Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1714

Search results for: computational biomechanics

1714 Finite Element Method as a Solution Procedure for Problems in Tissue Biomechanics

Authors: Momoh Omeiza Sheidu


Finite element method as a method of providing solutions to problems in computational bio mechanics provides a framework for modeling the function of tissues that integrates structurally from cell to organ system and functionally across the physiological processes that affect tissue mechanics or are regulated by mechanical forces. In this paper, we present an integrative finite element strategy for solution to problems in tissue bio mechanics as a case study.

Keywords: finite element, biomechanics, modeling, computational biomechanics

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1713 Multiscale Model of Blast Explosion Human Injury Biomechanics

Authors: Raj K. Gupta, X. Gary Tan, Andrzej Przekwas


Bomb blasts from Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) account for vast majority of terrorist attacks worldwide. Injuries caused by IEDs result from a combination of the primary blast wave, penetrating fragments, and human body accelerations and impacts. This paper presents a multiscale computational model of coupled blast physics, whole human body biodynamics and injury biomechanics of sensitive organs. The disparity of the involved space- and time-scales is used to conduct sequential modeling of an IED explosion event, CFD simulation of blast loads on the human body and FEM modeling of body biodynamics and injury biomechanics. The paper presents simulation results for blast-induced brain injury coupling macro-scale brain biomechanics and micro-scale response of sensitive neuro-axonal structures. Validation results on animal models and physical surrogates are discussed. Results of our model can be used to 'replicate' filed blast loadings in laboratory controlled experiments using animal models and in vitro neuro-cultures.

Keywords: blast waves, improvised explosive devices, injury biomechanics, mathematical models, traumatic brain injury

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1712 A Non-linear Damage Model For The Annulus Of the Intervertebral Disc Under Cyclic Loading, Including Recovery

Authors: Shruti Motiwale, Xianlin Zhou, Reuben H. Kraft


Military and sports personnel are often required to wear heavy helmets for extended periods of time. This leads to excessive cyclic loads on the neck and an increased chance of injury. Computational models offer one approach to understand and predict the time progression of disc degeneration under severe cyclic loading. In this paper, we have applied an analytic non-linear damage evolution model to estimate damage evolution in an intervertebral disc due to cyclic loads over decade-long time periods. We have also proposed a novel strategy for inclusion of recovery in the damage model. Our results show that damage only grows 20% in the initial 75% of the life, growing exponentially in the remaining 25% life. The analysis also shows that it is crucial to include recovery in a damage model.

Keywords: cervical spine, computational biomechanics, damage evolution, intervertebral disc, continuum damage mechanics

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1711 Biomechanical Study of a Type II Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior Lesion in the Glenohumeral Joint Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Javier A. Maldonado E., Duvert A. Puentes T., Diego F. Villegas B.


The SLAP lesion (Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior) involves the labrum, causing pain and mobility problems in the glenohumeral joint. This injury is common in athletes practicing sports that requires throwing or those who receive traumatic impacts on the shoulder area. This paper determines the biomechanical behavior of soft tissues of the glenohumeral joint when type II SLAP lesion is present. This pathology is characterized for a tear in the superior labrum which is simulated in a 3D model of the shoulder joint. A 3D model of the glenohumeral joint was obtained using the free software Slice. Then, a Finite Element analysis was done using a general purpose software which simulates a compression test with external rotation. First, a validation was done assuming a healthy joint shoulder with a previous study. Once the initial model was validated, a lesion of the labrum built using a CAD software and the same test was done again. The results obtained were stress and strain distribution of the synovial capsule and the injured labrum. ANOVA was done for the healthy and injured glenohumeral joint finding significant differences between them. This study will help orthopedic surgeons to know the biomechanics involving this type of lesion and also the other surrounding structures affected by loading the injured joint.

Keywords: biomechanics, computational model, finite elements, glenohumeral joint, superior labral anterior to posterior lesion

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1710 Comparison of Intraocular Pressure Measurement Prior and Following Full Intracorneal Ring Implantation in Patient with Keratoconus by Three Different Instruments

Authors: Seyed Aliasghar Mosavi, Mostafa Naderi, Khosrow Jadidi, Amir Hashem Mohammadi


To study the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after implantation of intrastromal corneal ring (MyoRing) in patients with keratoconus. Setting: Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Methods: We compared the IOP of 13 eyes which underwent MyoRing implantation prior and six months post operation using Goldman applanation (as gold standard), Icare, and Corvis ST (uncorrected, corrected and corrected with cornea biomechanics). Results: The resulting intraocular pressure measurements prior to surgery, Icare, Corvis (corrected with cornea biomechanics) overestimated the IOP, however measurements by Corvis uncorrected underestimate the IOP. The resulting intraocular pressure measurements after surgery, Icare, Corvis (corrected with cornea biomechanics) overestimated the IOP but measurements by Corvis uncorrected underestimate the IOP. Conclusion: Consistent intraocular pressure measurements on eyes with Myoring in keratoconus can be obtained with the Goldman applanation tonometer as the gold standard measurement. We were not able to obtain consistent results when we measured the IOP by Icare and Corvis prior and after surgery.

Keywords: intraocular pressure, MyoRing, Keratoconus, Goldmann applanation, Icare, Corvis ST

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1709 Examination of Porcine Gastric Biomechanics in the Antrum Region

Authors: Sif J. Friis, Mette Poulsen, Torben Strom Hansen, Peter Herskind, Jens V. Nygaard


Gastric biomechanics governs a large range of scientific and engineering fields, from gastric health issues to interaction mechanisms between external devices and the tissue. Determination of mechanical properties of the stomach is, thus, crucial, both for understanding gastric pathologies as well as for the development of medical concepts and device designs. Although the field of gastric biomechanics is emerging, advances within medical devices interacting with the gastric tissue could greatly benefit from an increased understanding of tissue anisotropy and heterogeneity. Thus, in this study, uniaxial tensile tests of gastric tissue were executed in order to study biomechanical properties within the same individual as well as across individuals. With biomechanical tests in the strain domain, tissue from the antrum region of six porcine stomachs was tested using eight samples from each stomach (n = 48). The samples were cut so that they followed dominant fiber orientations. Accordingly, from each stomach, four samples were longitudinally oriented, and four samples were circumferentially oriented. A step-wise stress relaxation test with five incremental steps up to 25 % strain with 200 s rest periods for each step was performed, followed by a 25 % strain ramp test with three different strain rates. Theoretical analysis of the data provided stress-strain/time curves as well as 20 material parameters (e.g., stiffness coefficients, dissipative energy densities, and relaxation time coefficients) used for statistical comparisons between samples from the same stomach as well as in between stomachs. Results showed that, for the 20 material parameters, heterogeneity across individuals, when extracting samples from the same area, was in the same order of variation as the samples within the same stomach. For samples from the same stomach, the mean deviation percentage for all 20 parameters was 21 % and 18 % for longitudinal and circumferential orientations, compared to 25 % and 19 %, respectively, for samples across individuals. This observation was also supported by a nonparametric one-way ANOVA analysis, where results showed that the 20 material parameters from each of the six stomachs came from the same distribution with a level of statistical significance of P > 0.05. Direction-dependency was also examined, and it was found that the maximum stress for longitudinal samples was significantly higher than for circumferential samples. However, there were no significant differences in the 20 material parameters, with the exception of the equilibrium stiffness coefficient (P = 0.0039) and two other stiffness coefficients found from the relaxation tests (P = 0.0065, 0.0374). Nor did the stomach tissue show any significant differences between the three strain-rates used in the ramp test. Heterogeneity within the same region has not been examined earlier, yet, the importance of the sampling area has been demonstrated in this study. All material parameters found are essential to understand the passive mechanics of the stomach and may be used for mathematical and computational modeling. Additionally, an extension of the protocol used may be relevant for compiling a comparative study between the human stomach and the pig stomach.

Keywords: antrum region, gastric biomechanics, loading-unloading, stress relaxation, uniaxial tensile testing

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1708 Biomechanics of Atalantoaxial Complex for Various Posterior Fixation Techniques

Authors: Arun C. O., Shrijith M. B., Thakur Rajesh Singh


The study aims to analyze and understand the biomechanical stability of the atlantoaxial complex under different posterior fixation techniques using the finite element method in the Indian context. The conventional cadaveric studies performed show heterogeneity in biomechanical properties. The finite element method being a versatile numerical tool, is being wisely used for biomechanics analysis of atlantoaxial complex. However, the biomechanics of posterior fixation techniques for an Indian subject is missing in the literature. It is essential to study in this context as the bone density and geometry of vertebrae vary from region to region, thereby requiring different screw lengths and it can affect the range of motion(ROM), stresses generated. The current study uses CT images for developing a 3D finite element model with C1-C2 geometry without ligaments. Instrumentation is added to this geometry to develop four models for four fixation techniques, namely C1-C2 TA, C1LM-C2PS, C1LM-C2Pars, C1LM-C2TL. To simulate Flexion, extension, lateral bending, axial rotation, 1.5 Nm is applied to C1 while the bottom nodes of C2 are fixed. Then Range of Motion (ROM) is compared with the unstable model(without ligaments). All the fixation techniques showed more than 97 percent reduction in the Range of Motion. The von-mises stresses developed in the screw constructs are obtained. From the studies, it is observed that Transarticular technique is most stable in Lateral Bending, C1LM-C2 Translaminar is found most stable in Flexion/extension. The Von-Mises stresses developed minimum in Trasarticular technique in lateral bending and axial rotation, whereas stress developed in C2 pars construct minimum in Flexion/ Extension. On average, the TA technique is stable in all motions and also stresses in constructs are less in TA. Tarnsarticular technique is found to be the best fixation technique for Indian subjects among the 4 methods.

Keywords: biomechanics, cervical spine, finite element model, posterior fixation

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1707 Development of a Paediatric Head Model for the Computational Analysis of Head Impact Interactions

Authors: G. A. Khalid, M. D. Jones, R. Prabhu, A. Mason-Jones, W. Whittington, H. Bakhtiarydavijani, P. S. Theobald


Head injury in childhood is a common cause of death or permanent disability from injury. However, despite its frequency and significance, there is little understanding of how a child’s head responds during injurious loading. Whilst Infant Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) experimentation is a logical approach to understand injury biomechanics, it is the authors’ opinion that a lack of subject availability is hindering potential progress. Computer modelling adds great value when considering adult populations; however, its potential remains largely untapped for infant surrogates. The complexities of child growth and development, which result in age dependent changes in anatomy, geometry and physical response characteristics, present new challenges for computational simulation. Further geometric challenges are presented by the intricate infant cranial bones, which are separated by sutures and fontanelles and demonstrate a visible fibre orientation. This study presents an FE model of a newborn infant’s head, developed from high-resolution computer tomography scans, informed by published tissue material properties. To mimic the fibre orientation of immature cranial bone, anisotropic properties were applied to the FE cranial bone model, with elastic moduli representing the bone response both parallel and perpendicular to the fibre orientation. Biofiedility of the computational model was confirmed by global validation against published PMHS data, by replicating experimental impact tests with a series of computational simulations, in terms of head kinematic responses. Numerical results confirm that the FE head model’s mechanical response is in favourable agreement with the PMHS drop test results.

Keywords: finite element analysis, impact simulation, infant head trauma, material properties, post mortem human subjects

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1706 Architecture of a Preliminary Course on Computational Thinking

Authors: Mintu Philip, Renumol V. G.


An introductory programming course is a major challenge faced in Computing Education. Many of the introductory programming courses fail because student concentrate mainly on writing programs using a programming language rather than involving in problem solving. Computational thinking is a general approach to solve problems. This paper proposes a new preliminary course that aims to develop computational thinking skills in students, which may help them to become good programmers. The proposed course is designed based on the four basic components of computational thinking - abstract thinking, logical thinking, modeling thinking and constructive thinking. In this course, students are engaged in hands-on problem solving activities using a new problem solving model proposed in this paper.

Keywords: computational thinking, computing education, abstraction, constructive thinking, modelling thinking

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1705 An Empirical Study of the Effect of Robot Programming Education on the Computational Thinking of Young Children: The Role of Flowcharts

Authors: Wei Sun, Yan Dong


There is an increasing interest in introducing computational thinking at an early age. Computational thinking, like mathematical thinking, engineering thinking, and scientific thinking, is a kind of analytical thinking. Learning computational thinking skills is not only to improve technological literacy, but also allows learners to equip with practicable skills such as problem-solving skills. As people realize the importance of computational thinking, the field of educational technology faces a problem: how to choose appropriate tools and activities to help students develop computational thinking skills. Robots are gradually becoming a popular teaching tool, as robots provide a tangible way for young children to access to technology, and controlling a robot through programming offers them opportunities to engage in developing computational thinking. This study explores whether the introduction of flowcharts into the robotics programming courses can help children convert natural language into a programming language more easily, and then to better cultivate their computational thinking skills. An experimental study was adopted with a sample of children ages six to seven (N = 16) participated, and a one-meter-tall humanoid robot was used as the teaching tool. Results show that children can master basic programming concepts through robotic courses. Children's computational thinking has been significantly improved. Besides, results suggest that flowcharts do have an impact on young children’s computational thinking skills development, but it only has a significant effect on the "sequencing" and "correspondence" skills. Overall, the study demonstrates that the humanoid robot and flowcharts have qualities that foster young children to learn programming and develop computational thinking skills.

Keywords: robotics, computational thinking, programming, young children, flow chart

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1704 Evaluation of Initial Graft Tension during ACL Reconstruction Using a Three-Dimensional Computational Finite Element Simulation: Effect of the Combination of a Band of Gracilis with the Former Graft

Authors: S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Javad Parvizi, Narges R. Gabaran, Shervin Rashidinia, Mahdi M. Bijanabadi, Dariush G. Savadkoohi


Background: The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the most frequent ligament to be disrupted. Surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is a common practice to treat the disability or chronic instability of the knee. Several factors associated with success or failure of the ACL reconstruction including preoperative laxity of the knee, selection of the graft material, surgical technique, graft tension, and postoperative rehabilitation. We aimed to examine the biomechanical properties of any graft type and initial graft tensioning during ACL reconstruction using 3-dimensional computational finite element simulation. Methods: In this paper, 3-dimensional model of the knee was constructed to investigate the effect of graft tensioning on the knee joint biomechanics. Four different grafts were compared: 1) Bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (BPTB) 2) Hamstring tendon 3) BPTB and a band of gracilis4) Hamstring and a band of gracilis. The initial graft tension was set as “0, 20, 40, or 60N”. The anterior loading was set to 134 N. Findings: The resulting stress pattern and deflection in any of these models were compared to that of the intact knee. The obtained results showed that the combination of a band of gracilis with the former graft (BPTB or Hamstring) increases the structural stiffness of the knee. Conclusion: Required pretension during surgery decreases significantly by adding a band of gracilis to the proper graft.

Keywords: ACL reconstruction, deflection, finite element simulation, stress pattern

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1703 The Effect of Ankle Taping on the Biomechanics of Countermovement Jump in Elite Taekwondo Athletes with Chronic Ankle Instability

Authors: Parastoo ShamsehKohan, Maziar Meghdadi


Ankle taping has historically been the most common technique used to prevent ankle sprains or to protect a previously injured ankle when a taekwondo player returns to competition. However, researchers have been unable to reach a consensus as to the effectiveness of ankle taping and its ability to maintain its effectiveness during exercise. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes to observe the impacts of ankle taping on the biomechanics of countermovement jump in elite taekwondo athletes with chronic ankle instability. 16 women taekwondo athletes participated in this study. Taping was used on both the dominant and non-dominant ankle. The tests were carried out both un-taped and taped. Except for the propulsion phase, the results showed an increase in temporal variability after taping (un-taped ankle: 18.4 ± 9.4, taped ankle: 17.0 ± 11.2, P-value: 0.750). Despite the fact that the phases of the countermovement jump curve were determined and then classified based on their duration, magnitude, area (impulse), and shape (shape factor). According to the findings, the variability values in all items decreased, and the subjects performed their jumps with less variation in the post-test. However, no statistically significant differences in the temporal variability of CMJ phases were found in the evaluations.

Keywords: ankle instability, countermovement jump, force, taping, variability

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1702 Viscoelastic Response of the Human Corneal Stroma Induced by Riboflavin/UVA Cross-Linking

Authors: C. Labate, M. P. De Santo, G. Lombardo, R. Barberi, M. Lombardo, N. M. Ziebarth


In the past decades, the importance of corneal biomechanics in the normal and pathological functions of the eye has gained its credibility. In fact, the mechanical properties of biological tissues are essential to their physiological function. We are convinced that an improved understanding of the nanomechanics of corneal tissue is important to understand the basic molecular interactions between collagen fibrils. Ultimately, this information will help in the development of new techniques to cure ocular diseases and in the development of biomimetic materials. Therefore, nanotechnology techniques are powerful tools and, in particular, Atomic Force Microscopy has demonstrated its ability to reliably characterize the biomechanics of biological tissues either at the micro- or nano-level. In the last years, we have investigated the mechanical anisotropy of the human corneal stroma at both the tissue and molecular levels. In particular, we have focused on corneal cross-linking, an established procedure aimed at slowing down or halting the progression of the disease known as keratoconus. We have obtained the first evidence that riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking induces both an increase of the elastic response and a decrease of the viscous response of the most anterior stroma at the scale of stromal molecular interactions.

Keywords: atomic force spectroscopy, corneal stroma, cross-linking, viscoelasticity

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1701 Biomechanical Performance of the Synovial Capsule of the Glenohumeral Joint with a BANKART Lesion through Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Duvert A. Puentes T., Javier A. Maldonado E., Ivan Quintero., Diego F. Villegas


Mechanical Computation is a great tool to study the performance of complex models. An example of it is the study of the human body structure. This paper took advantage of different types of software to make a 3D model of the glenohumeral joint and apply a finite element analysis. The main objective was to study the change in the biomechanical properties of the joint when it presents an injury. Specifically, a BANKART lesion, which consists in the detachment of the anteroinferior labrum from the glenoid. Stress and strain distribution of the soft tissues were the focus of this study. First, a 3D model was made of a joint without any pathology, as a control sample, using segmentation software for the bones with the support of medical imagery and a cadaveric model to represent the soft tissue. The joint was built to simulate a compression and external rotation test using CAD to prepare the model in the adequate position. When the healthy model was finished, it was submitted to a finite element analysis and the results were validated with experimental model data. With the validated model, it was sensitized to obtain the best mesh measurement. Finally, the geometry of the 3D model was changed to imitate a BANKART lesion. Then, the contact zone of the glenoid with the labrum was slightly separated simulating a tissue detachment. With this new geometry, the finite element analysis was applied again, and the results were compared with the control sample created initially. With the data gathered, this study can be used to improve understanding of the labrum tears. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that the computational analysis are approximations and the initial data was taken from an in vitro assay.

Keywords: biomechanics, computational model, finite elements, glenohumeral joint, bankart lesion, labrum

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1700 A Computational Study of the Electron Transport in HgCdTe Bulk Semiconductor

Authors: N. Dahbi, M. Daoudi


This paper deals with the use of computational method based on Monte Carlo simulation in order to investigate the transport phenomena of the electron in HgCdTe narrow band gap semiconductor. Via this method we can evaluate the time dependence of the transport parameters: velocity, energy and mobility of electrons through matter (HgCdTe).

Keywords: Monte Carlo, transport parameters, HgCdTe, computational mechanics

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1699 Research Activity in Computational Science Using High Performance Computing: Co-Authorship Network Analysis

Authors: Sul-Ah Ahn, Youngim Jung


The research activities of the computational scientists using high-performance computing are analyzed using bibliometric approaches. This study aims at providing computational scientists using high-performance computing and relevant policy planners with useful bibliometric results for an assessment of research activities. In order to achieve this purpose, we carried out a co-authorship network analysis of journal articles to assess the research activities of computational scientists using high-performance computing as a case study. For this study, we used journal articles of the Scopus database from Elsevier covering the time period of 2006-2015. We extracted the author rank in the computational science field using high-performance computing by the number of papers published during ten years from 2006. Finally, we drew the co-authorship network for 50 top-authors and their coauthors and described some features of the co-authorship network in relation to the author rank. Suggestions for further studies are discussed.

Keywords: co-authorship network analysis, computational science, high performance computing, research activity

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1698 The Effects of Pair Programming on the Development of Computational Thinking

Authors: Fan Xu, Ana-Paula Correia


The concept of Computational Thinking was initially mentioned by Seymour Papert in computer-supported mathematical education in the eighties. Since then, an increasing number of research articles and documents have informed the definition of this concept and delineated relevant practices. Currently, computational thinking is a necessary 21st-century skill. This presentation will explore Pair Programming as a strategy to teach and learn Computational Thinking. It specifically looks at the impact of middle school students’ mutual engagement during the collaborative programming process to successfully acquire Computational Thinking skills. It uses an observational research design to understand the effects of mutual engagement on students’ computational thinking development when programming in pairs. We conducted this study in the context of a quarter-long Computer Science course offered to eighth-grade students at a middle school in the Midwestern United States region. The results define a teaching intervention for mixed pairs that avoid disengagement in Pair Programming and ultimately improves the learning of Computational Thinking education. This study not only focuses on how mutual engagement matters but also on how to enhance it to facilitate student collaboration. Despite collaborative learning’s importance, social interactions within pairs have been under-researched. The results of this study add to the growing body of literature showing how students’ mutual engagement influences learning outcomes. The results of this study benefit practitioner who want to incorporate Pair Programming into their educational practices to foster Computational Thinking development.

Keywords: computational thinking, pair programming, middle school, mutual engagement

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1697 Comparing the Knee Kinetics and Kinematics during Non-Steady Movements in Recovered Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Badminton Players against an Uninjured Cohort: Case-Control Study

Authors: Anuj Pathare, Aleksandra Birn-Jeffery


Background: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament(ACL) helps stabilize the knee joint minimizing tibial anterior translation. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is common in racquet sports and often occurs due to sudden acceleration, deceleration or changes of direction. This mechanism in badminton most commonly occurs during landing after an overhead stroke. Knee biomechanics during dynamic movements such as walking, running and stair negotiation, do not return to normal for more than a year after an ACL reconstruction. This change in the biomechanics may lead to re-injury whilst performing non-steady movements during sports, where these injuries are most prevalent. Aims: To compare if the knee kinetics and kinematics in ACL injury recovered athletes return to the same level as those from an uninjured cohort during standard movements used for clinical assessment and badminton shots. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine: Knee valgus during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Degree of internal or external rotation during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Maximum knee flexion during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump and net shot. Methods: This case-control study included 14 participants with three ACL injury recovered athletes and 11 uninjured participants. The participants performed various functional tasks including vertical drop jump, single leg squat; the forehand net shot and the forehand drop shot. The data was analysed using the two-way ANOVA test, and the reliability of the data was evaluated using the Intra Class Coefficient. Results: The data showed a significant decrease in the range of knee rotation in ACL injured participants as compared to the uninjured cohort (F₇,₅₅₆=2.37; p=0.021). There was also a decrease in the maximum knee flexion angles and an increase in knee valgus angles in ACL injured participants although they were not statistically significant. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in the knee rotation angles in the ACL injured participants which could be a potential cause for re-injury in these athletes in the future. Although the results for decrease in maximum knee flexion angles and increase in knee valgus angles were not significant, this may be due to a limited sample of ACL injured participants; there is potential for it to be identified as a variable of interest in the rehabilitation of ACL injuries. These changes in the knee biomechanics could be vital in the rehabilitation of ACL injured athletes in the future, and an inclusion of sports based tasks, e.g., Net shot along with standard protocol movements for ACL assessment would provide a better measure of the rehabilitation of the athlete.

Keywords: ACL, biomechanics, knee injury, racquet sport

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1696 Altered Lower Extremity Biomechanical Risk Factor Related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Athlete with Functional Ankle Instability

Authors: Mohammad Karimizadehardakani, Hooman Minoonejad, Reza Rajabi, Ali Sharifnejad


Background: Ankle sprain is one of the most important risk factor of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Also, functional ankle instability (FAI) population has alterations in lower extremity sagittal plane biomechanics during landing task. We want to examine whether biomechanical alterations demonstrated by FAI patients are associated with the mechanism of ACL injury during high risk and sport related tasks. Methods: Sixteen basketball player with FAI and 16 non-injured control performed a single-leg cross drop landing. Knee sagittal and frontal (ATSF) was calculated. Independent t-tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson correlation were used for analysis data. Result: Subject with FAI showed more peak ATFS, posterior ground reaction force (GRF) and less knee flexion, compared to the controls (P= 0.001, P= 0.004, P= 0.011). Knee flexion (r= −0.824, P = 0.011) and posterior GRF (r= 0.901, P = .001) were correlated with ATSF; Posterior GRF was factor that most explained the variance in ATSF (R2= 0.645; P = .001) in the FAI group. Conclusions: Result of our study showed there is a potential biomechanical relationship between the presence of FAI and risk factors associated with ACL injury mechanism.

Keywords: functional ankle instability, anterior cruciate ligament, biomechanics, risk factor

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1695 Review and Analyze on the Journal of Sport Science

Authors: Zhan Dong, Qiu Jianrong, Li Qinghui, Zhang Lei


The quantity and quality of the papers published on sport science from 2001 to 2013 had been counted and analysed and compared with the papers published on the journal from 1990 to 2000. The result showed that: 1. In the sports medicine field, the proportion of basic/application was abnormal. Basic research was far more than the application research. The papers on researching of imitating altitude training was the main part. Gene research made great progress.The research on sport injury and medical supervision were lower and lower. Research on sports prescription had made much progress, especially in the patients of heart infarction. 2. In building up people’s health field, the research on the old people had been more and more compared with the 10 years before, but it was not enough. 3. In the field of sports psychology, the research on disable people had been more compared with the 10 years before. Solved the problem of the sportmen before the game. 4. In the field of sports biomechanics, it showed that methods had made great progress compared with the 10 years before. Sport biomechanics combined with sports medicine, helped the sportsmen in good condition in the game. 5. In the exercise training field, the experts pay more attention to the outstanding sportsmen, and the researches emphasized that biology knowledge is the main basic for them to the research.

Keywords: sport medicine, sport injury, medical supervision

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1694 Alternative Computational Arrangements on g-Group (g > 2) Profile Analysis

Authors: Emmanuel U. Ohaegbulem, Felix N. Nwobi


Alternative and simple computational arrangements in carrying out multivariate profile analysis when more than two groups (populations) are involved are presented. These arrangements have been demonstrated to not only yield equivalent results for the test statistics (the Wilks lambdas), but they have less computational efforts relative to other arrangements so far presented in the literature; in addition to being quite simple and easy to apply.

Keywords: coincident profiles, g-group profile analysis, level profiles, parallel profiles, repeated measures MANOVA

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1693 WILCKO-PERIO, Periodontally Accelerated Orthodontics

Authors: Kruttika Bhuse


Aim: Synergism between periodontists and orthodontists (periodontal accelerated osteogenic orthodontics- PAOO) creates crucial opportunities to enhance clinical outcomes of combined therapies regarding both disciplines and has made adult orthodontics a reality. Thus, understanding the biomechanics of bone remodelling may increase the clinical applications of corticotomy facilitated orthodontics with or without alveolar augmentation. Wilckodontics can be an attractive treatment option and be a “win-win” situation for both the dental surgeon and patient by reducing the orthodontic treatment time in adults. Materials and methods: In this review, data related to the clinical aspects, steps of procedure, biomechanics of bone, indications and contraindications and final outcome of wilckodontic shall be discussed. 50 supporting articles from various international journals and 70 clinical cases were reviewed to get a better understanding to design this wilckodontic - meta analysis. Various journals like the Journal Of Clinical And Diagnostic Research, Journal Of Indian Society Of Periodontology, Journal Of Periodontology, Pubmed, Boston Orthodontic University Journal, Good Practice Orthodontics Volume 2, have been referred to attain valuable information on wilckodontics which was then compiled in this single review study. Result: As a promising adjuvant technique based on the transient nature of demineralization-remineralisation process in healthy tissues, wilckodontics consists of regional acceleratory phenomenon by alveolar corticotomy and bone grafting of labial and palatal/lingual surfaces, followed by orthodontic force. The surgical wounding of alveolar bone potentiates tissue reorganization and healing by a way of transient burst of localized hard and soft tissue remodelling.This phenomenon causes bone healing to occur 10-50 times faster than normal bone turnover. Conclusion: This meta analysis helps understanding that the biomechanics of bone remodelling may increase the clinical applications of corticotomy facilitated orthodontics with or without alveolar augmentation. The main benefits being reduced orthodontic treatment time, increased bone volume and post-orthodontic stability.

Keywords: periodontal osteogenic accelerated orthodontics, alveolar corticotomy, bone augmentation, win-win situation

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1692 A Literature Review of Ergonomics Sitting Studies to Characterize Safe and Unsafe Sitting Behaviors

Authors: Yoonjin Lee, Dongwook Hwang, Juhee Park, Woojin Park


As undesirable sitting posture is known to be a major cause of musculoskeletal disorder of office workers, sitting has attracted attention on occupational health. However, there seems to be no consensus on what are safe and unsafe sitting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safe and unsafe behaviors based on scientific findings of sitting behavior. Three objectives were as follows; to identify different sitting behaviors measure used in ergonomics studies on safe sitting, for each measure identified, to find available findings or recommendations on safe and unsafe sitting behaviors along with relevant empirical grounds, and to synthesize the findings or recommendations to provide characterizations of safe and unsafe behaviors. A systematic review of electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science) was conducted for extensive search of sitting behavior. Key terms included awkward sitting position, sedentary sitting, dynamic sitting, sitting posture, sitting posture, and sitting biomechanics, etc. Each article was systemically abstracted to extract a list of studied sitting behaviors, measures used to study the sitting behavior, and presence of empirical evidence of safety of the sitting behaviors. Finally, characterization of safe and unsafe sitting behavior was conducted based on knowledge with empirical evidence. This characterization is expected to provide useful knowledge for evaluation of sitting behavior and about postures to be measured in development of sensing chair.

Keywords: sitting position, sitting biomechanics, sitting behavior, unsafe sitting

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1691 Lexical Bundles in the Alexiad of Anna Comnena: Computational and Discourse Analysis Approach

Authors: Georgios Alexandropoulos


The purpose of this study is to examine the historical text of Alexiad by Anna Comnena using computational tools for the extraction of lexical bundles containing the name of her father, Alexius Comnenus. For this reason, in this research we apply corpus linguistics techniques for the automatic extraction of lexical bundles and through them we will draw conclusions about how these lexical bundles serve her support provided to her father.

Keywords: lexical bundles, computational literature, critical discourse analysis, Alexiad

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
1690 The Actuation of Semicrystalline Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Tie Molecules: A Computational and Experimental Study

Authors: Abas Mohsenzadeh, Tariq Bashir, Waseen Tahir, Ulf Stigh, Mikael Skrifvars, Kim Bolton


The area of artificial muscles has received significant attention from many research domains including soft robotics, biomechanics and smart textiles in recent years. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been used to form artificial muscles since it contracts upon heating when under load. In this study, PVDF fibers were produced by melt spinning technique at different solid state draw ratios and then actuation mechanism for PVDF tie molecules within the semicrystalline region of PVDF polymer has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Tie molecules are polymer chains that link two (or more) crystalline regions in semicrystalline polymers. The changes in fiber length upon heating have been investigated using a novel simulation technique. The results show that conformational changes of the tie molecules from the longer all-trans conformation at low temperature (β structure) to the shorter conformation (α structure) at higher temperature accrue by increasing the temperature. These results may be applied to understand the actuation observed for PVDF upon heating.

Keywords: poly(vinylidene fluoride), molecular dynamics, simulation, actuators, tie molecules, semicrystalline

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
1689 Binarized-Weight Bilateral Filter for Low Computational Cost Image Smoothing

Authors: Yu Zhang, Kohei Inoue, Kiichi Urahama


We propose a simplified bilateral filter with binarized coefficients for accelerating it. Its computational cost is further decreased by sampling pixels. This computationally low cost filter is useful for smoothing or denoising images by using mobile devices with limited computational power.

Keywords: bilateral filter, binarized-weight bilateral filter, image smoothing, image denoising, pixel sampling

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1688 Perspectives of Computational Modeling in Sanskrit Lexicons

Authors: Baldev Ram Khandoliyan, Ram Kishor


India has a classical tradition of Sanskrit Lexicons. Research work has been done on the study of Indian lexicography. India has seen amazing strides in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) applications for Indian languages in general and for Sanskrit in particular. Since Machine Translation from Sanskrit to other Indian languages is often the desired goal, traditional Sanskrit lexicography has attracted a lot of attention from the ICT and Computational Linguistics community. From Nighaŋţu and Nirukta to Amarakośa and Medinīkośa, Sanskrit owns a rich history of lexicography. As these kośas do not follow the same typology or standard in the selection and arrangement of the words and the information related to them, several types of Kośa-styles have emerged in this tradition. The model of a grammar given by Aṣṭādhyāyī is well appreciated by Indian and western linguists and grammarians. But the different models provided by lexicographic tradition also have importance. The general usefulness of Sanskrit traditional Kośas is well discussed by some scholars. That is most of the matter made available in the text. Some also have discussed the good arrangement of lexica. This paper aims to discuss some more use of the different models of Sanskrit lexicography especially focusing on its computational modeling and its use in different computational operations.

Keywords: computational lexicography, Sanskrit Lexicons, nighanṭu, kośa, Amarkosa

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1687 Thermography Evaluation on Facial Temperature Recovery after Elastic Gum

Authors: A. Dionísio, L. Roseiro, J. Fonseca, P. Nicolau


Thermography is a non-radiating and contact-free technology which can be used to monitor skin temperature. The efficiency and safety of thermography technology make it a useful tool for detecting and locating thermal changes in skin surface, characterized by increases or decreases in temperature. This work intends to be a contribution for the use of thermography as a methodology for evaluation of skin temperature in the context of orofacial biomechanics. The study aims to identify the oscillations of skin temperature in the left and right hemiface regions of the masseter muscle, during and after thermal stimulus, and estimate the time required to restore the initial temperature after the application of the stimulus. Using a FLIR T430sc camera, a data acquisition protocol was followed with a group of eight volunteers, aged between 22 and 27 years. The tests were performed in a controlled environment with the volunteers in a comfortably static position. The thermal stimulus involves the use of an ice volume with controlled size and contact surface. The skin surface temperature was recorded in two distinct situations, namely without further stimulus and with the additions of a stimulus obtained by a chewing gum. The data obtained were treated using FLIR Research IR Max software. The time required to recover the initial temperature ranged from 20 to 52 minutes when no stimulus was added and varied between 8 and 26 minutes with the chewing gum stimulus. These results show that recovery is faster with the addition of the stimulus and may guide clinicians regarding the pre and post-operative times with ice therapy, in the presence or absence of mechanical stimulus that increases muscle functions (e.g. phonetics or mastication).

Keywords: thermography, orofacial biomechanics, skin temperature, ice therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1686 The Curvature of Bending Analysis and Motion of Soft Robotic Fingers by Full 3D Printing with MC-Cells Technique for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Chaiyawat Musikapan, Ratchatin Chancharoen, Saknan Bongsebandhu-Phubhakdi


For many recent years, soft robotic fingers were used for supporting the patients who had survived the neurological diseases that resulted in muscular disorders and neural network damages, such as stroke and Parkinson’s disease, and inflammatory symptoms such as De Quervain and trigger finger. Generally, the major hand function is significant to manipulate objects in activities of daily living (ADL). In this work, we proposed the model of soft actuator that manufactured by full 3D printing without the molding process and one material for use. Furthermore, we designed the model with a technique of multi cavitation cells (MC-Cells). Then, we demonstrated the curvature bending, fluidic pressure and force that generated to the model for assistive finger flexor and hand grasping. Also, the soft actuators were characterized in mathematics solving by the length of chord and arc length. In addition, we used an adaptive push-button switch machine to measure the force in our experiment. Consequently, we evaluated biomechanics efficiency by the range of motion (ROM) that affected to metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP), proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) and distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). Finally, the model achieved to exhibit the corresponding fluidic pressure with force and ROM to assist the finger flexor and hand grasping.

Keywords: biomechanics efficiency, curvature bending, hand functional assistance, multi cavitation cells (MC-Cells), range of motion (ROM)

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1685 Simulation of Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B in Annular Photocatalytic Reactor

Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Ajay Bansal


Simulation of a photocatalytic reactor helps in understanding the complex behavior of the photocatalytic degradation. Simulation also aids the designing and optimization of the photocatalytic reactor. Lack of simulation strategies is a huge hindrance in the commercialization of the photocatalytic technology. With the increased performance of computational resources, and development of simulation software, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is becoming an affordable engineering tool to simulate and optimize reactor designs. In the present paper, a CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model for simulating the performance of an immobilized-titanium dioxide based annular photocatalytic reactor was developed. The computational model integrates hydrodynamics, species mass transport, and chemical reaction kinetics using a commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3.26. The CFD model was based on the intrinsic kinetic parameters determined experimentally in a perfectly mixed batch reactor. Rhodamine B, a complex organic compound, was selected as a test pollutant for photocatalytic degradation. It was observed that CFD could become a valuable tool to understand and improve the photocatalytic systems.

Keywords: simulation, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), annular photocatalytic reactor, titanium dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 494