psychology of Career, in Portugal.

Keywords: career psychology, higher education, psychology, Portugal

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2615 Comparison of Corneal Curvature Measurements Conducted with Tomey AO-2000® and the Current Standard Biometer IOL Master®

Authors: Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Che Azemin Mohd Zulfaezal, Ariffin Azrin Esmady


Purpose: Corneal curvature (CC) is an important anterior segment parameter. This study compared CC measurements conducted with two optical devices in phakic eyes. Methods: Sixty phakic eyes of 30 patients were enrolled in this study. CC was measured three times with the optical biometer and topography-keratometer Tomey AO-2000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan), then with the standard partial optical coherence interferometry (PCI) IOL Master (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) and data were statistically analysed. Results: The measurements resulted in a mean CC of 43.86 ± 1.57 D with Tomey AO-2000 and 43.84 ± 1.55 D with IOL Master. Distribution of data is normal, and no significance difference in CC values was detected (P = 0.952) between the two devices. Correlation between CC measurements was highly significant (r = 0. 99; P < 0.0001). The mean difference of CC values between devices was 0.017 D and 95% limit of agreement was -0.088 to 0.12. Duration taken for measurements with the standard biometer IOL Master was longer (55.17 ± 2.24 seconds) than with Tomey AO-2000 (39.88 ± 2.38 seconds) in automatic mode. Duration of manual measurement with Tomey AO-2000 in manual mode was the shortest (28.57 ± 2.71 seconds). Conclusion: In phakic eyes, CC measured with Tomey AO-2000 and IOL Master showed similar values, and high correlation was observed between these two devices. This shows that both devices can be used interchangeably. Tomey AO-2000 is better in terms of faster to operate and has its own topography systems.

Keywords: corneal topography, corneal curvature, IOL Master, Tomey AO2000

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2614 Evaluating the Topsoil and Subsoil Physical Quality Using Relative Bulk Density in Urmia Plain

Authors: Hossein Asgarzadeh, Ayoub Osmani, Farrokh Asadzadeh, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi


This study was conducted to evaluate the topsoil and subsoil physical quality using relative bulk density (RBD) in Urmia plain in Iran. Undisturbed samples were collected from two layers (topsoil and subsoil) of thirty agricultural soils. Categories of 0.72 ≥ RBD (low degree of compactness), 0.82 > RBD > 0.72 (moderate/optimum degree of compactness), and RBD ≥ 0.82 (high degree of compactness) were used to evaluate soil physical quality (SPQ). Two topsoils had a low degree of compactness, fourteen topsoils had an optimum degree of compactness, and the rest (i.e., fourteen topsoils) had a high degree of compactness. Only one subsoil had an optimum degree of compactness, and twenty-eight subsoils (i.e., 93%) had a high degree of compactness, indicating poor SPQ of the subsoil layer in the studied region. It seems that conventional tillage in the past decades destroyed the pore system in the majority of studied subsoils. The high degree of compactness would reduce soil aeration and increase soil penetration resistance which could restrict root and plant growth. Conversely, a low degree of soil compactness is expected to reduce the root-soil contact.

Keywords: compactness, relative bulk density, soil physical quality

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2613 A Study of Using Multiple Subproblems in Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition of Linear Programming

Authors: William Chung


This paper is to study the use of multiple subproblems in Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition of linear programming (DW-LP). Traditionally, the decomposed LP consists of one LP master problem and one LP subproblem. The master problem and the subproblem is solved alternatively by exchanging the dual prices of the master problem and the proposals of the subproblem until the LP is solved. It is well known that convergence is slow with a long tail of near-optimal solutions (asymptotic convergence). Hence, the performance of DW-LP highly depends upon the number of decomposition steps. If the decomposition steps can be greatly reduced, the performance of DW-LP can be improved significantly. To reduce the number of decomposition steps, one of the methods is to increase the number of proposals from the subproblem to the master problem. To do so, we propose to add a quadratic approximation function to the LP subproblem in order to develop a set of approximate-LP subproblems (multiple subproblems). Consequently, in each decomposition step, multiple subproblems are solved for providing multiple proposals to the master problem. The number of decomposition steps can be reduced greatly. Note that each approximate-LP subproblem is nonlinear programming, and solving the LP subproblem must faster than solving the nonlinear multiple subproblems. Hence, using multiple subproblems in DW-LP is the tradeoff between the number of approximate-LP subproblems being formed and the decomposition steps. In this paper, we derive the corresponding algorithms and provide some simple computational results. Some properties of the resulting algorithms are also given.

Keywords: approximate subproblem, Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition, large-scale models, multiple subproblems

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2612 Multivariate Analysis on Water Quality Attributes Using Master-Slave Neural Network Model

Authors: A. Clementking, C. Jothi Venkateswaran


Mathematical and computational functionalities such as descriptive mining, optimization, and predictions are espoused to resolve natural resource planning. The water quality prediction and its attributes influence determinations are adopted optimization techniques. The water properties are tainted while merging water resource one with another. This work aimed to predict influencing water resource distribution connectivity in accordance to water quality and sediment using an innovative proposed master-slave neural network back-propagation model. The experiment results are arrived through collecting water quality attributes, computation of water quality index, design and development of neural network model to determine water quality and sediment, master–slave back propagation neural network back-propagation model to determine variations on water quality and sediment attributes between the water resources and the recommendation for connectivity. The homogeneous and parallel biochemical reactions are influences water quality and sediment while distributing water from one location to another. Therefore, an innovative master-slave neural network model [M (9:9:2)::S(9:9:2)] designed and developed to predict the attribute variations. The result of training dataset given as an input to master model and its maximum weights are assigned as an input to the slave model to predict the water quality. The developed master-slave model is predicted physicochemical attributes weight variations for 85 % to 90% of water quality as a target values.The sediment level variations also predicated from 0.01 to 0.05% of each water quality percentage. The model produced the significant variations on physiochemical attribute weights. According to the predicated experimental weight variation on training data set, effective recommendations are made to connect different resources.

Keywords: master-slave back propagation neural network model(MSBPNNM), water quality analysis, multivariate analysis, environmental mining

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2611 Increasing the Apparent Time Resolution of Tc-99m Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin Dynamic SPECT by Use of an 180-Degree Interpolation Method

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Maya Yamashita, Kyoko Saito


In general, dynamic SPECT data acquisition needs a few minutes for one rotation. Thus, the time-activity curve (TAC) derived from the dynamic SPECT is relatively coarse. In order to effectively shorten the interval, between data points, we adopted a 180-degree interpolation method. This method is already used for reconstruction of the X-ray CT data. In this study, we applied this 180-degree interpolation method to SPECT and investigated its effectiveness.To briefly describe the 180-degree interpolation method: the 180-degree data in the second half of one rotation are combined with the 180-degree data in the first half of the next rotation to generate a 360-degree data set appropriate for the time halfway between the first and second rotations. In both a phantom and a patient study, the data points from the interpolated images fell in good agreement with the data points tracking the accumulation of 99mTc activity over time for appropriate region of interest. We conclude that data derived from interpolated images improves the apparent time resolution of dynamic SPECT.

Keywords: dynamic SPECT, time resolution, 180-degree interpolation method, 99mTc-GSA.

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2610 Criterion-Referenced Test Reliability through Threshold Loss Agreement: Fuzzy Logic Analysis Approach

Authors: Mohammad Ali Alavidoost, Hossein Bozorgian


Criterion-referenced tests (CRTs) are designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards. The reliability of such tests cannot be based on internal reliability. Threshold loss agreement is one way to calculate the reliability of CRTs. However, the selection of master and non-master in such agreement is determined by the threshold point. The problem is if the threshold point witnesses a minute change, the selection of master and non-master may have a drastic change, leading to the change in reliability results. Therefore, in this study, the Fuzzy logic approach is employed as a remedial procedure for data analysis to obviate the threshold point problem. Forty-one Iranian students were selected; the participants were all between 20 and 30 years old. A quantitative approach was used to address the research questions. In doing so, a quasi-experimental design was utilized since the selection of the participants was not randomized. Based on the Fuzzy logic approach, the threshold point would be more stable during the analysis, resulting in rather constant reliability results and more precise assessment.

Keywords: criterion-referenced tests, threshold loss agreement, threshold point, fuzzy logic approach

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2609 Levels of Anxiety during the 1st Stage of Labour, Respectively Cervical Effacement

Authors: Shpresa Agani, Nysret Agani


Studies have found that women, during the 1st stage of labour, respectively cervical effacement, experience anxiety. This study aims to measure the degree of anxiety during cervical effacement, using Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) for measuring anxiety symptoms (HSCL-25). A randomized prospective study with 300 women during the 1st stage of labour was conducted where cervical effacement percentage in parallel with the symptoms of anxiety was examined. Anxiety degree levels were examined by HSCL-25. Results showed that 81% were primiparous, while 19% were multiparous. All participants experienced anxiety symptoms, and the degree of anxiety depended on the stage of the birth process. Groups-based modeling according to HSCL- 2 identified three distinct groups of anxiety symptoms: group 1 (low degree, 32 cases or 11%), group 2 (mild degree, 186 cases or 62%), and group 3 (high degree, 82 cases or 27%). Depending on the percentage of cervical effacement, the anxiety degree increased. In a cervical effacement of 0-60-%, 125 cases or 41.6% had symptoms of anxiety, while in a cervical effacement of 60-100%, 174 cases or 58.4% had symptoms of anxiety (Chi-Square X2 (4,N=300)=10.755, p=0.02). This study showed a correlation between cervical effacement and the degree of anxiety. Further, it was found that the majority of participants experienced symptoms of anxiety during the cervical effacement process. The degree of anxiety increased in direct proportion to the degree of the cervical effacement process. The higher the percentage of cervical effacement, the higher the degree of anxiety. A continuing assessment of the psychological well-being of women throughout the birth process.

Keywords: anxiety, cervical effacement, pregnancy, HSCL-25

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2608 Research Writing Anxiety among Engineering Postgraduate Students in Taiwan

Authors: Mei-Ching Ho


Graduate-level writing practices have gained increasing scholarly attention in recent years. Due to its discipline-specific conventions and requirements, research writing can cause various levels of anxiety for native English speaking and English as a second/foreign language (ESL/EFL) postgraduate students. Although many studies have investigated how writing anxiety can negatively affect writing performance, self-efficacy, and disciplinary discourse socialization process, relatively few have examined the impact of writing anxiety from the perspectives of postgraduate students in EFL contexts. This study aims to 1) examine the level of and the relationship between research writing anxiety and self-efficacy among Taiwanese EFL students at the master's and doctoral levels and 2) to uncover the causes of students' research writing anxiety. The data was collected from an adapted version of Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI) and Research Writing Self-Efficacy Scale with 218 EFL graduate students in engineering-related fields at two research-oriented universities in Taiwan. A pilot study was conducted to ensure the construct and content validity of the instruments. Semi-structured interviews were also undertaken with 30 survey respondents to better understand the causes of their writing anxiety. The results revealed that while both master's and doctoral students had low to moderate research writing anxiety and self-efficacy, the doctoral students with more experiences in writing research papers in English were more anxious but not necessarily more confident than the master's students. A significantly weak negative correlation was found between the two constructs. The contributing factors for these results include different degree of writing exigency, perceived importance and types of writing tasks, writing for publication as graduation thresholds, and mentoring relationship with thesis/dissertation advisers. The study also identified several causes of graduate-level writing anxiety, of which writing under time constraints and concern on linguistic and rhetorical proficiency appeared to be the major concern. Pedagogical implications regarding facilitating graduate students' writing process and reducing anxiety will also be drawn.

Keywords: writing affect, writing anxiety, writing self-efficacy, EFL, postgraduate students

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2607 Degree in Translation and Years of Professional Experience: Predictors of Translation Quality

Authors: Mohsen Varzande


Translators’ professional and academic characteristics may directly influence their translation quality. The present study aimed at investigating whether translators’ degree in translation and years of professional experience predict their translation quality. Following a causal-comparative study, a sample of one hundred professional translators was selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups each containing individuals with and without a degree in translation, respectively. The participants were asked to translate a paragraph to assess their translation quality. For data analysis, appropriate statistical procedures including correlation and regression were used. Results showed that both degree in translation and years of professional experience significantly predict translation quality. Also, the interaction of translators’ years of professional experience and degree in translation significantly affect their translation quality. An implication could be that besides providing translators with academic knowledge and theories, practical training in translation is necessary as a prerequisite for a competent translator.

Keywords: translation, degree in translation, translation quality, professional experience

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2606 Developing EFL Research Skills of Pre-Master Students through a Suggested Quest Based Learning Strategy

Authors: Heba Mustafa Abdullah


The research aimed at examining the effect of a using a quest based learning strategy on developing EFL Pre-Master Students. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. The sample of the research consists of a group of 30 students enrolled in Pre-Master program, Curriculum and EFL Instruction Department, Faculty of Graduate Studies in Education Tools of the study included a EFL research skills checklist and EFL research skills test. Results revealed that there were statistically significant differences at 0.01 levels with regard to some research skills. Results were discussed in relation to several factors that affected the language learning process. Finally, the research provided beneficial contributions in relation to manipulating e-learning technologies in general and Quest based learning strategy in particular with respect to EFL research skills.

Keywords: English as foreign language, e-Learning, research skills, quest based learning

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