Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Ozgur Bozdag

26 The Flora of Bozdağ, Sizma–Konya, Turkey and Its Environs

Authors: Murad Aydin Şanda, Esra İpekci

Abstract:

The flora of Bozdağ (Konya) and its surroundings were investigated between 2003 and 2005 years; 700 herbarium specimens belonging to 482 taxa, 257 genera and 62 families were collected and identified from the area. The families which have the most taxa in research area are Asteraceae 67 (14.0%), Fabaceae 60 (12.6%), Lamiaceae 57 (11.9%), Brassicaceae 34 (7.1%), Poaceae 30 (6.3%), Rosaceae 24 (5.0%), Caryophyllaceae 23 (4.8%), Liliaceae 19 (4.0%), Boraginaceae 17 (3.6%), Apiaceae 13 (2.7%). The research area is in the district of Konya and is in the B4 square according to the Grid System. The phytogeographic elements are represented in the study area as follows; Mediterranean 72 (14.9%), Irano-Turanian 91 (18.9%), Euro-Siberian 21 (4.3%). The phytogeographic regions of 273 (56.6%) taxa are either multi regional or unknown. The number of endemic taxa is 79 (16.3%).

Keywords: Turkey, flora, Konya, Sizma, Bozdağ

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25 Evaluation of Earthquake Induced Cost for Mid-Rise Buildings

Authors: Gulsah Olgun, Ozgur Bozdag, Yildirim Ertutar

Abstract:

This paper mainly focuses on performance assessment of buildings by associating the damage level with the damage cost. For this purpose a methodology is explained and applied to the representative mid-rise concrete building residing in Izmir. In order to consider uncertainties in occurrence of earthquakes, the structural analyses are conducted for all possible earthquakes in the region through the hazard curve. By means of the analyses, probability of the structural response being in different limit states are obtained and used to calculate expected damage cost. The expected damage cost comprises diverse cost components related to earthquake such as cost of casualties, replacement or repair cost of building etc. In this study, inter-story drift is used as an effective response variable to associate expected damage cost with different damage levels. The structural analysis methods performed to obtain inter story drifts are response spectrum method as a linear one, accurate push-over and time history methods to demonstrate the nonlinear effects on loss estimation. Comparison of the results indicates that each method provides similar values of expected damage cost. To sum up, this paper explains an approach which enables to minimize the expected damage cost of buildings and relate performance level to damage cost.

Keywords: Performance Based Design, limit states, loss estimation, expected damage cost

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24 Preliminary Studies in the Determination of Deteriorations in Eflatunpınar Hitit Water Monument (Konya, Turkey) by Non-Destructive Tests

Authors: İsmail İnce, Ali Bozdag, Ayla Bozdag, M. Bahadır Tosunlar, M. Ergun Hatır, Mustafa Korkanc

Abstract:

The building stones used in the construction of historical structures are exposed to atmospheric effects directly or indirectly. As a result of this process, building stones are partially or completely degraded. Historical buildings are important symbols of cultural heritage, so it is very significant to transfer to the future generations by protecting and repairing of these historical buildings. The Eflatunpınar Hitit Monument located near the Eflatunpınar cold water spring was constructed by using natural rock blocks during the Hittites Empire period. The monument has been protected without losing its function until today. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the deteriorations in the Eflatunpınar Hitit Monument and to detect the water chemistry of the Eflatunpınar spring located around the Beysehir County in the west of Konya. For this purpose, the petrographic and mechanical properties of the rocks used in this monument were determined, and the deteriorations in the monument were determined with the aid of non-destructive test methods including Schmidt hardness value, relative humidity measurement, thermal imaging. Additionally, the physical (electrical conductivity (EC), pH and temperature) and chemical characteristics (major anions and cations) of the Eflatunpınar cold water spring have been detected.

Keywords: Konya, deteriorations, Eflatunpınar Hitit monument, Eflatunpınar spring, non-destructıve tests

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23 The Investigation of Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Levels in Adolescents

Authors: Turgay Ozgur, Arda Ozturk, Mursit Aksoy, Bahar O. Ozgur, Ozan Yilmaz

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of basic basketball and volleyball exercises to Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (BKI) levels in 245 (92 girls and 154 boys) adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years. Data collected via Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence scale as a subdimension of Multiple Intelligences Inventory. BKI levels were not different between basketball and volleyball groups. Statistical analyses were made based on gender, age groups (12, 13, 14 years) and exercise type. Independent samples t-test revealed that there was no significant difference between boy’s and girl’s BKI levels. One way ANOVA test revealed that there was significant difference between age group’s (12, 13, 14) BKI levels in post-test. However, Paired samples t-test revealed no significant differences between pre-post test results of adolescent’s BKI levels. In conclusion, despite the relatively long-term (8 weeks) physical activity. BKI levels have not shown significant differences.

Keywords: Adolescent, Basketball, Volleyball, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence

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22 Relationship between the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 and Anaerobic Performance Tests in Youth Soccer Players

Authors: Turgay Ozgur, Bahar Ozgur, Gurcan Yazici

Abstract:

The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship between the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) and relatively easy to conduct anaerobic power tests such as Sergeant (SJ) and Standing Broad Jump (SBJ), the flexibility Sit&Reach test (S&R) and Hexagon Agility (HA) test in twenty youth soccer players, aged 14 years. Players completed YYIR1 and other performance tests [(SJ), (SBJ] in two consecutive days. The mean YYIR1 distances for the players was 1454 ± 420 m. Peak Anaerobic Power (PAPw) was calculated using SJ (cm) scores. The mean PAPw was 2966,83w. Spearman’s correlation test results revealed that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between HA and YYIR1 tests (r = -0.72, p=0.000) and no significant correlation was found between anaerobic power tests and YYIR1. In conclusion, as a test to measure player’s intermittent aerobic capacity YYIR1 test and anaerobic power test results have not shown significant correlation. Although the YYIR1 test has been used in talent identification, anaerobic qualifications of player’s should be assessed using designated performance tests.

Keywords: soccer, anaerobic power, yo-yo test, sergeant jump test

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21 Effects of Boron Compounds in Rabbits Fed High Protein and Energy Diet: A Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Approach

Authors: Abdullah Basoglu, Nuri Başpınar, Özgür Özdemir, Çağlayan Özel, FundaTerzi, Özgür Yaman

Abstract:

Current research is targeting new molecular mechanisms that underlie non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated metabolic disorders like nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Forty New Zealand White rabbits have been used and fed a high protein (HP) and energy diet based on grains and containing 11.76 MJ/kg. Boron added to 3 experimental groups’ drinking waters (30 mg boron/L) as boron compounds. Biochemical analysis including boron levels, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics evaluation, and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family were performed. LDL-cholesterol concentrations alone were decreased in all the experimental groups. Boron levels in serum and feces were increased. Content of acetate was in about 2x higher for anhydrous borax group, at least 3x higher for boric acid group. PPARα mRNA expression was significantly decreased in boric acid group. Anhydrous borax attenuated mRNA levels of PPARα, which was further suppressed by boric acid. Boron supplementation decreased the degenerative alterations in hepatocytes. Except borax group other boron groups did not have a pronounced change in tubular epithels of kidney. In conclusion, high protein and energy diet leads hepatocytes’ degenerative changes which can be prevented by boron supplementation. Boric acid seems to precede in this effectiveness.

Keywords: Metabolomics, Boron, high protein and energy diet, transcriptomic

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20 Production of (V-B) Reinforced Fe Matrix Composites

Authors: Kerim Emre Öksüz, Mehmet Çevik, A. Enbiya Bozdağ, Ali Özer, Mehmet Simsir

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have gained a considerable interest in the last three decades. Conventional powder metallurgy production route often involves the addition of reinforcing phases into the metal matrix directly, which leads to poor wetting behavior between ceramic phase and metal matrix and the segregation of reinforcements. The commonly used elements for ceramic phase formation in iron based MMCs are Ti, Nb, Mo, W, V and C, B. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the effect of sintering temperature and V-B addition on densification, phase development, microstructure, and hardness of Fe–V-B composites (Fe-(5-10) wt. %B – 25 wt. %V alloys) prepared by powder metallurgy process. Metal powder mixes were pressed uniaxial and sintered at different temperatures (ranging from 1300 to 1400ºC) for 1h. The microstructure of the (V, B) Fe composites was studied with the help of high magnification optical microscope and XRD. Experimental results show that (V, B) Fe composites can be produced by conventional powder metallurgy route.

Keywords: Microstructure, powder metallurgy, Hardness, metal matrix composite (MMC)

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19 [Keynote Talk]: Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of ZnO of Different Morphologies by Solvent Variation

Authors: Durata Haciu, Ozgur Birer, Berti Manisa

Abstract:

ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation from simple linear alcohols and water/ethanolic mixtures, at 50 oC. By changing the composition of the solvent, the shape could be altered. While no product was obtained from methanolic solutions, in ethanol, sheet like lamellar structures prevail.n-propanol and n-butanol resulted in needle like structures. The morphology of ZnO could be thus tailored in a simple way, by varying the solvent, under ultrasonic irradiation, in a relatively less time consuming method. Variation of the morphology and size of Zn also provides a means for modulating the band-gap. Although the chemical effects of ultrasound do not come from direct interaction with molecular species, the high energy derived from acoustic cavitation creates a unique interaction of energy and matter with great potential for synthesis.

Keywords: Morphology, Ultrasound, ZnO, linear alcohols

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18 Multi-Sensor Concept in Optical Surface Metrology

Authors: Özgür Tan

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In different fields of industry, there is a huge demand to acquire surface information in the dimension of micrometer up to centimeter in order to characterize functional behavior of products. Thanks to the latest developments, there are now different methods in surface metrology, but it is not possible to find a unique measurement technique which fulfils all the requirements. Depending on the interaction with the surface, regardless of optical or tactile, every method has its own advantages and disadvantages which are given by nature. However new concepts like ‘multi-sensor’, tools in surface metrology can be improved to solve most of the requirements simultaneously. In this paper, after having presented different optical techniques like confocal microscopy, focus variation and white light interferometry, a new approach is presented which combines white-light interferometry with chromatic confocal probing in a single product. Advantages of different techniques can be used for challenging applications.

Keywords: roughness, flatness, chromatic confocal, optical surface metrology, white-light interferometry

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17 Natural Dyeing on Wool Fabrics Using Some Red Rose Petals

Authors: Burcu Yilmaz Şahinbaşkan, Emrah Çimen, Mustafa Demirelli, Mahmure Üstün Özgür

Abstract:

Natural colours are used on a large area such as textile, food and pharmaceutical industries by many researchers. When tannic acid is used together with metal salts for dyeing with natural dyes, antibacterial and fastness properties of textile materials are increased. In addition, the allegens are removed on wool fabrics. In this experimental work, some red rose petals were applied as a natural dye with three different dyeing methods and eight different mordant salts. The effect of tannic acid and different metal salts on dyeing of wool fabric was studied. Colour differences ΔECMC (2:1) and fastness properties of dyed fabrics were investigated and compared with each other. Finally, dark colours and adequate colour fastness results (4+) were obtained after dyeing of wool fabrics with FeSO4.7H2O, FeCl3.6H2O and CuCl2.2H2O in the presence of the tannic acid.

Keywords: natural dye, red rose petals, tannic acid, mordant salts, wool fabric

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16 Sonochemical Zinc Oxide and Layered Hydroxy Zinc Acetate Synthesis in Fenton-Like Reactions

Authors: Durata Haciu, Ozgur Birer

Abstract:

Zinc acetate solution is sonicated at high power in water and in ethanol in the absence and presence of various peroxides. In the absence of peroxides, the products are zinc oxide and layered hydroxy zinc acetate in water and in ethanol, respectively. Layered basic zinc acetate are prepared for the first time using sonochemical methods. The addition of peroxides alters the reaction mechanisms. In water, insoluble peroxides produce zinc oxides while the water soluble peroxide, i.e.hydrogen peroxide, completely destroyed the structure and casted a doubt on the accepted peroxide initiated mechanism of reactions. In ethanol,peroxide addition caused the reaction mechanism to change and some oxide formation is observed. The reaction mechanism is sensitive to water/ethanol amounts as well as the peroxide to zinc ion mole ratio.Thin zinc oxide wafers (ca. 30 nm) with band gaps of 3.24 eV were obtained.

Keywords: Ultrasound, zinc oxide, fenton, hydroxy zinc acetate, peroxide initiation

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15 Lambda-Levelwise Statistical Convergence of a Sequence of Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: F. Berna Benli, Özgür Keskin

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Lately, many mathematicians have been studied the statistical convergence of a sequence of fuzzy numbers. We know that Lambda-statistically convergence is a kind of convergence between ordinary convergence and statistical convergence. In this paper, we will introduce the new kind of convergence such as λ-levelwise statistical convergence. Then, we will define the concept of the λ-levelwise statistical cluster and limit points of a sequence of fuzzy numbers. Also, we will discuss the relations between the sets of λ-levelwise statistical cluster points and λ-levelwise statistical limit points of sequences of fuzzy numbers. This work has been extended in this paper, where some relations have been considered such that when lambda-statistical limit inferior and lambda-statistical limit superior for lambda-statistically convergent sequences of fuzzy numbers are equal. Furthermore, lambda-statistical boundedness condition for different sequences of fuzzy numbers has been studied.

Keywords: fuzzy number, λ-levelwise statistical cluster points, λ-levelwise statistical convergence, λ-levelwise statistical limit points, λ-statistical cluster points, λ-statistical convergence, λ-statistical limit points

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14 A Process to Support Multidisciplinary Teams to Design Serious Games

Authors: Leonora Zefi, Naza Djafarova, Tony Bates, Margaret Verkuyl, Ozgur Turetken, Alex Ferworn, Mastrilli Paula, Daria Romaniuk, Kosha Bramesfeld, Anastasia Dimitriadou, Cheryl To

Abstract:

Designing serious games for education is a challenging and resource-intensive effort. If a well-designed process that balances pedagogical principles with game mechanics is in place, it can help to simplify the design process of serious games and increase efficiency. Multidisciplinary teams involved in designing serious games can benefit tremendously from such a process in their endeavours to develop and implement these games at undergraduate and graduate levels. This paper presentation will outline research results on identified gaps within existing processes and frameworks and present an adapted process that emerged from the research. The research methodology was based on a survey, semi-structured interviews and workshops for testing the adapted process for game design. Based on the findings, the authors propose a simple process for the pre-production stage of serious game design that may help guide multidisciplinary teams in their work. This process was used to facilitate team brainstorming, and is currently being tested to assess if multidisciplinary teams find value in using it in their process of designing serious games.

Keywords: Learning Games, multidisciplinary team, serious game-design, game design framework, multidisciplinary game design process

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13 Investigation of Film and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)

Authors: Reyhan Özdoğan, Özgür Ceylan, Mehmet Arif Kaya, Mithat Çelebi

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Food packaging is important for the food industry. Bioplastics have been used as food packaging materials. According to the European Bioplastics organization, bioplastics can be defined as plastics based on renewable resources (bio-based) or as plastics which are biodegradable and/or compostable. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has an industrially importance of bioplastic polymers. PLA is a family of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester made from renewable resources. It is produced by conversion of corn, or other carbohydrate sources, into dextrose, followed by fermentation into lactic acid through direct polycondensation of lactic acid monomers or through ring-opening polymerization of lactide. The processing possibilities of this transparent material are very wide, ranging from injection molding and extrusion over cast film extrusion to blow molding and thermoforming. In this study, PLA films were prepared by solution casting method. PLAs which are different molecular weights were plasticized with glycerol and the morphology of films was monitored by optical microscopy. Properties of mechanical and film of PLA were researched with the mechanical testing machine.

Keywords: Morphology, Bioplastics, biodegradable, poly(lactic acid), solution casting

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12 FMCW Doppler Radar Measurements with Microstrip Tx-Rx Antennas

Authors: Yusuf Ulaş Kabukçu, Si̇nan Çeli̇k, Onur Salan, Mai̇de Altuntaş, Mert Can Dalkiran, Gökseni̇n Bozdağ, Metehan Bulut, Fati̇h Yaman

Abstract:

This study presents a more compact implementation of the 2.4GHz MIT Coffee Can Doppler Radar for 2.6GHz operating frequency. The main difference of our prototype depends on the use of microstrip antennas which makes it possible to transport with a small robotic vehicle. We have designed our radar system with two different channels: Tx and Rx. The system mainly consists of Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) source, low noise amplifiers, microstrip antennas, splitter, mixer, low pass filter, and necessary RF connectors with cables. The two microstrip antennas, one is element for transmitter and the other one is array for receiver channel, was designed, fabricated and verified by experiments. The system has two operation modes: speed detection and range detection. If the switch of the operation mode is ‘Off’, only CW signal transmitted for speed measurement. When the switch is ‘On’, CW is frequency-modulated and range detection is possible. In speed detection mode, high frequency (2.6 GHz) is generated by a VCO, and then amplified to reach a reasonable level of transmit power. Before transmitting the amplified signal through a microstrip patch antenna, a splitter used in order to compare the frequencies of transmitted and received signals. Half of amplified signal (LO) is forwarded to a mixer, which helps us to compare the frequencies of transmitted and received (RF) and has the IF output, or in other words information of Doppler frequency. Then, IF output is filtered and amplified to process the signal digitally. Filtered and amplified signal showing Doppler frequency is used as an input of audio input of a computer. After getting this data Doppler frequency is shown as a speed change on a figure via Matlab script. According to experimental field measurements the accuracy of speed measurement is approximately %90. In range detection mode, a chirp signal is used to form a FM chirp. This FM chirp helps to determine the range of the target since only Doppler frequency measured with CW is not enough for range detection. Such a FMCW Doppler radar may be used in border security of the countries since it is capable of both speed and range detection.

Keywords: Doppler Radar, FMCW, range detection, speed detection

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11 Analyzing Energy Consumption Behavior of Migrated Population in Turkey Using Bayesian Belief Approach

Authors: Ebru Acuner, Gulgun Kayakutlu, M. Ozgur Kayalica, Sermin Onaygil

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In Turkey, emigration, especially from Syria, has been continuously increasing together with rapid urbanization. In parallel to this, total energy consumption has been growing, rapidly. Unfortunately, domestic energy sources could not meet this energy demand. Hence, there is a need for reliable predictions. For this reason, before making a survey study for the migrated people, an informative questionnaire was prepared to take the opinions of the experts on the main drivers that shape the energy consumption behavior of the migrated people. Totally, 17 experts were answered, and they were analyzed by means of Netica program considering Bayesian belief analysis method. In the analysis, factors affecting energy consumption behaviors as well as strategies, institutions, tools and financing methods to change these behaviors towards efficient consumption were investigated. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that changing the energy consumption behavior of the migrated people is crucial. In order to be successful, electricity and natural gas prices and tariffs in the market should be arranged considering energy efficiency. In addition, support mechanisms by not only the government but also municipalities should be taken into account while preparing related policies. Also, electric appliance producers should develop and implement strategies and action in favor of the usage of more efficient appliances. Last but not least, non-governmental organizations should support the migrated people to improve their awareness on the efficient consumption for the sustainable future.

Keywords: Behavior, Energy Efficiency, Energy Consumption, Bayesian belief, migrated people

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10 The Functional Rehabilitation of Peri-Implant Tissue Defects: A Case Report

Authors: Özgür Öztürk, Cumhur Sipahi, Hande Yeşil

Abstract:

Implant retained restorations commonly consist of a metal-framework veneered with ceramic or composite facings. The increasing and expanding use of indirect resin composites in dentistry is a result of innovations in materials and processing techniques. Of special interest to the implant restorative field is the possibility that composites present significantly lower peak vertical and transverse forces transmitted at the peri-implant level compared to metal-ceramic supra structures in implant-supported restorations. A 43-year-old male patient referred to the department of prosthodontics for an implant retained fixed prosthesis. The clinical and radiographic examination of the patient demonstrated the presence of an implant in the right mandibular first molar tooth region. A considerable amount of marginal bone loss around the implant was detected in radiographic examinations combined with a remarkable peri-implant soft tissue deficiency. To minimize the chewing loads transmitted to the implant-bone interface it was decided to fabricate an indirect composite resin veneered single metal crown over a screw-retained abutment. At the end of the treatment, the functional and aesthetic deficiencies were fully compensated. After a 6 months clinical and radiographic follow-up period the not any additional pathologic invasion was detected in the implant-bone interface and implant retained restoration did not reveal any vehement complication.

Keywords: Dental Implant, fixed partial dentures, indirect composite resin, peri-implant defects

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9 Comparison of Various Policies under Different Maintenance Strategies on a Multi-Component System

Authors: Demet Ozgur-Unluakin, Busenur Turkali, Ayse Karacaorenli

Abstract:

Maintenance strategies can be classified into two types, which are reactive and proactive, with respect to the time of the failure and maintenance. If the maintenance activity is done after a breakdown, it is called reactive maintenance. On the other hand, proactive maintenance, which is further divided as preventive and predictive, focuses on maintaining components before a failure occurs to prevent expensive halts. Recently, the number of interacting components in a system has increased rapidly and therefore, the structure of the systems have become more complex. This situation has made it difficult to provide the right maintenance decisions. Herewith, determining effective decisions has played a significant role. In multi-component systems, many methodologies and strategies can be applied when a component or a system has already broken down or when it is desired to identify and avoid proactively defects that could lead to future failure. This study focuses on the comparison of various maintenance strategies on a multi-component dynamic system. Components in the system are hidden, although there exists partial observability to the decision maker and they deteriorate in time. Several predefined policies under corrective, preventive and predictive maintenance strategies are considered to minimize the total maintenance cost in a planning horizon. The policies are simulated via Dynamic Bayesian Networks on a multi-component system with different policy parameters and cost scenarios, and their performances are evaluated. Results show that when the difference between the corrective and proactive maintenance cost is low, none of the proactive maintenance policies is significantly better than the corrective maintenance. However, when the difference is increased, at least one policy parameter for each proactive maintenance strategy gives significantly lower cost than the corrective maintenance.

Keywords: Decision Making, Reliability, Maintenance, dynamic Bayesian networks, multi-component systems

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8 Synthesis and Anticancer Evaluation of Substituted 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl) Benzazoles

Authors: Cigdem Karaaslan, Hakan Goker, Yalcin Duydu, Aylin Ustundag, Can Ozgur Yalcın

Abstract:

Benzazole nucleus is found in the structure of many compounds as anticancer agents. Bendamustine (Alkylating agent), Nocodazole (Mitotic inhibitor), Veliparib (PARP inhibitor), Glasdegib (SMO inhibitor) are clinically used as anticancer therapeutics which bearing benzimidazole moiety. Based on the principle of bioisosterism in the present work, 23 compounds belonging to 2-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl) benzazoles and imidazopyridine series were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activities. N-(5-Chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethoxybenzamide, was obtained by the amidation of 2-hydroxy-5-chloroaniline with 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid by using 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole. Cyclization of benzamide derivative to benzoxazole, was achieved by p-toluenesulfonic acid. Other 1H-benz (or pyrido) azoles were prepared by the reaction between 2-aminothiophenol, o-phenylenediamine, o-pyridinediamine with sodium metabisulfite adduct of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. The NMR assignments of the dimethoxy groups were established by the Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy. A compound named, 5(4),7(6)-Dichloro-2-(3,4-dimethoxy) phenyl-1H-benzimidazole, bearing two chlorine atoms at the 5(4) and 7(6) positions of the benzene moiety of benzimidazole was found the most potent analogue, against A549 cells with the GI50 value of 1.5 µg/mL. In addition, 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzimi-dazole showed remarkable cell growth inhibition against MCF-7 and HeLa cells with the GI₅₀ values of 7 and 5.5 µg/mL, respectively. It could be concluded that introduction of di-chloro atoms at the phenyl ring of 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazoles increase significant cytotoxicity to selected human tumor cell lines in comparison to other all benzazoles synthesized in this study. Unsubstituted 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) imidazopyridines also gave the good inhibitory profile against A549 and HeLa cells.

Keywords: imidazopyridine, benzazole

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7 Impacts of Climate Change on Number of Snowy Days and Snow Season Lengths in Turkey

Authors: Evren Ozgur, Kasim Kocak

Abstract:

As a result of global warming and climate change, air temperature has increased and will continue to increase in the future. Increases in air temperatures have effects on a large number of variables in meteorology. One of the most important effects is the changes in the types of precipitation, especially in mid-latitudes. Because of increasing air temperatures, less snowfall was observed in the eastern parts of Turkey. Snowfall provides most of the water supply in spring and summer months, especially in mountainous regions of Turkey. When the temperature begins to increase in spring season, this snow starts to melt and plays an important role in agricultural purposes, drinking water supply and energy production. On the other hand, defining the snow season is very crucial especially in mountainous areas which have winter tourism opportunities. A reduction in the length of the snow season (LSS) in these regions will result in serious consequences in the long run. In the study, snow season was examined for 10 meteorological stations that are located above the altitude of 1000m. These stations have decreasing trends in the ratio of number of snowy days to total precipitation days considering earlier studies. Daily precipitation records with the observation period of 1971-2011 were used in the study. Then, the observation period was separated into 4 non-overlapping parts in order to identify decadal variations. Changes in the length of the snow season with increasing temperatures were obtained for these stations. The results of LSS were evaluated with the number of snowy days for each station. All stations have decreasing trend in number of snowy days for 1971-2011 period. In addition, seven of the results are statistically significant. Besides, decrease is observed regarding the length of snow season for studied stations. The decrease varies between 6.6 and 47.6 days according to decadal snow season averages of the stations.

Keywords: Climate Change, Turkey, Global Warming, Precipitation, snowfall

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6 Analyzing the Performance of Different Cost-Based Methods for the Corrective Maintenance of a System in Thermal Power Plants

Authors: Demet Ozgur-Unluakin, Busenur Turkali, S. Caglar Aksezer

Abstract:

Since the age of industrialization, maintenance has always been a very crucial element for all kinds of factories and plants. With today’s increasingly developing technology, the system structure of such facilities has become more complicated, and even a small operational disruption may return huge losses in profits for the companies. In order to reduce these costs, effective maintenance planning is crucial, but at the same time, it is a difficult task because of the complexity of systems. The most important aspect of correct maintenance planning is to understand the structure of the system, not to ignore the dependencies among the components and as a result, to model the system correctly. In this way, it will be better to understand which component improves the system more when it is maintained. Undoubtedly, proactive maintenance at a scheduled time reduces costs because the scheduled maintenance prohibits high losses in profits. But the necessity of corrective maintenance, which directly affects the situation of the system and provides direct intervention when the system fails, should not be ignored. When a fault occurs in the system, if the problem is not solved immediately and proactive maintenance time is awaited, this may result in increased costs. This study proposes various maintenance methods with different efficiency measures under corrective maintenance strategy on a subsystem of a thermal power plant. To model the dependencies between the components, dynamic Bayesian Network approach is employed. The proposed maintenance methods aim to minimize the total maintenance cost in a planning horizon, as well as to find the most appropriate component to be attacked on, which improves the system reliability utmost. Performances of the methods are compared under corrective maintenance strategy. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is also applied under different cost values. Results show that all fault effect methods perform better than the replacement effect methods and this conclusion is also valid under different downtime cost values.

Keywords: Reliability, Maintenance, dynamic Bayesian networks, multi-component systems

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5 Maintenance Optimization for a Multi-Component System Using Factored Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

Authors: Ipek Kivanc, Demet Ozgur-Unluakin

Abstract:

Over the past years, technological innovations and advancements have played an important role in the industrial world. Due to technological improvements, the degree of complexity of the systems has increased. Hence, all systems are getting more uncertain that emerges from increased complexity, resulting in more cost. It is challenging to cope with this situation. So, implementing efficient planning of maintenance activities in such systems are getting more essential. Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs) are powerful tools for stochastic sequential decision problems under uncertainty. Although maintenance optimization in a dynamic environment can be modeled as such a sequential decision problem, POMDPs are not widely used for tackling maintenance problems. However, they can be well-suited frameworks for obtaining optimal maintenance policies. In the classical representation of the POMDP framework, the system is denoted by a single node which has multiple states. The main drawback of this classical approach is that the state space grows exponentially with the number of state variables. On the other side, factored representation of POMDPs enables to simplify the complexity of the states by taking advantage of the factored structure already available in the nature of the problem. The main idea of factored POMDPs is that they can be compactly modeled through dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs), which are graphical representations for stochastic processes, by exploiting the structure of this representation. This study aims to demonstrate how maintenance planning of dynamic systems can be modeled with factored POMDPs. An empirical maintenance planning problem of a dynamic system consisting of four partially observable components deteriorating in time is designed. To solve the empirical model, we resort to Symbolic Perseus solver which is one of the state-of-the-art factored POMDP solvers enabling approximate solutions. We generate some more predefined policies based on corrective or proactive maintenance strategies. We execute the policies on the empirical problem for many replications and compare their performances under various scenarios. The results show that the computed policies from the POMDP model are superior to the others. Acknowledgment: This work is supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) under grant no: 117M587.

Keywords: Maintenance, factored representation, multi-component system, partially observable Markov decision processes

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4 A New Approach for Preparation of Super Absorbent Polymers: In-Situ Surface Cross-Linking

Authors: Reyhan Özdoğan, Özgür Ceylan, Mehmet Arif Kaya, Mithat Çelebi

Abstract:

Super absorbent polymers (SAPs) are defined as materials that can absorb huge amount of water or aqueous solution in comparison to their own mass and retain in their lightly cross-linked structure. SAPs were produced from water soluble monomers via polymerization subsequently controlled crosslinking. SAPs are generally used for water absorbing applications such as baby diapers, patient or elder pads and other hygienic product industries. Crosslinking density (CD) of SAP structure is an essential factor for water absortion capacity (WAC). Low internal CD leads to high WAC values and vice versa. However, SAPs have low CD and high swelling capacities and tend to disintegrate when pressure is applied upon them, so SAPs under load cannot absorb liquids effectively. In order to prevent this undesired situation and to obtain suitable SAP structures having high swelling capacity and ability to work under load, surface crosslinking can be the answer. In industry, these superabsorbent gels are mostly produced via solution polymerization and then they need to be dried, grinded, sized, post polymerized and finally surface croslinked (involves spraying of a crosslinking solution onto dried and grinded SAP particles, and then curing by heat). It can easily be seen that these steps are time consuming and should be handled carefully for the desired final product. If we could synthesize desired final SAPs using less processes it will help reducing time and production costs which are very important for any industries. In this study, synthesis of SAPs were achieved successfully by inverse suspension (Pickering type) polymerization and subsequently in-situ surface cross-linking via using proper surfactants in high boiling point solvents. Our one-pot synthesis of surface cross-linked SAPs invovles only one-step for preparation, thus it can be said that this technique exhibits more preferable characteristic for the industry in comparison to conventional methods due to its one-step easy process. Effects of different surface crosslinking agents onto properties of poly(acrylic acid-co-sodium acrylate) based SAPs are investigated. Surface crosslink degrees are evaluated by swelling under load (SUL) test. It was determined water absorption capacities of obtained SAPs decrease with the increasing surface crosslink density while their mechanic properties are improved.

Keywords: sodium polyacrylate, inverse suspension polymerization, polyacrylic acid, super absorbent polymers (SAPs), surface crosslinking

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3 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Air Distribution System of Larder Type Refrigerator

Authors: Funda Erdem Şahnali, Ş. Özgür Atayılmaz, Tolga N. Aynur

Abstract:

Almost all of the domestic refrigerators operate on the principle of the vapor compression refrigeration cycle and removal of heat from the refrigerator cabinets is done via one of the two methods: natural convection or forced convection. In this study, airflow and temperature distributions inside a 375L no-frost type larder cabinet, in which cooling is provided by forced convection, are evaluated both experimentally and numerically. Airflow rate, compressor capacity and temperature distribution in the cooling chamber are known to be some of the most important factors that affect the cooling performance and energy consumption of a refrigerator. The objective of this study is to evaluate the original temperature distribution in the larder cabinet, and investigate for better temperature distribution solutions throughout the refrigerator domain via system optimizations that could provide uniform temperature distribution. The flow visualization and airflow velocity measurements inside the original refrigerator are performed via Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). In addition, airflow and temperature distributions are investigated numerically with Ansys Fluent. In order to study the heat transfer inside the aforementioned refrigerator, forced convection theories covering the following cases are applied: closed rectangular cavity representing heat transfer inside the refrigerating compartment. The cavity volume has been represented with finite volume elements and is solved computationally with appropriate momentum and energy equations (Navier-Stokes equations). The 3D model is analyzed as transient, with k-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE pressure-velocity coupling for turbulent flow situation. The results obtained with the 3D numerical simulations are in quite good agreement with the experimental airflow measurements using the SPIV technique. After Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the baseline case, the effects of three parameters: compressor capacity, fan rotational speed and type of shelf (glass or wire) are studied on the energy consumption; pull down time, temperature distributions in the cabinet. For each case, energy consumption based on experimental results is calculated. After the analysis, the main effective parameters for temperature distribution inside a cabin and energy consumption based on CFD simulation are determined and simulation results are supplied for Design of Experiments (DOE) as input data for optimization. The best configuration with minimum energy consumption that provides minimum temperature difference between the shelves inside the cabinet is determined.

Keywords: Experimental, CFD, Energy Consumption, Refrigeration, Air Distribution, DOE, larder cabinet, uniform temperature

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2 The Relationship between Basic Human Needs and Opportunity Based on Social Progress Index

Authors: Huseyin Guler, Ebru Ozgur Guler, Sera Sanli

Abstract:

Social Progress Index (SPI) whose fundamentals have been thrown in the World Economy Forum is an index which aims to form a systematic basis for guiding strategy for inclusive growth which requires achieving both economic and social progress. In this research, it has been aimed to determine the relations among “Basic Human Needs” (BHN) (including four variables of ‘Nutrition and Basic Medical Care’, ‘Water and Sanitation’, ‘Shelter’ and ‘Personal Safety’) and “Opportunity” (OPT) (that is composed of ‘Personal Rights’, ‘Personal Freedom and Choice’, ‘Tolerance and Inclusion’, and ‘Access to Advanced Education’ components) dimensions of 2016 SPI for 138 countries which take place in the website of Social Progress Imperative by carrying out canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which is a data reduction technique that operates in a way to maximize the correlation between two variable sets. In the interpretation of results, the first pair of canonical variates pointing to the highest canonical correlation has been taken into account. The first canonical correlation coefficient has been found as 0.880 indicating to the high relationship between BHN and OPT variable sets. Wilk’s Lambda statistic has revealed that an overall effect of 0.809 is highly large for the full model in order to be counted as statistically significant (with a p-value of 0.000). According to the standardized canonical coefficients, the largest contribution to BHN set of variables has come from ‘shelter’ variable. The most effective variable in OPT set has been detected to be ‘access to advanced education’. Findings based on canonical loadings have also confirmed these results with respect to the contributions to the first canonical variates. When canonical cross loadings (structure coefficients) are examined, for the first pair of canonical variates, the largest contributions have been provided by ‘shelter’ and ‘access to advanced education’ variables. Since the signs for structure coefficients have been found to be negative for all variables; all OPT set of variables are positively related to all of the BHN set of variables. In case canonical communality coefficients which are the sum of the squares of structure coefficients across all interpretable functions are taken as the basis; amongst all variables, ‘personal rights’ and ‘tolerance and inclusion’ variables can be said not to be useful in the model with 0.318721 and 0.341722 coefficients respectively. On the other hand, while redundancy index for BHN set has been found to be 0.615; OPT set has a lower redundancy index with 0.475. High redundancy implies high ability for predictability. The proportion of the total variation in BHN set of variables that is explained by all of the opposite canonical variates has been calculated as 63% and finally, the proportion of the total variation in OPT set that is explained by all of the canonical variables in BHN set has been determined as 50.4% and a large part of this proportion belongs to the first pair. The results suggest that there is a high and statistically significant relationship between BHN and OPT. This relationship is generally accounted by ‘shelter’ and ‘access to advanced education’.

Keywords: canonical correlation analysis, canonical communality coefficient, redundancy index, social progress index

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1 The Effect of Music Therapy on Anxiety, Fear and Pain Management in 6-12 Year Old Children Undergoing Surgery

Authors: Meltem Kürtüncü, Özgür Bahadir

Abstract:

The study was designed as quasi-experimental and conducted to determine the effect of music therapy on anxiety, fear and pain management in 6-12-year-old children undergoing surgery. The present study was carried out between 01.01.2016 and 19.08.2016 in BEU. Application and Research Center. The children aged 6 -12 who applied for surgery between the mentioned dates constituted the universe of the study. In the quasi-experimental study that was conducted in the clinics where children received operational treatment, two groups were formed: experimental group (the children who received musical therapy before the surgery) and control group (the children who were administered surveys and the surgery service routines only). Each group consisted of 30 children, and the participants of the study were 60 children in total. Necessary permissions were obtained from the parents of the children hospitalized before the beginning of the implementation. The data was collected through Child Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI), “Fear In Medical Treatment Scale”, Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability Scale (FLACC), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Participant Information Form. In the analysis of the data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution scale was used to examine the normality of the distribution along with descriptive statistics methods (Frequency, Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation). Data was presented in the tables in numbers and percentages. Means were demonstrated along with the standard deviations. The research compared children received; case and control groups include socio-demographic perspective, non-significant difference statistically among similar groups are intertwined. The general level of fear regarding the medical processes before returning to service after the operation and 30 minutes before getting discharged was found to be significantly low in the experimental group compared to control group (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between experimental and control groups in terms of general level of fear regarding the medical processes before the operation, during the operation day and in the recovery room after the operation (p>0.05). Total CASI AD (anxiety sensitivity) levels before the operation, day of the operation and 30 minutes before the discharge for patients in experimental group was found to be significantly higher than the control group (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the total CASI AD levels for the post-operative recovery room and for returning to the service room after the operation (p>0.05). VAS levels for patients in the experimental group in the post-operative recovery room was significantly higher than the control group (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of VAS findings in returning to service room after the operation and in 30 minutes before the discharge (p>0.05). As a result of the research; applied children music therapy in the experimental group anxiety, fear, and pain of the scales, their scores average, is lower than the control group children in this situation an increase in the satisfaction of children and parents was observed. In line with this, music therapy preoperative anxiety, fear, and can be used as an effective method of decreasing postoperative pain clinics is suggested.

Keywords: Children, Anxiety, Pain, music therapy, fear

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