Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21224

Search results for: lifecycle cost method

21224 Mitigation of High Voltage Equipment Design Deficiencies for Improved Operation and Maintenance

Authors: Riyad Awad, Abdulmohsen Alghadeer, Meshari Otaibi


Proper operation and maintenance (O&M) activities of high voltage equipment can lead to an increased asset lifecycle and maintain its integrity and reliability. Such a vital process is important to be proactively considered during equipment design and manufacturing phases by removing and eliminating any obstacles in the equipment which adversely affect the (O&M) activities. This paper presents a gap analysis pertaining to difficulties in performing operations and maintenance (O&M) high voltage electrical equipment, includes power transformers, switch gears, motor control center, disconnect switches and circuit breakers. The difficulties are gathered from field personnel, equipment design review comments, quality management system, and lessons learned database. The purpose of the gap analysis is to mitigate and prevent the (O&M) difficulties as early as possible in the design stage of the equipment lifecycle. The paper concludes with several recommendations and corrective actions for all identified gaps in order to reduce the cost (O&M) difficulties and improve the equipment lifecycle.

Keywords: operation and maintenance, high voltage equipment, equipment lifecycle, reduce the cost of maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
21223 Preliminary Study of the Cost-Effectiveness of Green Walls: Analyzing Cases from the Perspective of Life Cycle

Authors: Jyun-Huei Huang, Ting-I Lee


Urban heat island effect is derived from the reduction of vegetative cover by urban development. Because plants can improve air quality and microclimate, green walls have been applied as a sustainable design approach to cool building temperature. By using plants to green vertical surfaces, they decrease room temperature and, as a result, decrease the energy use for air conditioning. Based on their structures, green walls can be divided into two categories, green façades and living walls. A green façade uses the climbing ability of a plant itself, while a living wall assembles planter modules. The latter one is widely adopted in public space, as it is time-effective and less limited. Although a living wall saves energy spent on cooling, it is not necessarily cost-effective from the perspective of a lifecycle analysis. The Italian study shows that the overall benefit of a living wall is only greater than its costs after 47 years of its establishment. In Taiwan, urban greening policies encourage establishment of green walls by referring to their benefits of energy saving while neglecting their low performance on cost-effectiveness. Thus, this research aims at understanding the perception of appliers and consumers on the cost-effectiveness of their living wall products from the lifecycle viewpoint. It adopts semi-structured interviews and field observations on the maintenance of the products. By comparing the two results, it generates insights for sustainable urban greening policies. The preliminary finding shows that stakeholders do not have a holistic sense of lifecycle or cost-effectiveness. Most importantly, a living wall well maintained is often with high input due to the availability of its maintenance budget, and thus less sustainable. In conclusion, without a comprehensive sense of cost-effectiveness throughout a product’s lifecycle, it is very difficult for suppliers and consumers to maintain a living wall system while achieve sustainability.

Keywords: case study, maintenance, post-occupancy evaluation, vertical greening

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
21222 Cost Effectiveness and Performance Study of Perpetual Pavement Using ABAQUS

Authors: Mansour Fakhri, Monire Zokaei


Where there are many demolitions on conventional asphalt pavements, heavy costs are paid to repair and reconstruct the pavement roads annually. Recently some research has been done in order to increase the pavement life. Perpetual pavement is regarded as one of them which can improve the pavement life and minimize the maintenance activity and cost. In this research, ABAQUS which is a finite element software is implemented for analyzing and simulation of perpetual pavement. Viscoelastic model of material is used and loading wheel is considered to be dynamic. Effect of different parameters on pavement function has been considered. Because of high primary cost these pavements are not widely used. In this regard, life cost analysis was also carried out to compare perpetual pavement to conventional asphalt concrete pavement. It was concluded that although the initial cost of perpetual pavement is higher than that of conventional asphalt pavement, life cycle cost analysis during 50 years of service life showed that the performance of this pavement is better and the whole life cost of that is less.

Keywords: ABAQUS, lifecycle cost analysis, mechanistic empirical, perpetual pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
21221 Design On Demand (DoD): Spiral Model of The Lifecycle of Products in The Personal 3D-Printed Products' Market

Authors: Zuk Nechemia Turbovich


This paper introduces DoD, a contextual spiral model that describes the lifecycle of products intended for manufacturing using Personal 3D Printers (P3DP). The study is based on a review of the desktop P3DPs market that shows that the combination of digital connectivity, coupled with the potential ownership of P3DP by home users, is radically changing the form of the product lifecycle, comparatively to familiar lifecycle paradigms. The paper presents the change in the design process, considering the characterization of product types in the P3DP market and the possibility of having a direct dialogue between end-user and product designers. The model, as an updated paradigm, provides a strategic perspective on product design and tools for success, understanding that design is subject to rapid and continuous improvement and that products are subject to repair, update, and customization. The paper will include a review of real cases.

Keywords: lifecycle, mass-customization, personal 3d-printing, user involvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
21220 Overcoming the Impacts of Covid-19 Outbreak Using Value Integrated Project Delivery Model

Authors: G. Ramya


Value engineering is a systematic approach, widely used to optimize the design or process or product in the designing stage. It used to achieve the client's obligation by increasing the functionality and attain the targeted cost in the cost planning. Value engineering effectiveness and benefits decrease along with the progress of the project since the change in the scope of the work and design will account for more cost all along the lifecycle of the project. Integrating the value engineering with other project management activities will promote cost minimization, client satisfaction, and ensure early completion of the project in time. Previous research studies suggested that value engineering can integrate with other project delivery activities, but research studies unable to frame a model that collaborates the project management activities with the job plan of value engineering approach. I analyzed various project management activities and their synergy between each other. The project management activities and processes like a)risk analysis b)lifecycle cost analysis c)lean construction d)facility management e)Building information modelling f)Contract administration, collaborated, and project delivery model planned along with the RIBA plan of work. The key outcome of the research is a value-driven project delivery model, which will succeed in dealing with the economic impact, constraints and conflicts arise due to the COVID-19 outbreak in the Indian construction sector. Benefits associated with the structured framework is construction project delivery that ensures early contractor involvement, mutual risk sharing, and reviving the project with a cost overrun and delay back on track ,are discussed. Keywords: Value-driven project delivery model, Integration, RIBA plan of work Themes: Design Economics

Keywords: value-driven project delivery model, Integration, RIBA

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
21219 An Analytical Method for Maintenance Cost Estimating Relationships of Helicopters Using Linear Programming

Authors: Meesun Sun, Yongmin Kim


Estimating maintenance cost is crucial in defense management because it affects military budgets and availability of equipment. When it comes to estimating maintenance cost of the deployed equipment, time series forecasting can be applied with the actual historical cost data. It is more difficult issue to estimate maintenance cost of new equipment for which the actual costs are not provided. In this underlying context, this study proposes an analytical method for maintenance cost estimating relationships (CERs) development of helicopters using linear programming. The CERs can be applied to a new helicopter because they use non-cost independent variables such as the number of engines, the empty weight and so on. In the Republic of Korea, the maintenance cost of new equipment has been usually estimated by reflecting maintenance cost to unit price ratio of the legacy equipment. This study confirms that the CERs perform well for the 10 types of airmobile helicopters in terms of mean absolute percentage error by applying leave-one-out cross-validation. The suggested method is very useful to estimate the maintenance cost of new equipment and can help in the affordability assessment of acquisition program portfolios for total life cycle systems management.

Keywords: affordability analysis, cost estimating relationship, helicopter, linear programming, maintenance cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
21218 Software Engineering Inspired Cost Estimation for Process Modelling

Authors: Felix Baumann, Aleksandar Milutinovic, Dieter Roller


Up to this point business process management projects in general and business process modelling projects in particular could not rely on a practical and scientifically validated method to estimate cost and effort. Especially the model development phase is not covered by a cost estimation method or model. Further phases of business process modelling starting with implementation are covered by initial solutions which are discussed in the literature. This article proposes a method of filling this gap by deriving a cost estimation method from available methods in similar domains namely software development or software engineering. Software development is regarded as closely similar to process modelling as we show. After the proposition of this method different ideas for further analysis and validation of the method are proposed. We derive this method from COCOMO II and Function Point which are established methods of effort estimation in the domain of software development. For this we lay out similarities of the software development rocess and the process of process modelling which is a phase of the Business Process Management life-cycle.

Keywords: COCOMO II, busines process modeling, cost estimation method, BPM COCOMO

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
21217 Systems Engineering Management Using Transdisciplinary Quality System Development Lifecycle Model

Authors: Mohamed Asaad Abdelrazek, Amir Taher El-Sheikh, M. Zayan, A.M. Elhady


The successful realization of complex systems is dependent not only on the technology issues and the process for implementing them, but on the management issues as well. Managing the systems development lifecycle requires technical management. Systems engineering management is the technical management. Systems engineering management is accomplished by incorporating many activities. The three major activities are development phasing, systems engineering process and lifecycle integration. Systems engineering management activities are performed across the system development lifecycle. Due to the ever-increasing complexity of systems as well the difficulty of managing and tracking the development activities, new ways to achieve systems engineering management activities are required. This paper presents a systematic approach used as a design management tool applied across systems engineering management roles. In this approach, Transdisciplinary System Development Lifecycle (TSDL) Model has been modified and integrated with Quality Function Deployment. Hereinafter, the name of the systematic approach is the Transdisciplinary Quality System Development Lifecycle (TQSDL) Model. The QFD translates the voice of customers (VOC) into measurable technical characteristics. The modified TSDL model is based on Axiomatic Design developed by Suh which is applicable to all designs: products, processes, systems and organizations. The TQSDL model aims to provide a robust structure and systematic thinking to support the implementation of systems engineering management roles. This approach ensures that the customer requirements are fulfilled as well as satisfies all the systems engineering manager roles and activities.

Keywords: axiomatic design, quality function deployment, systems engineering management, system development lifecycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
21216 Cost Overrun Causes in Public Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Mahamid, A. Al-Ghonamy, M. Aichouni


This study is conducted to identify causes of cost deviations in public construction projects in Saudi Arabia from contractors’ perspective. 41 factors that might affect cost estimating accuracy were identified through literature review and discussion with some construction experts. The factors were tabulated in a questionnaire form and a field survey included 51 contractors from the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia was performed. The results show that the top five important causes are: wrong estimation method, long period between design and time of implementation, cost of labor, cost of machinary and absence of construction-cost data.

Keywords: cost deviation, public construction, cost estimating, Saudi Arabia, contractors

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
21215 A Fuzzy Satisfactory Optimization Method Based on Stress Analysis for a Hybrid Composite Flywheel

Authors: Liping Yang, Curran Crawford, Jr. Ren, Zhengyi Ren


Considering the cost evaluation and the stress analysis, a fuzzy satisfactory optimization (FSO) method has been developed for a hybrid composite flywheel. To evaluate the cost, the cost coefficients of the flywheel components are obtained through calculating the weighted sum of the scores of the material manufacturability, the structure character, and the material price. To express the satisfactory degree of the energy, the cost, and the mass, the satisfactory functions are proposed by using the decline function and introducing a satisfactory coefficient. To imply the different significance of the objectives, the object weight coefficients are defined. Based on the stress analysis of composite material, the circumferential and radial stresses are considered into the optimization formulation. The simulations of the FSO method with different weight coefficients and storage energy density optimization (SEDO) method of a flywheel are contrasted. The analysis results show that the FSO method can satisfy different requirements of the designer and the FSO method with suitable weight coefficients can replace the SEDO method.

Keywords: flywheel energy storage, fuzzy, optimization, stress analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
21214 Apply Commitment Method in Power System to Minimize the Fuel Cost

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Adel Yahya


The goal of this paper study is to schedule the power generation units to minimize fuel consumption cost based on a model that solves unit commitment problems. This can be done by utilizing forward dynamic programming method to determine the most economic scheduling of generating units. The model was applied to a power station, which consists of four generating units. The obtained results show that the applications of forward dynamic programming method offer a substantial reduction in fuel consumption cost. The fuel consumption cost has been reduced from $116,326 to $102,181 within a 24-hour period. This means saving about 12.16 % of fuel consumption cost. The study emphasizes the importance of applying modeling schedule programs to the operation of power generation units. As a consequence less consumption of fuel, less loss of power and less pollution

Keywords: unit commitment, forward dynamic, fuel cost, programming, generation scheduling, operation cost, power system, generating units

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
21213 Activity-Based Costing in the Hospitality Industry: A Case Study in a Hotel

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Mohammad Ara


The purpose of this study is to provide some empirical evidence about implementing Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in the hospitality industry in Iran. For this purpose, we consider the Tabriz International Hotel as our sample hotel and then gather the relevant data from its cost accounting system in 2012. Then, we use ABC as our costing method and compare the cost of each service unit with that cost which had been extracted for the traditional costing method. The results show a different cost per unit for two methods. Also, because of its more precise and detailed provided information, an ABC system facilitates the decision-making process for managers on decisions related to profitability analysis, budgeting, pricing, and so on.

Keywords: Activity-Based Costing (ABC), activity, cost driver, hospitality industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
21212 Modified Approximation Methods for Finding an Optimal Solution for the Transportation Problem

Authors: N. Guruprasad


This paper presents a modification of approximation method for transportation problems. The initial basic feasible solution can be computed using either Russel's or Vogel's approximation methods. Russell’s approximation method provides another excellent criterion that is still quick to implement on a computer (not manually) In most cases Russel's method yields a better initial solution, though it takes longer than Vogel's method (finding the next entering variable in Russel's method is in O(n1*n2), and in O(n1+n2) for Vogel's method). However, Russel's method normally has a lesser total running time because less pivots are required to reach the optimum for all but small problem sizes (n1+n2=~20). With this motivation behind we have incorporated a variation of the same – what we have proposed it has TMC (Total Modified Cost) to obtain fast and efficient solutions.

Keywords: computation, efficiency, modified cost, Russell’s approximation method, transportation, Vogel’s approximation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
21211 Evaluation of Earthquake Induced Cost for Mid-Rise Buildings

Authors: Gulsah Olgun, Ozgur Bozdag, Yildirim Ertutar


This paper mainly focuses on performance assessment of buildings by associating the damage level with the damage cost. For this purpose a methodology is explained and applied to the representative mid-rise concrete building residing in Izmir. In order to consider uncertainties in occurrence of earthquakes, the structural analyses are conducted for all possible earthquakes in the region through the hazard curve. By means of the analyses, probability of the structural response being in different limit states are obtained and used to calculate expected damage cost. The expected damage cost comprises diverse cost components related to earthquake such as cost of casualties, replacement or repair cost of building etc. In this study, inter-story drift is used as an effective response variable to associate expected damage cost with different damage levels. The structural analysis methods performed to obtain inter story drifts are response spectrum method as a linear one, accurate push-over and time history methods to demonstrate the nonlinear effects on loss estimation. Comparison of the results indicates that each method provides similar values of expected damage cost. To sum up, this paper explains an approach which enables to minimize the expected damage cost of buildings and relate performance level to damage cost.

Keywords: expected damage cost, limit states, loss estimation, performance based design

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
21210 A General Iterative Nonlinear Programming Method to Synthesize Heat Exchanger Network

Authors: Rupu Yang, Cong Toan Tran, Assaad Zoughaib


The work provides an iterative nonlinear programming method to synthesize a heat exchanger network by manipulating the trade-offs between the heat load of process heat exchangers (HEs) and utilities. We consider for the synthesis problem two cases, the first one without fixed cost for HEs, and the second one with fixed cost. For the no fixed cost problem, the nonlinear programming (NLP) model with all the potential HEs is optimized to obtain the global optimum. For the case with fixed cost, the NLP model is iterated through adding/removing HEs. The method was applied in five case studies and illustrated quite well effectiveness. Among which, the approach reaches the lowest TAC (2,904,026$/year) compared with the best record for the famous Aromatic plants problem. It also locates a slightly better design than records in literature for a 10 streams case without fixed cost with only 1/9 computational time. Moreover, compared to the traditional mixed-integer nonlinear programming approach, the iterative NLP method opens a possibility to consider constraints (such as controllability or dynamic performances) that require knowing the structure of the network to be calculated.

Keywords: heat exchanger network, synthesis, NLP, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
21209 A Ground Structure Method to Minimize the Total Installed Cost of Steel Frame Structures

Authors: Filippo Ranalli, Forest Flager, Martin Fischer


This paper presents a ground structure method to optimize the topology and discrete member sizing of steel frame structures in order to minimize total installed cost, including material, fabrication and erection components. The proposed method improves upon existing cost-based ground structure methods by incorporating constructability considerations well as satisfying both strength and serviceability constraints. The architecture for the method is a bi-level Multidisciplinary Feasible (MDF) architecture in which the discrete member sizing optimization is nested within the topology optimization process. For each structural topology generated, the sizing optimization process seek to find a set of discrete member sizes that result in the lowest total installed cost while satisfying strength (member utilization) and serviceability (node deflection and story drift) criteria. To accurately assess cost, the connection details for the structure are generated automatically using accurate site-specific cost information obtained directly from fabricators and erectors. Member continuity rules are also applied to each node in the structure to improve constructability. The proposed optimization method is benchmarked against conventional weight-based ground structure optimization methods resulting in an average cost savings of up to 30% with comparable computational efficiency.

Keywords: cost-based structural optimization, cost-based topology and sizing, optimization, steel frame ground structure optimization, multidisciplinary optimization of steel structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
21208 Cost Valuation Method for Development Concurrent, Phase Appropriate Requirement Valuation Using the Example of Load Carrier Development in the Lithium-Ion-Battery Production

Authors: Achim Kampker, Christoph Deutskens, Heiner Hans Heimes, Mathias Ordung, Felix Optehostert


In the past years electric mobility became part of a public discussion. The trend to fully electrified vehicles instead of vehicles fueled with fossil energy has notably gained momentum. Today nearly every big car manufacturer produces and sells fully electrified vehicles, but electrified vehicles are still not as competitive as conventional powered vehicles. As the traction battery states the largest cost driver, lowering its price is a crucial objective. In addition to improvements in product and production processes a non-negligible, but widely underestimated cost driver of production can be found in logistics, since the production technology is not continuous yet and neither are the logistics systems. This paper presents an approach to evaluate cost factors on different designs of load carrier systems. Due to numerous interdependencies, the combination of costs factors for a particular scenario is not transparent. This is effecting actions for cost reduction negatively, but still cost reduction is one of the major goals for simultaneous engineering processes. Therefore a concurrent and phase appropriate cost valuation method is necessary to serve cost transparency. In this paper the four phases of this cost valuation method are defined and explained, which based upon a new approach integrating the logistics development process in to the integrated product and process development.

Keywords: research and development, technology and innovation, lithium-ion-battery production, load carrier development process, cost valuation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
21207 VISMA: A Method for System Analysis in Early Lifecycle Phases

Authors: Walter Sebron, Hans Tschürtz, Peter Krebs


The choice of applicable analysis methods in safety or systems engineering depends on the depth of knowledge about a system, and on the respective lifecycle phase. However, the analysis method chain still shows gaps as it should support system analysis during the lifecycle of a system from a rough concept in pre-project phase until end-of-life. This paper’s goal is to discuss an analysis method, the VISSE Shell Model Analysis (VISMA) method, which aims at closing the gap in the early system lifecycle phases, like the conceptual or pre-project phase, or the project start phase. It was originally developed to aid in the definition of the system boundary of electronic system parts, like e.g. a control unit for a pump motor. Furthermore, it can be also applied to non-electronic system parts. The VISMA method is a graphical sketch-like method that stratifies a system and its parts in inner and outer shells, like the layers of an onion. It analyses a system in a two-step approach, from the innermost to the outermost components followed by the reverse direction. To ensure a complete view of a system and its environment, the VISMA should be performed by (multifunctional) development teams. To introduce the method, a set of rules and guidelines has been defined in order to enable a proper shell build-up. In the first step, the innermost system, named system under consideration (SUC), is selected, which is the focus of the subsequent analysis. Then, its directly adjacent components, responsible for providing input to and receiving output from the SUC, are identified. These components are the content of the first shell around the SUC. Next, the input and output components to the components in the first shell are identified and form the second shell around the first one. Continuing this way, shell by shell is added with its respective parts until the border of the complete system (external border) is reached. Last, two external shells are added to complete the system view, the environment and the use case shell. This system view is also stored for future use. In the second step, the shells are examined in the reverse direction (outside to inside) in order to remove superfluous components or subsystems. Input chains to the SUC, as well as output chains from the SUC are described graphically via arrows, to highlight functional chains through the system. As a result, this method offers a clear and graphical description and overview of a system, its main parts and environment; however, the focus still remains on a specific SUC. It helps to identify the interfaces and interfacing components of the SUC, as well as important external interfaces of the overall system. It supports the identification of the first internal and external hazard causes and causal chains. Additionally, the method promotes a holistic picture and cross-functional understanding of a system, its contributing parts, internal relationships and possible dangers within a multidisciplinary development team.

Keywords: analysis methods, functional safety, hazard identification, system and safety engineering, system boundary definition, system safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
21206 Arsenic Removal by Membrane Technology, Adsorption and Ion Exchange: An Environmental Lifecycle Assessment

Authors: Karan R. Chavan, Paula Saavalainen, Kumudini V. Marathe, Riitta L. Keiski, Ganapati D. Yadav


Co-contamination of groundwaters by arsenic in different forms is often observed around the globe. Arsenic is introduced into the waters by several mechanisms and different technologies are proposed and practiced for effective removal. The assessment of three prominent technologies, namely, adsorption, ion exchange and nanofiltration was carried out in this study based on lifecycle methodology. The life of the technologies was divided into two stages: cradle to gate (C-G) and gate to gate (G-G), in order to find out the impacts in different categories of environmental burdens, human health and resource consumption. Life cycle inventory was estimated by use of models and design equations concerning with the different technologies. Regeneration was considered for each technology and over the course of its full lifetime. The impact values of adsorption technology for the C-G stage are greater by thousand times (103) and million times (106) compared to ion exchange and nanofiltration technologies, respectively. The impact of G-G stage of the lifecycle is the major contributor of the impact for all the 3 technologies due to electricity consumption during the operation. Overall, the ion Exchange technology fares well in this study of removal of As (V) only.

Keywords: arsenic, nanofiltration, lifecycle assessment, membrane technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
21205 Seat Assignment Model for Student Admissions Process at Saudi Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Mohammed Salem Alzahrani


In this paper, student admission process is studied to optimize the assignment of vacant seats with three main objectives. Utilizing all vacant seats, satisfying all program of study admission requirements and maintaining fairness among all candidates are the three main objectives of the optimization model. Seat Assignment Method (SAM) is used to build the model and solve the optimization problem with help of Northwest Coroner Method and Least Cost Method. A closed formula is derived for applying the priority of assigning seat to candidate based on SAM.

Keywords: admission process model, assignment problem, Hungarian Method, Least Cost Method, Northwest Corner Method, SAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
21204 An Approach for Determining and Reducing Vehicle Turnaround Time for Outbound Logistics by Using Critical Path Method

Authors: Prajakta M. Wazat, D. N. Raut


The study consists of a fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) beverage company wherein a portion of the supply chain which deals with outbound logistics is taken for improvement in order to reduce its logistics cost by using critical path method (CPM) method. Logistics is a major portion of the supply chain where customers are not willing to pay as it adds cost to product without adding value. In this study, it is necessary to ensure that products are delivered to clients at the right time while preserving high-quality standards from the beginning to the end of the supply chain. CPM is a logical sequencing method where in the most efficient route is achieved by arranging the series of events. CPM enables to identify a critical factor in order to minimize the delays and interruption by providing a feasible solution.

Keywords: FMCG, supply chain, outbound logistics, vehicle turnaround time, critical path method, cost reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
21203 Solving the Transportation Problem for Warehouses and Dealers in Bangalore City

Authors: S. Aditya, K. T. Nideesh, N. Guruprasad


Being a subclass of linear programing problem, the Transportation Problem is a classic Operations Research problem where the objective is to determine the schedule for transporting goods from source to destination in a way that minimizes the shipping cost while satisfying supply and demand constraints. In this paper, we are representing the transportation problem for various warehouses along with various dealers situated in Bangalore city to reduce the transportation cost incurred by them as of now. The problem is solved by obtaining the Initial Basic feasible Solution through various methods and further proceeding to obtain optimal cost.

Keywords: NW method, optimum utilization, transportation problem, Vogel’s approximation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
21202 CompleX-Machine: An Automated Testing Tool Using X-Machine Theory

Authors: E. K. A. Ogunshile


This paper is aimed at creating an Automatic Java X-Machine testing tool for software development. The nature of software development is changing; thus, the type of software testing tools required is also changing. Software is growing increasingly complex and, in part due to commercial impetus for faster software releases with new features and value, increasingly in danger of containing faults. These faults can incur huge cost for software development organisations and users; Cambridge Judge Business School’s research estimated the cost of software bugs to the global economy is $312 billion. Beyond the cost, faster software development methodologies and increasing expectations on developers to become testers is driving demand for faster, automated, and effective tools to prevent potential faults as early as possible in the software development lifecycle. Using X-Machine theory, this paper will explore a new tool to address software complexity, changing expectations on developers, faster development pressures and methodologies, with a view to reducing the huge cost of fixing software bugs.

Keywords: conformance testing, finite state machine, software testing, x-machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
21201 A Review of Benefit-Risk Assessment over the Product Lifecycle

Authors: M. Miljkovic, A. Urakpo, M. Simic-Koumoutsaris


Benefit-risk assessment (BRA) is a valuable tool that takes place in multiple stages during a medicine's lifecycle, and this assessment can be conducted in a variety of ways. The aim was to summarize current BRA methods used during approval decisions and in post-approval settings and to see possible future directions. Relevant reviews, recommendations, and guidelines published in medical literature and through regulatory agencies over the past five years have been examined. BRA implies the review of two dimensions: the dimension of benefits (determined mainly by the therapeutic efficacy) and the dimension of risks (comprises the safety profile of a drug). Regulators, industry, and academia have developed various approaches, ranging from descriptive textual (qualitative) to decision-analytic (quantitative) models, to facilitate the BRA of medicines during the product lifecycle (from Phase I trials, to authorization procedure, post-marketing surveillance and health technology assessment for inclusion in public formularies). These approaches can be classified into the following categories: stepwise structured approaches (frameworks); measures for benefits and risks that are usually endpoint specific (metrics), simulation techniques and meta-analysis (estimation techniques), and utility survey techniques to elicit stakeholders’ preferences (utilities). All these approaches share the following two common goals: to assist this analysis and to improve the communication of decisions, but each is subject to its own specific strengths and limitations. Before using any method, its utility, complexity, the extent to which it is established, and the ease of results interpretation should be considered. Despite widespread and long-time use, BRA is subject to debate, suffers from a number of limitations, and currently is still under development. The use of formal, systematic structured approaches to BRA for regulatory decision-making and quantitative methods to support BRA during the product lifecycle is a standard practice in medicine that is subject to continuous improvement and modernization, not only in methodology but also in cooperation between organizations.

Keywords: benefit-risk assessment, benefit-risk profile, product lifecycle, quantitative methods, structured approaches

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
21200 MapReduce Logistic Regression Algorithms with RHadoop

Authors: Byung Ho Jung, Dong Hoon Lim


Logistic regression is a statistical method for analyzing a dataset in which there are one or more independent variables that determine an outcome. Logistic regression is used extensively in numerous disciplines, including the medical and social science fields. In this paper, we address the problem of estimating parameters in the logistic regression based on MapReduce framework with RHadoop that integrates R and Hadoop environment applicable to large scale data. There exist three learning algorithms for logistic regression, namely Gradient descent method, Cost minimization method and Newton-Rhapson's method. The Newton-Rhapson's method does not require a learning rate, while gradient descent and cost minimization methods need to manually pick a learning rate. The experimental results demonstrated that our learning algorithms using RHadoop can scale well and efficiently process large data sets on commodity hardware. We also compared the performance of our Newton-Rhapson's method with gradient descent and cost minimization methods. The results showed that our newton's method appeared to be the most robust to all data tested.

Keywords: big data, logistic regression, MapReduce, RHadoop

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
21199 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems

Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski


The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life cycle cost of an electric motor.

Keywords: initial cost, life-cycle cost, maintenance cost, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
21198 Contributing to Accuracy of Bid Cost Estimate in Construction Projects

Authors: Abdullah Alhomidan


This study is conducted to identify the main factors affecting accuracy of pretender cost estimate in building construction projects in Saudi Arabia from owners’ perspective. 44 factors affecting pretender cost estimate were identified through literature review and discussion with some construction experts. The results show that the top important factors affecting pretender cost estimate accuracy are: level of competitors in the tendering, material price changes, communications with suppliers, communications with client, and estimating method used.

Keywords: cost estimate, accuracy, pretender, estimating, bid estimate

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
21197 Uncertainty in Building Energy Performance Analysis at Different Stages of the Building’s Lifecycle

Authors: Elham Delzendeh, Song Wu, Mustafa Al-Adhami, Rima Alaaeddine


Over the last 15 years, prediction of energy consumption has become a common practice and necessity at different stages of the building’s lifecycle, particularly, at the design and post-occupancy stages for planning and maintenance purposes. This is due to the ever-growing response of governments to address sustainability and reduction of CO₂ emission in the building sector. However, there is a level of uncertainty in the estimation of energy consumption in buildings. The accuracy of energy consumption predictions is directly related to the precision of the initial inputs used in the energy assessment process. In this study, multiple cases of large non-residential buildings at design, construction, and post-occupancy stages are investigated. The energy consumption process and inputs, and the actual and predicted energy consumption of the cases are analysed. The findings of this study have pointed out and evidenced various parameters that cause uncertainty in the prediction of energy consumption in buildings such as modelling, location data, and occupant behaviour. In addition, unavailability and insufficiency of energy-consumption-related inputs at different stages of the building’s lifecycle are classified and categorized. Understanding the roots of uncertainty in building energy analysis will help energy modellers and energy simulation software developers reach more accurate energy consumption predictions in buildings.

Keywords: building lifecycle, efficiency, energy analysis, energy performance, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
21196 Analysis of Behavior and Determinants of Cost Stickiness in Manufacturing Companies in Indonesia

Authors: Farizy Yunaz, Catur Sasongko


This research aims to provide the empirical evidence regarding cost stickiness behavior and its determinants on listed manufacturing companies. Hypothesis testing is performed using pooled least square method. The result concludes that there is cost stickiness behavior in selling, general and administrative costs. In term of determinants, firm-specific adjustment costs measured by asset intensity and employee intensity have significant positive impact on the level of cost stickiness. Meanwhile, earnings target and leverage have significant negative impact on the level of cost stickiness. However, the management empire building incentives measured by free cash flow has no significant positive impact.

Keywords: adjustment cost, cost behavior, cost stickiness, earnings target, leverage, management empire building incentive

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
21195 STC Parameters versus Real Time Measured Parameters to Determine Cost Effectiveness of PV Panels

Authors: V. E. Selaule, R. M. Schoeman H. C. Z. Pienaar


Research has shown that solar energy is a renewable energy resource with the most potential when compared to other renewable energy resources in South Africa. There are many makes of Photovoltaic (PV) panels on the market and it is difficult to assess which to use. PV panel manufacturers use Standard Test Conditions (STC) to rate their PV panels. STC conditions are different from the actual operating environmental conditions were the PV panels are used. This paper describes a practical method to determine the most cost effective available PV panel. The method shows that PV panel manufacturer STC ratings cannot be used to select a cost effective PV panel.

Keywords: PV orientation, PV panel, PV STC, Solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 410