Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5145

Search results for: progressive damage modeling

5145 Dynamic Response and Damage Modeling of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite Pipes: Numerical Investigation

Authors: Ammar Maziz, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Said Rechak


The high mechanical performance of composite pipes can be adversely affected by their low resistance to impact loads. Loads in dynamic origin are dangerous and cause consequences on the operation of pipes because the damage is often not detected and can affect the structural integrity of composite pipes. In this work, an advanced 3-D finite element (FE) model, based on the use of intralaminar damage models was developed and used to predict damage under low-velocity impact. The performance of the numerical model is validated with the confrontation with the results of experimental tests. The results show that at low impact energy, the damage happens mainly by matrix cracking and delamination. The model capabilities to simulate the low-velocity impact events on the full-scale composite structures were proved.

Keywords: composite materials, low velocity impact, FEA, dynamic behavior, progressive damage modeling

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5144 Investigation of the Progressive Collapse Potential in Steel Buildings with Composite Floor System

Authors: Pouya Kaafi, Gholamreza Ghodrati Amiri


Abnormal loads due to natural events, implementation errors and some other issues can lead to occurrence of progressive collapse in structures. Most of the past researches consist of 2- Dimensional (2D) models of steel frames without consideration of the floor system effects, which reduces the accuracy of the modeling. While employing a 3-Dimensional (3D) model and modeling the concrete slab system for the floors have a crucial role in the progressive collapse evaluation. In this research, a 3D finite element model of a 5-story steel building is modeled by the ABAQUS software once with modeling the slabs, and the next time without considering them. Then, the progressive collapse potential is evaluated. The results of the analyses indicate that the lack of the consideration of the slabs during the analyses, can lead to inaccuracy in assessing the progressive failure potential of the structure.

Keywords: abnormal loads, composite floor system, intermediate steel moment resisting frame system, progressive collapse

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
5143 The Influence of Winding Angle on Functional Failure of FRP Pipes

Authors: Roham Rafiee, Hadi Hesamsadat


In this study, a parametric finite element modeling is developed to analyze failure modes of FRP pipes subjected to internal pressure. First-ply failure pressure and functional failure pressure was determined by a progressive damage modeling and then it is validated using experimental observations. The influence of both winding angle and fiber volume fraction is studied on the functional failure of FRP pipes and it corresponding pressure. It is observed that despite the fact that increasing fiber volume fraction will enhance the mechanical properties, it will be resulted in lower values for functional failure pressure. This shortcoming can be compensated by modifying the winding angle in angle plies of pipe wall structure.

Keywords: composite pipe, functional failure, progressive modeling, winding angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
5142 A Damage-Plasticity Concrete Model for Damage Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Thanh N. Do


This paper addresses the modeling of two critical behaviors of concrete material in reinforced concrete components: (1) the increase in strength and ductility due to confining stresses from surrounding transverse steel reinforcements, and (2) the progressive deterioration in strength and stiffness due to high strain and/or cyclic loading. To improve the state-of-the-art, the author presents a new 3D constitutive model of concrete material based on plasticity and continuum damage mechanics theory to simulate both the confinement effect and the strength deterioration in reinforced concrete components. The model defines a yield function of the stress invariants and a compressive damage threshold based on the level of confining stresses to automatically capture the increase in strength and ductility when subjected to high compressive stresses. The model introduces two damage variables to describe the strength and stiffness deterioration under tensile and compressive stress states. The damage formulation characterizes well the degrading behavior of concrete material, including the nonsymmetric strength softening in tension and compression, as well as the progressive strength and stiffness degradation under primary and follower load cycles. The proposed damage model is implemented in a general purpose finite element analysis program allowing an extensive set of numerical simulations to assess its ability to capture the confinement effect and the degradation of the load-carrying capacity and stiffness of structural elements. It is validated against a collection of experimental data of the hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete columns and shear walls under different load histories. These correlation studies demonstrate the ability of the model to describe vastly different hysteretic behaviors with a relatively consistent set of parameters. The model shows excellent consistency in response determination with very good accuracy. Its numerical robustness and computational efficiency are also very good and will be further assessed with large-scale simulations of structural systems.

Keywords: concrete, damage-plasticity, shear wall, confinement

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5141 Investigation of Damage in Glass Subjected to Static Indentation Using Continuum Damage Mechanics

Authors: J. Ismail, F. Zaïri, M. Naït-Abdelaziz, Z. Azari


In this work, a combined approach of continuum damage mechanics (CDM) and fracture mechanics is applied to model a glass plate behavior under static indentation. A spherical indenter is used and a CDM based constitutive model with an anisotropic damage tensor was selected and implemented into a finite element code to study the damage of glass. Various regions with critical damage values were predicted in good agreement with the experimental observations in the literature. In these regions, the directions of crack propagation, including both cracks initiating on the surface as well as in the bulk, were predicted using the strain energy density factor.

Keywords: finite element modeling, continuum damage mechanics, indentation, cracks

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5140 Mathematical Model for Progressive Phase Distribution of Ku-band Reflectarray Antennas

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam, A. F. M. Zain, N. Misran


Progressive phase distribution is an important consideration in reflect array antenna design which is required to form a planar wave in front of the reflect array aperture. This paper presents a detailed mathematical model in order to determine the required reflection phase values from individual element of a reflect array designed in Ku-band frequency range. The proposed technique of obtaining reflection phase can be applied for any geometrical design of elements and is independent of number of array elements. Moreover the model also deals with the solution of reflect array antenna design with both centre and off-set feed configurations. The theoretical modeling has also been implemented for reflect arrays constructed on 0.508 mm thickness of different dielectric substrates. The results show an increase in the slope of the phase curve from 4.61°/mm to 22.35°/mm by varying the material properties.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, progressive phase distribution, reflect array antenna, reflection phase

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5139 Modeling Anisotropic Damage Algorithms of Metallic Structures

Authors: Bahar Ayhan


The present paper is concerned with the numerical modeling of the inelastic behavior of the anisotropically damaged ductile materials, which are based on a generalized macroscopic theory within the framework of continuum damage mechanics. Kinematic decomposition of the strain rates into elastic, plastic and damage parts is basis for accomplishing the structure of continuum theory. The evolution of the damage strain rate tensor is detailed with the consideration of anisotropic effects. Helmholtz free energy functions are constructed separately for the elastic and inelastic behaviors in order to be able to address the plastic and damage process. Additionally, the constitutive structure, which is based on the standard dissipative material approach, is elaborated with stress tensor, a yield criterion for plasticity and a fracture criterion for damage besides the potential functions of each inelastic phenomenon. The finite element method is used to approximate the linearized variational problem. Stress and strain outcomes are solved by using the numerical integration algorithm based on operator split methodology with a plastic and damage (multiplicator) variable separately. Numerical simulations are proposed in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the formulation by comparing the examples in the literature.

Keywords: anisotropic damage, finite element method, plasticity, coupling

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5138 Numerical Prediction of Bearing Strength on Composite Bolted Joint Using Three Dimensional Puck Failure Criteria

Authors: M. S. Meon, M. N. Rao, K-U. Schröder


Mechanical fasteners especially bolting is commonly used in joining carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite structures due to their good joinability and easy for maintenance characteristics. Since this approach involves with notching, a proper progressive damage model (PDM) need to be implemented and verified to capture existence of damages in the structure. A three dimensional (3D) failure criteria of Puck is established to predict the ultimate bearing failure of such joint. The failure criteria incorporated with degradation scheme are coded based on user subroutine executed in Abaqus. Single lap joint (SLJ) of composite bolted joint is used as target configuration. The results revealed that the PDM adopted here could sufficiently predict the behaviour of composite bolted joint up to ultimate bearing failure. In addition, mesh refinement near holes increased the accuracy of predicted strength as well as computational effort.

Keywords: bearing strength, bolted joint, degradation scheme, progressive damage model

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
5137 Evaluation of Progressive Collapse of Transmission Tower

Authors: Jeong-Hwan Choi, Hyo-Sang Park, Tae-Hyung Lee


The transmission tower is one of the crucial lifeline structures in a modern society, and it needs to be protected against extreme loading conditions. However, the transmission tower is a very complex structure and, therefore, it is very difficult to simulate the actual damage and the collapse behavior of the tower structure. In this study, the actual collapse behavior of the transmission tower due to lateral loading conditions such as wind load is evaluated through the computational simulation. For that, a progressive collapse procedure is applied to the simulation. In this procedure, after running the simulation, if a member of the tower structure fails, the failed member is removed and the simulation run again. The 154kV transmission tower is selected for this study. The simulation is performed by nonlinear static analysis procedure, namely pushover analysis, using OpenSEES, an earthquake simulation platform. Three-dimensional finite element models of those towers are developed.

Keywords: transmission tower, OpenSEES, pushover, progressive collapse

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5136 Damage Mesomodel Based Low-Velocity Impact Damage Analysis of Laminated Composite Structures

Authors: Semayat Fanta, P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay


Damage meso-model for laminates is one of the most widely applicable approaches for the analysis of damage induced in laminated fiber-reinforced polymeric composites. Damage meso-model for laminates has been developed over the last three decades by many researchers in experimental, theoretical, and analytical methods that have been carried out in micromechanics as well as meso-mechanics analysis approaches. It has been fundamentally developed based on the micromechanical description that aims to predict the damage initiation and evolution until the failure of structure in various loading conditions. The current damage meso-model for laminates aimed to act as a bridge between micromechanics and macro-mechanics of the laminated composite structure. This model considers two meso-constituents for the analysis of damage in ply and interface that imparted from low-velocity impact. The damages considered in this study include fiber breakage, matrix cracking, and diffused damage of the lamina, and delamination of the interface. The damage initiation and evolution in laminae can be modeled in terms of damaged strain energy density using damage parameters and the thermodynamic irreversible forces. Interface damage can be modeled with a new concept of spherical micro-void in the resin-rich zone of interface material. The damage evolution is controlled by the damage parameter (d) and the radius of micro-void (r) from the point of damage nucleation to its saturation. The constitutive martial model for meso-constituents is defined in a user material subroutine VUMAT and implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit finite element modeling tool. The model predicts the damages in the meso-constituents level very accurately and is considered the most effective technique of modeling low-velocity impact simulation for laminated composite structures.

Keywords: mesomodel, laminate, low-energy impact, micromechanics

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5135 Classification of Impact Damages with Respect of Damage Tolerance Design Approach and Airworthiness Requirements

Authors: T. Mrna, R. Doubrava


This paper describes airworthiness requirements with respect damage tolerance. Damage tolerance determines the amount and magnitude of damage on parts of the airplane. Airworthiness requirements determine the amount of damage that can still be in flight capable of the condition. Component damage can be defined as barely visible impact damage, visible impact damage or clear visible impact damage. Damage is also distributed it according to the velocity. It is divided into low or high velocity impact damage. The severity of damage to the part of airplane divides the airworthiness requirements into several categories according to severity. Airworthiness requirements are determined by type airplane. All types of airplane do not have the same conditions for airworthiness requirements. This knowledge is important for designing and operating an airplane.

Keywords: airworthiness requirements, composite, damage tolerance, low and high velocity impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
5134 The Effect of Resistance and Progressive Training on Hsp 70 and Glucose

Authors: F. Nameni, H. Poursadra


The present study investigated resistance and progressive training alters the expression of chaperone proteins. These proteins function to maintain homeostasis, facilitate repair from injury, and provide protection. Nineteen training female in 2 groups taking part in the intervention volunteered to give blood samples. Levels of chaperone proteins were measured in response to resistance and progressive training. Hsp 70 levels were increased immediately after 2 h progressive training but decreased after resistance training. The data showed that human skeletal muscle responds to the stress of a single period of progressive training by up-regulating and resistance training by down-regulating expression of HSP70. Physical exercise can elevate core temperature and muscle temperatures and the expression pattern of HSP70 due to training status may be attributed to adaptive mechanisms.

Keywords: resistance training, heat shock proteins, leukocytes, Hsp 70

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
5133 Multiscale Modeling of Damage in Textile Composites

Authors: Jaan-Willem Simon, Bertram Stier, Brett Bednarcyk, Evan Pineda, Stefanie Reese


Textile composites, in which the reinforcing fibers are woven or braided, have become very popular in numerous applications in aerospace, automotive, and maritime industry. These textile composites are advantageous due to their ease of manufacture, damage tolerance, and relatively low cost. However, physics-based modeling of the mechanical behavior of textile composites is challenging. Compared to their unidirectional counterparts, textile composites introduce additional geometric complexities, which cause significant local stress and strain concentrations. Since these internal concentrations are primary drivers of nonlinearity, damage, and failure within textile composites, they must be taken into account in order for the models to be predictive. The macro-scale approach to modeling textile-reinforced composites treats the whole composite as an effective, homogenized material. This approach is very computationally efficient, but it cannot be considered predictive beyond the elastic regime because the complex microstructural geometry is not considered. Further, this approach can, at best, offer a phenomenological treatment of nonlinear deformation and failure. In contrast, the mesoscale approach to modeling textile composites explicitly considers the internal geometry of the reinforcing tows, and thus, their interaction, and the effects of their curved paths can be modeled. The tows are treated as effective (homogenized) materials, requiring the use of anisotropic material models to capture their behavior. Finally, the micro-scale approach goes one level lower, modeling the individual filaments that constitute the tows. This paper will compare meso- and micro-scale approaches to modeling the deformation, damage, and failure of textile-reinforced polymer matrix composites. For the mesoscale approach, the woven composite architecture will be modeled using the finite element method, and an anisotropic damage model for the tows will be employed to capture the local nonlinear behavior. For the micro-scale, two different models will be used, the one being based on the finite element method, whereas the other one makes use of an embedded semi-analytical approach. The goal will be the comparison and evaluation of these approaches to modeling textile-reinforced composites in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and utility.

Keywords: multiscale modeling, continuum damage model, damage interaction, textile composites

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5132 Experimental Study Damage in a Composite Structure by Vibration Analysis- Glass / Polyester

Authors: R. Abdeldjebar, B. Labbaci, L. Missoum, B. Moudden, M. Djermane


The basic components of a composite material made him very sensitive to damage, which requires techniques for detecting damage reliable and efficient. This work focuses on the detection of damage by vibration analysis, whose main objective is to exploit the dynamic response of a structure to detect understand the damage. The experimental results are compared with those predicted by numerical models to confirm the effectiveness of the approach.

Keywords: experimental, composite, vibration analysis, damage

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5131 Progressive Collapse of Cooling Towers

Authors: Esmaeil Asadzadeh, Mehtab Alam


Well documented records of the past failures of the structures reveals that the progressive collapse of structures is one of the major reasons for dramatic human loss and economical consequences. Progressive collapse is the failure mechanism in which the structure fails gradually due to the sudden removal of the structural elements. The sudden removal of some structural elements results in the excessive redistributed loads on the others. This sudden removal may be caused by any sudden loading resulted from local explosion, impact loading and terrorist attacks. Hyperbolic thin walled concrete shell structures being an important part of nuclear and thermal power plants are always prone to such terrorist attacks. In concrete structures, the gradual failure would take place by generation of initial cracks and its propagation in the supporting columns along with the tower shell leading to the collapse of the entire structure. In this study the mechanism of progressive collapse for such high raised towers would be simulated employing the finite element method. The aim of this study would be providing clear conceptual step-by-step descriptions of various procedures for progressive collapse analysis using commercially available finite element structural analysis software’s, with the aim that the explanations would be clear enough that they will be readily understandable and will be used by practicing engineers. The study would be carried out in the following procedures: 1. Provide explanations of modeling, simulation and analysis procedures including input screen snapshots; 2. Interpretation of the results and discussions; 3. Conclusions and recommendations.

Keywords: progressive collapse, cooling towers, finite element analysis, crack generation, reinforced concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
5130 Modified Plastic-Damage Model for FRP-Confined Repaired Concrete Columns

Authors: I. A Tijani, Y. F Wu, C.W. Lim


Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model (CDPM) is capable of modeling the stress-strain behavior of confined concrete. Nevertheless, the accuracy of the model largely depends on its parameters. To date, most research works mainly focus on the identification and modification of the parameters for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined concrete prior to damage. And, it has been established that the FRP-strengthened concrete behaves differently to FRP-repaired concrete. This paper presents a modified plastic damage model within the context of the CDPM in ABAQUS for modelling of a uniformly FRP-confined repaired concrete under monotonic loading. The proposed model includes infliction damage, elastic stiffness, yield criterion and strain hardening rule. The distinct feature of damaged concrete is elastic stiffness reduction; this is included in the model. Meanwhile, the test results were obtained from a physical testing of repaired concrete. The dilation model is expressed as a function of the lateral stiffness of the FRP-jacket. The finite element predictions are shown to be in close agreement with the obtained test results of the repaired concrete. It was observed from the study that with necessary modifications, finite element method is capable of modeling FRP-repaired concrete structures.

Keywords: Concrete, FRP, Damage, Repairing, Plasticity, and Finite element method

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5129 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu


According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutectic

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5128 A Meso Macro Model Prediction of Laminated Composite Damage Elastic Behaviour

Authors: A. Hocine, A. Ghouaoula, S. M. Medjdoub, M. Cherifi


The present paper proposed a meso–macro model describing the mechanical behaviour composite laminates of staking sequence [+θ/-θ]s under tensil loading. The behaviour of a layer is ex-pressed through elasticity coupled to damage. The elastic strain is due to the elasticity of the layer and can be modeled by using the classical laminate theory, and the laminate is considered as an orthotropic material. This means that no coupling effect between strain and curvature is considered. In the present work, the damage is associated to cracking of the matrix and parallel to the fibers and it being taken into account by the changes in the stiffness of the layers. The anisotropic damage is completely described by a single scalar variable and its evolution law is specified from the principle of maximum dissipation. The stress/strain relationship is investigated in plane stress loading.

Keywords: damage, behavior modeling, meso-macro model, composite laminate, membrane loading

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5127 An Implementation of Meshless Method for Modeling an Elastoplasticity Coupled to Damage

Authors: Sendi Zohra, Belhadjsalah Hedi, Labergere Carl, Saanouni Khemais


The modeling of mechanical problems including both material and geometric nonlinearities with Finite Element Method (FEM) remains challenging. Meshless methods offer special properties to get rid of well-known drawbacks of the FEM. The main objective of Meshless Methods is to eliminate the difficulty of meshing and remeshing the entire structure by simply insertion or deletion of nodes, and alleviate other problems associated with the FEM, such as element distortion, locking and others. In this study, a robust numerical implementation of an Element Free Galerkin Method for an elastoplastic coupled to damage problem is presented. Several results issued from the numerical simulations by a DynamicExplicit resolution scheme are analyzed and critically compared with Element Finite Method results. Finally, different numerical examples are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of this method.

Keywords: damage, dynamic explicit, elastoplasticity, isotropic hardening, meshless

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
5126 Damage Detection in Beams Using Wavelet Analysis

Authors: Goutham Kumar Dogiparti, D. R. Seshu


In the present study, wavelet analysis was used for locating damage in simply supported and cantilever beams. Study was carried out varying different levels and locations of damage. In numerical method, ANSYS software was used for modal analysis of damaged and undamaged beams. The mode shapes obtained from numerical analysis is processed using MATLAB wavelet toolbox to locate damage. Effect of several parameters such as (damage level, location) on the natural frequencies and mode shapes were also studied. The results indicated the potential of wavelets in identifying the damage location.

Keywords: damage, detection, beams, wavelets

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
5125 Thermomechanical Damage Modeling of F114 Carbon Steel

Authors: A. El Amri, M. El Yakhloufi Haddou, A. Khamlichi


The numerical simulation based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) is widely used in academic institutes and in the industry. It is a useful tool to predict many phenomena present in the classical manufacturing forming processes such as fracture. But, the results of such numerical model depend strongly on the parameters of the constitutive behavior model. The influences of thermal and mechanical loads cause damage. The temperature and strain rate dependent materials’ properties and their modelling are discussed. A Johnson-Cook Model of damage has been selected for the numerical simulations. Virtual software called the ABAQUS 6.11 is used for finite element analysis. This model was introduced in order to give information concerning crack initiation during thermal and mechanical loads.

Keywords: thermo-mechanical fatigue, failure, numerical simulation, fracture, damage

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5124 On the Homology Modeling, Structural Function Relationship and Binding Site Prediction of Human Alsin Protein

Authors: Y. Ruchi, A. Prerna, S. Deepshikha


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease”. It is a neurodegenerative disease associated with degeneration of motor neurons in the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord characterized by distal muscle weakness, atrophy, normal sensation, pyramidal signs and progressive muscular paralysis reflecting. ALS2 is a juvenile autosomal recessive disorder, slowly progressive, that maps to chromosome 2q33 and is associated with mutations in the alsin gene, a putative GTPase regulator. In this paper we have done homology modeling of alsin2 protein using multiple templates (3KCI_A, 4LIM_A, 402W_A, 4D9S_A, and 4DNV_A) designed using the Prime program in Schrödinger software. Further modeled structure is used to identify effective binding sites on the basis of structural and physical properties using sitemap program in Schrödinger software, structural and function analysis is done by using Prosite and ExPASy server that gives insight into conserved domains and motifs that can be used for protein classification. This paper summarizes the structural, functional and binding site property of alsin2 protein. These binding sites can be potential drug target sites and can be used for docking studies.

Keywords: ALS, binding site, homology modeling, neuronal degeneration

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5123 Effect of Progressive Type-I Right Censoring on Bayesian Statistical Inference of Simple Step–Stress Acceleration Life Testing Plan under Weibull Life Distribution

Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan


This paper discusses the effects of using progressive Type-I right censoring on the design of the Simple Step Accelerated Life testing using Bayesian approach for Weibull life products under the assumption of cumulative exposure model. The optimization criterion used in this paper is to minimize the expected pre-posterior variance of the PTH percentile time of failures. The model variables are the stress changing time and the stress value for the first step. A comparison between the conventional and the progressive Type-I right censoring is provided. The results have shown that the progressive Type-I right censoring reduces the cost of testing on the expense of the test precision when the sample size is small. Moreover, the results have shown that using strong priors or large sample size reduces the sensitivity of the test precision to the censoring proportion. Hence, the progressive Type-I right censoring is recommended in these cases as progressive Type-I right censoring reduces the cost of the test and doesn't affect the precision of the test a lot. Moreover, the results have shown that using direct or indirect priors affects the precision of the test.

Keywords: reliability, accelerated life testing, cumulative exposure model, Bayesian estimation, progressive type-I censoring, Weibull distribution

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5122 Microstructural Characterization of Creep Damage Evolution in Welded Inconel 600 Superalloy

Authors: Lourdes Yareth Herrera-Chavez, Alberto Ruiz, Victor H. Lopez


Superalloys are used in components that operate at high temperatures such as pressure vessels and heat exchanger tubing. Design standards for these components must consider creep resistance among other criteria. Fusion welding processes are commonly used in the industry to join such components. Fusion processes commonly generate three distinctive zones, i.e. heat affected zone (HAZ), namely weld metal (WM) and base metal (BM). In nickel-based superalloy, the microstructure developed during fusion welding dictates the mechanical response of the welded component and it is very important to establish these effects in the mechanical response of the component. In this work, two plates of Inconel 600 superalloy were Gas Metal Arc Welded (GMAW). Creep samples were cut and milled to specifications and creep tested at a temperature (650 °C) using stress level of 350, 300, 275, 250 and 200 MPa. Microstructural analysis results showed a progressive creep damage evolution that depends on the stress levels with a preferential accumulation of creep damage at the heat affected zone where the creep rupture preferentially occurs owing to an austenitic matrix with grain boundary precipitated of the type Cr23C6. The fractured surfaces showed dimple patterns of cavity and voids. Results indicated that the damage mechanism is due to cavity growth by the combined effect of the power law and diffusion creep.

Keywords: austenitic microstructure, creep damage evolution, heat affected zone, vickers microhardness

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5121 A Study of Structural Damage Detection for Spacecraft In-Orbit Based on Acoustic Sensor Array

Authors: Lei Qi, Rongxin Yan, Lichen Sun


With the increasing of human space activities, the number of space debris has increased dramatically, and the possibility that spacecrafts on orbit are impacted by space debris is growing. A method is of the vital significance to real-time detect and assess spacecraft damage, determine of gas leak accurately, guarantee the life safety of the astronaut effectively. In this paper, acoustic sensor array is used to detect the acoustic signal which emits from the damage of the spacecraft on orbit. Then, we apply the time difference of arrival and beam forming algorithm to locate the damage and leakage. Finally, the extent of the spacecraft damage is evaluated according to the nonlinear ultrasonic method. The result shows that this method can detect the debris impact and the structural damage, locate the damage position, and identify the damage degree effectively. This method can meet the needs of structural damage detection for the spacecraft in-orbit.

Keywords: acoustic sensor array, spacecraft, damage assessment, leakage location

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5120 Comparative Stem Cells Therapy for Regeneration of Liver Fibrosis

Authors: H. M. Imam, H. M. Rezk, A. F. Tohamy


Background: Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) is considered as a unique source for stem cells. HUCB contain different types of progenitor cells which could differentiate into hepatocytes. Aims: To investigate the potential of rat's liver damage repair using human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). We investigated the feasibility for hUCMSCs in recovery from liver damage. Moreover, investigating fibrotic liver repair and using the CCl4-induced model for liver damage in the rat. Methods: Rats were injected with 0.5 ml/kg CCl4 to induce liver damage and progressive liver fibrosis. hUCMSCs were injected into the rats through the tail vein; Stem cells were transplanted at a dose of 1×106 cells/rat after 72 hours of CCl4 injection without receiving any immunosuppressant. After (6 and 8 weeks) of transplantation, blood samples were collected to assess liver functions (ALT, AST, GGT and ALB) and level of Procollagen III as a liver fibrosis marker. In addition, hepatic tissue regeneration was assessed histopathologically and immunohistochemically using antihuman monoclonal antibodies against CD34, CK19 and albumin. Results: Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed significantly increased recovery from liver damage in the transplanted group. In addition, HUCB stem cells transdifferentiated into functional hepatocytes in rats with hepatic injury which results in improving liver structure and function. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that transplantation of hUCMSCs may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating liver fibrosis. Therefore, hUCMSCs are a potential option for treatment of liver cirrhosis.

Keywords: carbon tetra chloride, liver fibrosis, mesenchymal stem cells, rat

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5119 Overview and Post Damage Analysis of Nepal Earthquake 2015

Authors: Vipin Kumar Singhal, Rohit Kumar Mittal, Pavitra Ranjan Maiti


Damage analysis is one of the preliminary activities to be done after an earthquake so as to enhance the seismic building design technologies and prevent similar type of failure in future during earthquakes. This research article investigates the damage pattern and most probable reason of failure by observing photographs of seven major buildings collapsed/damaged which were evenly spread over the region during Mw7.8, Nepal earthquake 2015 followed by more than 400 aftershocks of Mw4 with one aftershock reaching a magnitude of Mw7.3. Over 250,000 buildings got damaged, and more than 9000 people got injured in this earthquake. Photographs of these buildings were collected after the earthquake and the cause of failure was estimated along with the severity of damage and comment on the reparability of structure has been made. Based on observations, it was concluded that the damage in reinforced concrete buildings was less compared to masonry structures. The number of buildings damaged was high near Kathmandu region due to high building density in that region. This type of damage analysis can be used as a cost effective and quick method for damage assessment during earthquakes.

Keywords: Nepal earthquake, damage analysis, damage assessment, damage scales

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5118 Damage Identification in Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Modal Parameters and Their Formulation

Authors: Ali Al-Ghalib, Fouad Mohammad


The identification of damage in reinforced concrete structures subjected to incremental cracking performance exploiting vibration data is recognized as a challenging topic in the published and heavily cited literature. Therefore, this paper attempts to shine light on the extent of dynamic methods when applied to reinforced concrete beams simulated with various scenarios of defects. For this purpose, three different reinforced concrete beams are tested through the course of the study. The three beams are loaded statically to failure in incremental successive load cycles and later rehabilitated. After each static load stage, the beams are tested under free-free support condition using experimental modal analysis. The beams were all of the same length and cross-sectional area (2.0x0.14x0.09)m, but they were different in concrete compressive strength and the type of damage presented. The experimental modal parameters as damage identification parameters were showed computationally expensive, time consuming and require substantial inputs and considerable expertise. Nonetheless, they were proved plausible for the condition monitoring of the current case study as well as structural changes in the course of progressive loads. It was accentuated that a satisfactory localization and quantification for structural changes (Level 2 and Level 3 of damage identification problem) can only be achieved reasonably through considering frequencies and mode shapes of a system in a proper analytical model. A convenient post analysis process for various datasets of vibration measurements for the three beams is conducted in order to extract, check and correlate the basic modal parameters; namely, natural frequency, modal damping and mode shapes. The results of the extracted modal parameters and their combination are utilized and discussed in this research as quantification parameters.

Keywords: experimental modal analysis, damage identification, structural health monitoring, reinforced concrete beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
5117 An Improved Tie Force Method for Progressive Collapse Resistance Design of Precast Concrete Cross Wall Structures

Authors: M. Tohidi, J. Yang, C. Baniotopoulos


Progressive collapse of buildings typically occurs when abnormal loading conditions cause local damages, which leads to a chain reaction of failure and ultimately catastrophic collapse. The tie force (TF) method is one of the main design approaches for progressive collapse. As the TF method is a simplified method, further investigations on the reliability of the method is necessary. This study aims to develop an improved TF method to design the cross wall structures for progressive collapse. To this end, the pullout behavior of strands in grout was firstly analyzed; and then, by considering the tie force-slip relationship in the friction stage together with the catenary action mechanism, a comprehensive analytical method was developed. The reliability of this approach is verified by the experimental results of concrete block pullout tests and full scale floor-to-floor joints tests undertaken by Portland Cement Association (PCA). Discrepancies in the tie force between the analytical results and codified specifications have suggested the deficiency of TF method, hence an improved model based on the analytical results has been proposed to address this concern.

Keywords: cross wall, progressive collapse, ties force method, catenary, analytical

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5116 Metabolic Cost and Perceived Exertion during Progressive and Randomized Walking Protocols

Authors: Simeon E. H. Davies


This study investigated whether selected metabolic responses and the perception of effort varied during four different walk protocols where speed increased progressively 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 km/hr (progressive treadmill walk (PTW); and progressive land walk (PLW); or where the participant adjusted to random changes of speed e.g. 6, 3, 7, 4, and 5 km/hr during a randomized treadmill walk (RTW); and a randomized land walk (RLW). Mean stature and mass of the seven participants was 1.75m and 70kg respectively, with a mean body fat of 15%. Metabolic measures including heart rate, relative oxygen uptake, ventilation, increased in a linear fashion up to 6 km/hr, however at 7 km/hr there was a significant increase in metabolic response notably during the PLW, and to a similar, although lesser extent in RLW, probably as a consequence of the loss of kinetic energy when turning at each cone in order to maintain the speed during each shuttle. Respiration frequency appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of physical exertion, exhibiting a rapid elevation at 5 km/hr. The perception of effort during each mode and at each speed was largely congruent during each walk protocol.

Keywords: exertion, metabolic, progressive, random, walking

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