Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 703

Search results for: Bezier curves

703 Weighted G2 Multi-Degree Reduction of Bezier Curves

Authors: Salisu ibrahim, Abdalla Rababah


In this research, we use Weighted G2-Multi-degree reduction of Bezier curve of degree n to a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. The degree reduction of Bezier curves is used to represent a given Bezier curve of n by a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. Exact degree reduction is not possible, and degree reduction is approximate process in nature. We derive a weighted degree reducing method that is geometrically continuous at the end points. Different norms will be considered, several error minimizations will be given. The proposed methods produce error function that are less than the errors of existing methods.

Keywords: Bezier curves, multiple degree reduction, geometric continuity, error function

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
702 Curve Fitting by Cubic Bezier Curves Using Migrating Birds Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Mitat Uysal


A new met heuristic optimization algorithm called as Migrating Birds Optimization is used for curve fitting by rational cubic Bezier Curves. This requires solving a complicated multivariate optimization problem. In this study, the solution of this optimization problem is achieved by Migrating Birds Optimization algorithm that is a powerful met heuristic nature-inspired algorithm well appropriate for optimization. The results of this study show that the proposed method performs very well and being able to fit the data points to cubic Bezier Curves with a high degree of accuracy.

Keywords: algorithms, Bezier curves, heuristic optimization, migrating birds optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
701 Circular Approximation by Trigonometric Bézier Curves

Authors: Maria Hussin, Malik Zawwar Hussain, Mubashrah Saddiqa


We present a trigonometric scheme to approximate a circular arc with its two end points and two end tangents/unit tangents. A rational cubic trigonometric Bézier curve is constructed whose end control points are defined by the end points of the circular arc. Weight functions and the remaining control points of the cubic trigonometric Bézier curve are estimated by variational approach to reproduce a circular arc. The radius error is calculated and found less than the existing techniques.

Keywords: control points, rational trigonometric Bézier curves, radius error, shape measure, weight functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
700 Approximating Maximum Speed on Road from Curvature Information of Bezier Curve

Authors: M. Yushalify Misro, Ahmad Ramli, Jamaludin M. Ali


Bezier curves have useful properties for path generation problem, for instance, it can generate the reference trajectory for vehicles to satisfy the path constraints. Both algorithms join cubic Bezier curve segment smoothly to generate the path. Some of the useful properties of Bezier are curvature. In mathematics, the curvature is the amount by which a geometric object deviates from being flat, or straight in the case of a line. Another extrinsic example of curvature is a circle, where the curvature is equal to the reciprocal of its radius at any point on the circle. The smaller the radius, the higher the curvature thus the vehicle needs to bend sharply. In this study, we use Bezier curve to fit highway-like curve. We use the different approach to finding the best approximation for the curve so that it will resemble highway-like curve. We compute curvature value by analytical differentiation of the Bezier Curve. We will then compute the maximum speed for driving using the curvature information obtained. Our research works on some assumptions; first the Bezier curve estimates the real shape of the curve which can be verified visually. Even, though, the fitting process of Bezier curve does not interpolate exactly on the curve of interest, we believe that the estimation of speed is acceptable. We verified our result with the manual calculation of the curvature from the map.

Keywords: speed estimation, path constraints, reference trajectory, Bezier curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
699 Bernstein Type Polynomials for Solving Differential Equations and Their Applications

Authors: Yilmaz Simsek


In this paper, we study the Bernstein-type basis functions with their generating functions. We give various properties of these polynomials with the aid of their generating functions. These polynomials and generating functions have many valuable applications in mathematics, in probability, in statistics and also in mathematical physics. By using the Bernstein-Galerkin and the Bernstein-Petrov-Galerkin methods, we give some applications of the Bernstein-type polynomials for solving high even-order differential equations with their numerical computations. We also give Bezier-type curves related to the Bernstein-type basis functions. We investigate fundamental properties of these curves. These curves have many applications in mathematics, in computer geometric design and other related areas. Moreover, we simulate these polynomials with their plots for some selected numerical values.

Keywords: generating functions, Bernstein basis functions, Bernstein polynomials, Bezier curves, differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
698 Optimized and Secured Digital Watermarking Using Fuzzy Entropy, Bezier Curve and Visual Cryptography

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh


Recent development in the usage of internet for different purposes creates a great threat for the copyright protection of the digital images. Digital watermarking can be used to address the problem. This paper presents detailed review of the different watermarking techniques, latest trends in the field of secured, robust and imperceptible watermarking. It also discusses the different optimization techniques used in the field of watermarking in order to improve the robustness and imperceptibility of the method. Different measures are discussed to evaluate the performance of the watermarking algorithm. At the end, this paper proposes a watermarking algorithm using (2, 2) share visual cryptography and Bezier curve based algorithm to improve the security of the watermark. The proposed method uses fractional transformation to improve the robustness of the copyright protection of the method. The algorithm is optimized using fuzzy entropy for better results.

Keywords: digital watermarking, fractional transform, visual cryptography, Bezier curve, fuzzy entropy

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697 Box Counting Dimension of the Union L of Trinomial Curves When α ≥ 1

Authors: Kaoutar Lamrini Uahabi, Mohamed Atounti


In the present work, we consider one category of curves denoted by L(p, k, r, n). These curves are continuous arcs which are trajectories of roots of the trinomial equation zn = αzk + (1 − α), where z is a complex number, n and k are two integers such that 1 ≤ k ≤ n − 1 and α is a real parameter greater than 1. Denoting by L the union of all trinomial curves L(p, k, r, n) and using the box counting dimension as fractal dimension, we will prove that the dimension of L is equal to 3/2.

Keywords: feasible angles, fractal dimension, Minkowski sausage, trinomial curves, trinomial equation

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696 Modeling and Computational Validation of Dispersion Curves of Guide Waves in a Pipe Using ANSYS

Authors: A. Perdomo, J. R. Bacca, Q. E. Jabid


In recent years, technological and investigative progress has been achieved in the area of monitoring of equipment and installation as a result of a deeper understanding of physical phenomenon associated with the non-destructive tests (NDT). The modal analysis proposes an efficient solution to determine the dispersion curves of an arbitrary waveguide cross-sectional. Dispersion curves are essential in the discontinuity localization based on guided waves. In this work, an isotropic hollow cylinder is dynamically analyzed in ANSYS to obtain resonant frequencies and mode shapes all of them associated with the dispersion curves. The numerical results provide the relation between frequency and wavelength which is the foundation of the dispersion curves. Results of the simulation process are validated with the software GUIGW.

Keywords: ansys APDL, dispersion curves, guide waves, modal analysis

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695 Regionalization of IDF Curves with L-Moments for Storm Events

Authors: Noratiqah Mohd Ariff, Abdul Aziz Jemain, Mohd Aftar Abu Bakar


The construction of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves is one of the most common and useful tools in order to design hydraulic structures and to provide a mathematical relationship between rainfall characteristics. IDF curves, especially those in Peninsular Malaysia, are often built using moving windows of rainfalls. However, these windows do not represent the actual rainfall events since the duration of rainfalls is usually prefixed. Hence, instead of using moving windows, this study aims to find regionalized distributions for IDF curves of extreme rainfalls based on storm events. Homogeneity test is performed on annual maximum of storm intensities to identify homogeneous regions of storms in Peninsular Malaysia. The L-moment method is then used to regionalized Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution of these annual maximums and subsequently. IDF curves are constructed using the regional distributions. The differences between the IDF curves obtained and IDF curves found using at-site GEV distributions are observed through the computation of the coefficient of variation of root mean square error, mean percentage difference and the coefficient of determination. The small differences implied that the construction of IDF curves could be simplified by finding a general probability distribution of each region. This will also help in constructing IDF curves for sites with no rainfall station.

Keywords: IDF curves, L-moments, regionalization, storm events

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694 Centrifuge Modeling of Monopiles Subjected to Lateral Monotonic Loading

Authors: H. R. Khodaei, M. Moradi, A. H. Tajik


The type of foundation commonly used today for berthing dolphins is a set of tubular steel piles with large diameters, which are known as monopiles. The design of these monopiles is based on the theories related with laterally loaded piles. One of the most common methods to analyze and design the piles subjected to lateral loads is the p-y curves. In the present study, centrifuge tests are conducted in order to obtain the p-y curves. Series of tests were designed in order to investigate the scaling laws in the centrifuge for monotonic loading. Also, two important parameters, the embedded depth L of the pile in the soil and free length e of the pile, as well as their ratios were studied via five experimental tests. Finally, the p-y curves of API are presented to be compared with the curves obtained from the tests so that the differences could be demonstrated. The results show that the p-y curves proposed by API highly overestimate the lateral load bearing capacity. It suggests that these curves need correction and modification for each site as the soil conditions change.

Keywords: centrifuge modeling, monopile, lateral loading, p-y curves

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
693 Regionalization of IDF Curves, by Interpolating Intensity and Adjustment Parameters - Application to Boyacá, Colombia

Authors: Pedro Mauricio Acosta, Carlos Andrés Caro


This research presents the regionalization of IDF curves for the department of Boyacá, Colombia, which comprises 16 towns, including the provincial capital, Tunja. For regionalization adjustment parameters (U and alpha) of the IDF curves stations referred to in the studied area were used. Similar regionalization is used by the interpolation of intensities. In the case of regionalization by parameters found by the construction of the curves intensity, duration and frequency estimation methods using ordinary moments and maximum likelihood. Regionalization and interpolation of data were performed with the assistance of Arcgis software. Within the development of the project the best choice to provide a level of reliability such as to determine which of the options and ways to regionalize is best sought. The resulting isolines maps were made in the case of regionalization intensities, each map is associated with a different return period and duration in order to build IDF curves in the studied area. In the case of the regionalization maps parameters associated with each parameter were performed last.

Keywords: intensity duration, frequency curves, regionalization, hydrology

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
692 A Comparison between Empirical and Theoretical OC Curves Related to Acceptance Sampling for Attributes

Authors: Encarnacion Alvarez, Noemı Hidalgo-Rebollo, Juan F. Munoz, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda


Many companies use the technique named as acceptance sampling which consists on the inspection and decision making regarding products. According to the results derived from this method, the company takes the decision of acceptance or rejection of a product. The acceptance sampling can be applied to the technology management, since the acceptance sampling can be seen as a tool to improve the design planning, operation and control of technological products. The theoretical operating characteristic (OC) curves are widely used when dealing with acceptance sampling. In this paper, we carry out Monte Carlo simulation studies to compare numerically the empirical OC curves derived from the empirical results to the customary theoretical OC curves. We analyze various possible scenarios in such a way that the differences between the empirical and theoretical curves can be observed under different situations.

Keywords: single-sampling plan, lot, Monte Carlo simulation, quality control

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691 Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves

Authors: Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong, Natasha Dejdumrong


Newton-Lagrange Interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for their constructions. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), there are some polynomial curves: Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves, which have linear time complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong algorithms, first, it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP or Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange curves can be taken.

Keywords: Lagrange interpolation, linear complexity, monomial matrix, Newton interpolation

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690 Investigation of Riders' Path on Horizontal Curves

Authors: Lemonakis Panagiotis, Eliou Nikos, Karakasidis Theodoros, Botzoris George


It is well known that trajectory along with speed are two of the most important contributing factors in road accidents. Trajectory is meant as the "line“, usually different from the center-line that a driver traverses through horizontal curves which depends on the characteristics of the road environment (especially the curvature), the vehicle and the driver himself. Drivers and especially riders, tend to broaden their paths in order to succeed greater path radiuses and hence, reduce the applied centrifugal force enhancing safety. The objective of the present research is to investigate riders’ path on horizontal curves. Within the context of the research, field measurements were conducted on a rural two lane highway, with the participation of eight riders and the use of an instrumented motorcycle. The research has shown that the trajectory of the riders is correlated to the radius and the length of the horizontal curve as well.

Keywords: trajectory, path, riders, horizontal curves

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
689 Single Feed Circularly Polarized Poly Fractal Antenna for Wireless Applications

Authors: V. V. Reddy, N. V. Sarma


A circularly polarized fractal boundary microstrip antenna is presented. The sides of a square patch along x-axis, y-axis are replaced with Minkowski and Koch curves correspondingly. By using the fractal curves as edges, asymmetry in the structure is created to excite two orthogonal modes for circular polarization (CP) operation. The indentation factors of the fractal curves are optimized for pure CP. The simulated results of the novel poly fractal antenna are demonstrated.

Keywords: fractal, circular polarization, Minkowski, Koch

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688 Arabic Character Recognition Using Regression Curves with the Expectation Maximization Algorithm

Authors: Abdullah A. AlShaher


In this paper, we demonstrate how regression curves can be used to recognize 2D non-rigid handwritten shapes. Each shape is represented by a set of non-overlapping uniformly distributed landmarks. The underlying models utilize 2nd order of polynomials to model shapes within a training set. To estimate the regression models, we need to extract the required coefficients which describe the variations for a set of shape class. Hence, a least square method is used to estimate such modes. We then proceed by training these coefficients using the apparatus Expectation Maximization algorithm. Recognition is carried out by finding the least error landmarks displacement with respect to the model curves. Handwritten isolated Arabic characters are used to evaluate our approach.

Keywords: character recognition, regression curves, handwritten Arabic letters, expectation maximization algorithm

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687 An Improved Lower Bound for Minimal-Area Convex Cover for Closed Unit Curves

Authors: S. Som-Am, B. Grechuk


Moser’s worm problem is the unsolved problem in geometry which asks for the minimal area of a convex region on the plane which can cover all curves of unit length, assuming that curves may be rotated and translated to fit inside the region. We study a version of this problem asking for a minimal convex cover for closed unit curves. By combining geometric methods with numerical box’s search algorithm, we show that any such cover should have an area at least 0.0975. This improves the best previous lower bound of 0.096694. In fact, we show that the minimal area of convex hull of circle, equilateral triangle, and rectangle of perimeter 1 is between 0.0975 and 0.09763.

Keywords: Moser’s worm problem, closed arcs, convex cover, minimal-area cover

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686 Symbolic Computation via Grobner Basis

Authors: Haohao Wang


The purpose of this paper is to find elimination ideals via Grobner basis. We first introduce the concept of Grobner bases, and then, we provide computational algorithms to applications for curves and surfaces.

Keywords: curves, surfaces, Grobner basis, elimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
685 Improved of Elliptic Curves Cryptography over a Ring

Authors: Abdelhakim Chillali, Abdelhamid Tadmori, Muhammed Ziane


In this article we will study the elliptic curve defined over the ring An and we define the mathematical operations of ECC, which provides a high security and advantage for wireless applications compared to other asymmetric key cryptosystem.

Keywords: elliptic curves, finite ring, cryptography, study

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
684 Flow Duration Curves and Recession Curves Connection through a Mathematical Link

Authors: Elena Carcano, Mirzi Betasolo


This study helps Public Water Bureaus in giving reliable answers to water concession requests. Rapidly increasing water requests can be supported provided that further uses of a river course are not totally compromised, and environmental features are protected as well. Strictly speaking, a water concession can be considered a continuous drawing from the source and causes a mean annual streamflow reduction. Therefore, deciding if a water concession is appropriate or inappropriate seems to be easily solved by comparing the generic demand to the mean annual streamflow value at disposal. Still, the immediate shortcoming for such a comparison is that streamflow data are information available only for few catchments and, most often, limited to specific sites. Subsequently, comparing the generic water demand to mean daily discharge is indeed far from being completely satisfactory since the mean daily streamflow is greater than the water withdrawal for a long period of a year. Consequently, such a comparison appears to be of little significance in order to preserve the quality and the quantity of the river. In order to overcome such a limit, this study aims to complete the information provided by flow duration curves introducing a link between Flow Duration Curves (FDCs) and recession curves and aims to show the chronological sequence of flows with a particular focus on low flow data. The analysis is carried out on 25 catchments located in North-Eastern Italy for which daily data are provided. The results identify groups of catchments as hydrologically homogeneous, having the lower part of the FDCs (corresponding streamflow interval is streamflow Q between 300 and 335, namely: Q(300), Q(335)) smoothly reproduced by a common recession curve. In conclusion, the results are useful to provide more reliable answers to water request, especially for those catchments which show similar hydrological response and can be used for a focused regionalization approach on low flow data. A mathematical link between streamflow duration curves and recession curves is herein provided, thus furnishing streamflow duration curves information upon a temporal sequence of data. In such a way, by introducing assumptions on recession curves, the chronological sequence upon low flow data can also be attributed to FDCs, which are known to lack this information by nature.

Keywords: chronological sequence of discharges, recession curves, streamflow duration curves, water concession

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
683 Seismic Fragility Curves Methodologies for Bridges: A Review

Authors: Amirmozafar Benshams, Khatere Kashmari, Farzad Hatami, Mesbah Saybani


As a part of the transportation network, bridges are one of the most vulnerable structures. In order to investigate the vulnerability and seismic evaluation of bridges performance, identifying of bridge associated with various state of damage is important. Fragility curves provide important data about damage states and performance of bridges against earthquakes. The development of vulnerability information in the form of fragility curves is a widely practiced approach when the information is to be developed accounting for a multitude of uncertain source involved. This paper presents the fragility curve methodologies for bridges and investigates the practice and applications relating to the seismic fragility assessment of bridges.

Keywords: fragility curve, bridge, uncertainty, NLTHA, IDA

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682 Seismic Fragility Curves for Shallow Circular Tunnels under Different Soil Conditions

Authors: Siti Khadijah Che Osmi, Syed Mohd Ahmad


This paper presents a methodology to develop fragility curves for shallow tunnels so as to describe a relationship between seismic hazard and tunnel vulnerability. Emphasis is given to the influence of surrounding soil material properties because the dynamic behaviour of the tunnel mostly depends on it. Four ground properties of soils ranging from stiff to soft soils are selected. A 3D nonlinear time history analysis is used to evaluate the seismic response of the tunnel when subjected to five real earthquake ground intensities. The derived curves show the future probabilistic performance of the tunnels based on the predicted level of damage states corresponding to the peak ground acceleration. A comparison of the obtained results with the previous literature is provided to validate the reliability of the proposed fragility curves. Results show the significant role of soil properties and input motions in evaluating the seismic performance and response of shallow tunnels.

Keywords: fragility analysis, seismic performance, tunnel lining, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
681 Prediction of Structural Response of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Juan Bojórquez, Henry E. Reyes, Edén Bojórquez, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar


This paper addressed the use of Artificial Intelligence to obtain the structural reliability of reinforced concrete buildings. For this purpose, artificial neuronal networks (ANN) are developed to predict seismic demand hazard curves. In order to have enough input-output data to train the ANN, a set of reinforced concrete buildings (low, mid, and high rise) are designed, then a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is made to obtain the seismic demand hazard curves. The results are then used as input-output data to train the ANN in a feedforward backpropagation model. The predicted values of the seismic demand hazard curves found by the ANN are then compared. Finally, it is concluded that the computer time analysis is significantly lower and the predictions obtained from the ANN were accurate in comparison to the values obtained from the conventional methods.

Keywords: structural reliability, seismic design, machine learning, artificial neural network, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic demand hazard curves

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
680 Simulation of Photovoltaic Array for Specified Ratings of Converter

Authors: Smita Pareek, Ratna Dahiya


The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on surrounding irradiance, temperature, shading conditions, and shading pattern. This paper presents a simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab/Simulink. PV Array is also simulated by series and parallel connections of modules and their characteristics curves are given. Further PV module topology/configuration are proposed for 5.5kW inverter available in the literature. Shading of a PV array either complete or partial can have a significant impact on its power output and energy yield; therefore, the simulated model characteristics curves (I-V and P-V) are drawn for uniform shading conditions (USC) and then output power, voltage and current are calculated for variation in insolation for shading conditions. Additionally the characteristics curves are also given for a predetermined shadowing condition.

Keywords: array, series, parallel, photovoltaic, partial shading

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679 The Ability of Forecasting the Term Structure of Interest Rates Based on Nelson-Siegel and Svensson Model

Authors: Tea Poklepović, Zdravka Aljinović, Branka Marasović


Due to the importance of yield curve and its estimation it is inevitable to have valid methods for yield curve forecasting in cases when there are scarce issues of securities and/or week trade on a secondary market. Therefore in this paper, after the estimation of weekly yield curves on Croatian financial market from October 2011 to August 2012 using Nelson-Siegel and Svensson models, yield curves are forecasted using Vector auto-regressive model and Neural networks. In general, it can be concluded that both forecasting methods have good prediction abilities where forecasting of yield curves based on Nelson Siegel estimation model give better results in sense of lower Mean Squared Error than forecasting based on Svensson model Also, in this case Neural networks provide slightly better results. Finally, it can be concluded that most appropriate way of yield curve prediction is neural networks using Nelson-Siegel estimation of yield curves.

Keywords: Nelson-Siegel Model, neural networks, Svensson Model, vector autoregressive model, yield curve

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678 Implementation of Integer Sub-Decomposition Method on Elliptic Curves with J-Invariant 1728

Authors: Siti Noor Farwina Anwar, Hailiza Kamarulhaili


In this paper, we present the idea of implementing the Integer Sub-Decomposition (ISD) method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The ISD method was proposed in 2013 to compute scalar multiplication in elliptic curves, which remains to be the most expensive operation in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). However, the original ISD method only works on integer number field and solve integer scalar multiplication. By extending the method into the complex quadratic field, we are able to solve complex multiplication and implement the ISD method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The curve with j-invariant 1728 has a unique discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field. This unique discriminant of quadratic field yields a unique efficiently computable endomorphism, which later able to speed up the computations on this curve. However, the ISD method needs three endomorphisms to be accomplished. Hence, we choose all three endomorphisms to be from the same imaginary quadratic field as the curve itself, where the first endomorphism is the unique endomorphism yield from the discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field.

Keywords: efficiently computable endomorphism, elliptic scalar multiplication, j-invariant 1728, quadratic field

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677 Analyzing of Speed Disparity in Mixed Vehicle Technologies on Horizontal Curves

Authors: Tahmina Sultana, Yasser Hassan


Vehicle technologies rapidly evolving due to their multifaceted advantages. Adapted different vehicle technologies like connectivity and automation on the same roads with conventional vehicles controlled by human drivers may increase speed disparity in mixed vehicle technologies. Identifying relationships between speed distribution measures of different vehicles and road geometry can be an indicator of speed disparity in mixed technologies. Previous studies proved that speed disparity measures and traffic accidents are inextricably related. Horizontal curves from three geographic areas were selected based on relevant criteria, and speed data were collected at the midpoint of the preceding tangent and starting, ending, and middle point of the curve. Multiple linear mixed effect models (LME) were developed using the instantaneous speed measures representing the speed of vehicles at different points of horizontal curves to recognize relationships between speed variance (standard deviation) and road geometry. A simulation-based framework (Monte Carlo) was introduced to check the speed disparity on horizontal curves in mixed vehicle technologies when consideration is given to the interactions among connected vehicles (CVs), autonomous vehicles (AVs), and non-connected vehicles (NCVs) on horizontal curves. The Monte Carlo method was used in the simulation to randomly sample values for the various parameters from their respective distributions. Theresults show that NCVs had higher speed variation than CVs and AVs. In addition, AVs and CVs contributed to reduce speed disparity in the mixed vehicle technologies in any penetration rates.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, connected vehicles, non-connected vehicles, speed variance

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676 An Optimized RDP Algorithm for Curve Approximation

Authors: Jean-Pierre Lomaliza, Kwang-Seok Moon, Hanhoon Park


It is well-known that Ramer Douglas Peucker (RDP) algorithm greatly depends on the method of choosing starting points. Therefore, this paper focuses on finding such starting points that will optimize the results of RDP algorithm. Specifically, this paper proposes a curve approximation algorithm that finds flat points, called essential points, of an input curve, divides the curve into corner-like sub-curves using the essential points, and applies the RDP algorithm to the sub-curves. The number of essential points play a role on optimizing the approximation results by balancing the degree of shape information loss and the amount of data reduction. Through experiments with curves of various types and complexities of shape, we compared the performance of the proposed algorithm with three other methods, i.e., the RDP algorithm itself and its variants. As a result, the proposed algorithm outperformed the others in term of maintaining the original shapes of the input curve, which is important in various applications like pattern recognition.

Keywords: curve approximation, essential point, RDP algorithm

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675 A Review of Current Knowledge on Assessment of Precast Structures Using Fragility Curves

Authors: E. Akpinar, A. Erol, M.F. Cakir


Precast reinforced concrete (RC) structures are excellent alternatives for construction world all over the globe, thanks to their rapid erection phase, ease mounting process, better quality and reasonable prices. Such structures are rather popular for industrial buildings. For the sake of economic importance of such industrial buildings as well as significance of safety, like every other type of structures, performance assessment and structural risk analysis are important. Fragility curves are powerful tools for damage projection and assessment for any sort of building as well as precast structures. In this study, a comparative review of current knowledge on fragility analysis of industrial precast RC structures were presented and findings in previous studies were compiled. Effects of different structural variables, parameters and building geometries as well as soil conditions on fragility analysis of precast structures are reviewed. It was aimed to briefly present the information in the literature about the procedure of damage probability prediction including fragility curves for such industrial facilities. It is found that determination of the aforementioned structural parameters as well as selecting analysis procedure are critically important for damage prediction of industrial precast RC structures using fragility curves.

Keywords: damage prediction, fragility curve, industrial buildings, precast reinforced concrete structures

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674 Jordan Curves in the Digital Plane with Respect to the Connectednesses given by Certain Adjacency Graphs

Authors: Josef Slapal


Digital images are approximations of real ones and, therefore, to be able to study them, we need the digital plane Z2 to be equipped with a convenient structure that behaves analogously to the Euclidean topology on the real plane. In particular, it is required that such a structure allows for a digital analogue of the Jordan curve theorem. We introduce certain adjacency graphs on the digital plane and prove digital Jordan curves for them thus showing that the graphs provide convenient structures on Z2 for the study and processing of digital images. Further convenient structures including the wellknown Khalimsky and Marcus-Wyse adjacency graphs may be obtained as quotients of the graphs introduced. Since digital Jordan curves represent borders of objects in digital images, the adjacency graphs discussed may be used as background structures on the digital plane for solving the problems of digital image processing that are closely related to borders like border detection, contour filling, pattern recognition, thinning, etc.

Keywords: digital plane, adjacency graph, Jordan curve, quotient adjacency

Procedia PDF Downloads 289