Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Shruti Motiwale

19 A Non-linear Damage Model For The Annulus Of the Intervertebral Disc Under Cyclic Loading, Including Recovery

Authors: Shruti Motiwale, Xianlin Zhou, Reuben H. Kraft

Abstract:

Military and sports personnel are often required to wear heavy helmets for extended periods of time. This leads to excessive cyclic loads on the neck and an increased chance of injury. Computational models offer one approach to understand and predict the time progression of disc degeneration under severe cyclic loading. In this paper, we have applied an analytic non-linear damage evolution model to estimate damage evolution in an intervertebral disc due to cyclic loads over decade-long time periods. We have also proposed a novel strategy for inclusion of recovery in the damage model. Our results show that damage only grows 20% in the initial 75% of the life, growing exponentially in the remaining 25% life. The analysis also shows that it is crucial to include recovery in a damage model.

Keywords: cervical spine, computational biomechanics, damage evolution, intervertebral disc, continuum damage mechanics

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18 Quasi–Periodicity of Tonic Intervals in Octave and Innovation of Themes in Music Compositions

Authors: R. C. Tyagi

Abstract:

Quasi-periodicity of frequency intervals observed in Shruti based Absolute Scale of Music has been used to graphically identify the Anchor notes ‘Vadi’ and ‘Samvadi’ which are nodal points for expansion, elaboration and iteration of the emotional theme represented by the characteristic tonic arrangement in Raga compositions. This analysis leads to defining the Tonic parameters in the octave including the key-note frequency, tonic intervals’ anchor notes and the on-set and range of quasi-periodicities as exponents of 2. Such uniformity of representation of characteristic data would facilitate computational analysis and synthesis of music compositions and also help develop noise suppression techniques. Criteria for tuning of strings for compatibility with placement of frets on finger boards is discussed. Natural Rhythmic cycles in music compositions are analytically shown to lie between 3 and 126 beats.

Keywords: absolute scale, anchor notes, computational analysis, frets, innovation, noise suppression, Quasi-periodicity, rhythmic cycle, tonic interval, Shruti

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17 Developing Cyber Security Asset Mangement Framework for UK Rail

Authors: Shruti Kohli

Abstract:

The sophistication and pervasiveness of cyber-attacks are constantly growing, driven partly by technological progress, profitable applications in organized crime and state-sponsored innovation. The modernization of rail control systems has resulted in an increasing reliance on digital technology and increased the potential for security breaches and cyber-attacks. This research track showcases the need for developing a secure reusable scalable framework for enhancing cyber security of rail assets. A cyber security framework has been proposed that is being developed to detect the tell-tale signs of cyber-attacks against industrial assets.

Keywords: cyber security, rail asset, security threat, cyber ontology

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16 Speckle Noise Reduction Using Anisotropic Filter Based on Wavelets

Authors: Kritika Bansal, Akwinder Kaur, Shruti Gujral

Abstract:

In this paper, the approach of denoising is solved by using a new hybrid technique which associates the different denoising methods. Wavelet thresholding and anisotropic diffusion filter are the two different filters in our hybrid techniques. The Wavelet thresholding removes the noise by removing the high frequency components with lesser edge preservation, whereas an anisotropic diffusion filters is based on partial differential equation, (PDE) to remove the speckle noise. This PDE approach is used to preserve the edges and provides better smoothing. So our new method proposes a combination of these two filtering methods which performs better results in terms of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), coefficient of correlation (COC) and equivalent no of looks (ENL).

Keywords: denoising, anisotropic diffusion filter, multiplicative noise, speckle, wavelets

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15 Concept of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cage Insertion Device

Authors: Sangram A. Sathe, Neha A. Madgulkar, Shruti S. Raut, S. P. Wadkar

Abstract:

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgeries have nowadays became popular for treatment of degenerated spinal disorders. The interbody fusion technique like TLIF maintains load bearing capacity of the spine and a suitable disc height. Currently many techniques have been introduced to cure Spondylolisthesis. This surgery provides greater rehabilitation of degenerative spines. While performing this TLIF surgery existing methods use guideway, which is a troublesome surgery technique as the use of two separate instruments is required to perform this surgery. This paper presents a concept which eliminates the use of guideway. This concept also eliminates problems that occur like reverting the cage. The concept discussed in this paper also gives high accuracy while performing surgery.

Keywords: TLIF, spondylolisthesis, spine, instruments

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14 New Formula for Revenue Recognition Likely to Change the Prescription for Pharma Industry

Authors: Shruti Hajirnis

Abstract:

In May 2014, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) issued International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers that will supersede virtually all revenue recognition requirements in IFRS and US GAAP. FASB and the IASB have basically achieved convergence with these standards, with only some minor differences such as collectability threshold, interim disclosure requirements, early application and effective date, impairment loss reversal and nonpublic entity requirements. This paper discusses the impact of five-step model prescribed in new revenue standard on the entities operating in Pharma industry. It also outlines the considerations for these entities while implementing the new standard.

Keywords: revenue recognition, pharma industry, standard, requirements

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13 Use of Beta Blockers in Patients with Reactive Airway Disease and Concomitant Hypertension or Ischemic Heart Disease

Authors: Bharti Chogtu Magazine, Dhanya Soodana Mohan, Shruti Nair, Tanwi Trushna

Abstract:

The study was undertaken to analyse the cardiovascular drugs being prescribed in patients with concomitant reactive airway disease and hypertension or ischemic heart diseases (IHD). Also, the effect of beta-blockers on respiratory symptoms in these patients was recorded. Data was collected from medical records of patients with reactive airway disease and concomitant hypertension and IHD. It included demographic details of the patients, diagnosis, drugs prescribed and the patient outcome regarding the exacerbation of asthma symptoms with intake of beta blockers. Medical records of 250 patients were analysed.13% of patients were prescribed beta-blockers. 12% of hypertensive patients, 16.6% of IHD patients and 20% of patients with concomitant hypertension and IHD were prescribed beta blockers. Of the 33 (13%) patients who were on beta-blockers, only 3 patients had an exacerbation of bronchial asthma symptoms. Cardioselective beta-blockers under supervision appear to be safe in patients with reactive airway disease and concomitant hypertension and IHD.

Keywords: beta blockers, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, asthma

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12 Rare Earth Doped Alkali Halide Crystals for Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Application

Authors: Pooja Seth, Shruti Aggarwal

Abstract:

The Europium (Eu) doped (0.02-0.1 wt %) lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal in the form of multicrystalline sheet was gown by the edge defined film fed growth (EFG) technique. Crystals were grown in argon gas atmosphere using graphite crucible and stainless steel die. The systematic incorporation of Eu inside the host LiF lattice was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve was recorded on annealed (AN) crystals after irradiation with a gamma dose of 15 Gy. The effect of different concentration of Eu in enhancing the thermoluminescence (TL) intensity of LiF was studied. The normalized peak height of the Eu-doped LiF crystal was nearly 12 times that of the LiF crystals. The optimized concentration of Eu in LiF was found to be 0.05wt% at which maximum TL intensity was observed with main TL peak positioned at 185 °C. At higher concentration TL intensity decreases due to the formation of precipitates in the form of clusters or aggregates. The nature of the energy traps in Eu doped LiF was analysed through glow curve deconvolution. The trap depth was found to be in the range of 0.2 – 0.5 eV. These results showed that doping with Eu enhances the TL intensity by creating more defect sites for capturing of electron and holes during irradiation which might be useful for dosimetry application.

Keywords: thermoluminescence, defects, gamma radiation, crystals

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11 Challenges for IoT Adoption in India: A Study Based on Foresight Analysis for 2025

Authors: Shruti Chopra, Vikas Rao Vadi

Abstract:

In the era of the digital world, the Internet of Things (IoT) has been receiving significant attention. Its ubiquitous connectivity between humans, machines to machines (M2M) and machines to humans provides it a potential to transform the society and establish an ecosystem to serve new dimensions to the economy of the country. Thereby, this study has attempted to identify the challenges that seem prevalent in IoT adoption in India through the literature survey. Further, the data has been collected by taking the opinions of experts to conduct the foresight analysis and it has been analyzed with the help of scenario planning process – Micmac, Mactor, Multipol, and Smic-Prob. As a methodology, the study has identified the relationship between variables through variable analysis using Micmac and actor analysis using Mactor, this paper has attempted to generate the entire field of possibilities in terms of hypotheses and construct various scenarios through Multipol. And lastly, the findings of the study include final scenarios that are selected using Smic-Prob by assigning the probability to all the scenarios (including the conditional probability). This study may help the practitioners and policymakers to remove the obstacles to successfully implement the IoT in India.

Keywords: Internet of Thing (IoT), foresight analysis, scenario planning, challenges, policymaking

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10 Gendered Effects on Productivity Gap Due to Information Asymmetry

Authors: Shruti Sengupta

Abstract:

According to the nationally representative data, about 73% of India's rural workforce is engaged in agriculture. While women make significant contributions to total agriculture production, they contribute to about one-third in India. In terms of gender composition, about 80% of the female and 69% of the male workforce is engaged in agriculture in rural India. Still, it is common to find gender differences in plot management within the household. In the last two and half years, India's agri-food system has undergone several changes due to this pandemic, both the demand and supply side, making agriculture more information and knowledge-intensive. Therefore, this paper investigates, using a nationally representative sample, how information asymmetry affects the net returns per hectare of land between female and male farm managers. Empirical results show that information intensity has a significant positive effect on net farm returns per hectare. Results suggest that if females have the same access to technical information as their male counterparts, their farm income can go up by .96 pp compared to male-headed farms. Results also indicate that literate females have higher farm incomes than non-literate females. The study contributes to the literature by employing gender differentials in farm income due to the information gap.

Keywords: agriculture, gender, information asymmetry, farm income, social bias

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9 Gendered Effects on Productivity Gap Due to Information Asymmetry in India

Authors: Shruti Sengupta

Abstract:

According to the nationally representative data, about 73% of India's rural workforce is engaged in agriculture. While women make significant contributions to total agriculture production, they contribute to about one-third in India. In terms of gender composition, about 80% of the female and 69% of the male workforce is engaged in agriculture in rural India. Still, it is common to find gender differences in plot management within the household. In the last two and half years, India's agri-food system has undergone several changes due to this pandemic, both the demand and supply side, making agriculture more information and knowledge-intensive. Therefore, this paper investigates, using a nationally representative sample, how information asymmetry affects the net returns per hectare of land between female and male farm managers. Empirical results show that information intensity has a significant positive effect on net farm returns per hectare. Results suggest that if females have the same access to technical information as their male counterparts, their farm income can go up by .96 pp compared to male-headed farms. Results also indicate that literate females have higher farm incomes than non-literate females. The study contributes to the literature by employing gender differentials in farm income due to the information gap.

Keywords: agriculture, gender, information asymmetry, farm income, social bias

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8 Preparation and Characterization of the TiO₂ Photocatalytic Membrane for the Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 Dye

Authors: Shruti Sakarkar, Jega Jegatheesan, Srinivasan Madapusi

Abstract:

Photocatalytic membranes have shown great potential for the removal of an organic and inorganic pollutant from wastewater as it combines the degradation and antibacterial properties from photocatalysis and physical separation by the membrane in a single unit. Incorporation of the semiconductor in membrane structure results in enhancing the performance and the properties of the membrane. In this study porous ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with entrapped TiO₂ nanoparticle were prepared by phase inversion method and further used for the degradation of reactive orange 16 (RO16). Prepared photocatalytic membranes were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The addition of TiO₂ nanopartparticles improves the strength and thermal stability of the membrane. In particular hydrophilicity and permeability increases with the increase of TiO₂ nanoparticles into the membrane. The photocatalytic membrane achieves 80-85% degrdation of RO16. The impact of different parameters such as pH, concentration of photocatalyst, dye concentration and effect of H₂O₂ were analysed. The best conditions for dye degradation were an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, with a membrane containing TiO₂ loading of 2wt%. It was observed that in the presence of H₂O₂, degradation increases with increasing H₂O₂ concentration and reached up to 95-98%. The high quality permeates obtained from the photocatalytic membrane can be reused.

Keywords: photocatalytic membrane, TiO₂, PVDF, nanoparticles

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7 Nietzsche and Shakti: An Intercultural Analysis of Nietzsche's Experiment with the Eternal Feminine

Authors: Shruti Jain

Abstract:

During its independence struggle in the early 20th century, India witnessed trends of politicisation of various spiritual paths, one of them being that of Shaktism. Interestingly, Nietzsche’s teachings were being interpreted as being essentially the worship of Shakti. The present paper aims at investigating this claim and hence undertakes an intercultural archaeological excavation in the realm of the Goddess archetypes that Nietzsche’s work invokes. Ariadne is placed next to Radha, Baubo to Lajja Gauri, Medusa to Chhinnamasta, Hecate to Kali and Dhumavati and Athena to Sarawati. Indeed, the Eternal Feminine plays a vital role in Nietzsche’s writings. One might recall that Nietzsche even declared himself to be the first Psychologist of the Eternal Feminine. The present paper aims to illustrate how, the matter of the Eternal Feminine, like all other matters, is subjected to Nietzsche’s basic creative principle of transvaluation of values and new meaning making. In order to achieve this, Nietzsche applies what Heidegger calls a 'cross-wise striking-through' technique in his analysis of what can be termed as his engagement with Shaktism. Hence, not only is the mystical ascent and descent of the creative energy (Kundalini Shakti) dealt with under erasure in Thus Spake Zarathustra, but coincidentally also the Three Metamorphoses emerge as an instance of such an erasure, making the Devi invisible and yet not so invisible for an Indian reader.

Keywords: eternal feminine, Nietzsche and India, Shaktism, transvaluation of values

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6 Emerging Research Trends in Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Subhra Prosun Paul, Shruti Aggarwal

Abstract:

Now a days Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network has become a promising technique in the different fields of the latest computer technology. Routing in Wireless Sensor Network is a demanding task due to the different design issues of all sensor nodes. Network architecture, no of nodes, traffic of routing, the capacity of each sensor node, network consistency, service value are the important factor for the design and analysis of Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network. Additionally, internal energy, the distance between nodes, the load of sensor nodes play a significant role in the efficient routing protocol. In this paper, our intention is to analyze the research trends in different routing protocols of Wireless Sensor Network in terms of different parameters. In order to explain the research trends on Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network, different data related to this research topic are analyzed with the help of Web of Science and Scopus databases. The data analysis is performed from global perspective-taking different parameters like author, source, document, country, organization, keyword, year, and a number of the publication. Different types of experiments are also performed, which help us to evaluate the recent research tendency in the Routing Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network. In order to do this, we have used Web of Science and Scopus databases separately for data analysis. We have observed that there has been a tremendous development of research on this topic in the last few years as it has become a very popular topic day by day.

Keywords: analysis, routing protocol, research trends, wireless sensor network

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5 Environmental Consequences of Metal Concentrations in Stream Sediments of Atoyac River Basin, Central Mexico: Natural and Industrial Influences

Authors: V. C. Shruti, P. F. Rodríguez-Espinosa, D. C. Escobedo-Urías, Estefanía Martinez Tavera, M. P. Jonathan

Abstract:

Atoyac River, a major south-central river flowing through the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala in Mexico is significantly impacted by the natural volcanic inputs in addition with wastewater discharges from urban, agriculture and industrial zones. In the present study, core samples were collected from R. Atoyac and analyzed for sediment granularity, major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, P and S) and trace elemental concentrations (Ba, Cr, Cd, Mn, Pb, Sr, V, Zn, Zr). The textural studies reveal that the sediments are mostly sand sized particles exceeding 99% and with very few to no presence of mud fractions. It is observed that most of the metals like (avg: all values in μg g-1) Ca (35,528), Mg (10,789), K (7453), S (1394), Ba (203), Cr (30), Cd (4), Pb (11), Sr (435), Zn (76) and Zr (88) are enriched throughout the sediments mainly sourced from volcanic inputs, source rock composition of Atoyac River basin and industrial influences from the Puebla city region. Contamination indices, such as anthropogenic factor (AF), enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo), were used to investigate the level of contamination and toxicity as well as quantitatively assess the influences of human activities on metal concentrations. The AF values (>1) for Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, K, P and S suggested volcanic inputs from the study region, where as Cd and Zn are attributed to the impacts of industrial inputs in this zone. The EF and Igeo values revealed an extreme enrichment of S and Cd. The ecological risks were evaluated using potential ecological risk index (RI) and the results indicate that the metals Cd and V pose a major hazard for the biological community.

Keywords: Atoyac River, contamination indices, metal concentrations, Mexico, textural studies

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4 Integrating Molecular Approaches to Understand Diatom Assemblages in Marine Environment

Authors: Shruti Malviya, Chris Bowler

Abstract:

Environmental processes acting at multiple spatial scales control marine diatom community structure. However, the contribution of local factors (e.g., temperature, salinity, etc.) in these highly complex systems is poorly understood. We, therefore, investigated the diatom community organization as a function of environmental predictors and determined the relative contribution of various environmental factors on the structure of marine diatoms assemblages in the world’s ocean. The dataset for this study was derived from the Tara Oceans expedition, constituting 46 sampling stations from diverse oceanic provinces. The V9 hypervariable region of 18s rDNA was organized into assemblages based on their distributional co-occurrence. Using Ward’s hierarchical clustering, nine clusters were defined. The number of ribotypes and reads varied within each cluster-three clusters (II, VIII and IX) contained only a few reads whereas two of them (I and IV) were highly abundant. Of the nine clusters, seven can be divided into two categories defined by a positive correlation with phosphate and nitrate and a negative correlation with longitude and, the other by a negative correlation with salinity, temperature, latitude and positive correlation with Lyapunov exponent. All the clusters were found to be remarkably dominant in South Pacific Ocean and can be placed into three classes, namely Southern Ocean-South Pacific Ocean clusters (I, II, V, VIII, IX), South Pacific Ocean clusters (IV and VII), and cosmopolitan clusters (III and VI). Our findings showed that co-occurring ribotypes can be significantly associated into recognizable clusters which exhibit a distinct response to environmental variables. This study, thus, demonstrated distinct behavior of each recognized assemblage displaying a taxonomic and environmental signature.

Keywords: assemblage, diatoms, hierarchical clustering, Tara Oceans

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3 Evaluation of Fresh, Strength and Durability Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Bagasse Ash

Authors: Abdul Haseeb Wani, Shruti Sharma, Rafat Siddique

Abstract:

Self-compacting concrete is an engineered concrete that flows and de-airs without additional energy input. Such concrete requires a high slump which can be achieved by the addition of superplasticizers to the concrete mix. In the present work, bagasse ash is utilised as a replacement of cement in self-compacting concrete. This serves the purpose of both land disposal and environmental concerns related to the disposal of bagasse ash. Further, an experimental program was carried out to study the fresh, strength, and durability properties of self-compacting concrete made with bagasse ash. The mixes were prepared with four percentages (0, 5, 10 and 15) of bagasse ash as partial replacement of cement. Properties investigated were; Slump-flow, V-funnel and L-box, Compressive strength, Splitting tensile strength, Chloride-ion penetration resistance and Water absorption. Compressive and splitting tensile strength tests were conducted at the age of 7 and 28 days. Rapid chloride-ion permeability test was carried at the age of 28 days and water absorption test was carried out at the age of 7 days after initial curing of 28 days. Test results showed that there is an increase in the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete specimens having up to 10% replacement level, however, there is a slight decrease at 15% level of replacement. Resistance to chloride-ion penetration of the specimens increased as the percentage of replacement was increased. The charge passed in all the specimens containing bagasse ash was lower than that of the specimen without bagasse ash. Water absorption of the specimens decreased up to 10% replacement level and increased at 15% level of replacement. Hence, it can be concluded that optimum level of replacement of cement with bagasse ash in self-compacting concrete comes out to be 10%; at which the self-compacting concrete has satisfactory flow characteristics (as per the European guidelines), improved compressive and splitting tensile strength and better durability properties as compared to the control mix.

Keywords: bagasse ash, compressive strength, self-compacting concrete, splitting tensile strength

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2 Unfolding Global Biodiversity Patterns of Marine Planktonic Diatom Communities across the World's Oceans

Authors: Shruti Malviya, Chris Bowler

Abstract:

Analysis of microbial eukaryotic diversity is fundamental to understanding ecosystems’ structure, biology, and ecology. Diatoms (Stramenopiles, Bacillariophyceae) are one of the most diverse and ecologically prominent groups of phytoplankton. This study was performed to enhance the understanding of global biodiversity patterns and structure of planktonic diatom communities across the world's oceans. We used the metabarcoding data set generated from the biological samples and associated environmental data collected during the Tara Oceans (2009-2013) global circumnavigation covering all major oceanic provinces. A total of ~18 million diatom V9-18S rDNA tags from 126 sampling stations, constituting 631 size-fractionated plankton communities were generated. Using ~250,000 unique diatom metabarcodes, the global diatom distribution and diversity across size classes, genus and ecological niches was assessed. Notably, our analysis revealed: (i) a new estimate of the total number of planktonic diatom species, (ii) a considerable unknown diversity and exceptionally high diversity in the open ocean, and (iii) complex diversity patterns across oceanic provinces. Also, co-occurrence of several ribotypes in locations separated by great geographic distances (equatorial stations) demonstrated a widespread but not ubiquitous distribution. This work provides a comprehensive perspective on diatom distribution and diversity in the world’s oceans and elaborates interconnections between associated theories and underlying drivers. It shows how meta-barcoding approaches can provide a framework to investigate environmental diversity at a global scale, which is deemed as an essential step in answering various ecological research questions. Consequently, this work also provides a reference point to explore how microbial communities will respond to environmental conditions.

Keywords: diatoms, Tara Oceans, biodiversity, metabarcoding

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1 Synthesis and Thermoluminescence Investigations of Doped LiF Nanophosphor

Authors: Pooja Seth, Shruti Aggarwal

Abstract:

Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is one of the most effective methods for the assessment of dose during diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy applications. In these applications monitoring of absorbed dose is essential to prevent patient from undue exposure and to evaluate the risks that may arise due to exposure. LiF based thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeters are promising materials for the estimation, calibration and monitoring of dose due to their favourable dosimetric characteristics like tissue-equivalence, high sensitivity, energy independence and dose linearity. As the TL efficiency of a phosphor strongly depends on the preparation route, it is interesting to investigate the TL properties of LiF based phosphor in nanocrystalline form. LiF doped with magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), sodium (Na) and silicon (Si) in nanocrystalline form has been prepared using chemical co-precipitation method. Cubical shape LiF nanostructures are formed. TL dosimetry properties have been investigated by exposing it to gamma rays. TL glow curve structure of nanocrystalline form consists of a single peak at 419 K as compared to the multiple peaks observed in microcrystalline form. A consistent glow curve structure with maximum TL intensity at annealing temperature of 573 K and linear dose response from 0.1 to 1000 Gy is observed which is advantageous for radiotherapy application. Good reusability, low fading (5 % over a month) and negligible residual signal (0.0019%) are observed. As per photoluminescence measurements, wide emission band at 360 nm - 550 nm is observed in an undoped LiF. However, an intense peak at 488 nm is observed in doped LiF nanophosphor. The phosphor also exhibits the intense optically stimulated luminescence. Nanocrystalline LiF: Mg, Cu, Na, Si phosphor prepared by co-precipitation method showed simple glow curve structure, linear dose response, reproducibility, negligible residual signal, good thermal stability and low fading. The LiF: Mg, Cu, Na, Si phosphor in nanocrystalline form has tremendous potential in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and high energy radiation application.

Keywords: thermoluminescence, nanophosphor, optically stimulated luminescence, co-precipitation method

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