Search results for: solar cathodic protection station
4016 Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Energy for Cathodic Protection of Oil and Gas Buried Pipelines in Southwestern of Iran
Authors: M. Goodarzi, M. Mohammadi, A. Gharib
Abstract:Solar energy is a renewable energy which has attracted special attention in many countries. Solar cathodic protectionsystems harness the sun’senergy to protect underground pipelinesand tanks from galvanic corrosion. The object of this study is to design and the economic analysis a cathodic protection system by impressed current supplied with solar energy panels applied to underground pipelines. In the present study, the technical and economic analysis of using solar energy for cathodic protection system in southwestern of Iran (Khuzestan province) is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The economic analyses were done using computer code to investigate the feasibility analysis from the using of various energy sources in order to cathodic protection system. The overall research methodology is divided into four components: Data collection, design of elements, techno economical evaluation, and output analysis. According to the results, solar renewable energy systems can supply adequate power for cathodic protection system purposes.
Keywords: renewable energy, solar energy, solar cathodic protection station, lifecycle cost methodProcedia PDF Downloads 456
4015 Design Considerations on Cathodic Protection for X65 Steel Tank Containing Fresh Water
Authors: A. M. Al-Sabagh, M. A. Deyab, M. N. Kroush
Abstract:The present study focused on critical and detailed approach for using aluminum electrode as impressed current anode for cathodic protection of X65 steel tank containing fresh water. The impressed current design calculation showed 0.6 A of current demand and voltage of 0.33 V required to adequately protect the X65 steel tank with internal surface area of 421 m². We used here one transformer rectifier with current and voltage output of 25 A and 25 V, respectively. The data showed that the potentials ranged from -0.474 to -0.509 V (vs. Cu/CuSO₄), prior to the application of cathodic protection. When the potential was measured 1 h after the application of cathodic protection, the potential values showed considerable shift within protection range (-0.950 V vs. Cu/CuSO₄). The results confirmed that aluminum anode can be used in freshwater applications with high efficiency (current capacity) and low consumption rate.
Keywords: cathodic protection, aluminum, steel, fresh waterProcedia PDF Downloads 98
4014 Mechanism of Cathodic Protection to Minimize Corrosion Caused by Chloride in Reinforcement Concrete
Authors: Mohamed A. Deyab, Omnia El-Shamy
Abstract:The main objective of this case study is to integrate the advantages of cathodic protection technologies in order to lessen chloride-induced corrosion in reinforced concrete. This research employs potentiodynamic polarisation, impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and surface characteristics. The results showed how effectively the new cathodic control strategy is preventing corrosion of the concrete iron rods. Over time, the protective system becomes more reliable and effective. The potentials of the zinc electrode persist still more negative after 30 days, implying that the zinc electrode can maintain powerful electrocatalytic behavior for a long period of time. As per the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), using the CP technique reduces the rate of corrosion of rebar iron in cementitious materials over time.
Keywords: cathodic protection, corrosion, reinforced concrete, chlorideProcedia PDF Downloads 14
4013 Deep Well Grounded Magnetite Anode Chains Retrieval and Installation for Raslanuf Complex Impressed Current Cathodic Protection System Rectification
Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Khali
Abstract:Numbers of deep well anode ground beds (GBs) have been retrieved due to un operated anode chains. New identical magnetite anode chains(MAC) have been installed at Raslanuf complex impressed current Cathodic protection(ICCP) system, distributed at different plants(Utility, ethylene and polyethylene). All problems associated with retrieving and installation of MACs have been discussed, rectified and presented. All GB associated severely corroded wellhead casings were well maintained and/ or replaced by new fabricated and modified ones. The main cause of wellhead casings internal corrosion was discussed, and the conducted remedy action to overcome future corrosion problem is presented. All GB connected anode junction boxes (AJBs) and shunts were closely inspected, maintained, and necessary replacement/and or modification were carried out on shunts. All damaged GB concrete foundations (CF) have been inspected and completely replaced. All GB associated Transformer-Rectifiers units (TRUs) were subjected to through inspection, and necessary maintenance has been performed on each individual TRU. After completion of all MACs and TRU maintenance activities, each cathodic protection station (CPS) has been re-operated. An alternative current (AC), direct current (DC), voltage and structure to soil potential (S/P) measurements have been conducted, recorded, and all obtained test results are presented. DC current outputs has been adjusted, and DC current outputs of each MAC has been recorded for each GB AJB.
Keywords: magnatite anode, deep well, ground bed, cathodic protection, transformer rectifies, impreced current, junction boxProcedia PDF Downloads 18
4012 Deep Well-Grounded Magnetite Anode Chains Retrieval and Installation for Raslanuf Complex Impressed Current Cathodic Protection System Rectification
Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Khalil
Abstract:The number of deep well anode ground beds (GBs) have been retrieved due to unoperated anode chains. New identical magnetite anode chains (MAC) have been installed at Raslanuf complex impressed current Cathodic protection (ICCP) system, distributed at different plants (Utility, ethylene and polyethylene). All problems associated with retrieving and installation of MACs have been discussed, rectified and presented. All GB-associated severely corroded wellhead casings were well maintained and/or replaced by new fabricated and modified ones. The main cause of the wellhead casing's severe internal corrosion was discussed and the conducted remedy action to overcome future corrosion problems is presented. All GB-connected anode junction boxes (AJBs) and shunts were closely inspected, maintained and necessary replacement and/or modifications were carried out on shunts. All damaged GB concrete foundations (CF) have been inspected and completely replaced. All GB-associated Transformer-Rectifiers Units (TRU) were subjected to thorough inspection and necessary maintenance was performed on each individual TRU. After completion of all MACs and TRU maintenance activities, each cathodic protection station (CPS) has been re-operated, alternative current (AC), direct current (DC), voltage and structure to soil potential (S/P) measurements have been conducted, recorded and all obtained test results are presented. DC current outputs have been adjusted and DC current outputs of each MAC have been recorded for each GB AJB.
Keywords: magnetite anodes, deep well, ground beds, cathodic protection, transformer rectifier, impressed current, junction boxesProcedia PDF Downloads 12
4011 Influence of Cathodic Protection on High Strength, Pre-Stressed Corroded Tendons
Authors: Ibrahim R. Elomari, Fin O'Flaherty, Ibrahim R. Elomari, Paul Lambert
Abstract:Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique commonly used to arrest corrosion of steel in infrastructure. However, it is not generally used on high strength, pre-stressed tendons due to the risk of hydrogen generation, leading to possible embrittlement. This paper investigates its use in such circumstances where the applied protection potential is varied to determine if CP can be safely employed on pre-stressed tendons. Plain steel tendons measuring 5.4 mm diameter were pre-stressed in timber moulds and embedded in sand/cement mortar, formulated to represent gunite. Two levels of pre-stressing were investigated (400MPa and 1200MPa). Pre-corrosion of 0% (control), 3% and 6% target loss of cross-sectional area was applied to replicate service conditions. Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) was then applied to the tendons at two levels of potential to identify any effect on strength. Instant-off values up to -950mV were used for normal protection with values of -1100mV or more negative to achieve overprotection. Following the ICCP phase, the tendons were removed from the mortar, cleaned and weighed to confirm actual percentage of corrosion. Tensile tests were then conducted on the tendons. The preliminary results show the influence of normal levels and overprotection of CP on the ultimate strength of the tendons.
Keywords: pre-stressed concrete, corrosion, cathodic protection, hydrogen embrittlementProcedia PDF Downloads 194
4010 Effect of Soil Resistivity on the Development of a Cathodic Protection System Using Zinc Anode
Authors: Chinedu F. Anochie
Abstract:The deterioration of materials as a result of their interaction with the environment has been a huge challenge to engineering. Many steps have been taking to tackle corrosion and its effects on harmful effects on engineering materials and structures. Corrosion inhibition, coating, passivation, materials selection, and cathodic protection are some of the methods utilized to curtail the rate at which materials corrode. The use of sacrificial anodes (magnesium, aluminum, or zinc) to protect the metal of interest is a widespread technique used to prevent corrosion in underground structures, ship hauls, and other structures susceptible to corrosion attack. However, certain factors, like resistivity, affect the performance of sacrificial anodes. To establish the effect of soil resistivity on the effectiveness of a cathodic protection system, a mild steel specimen was cathodically protected around Workshop 2 area, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Design calculations showed that one zinc anode was sufficient to protect the pipe. The specimen (mild steel pipe) was coated with white and black polykene tapes and was subsequently buried in a high resistivity soil. The pipe-to-soil potential measurements were obtained using a digital fluke multimeter. The protection potential obtained on installation was higher than the minimum protection criteria. However, the potential results obtained over a fourteen-day intervals continually decreased to a value significantly lower than the minimum protection criteria. This showed that the sacrificial anode (zinc) was rendered ineffective by the high resistivity of the area of installation. It has been shown that the resistivity of the soil has a marked effect on the feasibility of cathodic protection systems. This work justified that zinc anode cannot be used for cathodic protection around Workshop 2 area, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, because of the high resistivity of the area. An experimental data which explains the effectiveness of galvanic anode cathodic protection system on corrosion control of a small steel structure, exposed to a soil of high resistivity has been established.
Keywords: cathodic protection, corrosion, pipe, sacrificial anodeProcedia PDF Downloads 86
4009 The Effectiveness of Cathodic Protection on Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Control
Authors: S. Taghavi Kalajahi, A. Koerdt, T. Lund Skovhus
Abstract:Cathodic protection (CP) is an electrochemical method to control and manage corrosion in different industries and environments. CP which is widely used, especially in buried and sub-merged environments, which both environments are susceptible to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most of the standards recommend performing CP using -800 mV, however, if MIC threats are high or sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is present, the recommendation is to use more negative potentials for adequate protection of the metal. Due to the lack of knowledge and research on the effectiveness of CP on MIC, to the author’s best knowledge, there is no information about what MIC threat is and how much more negative potentials should be used enabling adequate protection and not overprotection (due to hydrogen embrittlement risk). Recently, the development and cheaper price of molecular microbial methods (MMMs) open the door for more effective investigations on the corrosion in the presence of microorganisms, along with other electrochemical methods and surface analysis. In this work, using MMMs, the gene expression of SRB biofilm under different potentials of CP will be investigated. The specific genes, such as pH buffering, metal oxidizing, etc., will be compared at different potentials, enabling to determine the precise potential that protect the metal effectively from SRB. This work is the initial step to be able to standardize the recommended potential under MIC condition, resulting better protection for the infrastructures.
Keywords: cathodic protection, microbiologically influenced corrosion, molecular microbial methods, sulfate reducing bacteriaProcedia PDF Downloads 37
4008 Corrosion of Concrete Reinforcing Steel Bars Tested and Compared Between Various Protection Methods
Authors: P. van Tonder, U. Bagdadi, B. M. D. Lario, Z. Masina, T. R. Motshwari
Abstract:This paper analyses how concrete reinforcing steel bars corrode and how it can be minimised through the use of various protection methods against corrosion, such as metal-based paint, alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating. Samples of carbon steel bars were protected, using these four methods. Tests performed on the samples included durability, electrical resistivity and bond strength. Durability results indicated relatively low corrosion rates for alloying, cathodic protection, electroplating and metal-based paint. The resistivity results indicate all samples experienced a downward trend, despite erratic fluctuations in the data, indicating an inverse relationship between electrical resistivity and corrosion rate. The results indicated lowered bond strengths when the reinforced concrete was cured in seawater compared to being cured in normal water. It also showed that higher design compressive strengths lead to higher bond strengths which can be used to compensate for the loss of bond strength due to corrosion in a real-world application. In terms of implications, all protection methods have the potential to be effective at resisting corrosion in real-world applications, especially the alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating methods. The metal-based paint underperformed by comparison, most likely due to the nature of paint in general which can fade and chip away, revealing the steel samples and exposing them to corrosion. For alloying, stainless steel is the suggested material of choice, where Y-bars are highly recommended as smooth bars have a much-lowered bond strength. Cathodic protection performed the best of all in protecting the sample from corrosion, however, its real-world application would require significant evaluation into the feasibility of such a method.
Keywords: protection methods, corrosion, concrete, reinforcing steel barsProcedia PDF Downloads 118
4007 Application of Voltammetry as a Non-destructive Tool to Quantify Cathodic Protection of Steel in Simulated Soil Solution
Authors: Mandlenkosi George Robert Mahlobo, Peter Apata Olubambi
Abstract:Cathodic protection (CP) has been widely considered as a suitable technique for mitigating corrosion of steel structures buried in soil. Plenty of efforts have been made in developing techniques, in particular non-destructive techniques, for monitoring and quantifying the effectiveness of CP to ensure sustainability and performance of buried steel structures. This study was aimed at using a specifically modified voltammetry approach as a non-destructive tool to monitor and quantify the effectiveness of CP of steel in simulated soil. Carbon steel was subjected to electrochemical tests with NS4 solution used as simulated soil conditions for 4 days before applying CP for further 11 days. A specifically modified voltammetry technique was applied at various time intervals of the experiment to monitor the corrosion behaviour and therefore reflecting CP effectiveness. The voltammetry results revealed that the application of CP reduced the corrosion rate from the highest value of 410 µm/yr to 8 µm/yr between days 5 and 14 of the experiments. The microstructural analysis of the steel surface performed using x-ray diffraction identified calcareous deposit as the dominant phase protecting the surface from corrosion. It was deduced that the formation of calcareous deposit was linked with the effectiveness of CP of steel.
Keywords: carbon steel, cathodic protection, NS4 solution, voltammetry, XRDProcedia PDF Downloads 14
4006 Flow Measurement Using Magnetic Meters in Large Underground Cooling Water Pipelines
Authors: Humanyun Zahir, Irtsam Ghazi
Abstract:This report outlines the basic installation and operation of magnetic inductive flow velocity sensors on large underground cooling water pipelines. Research on the effects of cathodic protection as well as into other factors that might influence the overall performance of the meter are presented in this paper. The experiments were carried out on an immersion type magnetic meter specially used for flow measurement of cooling water pipeline. An attempt has been made in this paper to outline guidelines that can ensure accurate measurement related to immersion type magnetic meters on underground pipelines.
Keywords: magnetic induction, flow meter, Faraday's law, immersion, cathodic protection, anode, cathode, flange, grounding, plant information management system, electrodesProcedia PDF Downloads 356
4005 Solar Radiation Time Series Prediction
Authors: Cameron Hamilton, Walter Potter, Gerrit Hoogenboom, Ronald McClendon, Will Hobbs
Abstract:A model was constructed to predict the amount of solar radiation that will make contact with the surface of the earth in a given location an hour into the future. This project was supported by the Southern Company to determine at what specific times during a given day of the year solar panels could be relied upon to produce energy in sufficient quantities. Due to their ability as universal function approximators, an artificial neural network was used to estimate the nonlinear pattern of solar radiation, which utilized measurements of weather conditions collected at the Griffin, Georgia weather station as inputs. A number of network configurations and training strategies were utilized, though a multilayer perceptron with a variety of hidden nodes trained with the resilient propagation algorithm consistently yielded the most accurate predictions. In addition, a modeled DNI field and adjacent weather station data were used to bolster prediction accuracy. In later trials, the solar radiation field was preprocessed with a discrete wavelet transform with the aim of removing noise from the measurements. The current model provides predictions of solar radiation with a mean square error of 0.0042, though ongoing efforts are being made to further improve the model’s accuracy.
Keywords: artificial neural networks, resilient propagation, solar radiation, time series forecastingProcedia PDF Downloads 313
4004 Application of PV/Wind-Based Green Energy to Power Cellular Base Station
Authors: Francis Okodede, Edafe Lucky Okotie
Abstract:Conventional energy sources based on oil, coal, and natural gas has posed a trait to environment and to human health. Green energy stands as an alternative because it has proved to be eco-friendly. The prospective of renewable energy sources are quite vast as they can, in principle, meet many times the world’s energy demand. Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, can provide sustainable energy services based on the use of routinely available indigenous resources. New renewable energy sources (solar energy, wind energy, and modern bio-energy) are currently contributing immensely to global energy demand. A number of studies have shown the potential and contribution of renewable energy to global energy supplies, indicating that in the second half of the 21st century, it is going to be a major source and driver in the telecommunication sector. Green energy contribution might reach as much as 50 percent of global energy demands if the right policies are in place. This work suggests viable non-conventional means of energy supply to power a cellular base station.
Keywords: base station, energy storage, green energy, rotor efficiency, solar energy, wind energyProcedia PDF Downloads 11
4003 Experimental Study on Using the Aluminum Sacrificial Anode as a Cathodic Protection for Marine Structures
Authors: A. Radwan, A. Elbatran, A. Mehanna, M. Shehadeh
Abstract:The corrosion is natural chemical phenomenon that is applied in many engineering structures. Hence, it is one of the important topics to study in the engineering research. Ship and offshore structures are most exposed to corrosion due to the presence of corrosive medium of air and the seawater. Consequently, investigation of the corrosion behavior and properties over ship and offshore hulls is one of the important topics to study in the marine engineering research. Using sacrificial anode is the most popular solution for protecting marine structures from corrosion. Hence, this research investigates the extent of corrosion between the composite ship model and relative velocity of water, along with the sacrificial aluminum anode consumption and its degree of protection in seawater. In this study, the consumption rate of sacrificial aluminum anode with respect to relative velocity at different Reynold’s numbers was studied experimentally, and it was found that, the degree of cathodic protection represented by the cathode potential at a given distance from the aluminum anode was decreased slightly with increment of the relative velocity.
Keywords: corrosion, Reynold's numbers, sacrificial anode, velocityProcedia PDF Downloads 484
4002 Use of Vapor Corrosion Inhibitor for Tank Bottom Protection
Authors: Muhammad Arsalan Khan Sherwani
Abstract:The use of Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors (VCI) to protect Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) bottom plates against soil-side corrosion is one of the emerging corrosion prevention methods, specifically for tanks constructed on oily sand pad. Oily sand pad and the presence of air gaps underneath the bottom plates lead to severe corrosion and high metal thickness loss. In such cases, the cathodic protection cannot be fully considered as effective due to Cathodic Protection (CP) current shielding. These situations sometimes result in serious failures on multiple fronts, such as; containment losses, system shutdowns, extensive repairs, environmental impact and safety concerns in case of flammable fluids. Recently, East West Pipeline Department (EWPD) of Saudi Aramco has deployed this technology to one of the crude oil storage tanks, which showed high metal thickness loss during its out of service inspection. Soil-side corrosion rustled in major repairs of bottom plates and ultimately caused enormous unplanned activities in term of time as well as cost. This paper mainly focuses on the methodology of VCI installation, corrosion monitoring system and the expected results of protection.
Keywords: Vapor Corrosion Inhibitor, Soil Side Corrosion, External Corrosion, Above Grade Storage TankProcedia PDF Downloads 0
4001 Simulation of Wind Solar Hybrid Power Generation for Pumping Station
Authors: Masoud Taghavi, Gholamreza Salehi, Ali Lohrasbi Nichkoohi
Abstract:Despite the growing use of renewable energies in different fields of application of this technology in the field of water supply has been less attention. Photovoltaic and wind hybrid system is that new topics in renewable energy, including photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, a set of batteries as a storage system and a diesel generator as a backup system is. In this investigation, first climate data including average wind speed and solar radiation at any time during the year, data collection and analysis are performed in the energy. The wind turbines in four models, photovoltaic panels at the 6 position of relative power, batteries and diesel generator capacity in seven states in the two models are combined hours of operation with renewables, diesel generator and battery bank check and a hybrid system of solar power generation-wind, which is optimized conditions, are presented.
Keywords: renewable energy, wind and solar energy, hybrid systems, cloning stationProcedia PDF Downloads 334
4000 Investigation of Electrochemical, Morphological, Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Nano-Layered Graphene/Zinc Nanoparticles Incorporated Cold Galvanizing Compound at Reduced Pigment Volume Concentration
Authors: Muhammad Abid
Abstract:The ultimate goal of this research was to produce a cold galvanizing compound (CGC) at reduced pigment volume concentration (PVC) to protect metallic structures from corrosion. The influence of the partial replacement of Zn dust by nano-layered graphene (NGr) and Zn metal nanoparticles on the electrochemical, morphological, rheological, and mechanical properties of CGC was investigated. EIS was used to explore the electrochemical nature of coatings. The EIS results revealed that the partial replacement of Zn by NGr and Zn nanoparticles enhanced the cathodic protection at reduced PVC (4:1) by improving the electrical contact between the Zn particles and the metal substrate. The Tafel scan was conducted to support the cathodic behaviour of the coatings. The sample formulated solely with Zn at PVC 4:1 was found to be dominated in physical barrier characteristics over cathodic protection. By increasing the concentration of NGr in the formulation, the corrosion potential shifted towards a more negative side. The coating with 1.5% NGr showed the highest galvanic action at reduced PVC. FE-SEM confirmed the interconnected network of conducting particles. The coating without NGr and Zn nanoparticles at PVC 4:1 showed significant gaps between the Zn dust particles. The novelty was evidenced when micrographs showed the consistent distribution of NGr and Zn nanoparticles all over the surface, which acted as a bridge between spherical Zn particles and provided cathodic protection at a reduced PVC. The layered structure of graphene also improved the physical shielding effect of the coatings, which limited the diffusion of electrolytes and corrosion products (oxides/hydroxides) into the coatings, which was reflected by the salt spray test. The rheological properties of coatings showed good liquid/fluid properties. All the coatings showed excellent adhesion but had different strength values. A real-time scratch resistance assessment showed all the coatings had good scratch resistance.
Keywords: protective coatings, anti-corrosion, galvanization, graphene, nanomaterials, polymersProcedia PDF Downloads 22
3999 Designing Ecologically and Economically Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
Authors: Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal
Abstract:The number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing worldwide. Replacing gas fueled cars with EVs reduces carbon emission. However, the extensive energy consumption of EVs stresses the energy systems, requiring non-green sources of energy (such as gas turbines) to compensate for the new energy demand caused by EVs in the energy systems. To make EVs even a greener solution for the future energy systems, new EV charging stations are equipped with solar PV panels and batteries. This will help serve the energy demand of EVs through the green energy of solar panels. To ensure energy availability, solar panels are combined with batteries. The energy surplus at any point is stored in batteries and is used when there is not enough solar energy to serve the demand. While EV charging stations equipped with solar panels and batteries are green and ecologically optimal, they might not be financially viable solutions, due to battery prices. To make the system viable, we should size the battery economically and operate the system optimally. This is, in general, a challenging problem because of the stochastic nature of the EV arrivals at the charging station, the available solar energy, and the battery operating system. In this work, we provide a mathematical model for this problem and we compute the return on investment (ROI) of such a system, which is designed to be ecologically and financially optimal. We also quantify the minimum required investment in terms of battery and solar panels along with the operating strategy to ensure that a charging station has enough energy to serve its EV demand at any time.
Keywords: solar energy, battery storage, electric vehicle, charging stationsProcedia PDF Downloads 160
3998 A Quantification Method of Attractiveness of Stations and an Estimation Method of Number of Passengers Taking into Consideration the Attractiveness of the Station
Authors: Naoya Ozaki, Takuya Watanabe, Ryosuke Matsumoto, Noriko Fukasawa
Abstract:In the metropolitan areas in Japan, in many stations, shopping areas are set up, and escalators and elevators are installed to make the stations be barrier-free. Further, many areas around the stations are being redeveloped. Railway business operators want to know how much effect these circumstances have on attractiveness of the station or number of passengers using the station. So, we performed a questionnaire survey of the station users in the metropolitan areas for finding factors to affect the attractiveness of stations. Then, based on the analysis of the survey, we developed a method to quantitatively evaluate attractiveness of the stations. We also developed an estimation method for number of passengers based on combination of attractiveness of the station quantitatively evaluated and the residential and labor population around the station. Then, we derived precise linear regression models estimating the attractiveness of the station and number of passengers of the station.
Keywords: attractiveness of the station, estimation method, number of passengers of the station, redevelopment around the station, renovation of the stationProcedia PDF Downloads 230
3997 Solar System with Plate Heat Exchanger
Authors: Christer Frennfelt
Abstract:Solar heating is the most environmentally friendly way to heat water. Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers (BPHEs) are a key component in many solar heating applications for harvesting solar energy into accumulator tanks, producing hot tap water, and heating pools. The combination of high capacity in a compact format, efficient heat transfer, and fast response makes the BPHE the ideal heat exchanger for solar thermal systems. Solar heating is common as a standalone heat source, and as an add-on heat source for boilers, heat pumps, or district heating systems. An accumulator provides the possibility to store heat, which enables combination of different heat sources to a larger extent. In turn this works as protection to reduced access to energy or increased energy prices. For example heat from solar panels is preferably stored during the day for use at night.
Keywords: district heating and cooling, thermal storage, brazed plate heat exchanger, solar domestic hot water and combisystemsProcedia PDF Downloads 253
3996 Power Control in Solar Battery Charging Station Using Fuzzy Decision Support System
Authors: Krishnan Manickavasagam, Manikandan Shanmugam
Abstract:Clean and abundant renewable energy sources (RES) such as solar energy is seen as the best solution to replace conventional energy source. Unpredictable power generation is a major issue in the penetration of solar energy, as power generated is governed by the irradiance received. Controlling the power generated from solar PV (SPV) panels to battery and load is a challenging task. In this paper, power flow control from SPV to load and energy storage device (ESD) is controlled by a fuzzy decision support system (FDSS) on the availability of solar irradiation. The results show that FDSS implemented with the energy management system (EMS) is capable of managing power within the area, and if excess power is available, then shared with the neighboring area.
Keywords: renewable energy sources, fuzzy decision support system, solar photovoltaic, energy storage device, energy management systemProcedia PDF Downloads 38
3995 Performance Evaluation of Different Technologies of PV Modules in Algeria
Authors: Amira Balaska, Ali Tahri, Amine Boudghene Stambouli, Takashi Oozeki
Abstract:This paper is dealing with the evaluation of photovoltaic modules as part of the Sahara Solar Breeder project (SSB), five different photovoltaic module technologies which are: m-si, CIS, HIT, Back Contact, a-si_μc -si and a weather station recently installed at the University of Saida (Tahar Moulay) in Saida city located at the gate of the great southern Algeria’s Sahara. The objective of the present work is the study of solar photovoltaic capacity and performance parameters of each PV module technology. The goal of the study is to compare the five different PV technologies in order to find which technologies are suitable for the climate conditions of Algeria’s desert. Measurements of various parameters as irradiance, temperature, humidity and so on by the weather station and I-V curves were performed outdoors at the location without shadow. Finally performance parameters as performance ratio, energy yield and temperature losses are given and analyzed.
Keywords: photovoltaic modules, performance ratio, energy yield, sahara solar breeder, outdoor conditionsProcedia PDF Downloads 600
3994 Study of the Behavior of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Seawater
Authors: N. Hammouda, K. Belmokre
Abstract:The paints are used extensively today in the industry to protect the metallic structures of the aggressive environments. This work is devoted to the study of corrosion resistance and aging behavior of a paint coating providing external protection for oil tankers. To avoid problems related to corrosion of these vessels, two protection modes are provided: An electro chemical active protection (cathodic protection of the hull). A passive protection by external painting. Investigations are conducted using stationary and non-stationary electro chemical tools such as electro chemical impedance spectroscopy has allowed us to characterize the protective qualities of these films. The application of the EIS on our damaged in-situ painting shows the existence of several capacitive loops which is an indicator of the failure of our tested paint. Microscopic analysis (micrograph) helped bring essential elements in understanding the degradation of our paint condition and immersion training corrosion products.
Keywords: epoxy paints, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, corrosion mechanisms, seawaterProcedia PDF Downloads 324
3993 Laboratory Simulation of Subway Dynamic Stray Current Interference with Cathodically Protected Structures
Authors: Mohammad Derakhshani, Saeed Reza Allahkaram, Michael Isakani-Zakaria, Masoud Samadian, Hojat Sharifi Rasaey
Abstract:Dynamic stray currents tend to change their magnitude and polarity with time at their source which will create anodic and cathodic spots on a nearby interfered structure. To date, one of the biggest known dynamic stray current sources are DC traction systems. Laboratory simulation is a suitable method to apply theoretical principles in order to identify effective parameters in dynamic stray current influenced corrosion. Simulation techniques can be utilized for various mitigation methods applied in a small scales for selection of the most efficient method with regards to field applications. In this research, laboratory simulation of potential fluctuations caused by dynamic stray current on a cathodically protected structure was investigated. A lab model capable of generating DC static and dynamic stray currents and simulating its effects on cathodically protected samples were developed based on stray current induced (contact-less) polarization technique. Stray current pick-up and discharge spots on an influenced structure were simulated by inducing fluctuations in the sample’s stationary potential. Two mitigation methods for dynamic stray current interference on buried structures namely application of sacrificial anodes as preferred discharge point for the stray current and potentially controlled cathodic protection was investigated. Results showed that the application of sacrificial anodes can be effective in reducing interference only in discharge spot. But cathodic protection through potential controlling is more suitable for mitigating dynamic stray current effects.
Keywords: simulation, dynamic stray current, fluctuating potentials, sacrificial anodeProcedia PDF Downloads 237
3992 Drying of Agro-Industrial Wastes Using a Cabinet Type Solar Dryer
Authors: N. Metidji, O. Badaoui, A. Djebli, H. Bendjebbas, R. Sellami
Abstract:The agro-industry is considered as one of the most waste producing industrial fields as a result of food processing. Upgrading and reuse of these wastes as animal or poultry food seems to be a promising alternative. Combined with the use of clean energy resources, the recovery process would contribute more to the environment protection. It is in this framework that a new solar dryer has been designed in the Unit of Solar Equipment Development. Direct solar drying has, also, many advantages compared to natural sun drying. In fact, the first does not cause product degradation as it is protected by the drying chamber from direct sun, insects and exterior environment. The aim of this work is to study the drying kinetics of waste, generated during the processing of pepper, by using a direct natural convection solar dryer at 35◦C and 55◦C. The rate of moisture removal from the product to be dried has been found to be directly related to temperature, humidity and flow rate. The characterization of these parameters has allowed the determination of the appropriate drying time for this product namely peppers waste.
Keywords: solar energy, solar dryer, energy conversion, pepper drying, forced convection solar dryerProcedia PDF Downloads 349
3991 Determination of Direct Solar Radiation Using Atmospheric Physics Models
Authors: Pattra Pukdeekiat, Siriluk Ruangrungrote
Abstract:This work was originated to precisely determine direct solar radiation by using atmospheric physics models since the accurate prediction of solar radiation is necessary and useful for solar energy applications including atmospheric research. The possible models and techniques for a calculation of regional direct solar radiation were challenging and compulsory for the case of unavailable instrumental measurement. The investigation was mathematically governed by six astronomical parameters i.e. declination (δ), hour angle (ω), solar time, solar zenith angle (θz), extraterrestrial radiation (Iso) and eccentricity (E0) along with two atmospheric parameters i.e. air mass (mr) and dew point temperature at Bangna meteorological station (13.67° N, 100.61° E) in Bangkok, Thailand. Analyses of five models of solar radiation determination with the assumption of clear sky were applied accompanied by three statistical tests: Mean Bias Difference (MBD), Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Coefficient of determination (R2) in order to validate the accuracy of obtainable results. The calculated direct solar radiation was in a range of 491-505 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 8.41% for winter and 532-540 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 4.89% for summer 2014. Additionally, dataset of seven continuous days, representing both seasons were considered with the MBD, RMSD and R2 of -0.08, 0.25, 0.86 and -0.14, 0.35, 3.29, respectively, which belong to Kumar model for winter and CSR model for summer. In summary, the determination of direct solar radiation based on atmospheric models and empirical equations could advantageously provide immediate and reliable values of the solar components for any site in the region without a constraint of actual measurement.
Keywords: atmospheric physics models, astronomical parameters, atmospheric parameters, clear sky conditionProcedia PDF Downloads 346
3990 Drying of Agro-Industrial Wastes Using an Indirect Solar Dryer
Authors: N. Metidji, N. Kasbadji Merzouk, O. Badaoui, R. Sellami, A. Djebli
Abstract:The Agro-industry is considered as one of the most waste producing industrial fields as a result of food processing. Upgrading and reuse of these wastes as animal or poultry food seems to be a promising alternative. Combined with the use of clean energy resources, the recovery process would contribute more to the environment protection. It is in this framework that a new solar dryer has been designed in the Unit of Solar Equipments Development. Indirect solar drying has, also, many advantages compared to natural sun drying. In fact, the first does not cause product degradation as it is protected by the drying chamber from direct sun, insects and exterior environment. The aim of this work is to study the drying kinetics of waste, generated during the processing of orange to make fruit juice, by using an indirect forced convection solar dryer at 50 °C and 60 °C, the rate of moisture removal from the product to be dried has been found to be directly related to temperature, humidity and flow rate. The characterization of these parameters has allowed the determination of the appropriate drying time for this product namely orange waste.
Keywords: solar energy, solar dryer, energy conversion, orange drying, forced convection solar dryerProcedia PDF Downloads 300
3989 Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Station's Accessibility Reliability: A Case Study of Hangzhou Metro, China
Authors: Jin-Qu Chen, Jie Liu, Yong Yin, Zi-Qi Ju, Yu-Yao Wu
Abstract:Increase in travel fare and station’s failure will have huge impact on passengers’ travel. The Urban Rail Transit (URT) station’s accessibility reliability under increasing travel fare and station failure are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, the passenger’s travel path is resumed based on stochastic user equilibrium and Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) data. Secondly, calculating station’s importance by combining LeaderRank algorithm and Ratio of Station Affected Passenger Volume (RSAPV), and then the station’s accessibility evaluation indicators are proposed based on the analysis of passenger’s travel characteristic. Thirdly, station’s accessibility under different scenarios are measured and rate of accessibility change is proposed as station’s accessibility reliability indicator. Finally, the accessibility of Hangzhou metro stations is analyzed by the formulated models. The result shows that Jinjiang station and Liangzhu station are the most important and convenient station in the Hangzhou metro, respectively. Station failure and increase in travel fare and station failure have huge impact on station’s accessibility, except for increase in travel fare. Stations in Hangzhou metro Line 1 have relatively worse accessibility reliability and Fengqi Road station’s accessibility reliability is weakest. For Hangzhou metro operational department, constructing new metro line around Line 1 and protecting Line 1’s station preferentially can effective improve the accessibility reliability of Hangzhou metro.
Keywords: automatic fare collection data, AFC, station’s accessibility reliability, stochastic user equilibrium, urban rail transit, URTProcedia PDF Downloads 77
3988 Efficiency Enhancement in Solar Panel
Authors: R. S. Arun Raj
Abstract:In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental issues, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is the solar energy. The SUN provides every hour as much energy as mankind consumes in one year. This paper clearly explains about the solar panel design and new models and methodologies that can be implemented for better utilization of solar energy. Minimisation of losses in solar panel as heat is my innovative idea revolves around. The pay back calculations by implementation of solar panels is also quoted.
Keywords: on-grid and off-grid systems, pyro-electric effect, pay-back calculations, solar panelProcedia PDF Downloads 511
3987 Transient Performance Evaluation and Control Measures for Oum Azza Pumping Station Case Study
Authors: Itissam Abuiziah
Abstract:This work presents a case study of water-hammer analysis and control for the Oum Azza pumping station project in the coastal area of Rabat to Casablanca from the dam Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah (SMBA). This is a typical pumping system with a long penstock and is currently at design and executions stages. Since there is no ideal location for construction of protection devices, the protection devices were provisionally designed to protect the whole conveying pipeline. The simulation results for the transient conditions caused by a sudden pumping stopping without including any protection devices, show that there is a negative beyond 1300m to the station 5725m near the arrival of the reservoir, therefore; there is a need for the protection devices to protect the conveying pipeline. To achieve the goal behind the transient flow analysis which is to protect the conveying pipeline system, four scenarios had been investigated in this case study with two types of protecting devices (pressure relief valve and desurging tank with automatic air control). The four scenarios are conceders as with pressure relief valve, with pressure relief valve and a desurging tank with automatic air control, with pressure relief valve and tow desurging tanks with automatic air control and with pressure relief valve and three desurging tanks with automatic air control. The simulation result for the first scenario shows that overpressure corresponding to an instant pumping stopping is reduced from 263m to 240m, and the minimum hydraulic grad line for the length approximately from station 1300m to station 5725m is still below the pipeline profile which means that the pipe must be equipped with another a protective devices for smoothing depressions. The simulation results for the second scenario show that the minimum and maximum pressures envelopes are decreases especially in the depression phase but not effectively protects the conduct in this case study. The minimum pressure increased from -77.7m for the previous scenario to -65.9m for the current scenario. Therefore the pipeline is still requiring additional protective devices; another desurging tank with automatic air control is installed at station2575.84m. The simulation results for the third scenario show that the minimum and maximum pressures envelopes are decreases but not effectively protects the conduct in this case study since the depression is still exist and varies from -0.6m to– 12m. Therefore the pipeline is still requiring additional protective devices; another desurging tank with automatic air control is installed at station 5670.32 m. Examination of the envelope curves of the minimum pressuresresults for the fourth scenario, we noticed that the piezometric pressure along the pipe remains positive over the entire length of the pipe. We can, therefore, conclude that such scenario can provide effective protection for the pipeline.
Keywords: analysis methods, protection devices, transient flow, water hammerProcedia PDF Downloads 117