Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3395

Search results for: cyclic threshold shear strain

3395 Full-Field Estimation of Cyclic Threshold Shear Strain

Authors: E. E. S. Uy, T. Noda, K. Nakai, J. R. Dungca


Cyclic threshold shear strain is the cyclic shear strain amplitude that serves as the indicator of the development of pore water pressure. The parameter can be obtained by performing either cyclic triaxial test, shaking table test, cyclic simple shear or resonant column. In a cyclic triaxial test, other researchers install measuring devices in close proximity of the soil to measure the parameter. In this study, an attempt was made to estimate the cyclic threshold shear strain parameter using full-field measurement technique. The technique uses a camera to monitor and measure the movement of the soil. For this study, the technique was incorporated in a strain-controlled consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial test. Calibration of the camera was first performed to ensure that the camera can properly measure the deformation under cyclic loading. Its capacity to measure deformation was also investigated using a cylindrical rubber dummy. Two-dimensional image processing was implemented. Lucas and Kanade optical flow algorithm was applied to track the movement of the soil particles. Results from the full-field measurement technique were compared with the results from the linear variable displacement transducer. A range of values was determined from the estimation. This was due to the nonhomogeneous deformation of the soil observed during the cyclic loading. The minimum values were in the order of 10-2% in some areas of the specimen.

Keywords: cyclic loading, cyclic threshold shear strain, full-field measurement, optical flow

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3394 The Small Strain Effects to the Shear Strength and Maximum Stiffness of Post-Cyclic Degradation of Hemic Peat Soil

Authors: Z. Adnan, M. M. Habib


The laboratory tests for measuring the effects of small strain to the shear strength and maximum stiffness development of post-cyclic degradation of hemic peat are reviewed in this paper. A series of laboratory testing has been conducted to fulfil the objective of this research to study the post-cyclic behaviour of peat soil and focuses on the small strain characteristics. For this purpose, a number of strain-controlled static, cyclic and post-cyclic triaxial tests were carried out in undrained condition on hemic peat soil. The shear strength and maximum stiffness of hemic peat are evaluated immediately after post-cyclic monotonic testing. There are two soil samples taken from West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil. Based on these laboratories and field testing data, it was found that the shear strength and maximum stiffness of peat soil decreased in post-cyclic monotonic loading than its initial shear strength and stiffness. In particular, degradation in shear strength and stiffness is more sensitive for peat soil due to fragile and uniform fibre structures. Shear strength of peat soil, τmax = 12.53 kPa (Beaufort peat, BFpt) and 36.61 kPa (Parit Nipah peat, PNpt) decreased than its initial 58.46 kPa and 91.67 kPa. The maximum stiffness, Gmax = 0.23 and 0.25 decreased markedly with post-cyclic, Gmax = 0.04 and 0.09. Simple correlations between the Gmax and the τmax effects due to small strain, ε = 0.1, the Gmax values for post-cyclic are relatively low compared to its initial Gmax. As a consequence, the reported values and patterns of both the West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil are generally the same.

Keywords: post-cyclic, strain, maximum stiffness, shear strength

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3393 An Investigation into Why Liquefaction Charts Work: A Necessary Step toward Integrating the States of Art and Practice

Authors: Tarek Abdoun, Ricardo Dobry


This paper is a systematic effort to clarify why field liquefaction charts based on Seed and Idriss’ Simplified Procedure work so well. This is a necessary step toward integrating the states of the art (SOA) and practice (SOP) for evaluating liquefaction and its effects. The SOA relies mostly on laboratory measurements and correlations with void ratio and relative density of the sand. The SOP is based on field measurements of penetration resistance and shear wave velocity coupled with empirical or semi-empirical correlations. This gap slows down further progress in both SOP and SOA. The paper accomplishes its objective through: a literature review of relevant aspects of the SOA including factors influencing threshold shear strain and pore pressure buildup during cyclic strain-controlled tests; a discussion of factors influencing field penetration resistance and shear wave velocity; and a discussion of the meaning of the curves in the liquefaction charts separating liquefaction from no liquefaction, helped by recent full-scale and centrifuge results. It is concluded that the charts are curves of constant cyclic strain at the lower end (Vs1 < 160 m/s), with this strain being about 0.03 to 0.05% for earthquake magnitude, Mw ≈ 7. It is also concluded, in a more speculative way, that the curves at the upper end probably correspond to a variable increasing cyclic strain and Ko, with this upper end controlled by over consolidated and preshaken sands, and with cyclic strains needed to cause liquefaction being as high as 0.1 to 0.3%. These conclusions are validated by application to case histories corresponding to Mw ≈ 7, mostly in the San Francisco Bay Area of California during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Keywords: permeability, lateral spreading, liquefaction, centrifuge modeling, shear wave velocity charts

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3392 Analysis of Cyclic Elastic-Plastic Loading of Shaft Based on Kinematic Hardening Model

Authors: Isa Ahmadi, Ramin Khamedi


In this paper, the elasto-plastic and cyclic torsion of a shaft is studied using a finite element method. The Prager kinematic hardening theory of plasticity with the Ramberg and Osgood stress-strain equation is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behavior of the shaft under the torsional loading. The material of shaft is assumed to follow the non-linear strain hardening property based on the Prager model. The finite element method with C1 continuity is developed and used for solution of the governing equations of the problem. The successive substitution iterative method is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and plastic strains in the shaft due to cyclic loads. The shear stress, effective stress, residual stress and elastic and plastic shear strain distribution are presented in the numerical results.

Keywords: cyclic loading, finite element analysis, Prager kinematic hardening model, torsion of shaft

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3391 Image Processing on Geosynthetic Reinforced Layers to Evaluate Shear Strength and Variations of the Strain Profiles

Authors: S. K. Khosrowshahi, E. Güler


This study investigates the reinforcement function of geosynthetics on the shear strength and strain profile of sand. Conducting a series of simple shear tests, the shearing behavior of the samples under static and cyclic loads was evaluated. Three different types of geosynthetics including geotextile and geonets were used as the reinforcement materials. An image processing analysis based on the optical flow method was performed to measure the lateral displacements and estimate the shear strains. It is shown that besides improving the shear strength, the geosynthetic reinforcement leads a remarkable reduction on the shear strains. The improved layer reduces the required thickness of the soil layer to resist against shear stresses. Consequently, the geosynthetic reinforcement can be considered as a proper approach for the sustainable designs, especially in the projects with huge amount of geotechnical applications like subgrade of the pavements, roadways, and railways.

Keywords: image processing, soil reinforcement, geosynthetics, simple shear test, shear strain profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
3390 The Effect of Combined Fluid Shear Stress and Cyclic Stretch on Endothelial Cells

Authors: Daphne Meza, Louie Abejar, David A. Rubenstein, Wei Yin


Endothelial cell (ECs) morphology and function is highly impacted by the mechanical stresses these cells experience in vivo. Any change in the mechanical environment can trigger pathological EC responses. A detailed understanding of EC morphological response and function upon subjection to individual and simultaneous mechanical stimuli is needed for advancement in mechanobiology and preventive medicine. To investigate this, a programmable device capable of simultaneously applying physiological fluid shear stress (FSS) and cyclic strain (CS) has been developed, characterized and validated. Its validation was performed both experimentally, through tracer tracking, and theoretically, through the use of a computational fluid dynamics model. The effectiveness of the device was evaluated through EC morphology changes under mechanical loading conditions. Changes in cell morphology were evaluated through: cell and nucleus elongation, cell alignment and junctional actin production. The results demonstrated that the combined FSS-CS stimulation induced visible changes in EC morphology. Upon simultaneous fluid shear stress and biaxial tensile strain stimulation, cells were elongated and generally aligned with the flow direction, with stress fibers highlighted along the cell junctions. The concurrent stimulation from shear stress and biaxial cyclic stretch led to a significant increase in cell elongation compared to untreated cells. This, however, was significantly lower than that induced by shear stress alone, indicating that the biaxial tensile strain may counteract the elongating effect of shear stress to maintain the shape of ECs. A similar trend was seen in alignment, where the alignment induced by the concurrent application of shear stress and cyclic stretch fell in between that induced by shear stress and tensile stretch alone, indicating the opposite role shear stress and tensile strain may play in cell alignment. Junctional actin accumulation was increased upon shear stress alone or simultaneously with tensile stretch. Tensile stretch alone did not change junctional actin accumulation, indicating the dominant role of shear stress in damaging EC junctions. These results demonstrate that the shearing-stretching device is capable of applying well characterized dynamic shear stress and tensile strain to cultured ECs. Using this device, EC response to altered mechanical environment in vivo can be characterized in vitro.

Keywords: cyclic stretch, endothelial cells, fluid shear stress, vascular biology

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3389 Seismic Response of Large-Scale Rectangular Steel-Plate Concrete Composite Shear Walls

Authors: Siamak Epackachi, Andrew S. Whittaker, Amit H. Varma


An experimental program on steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls was executed in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo. Four large-size specimens were tested under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. The design variables considered in the testing program included wall thickness, reinforcement ratio, and faceplate slenderness ratio. The aspect ratio (height-to-length) of the four walls was 1.0. Each SC wall was installed on top of a re-usable foundation block. A bolted baseplate to RC foundation connection was used for all four walls. The walls were identified to be flexure-critical. This paper presents the damage to SC walls at different drift ratios, the cyclic force-displacement relationships, energy dissipation and equivalent viscous damping ratios, the strain and stress fields in the steel faceplates and the contribution of the steel faceplates to the total shear load, the variation of vertical strain in the steel faceplates along the length of the wall, near the base, at different drift ratios, the contributions of shear, flexure, and base rotation to the total lateral displacement, the displacement ductility of the SC walls, and the cyclic secant stiffness of the four SC walls.

Keywords: steel-plate composite shear wall, safety-related nuclear structure, flexure-critical wall, cyclic loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
3388 The Evaluation of Soil Liquefaction Potential Using Shear Wave Velocity

Authors: M. Nghizaderokni, A. Janalizadechobbasty, M. Azizi, M. Naghizaderokni


The liquefaction resistance of soils can be evaluated using laboratory tests such as cyclic simple shear, cyclic triaxial, cyclic tensional shear, and field methods such as Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT), and Shear Wave Velocity (Vs). This paper outlines a great correlation between shear wave velocity and standard penetration resistance of granular soils was obtained. Using Seeds standard penetration test (SPT) based soil liquefaction charts, new charts of soil liquefaction evaluation based on shear wave velocity data were developed for various magnitude earthquakes.

Keywords: soil, liquefaction, shear wave velocity, standard penetration resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
3387 Development of a Large-Scale Cyclic Shear Testing Machine Under Constant Normal Stiffness

Authors: S. M. Mahdi Niktabara, K. Seshagiri Raob, Amit Kumar Shrivastavac, Jiří Ščučkaa


The presence of the discontinuity in the form of joints is one of the most significant factors causing instability in the rock mass. On the other hand, dynamic loads, including earthquake and blasting induce cyclic shear loads along the joints in rock masses; therefore, failure of rock mass exacerbates along the joints due to changing shear resistance. Joints are under constant normal load (CNL) and constant normal stiffness (CNS) conditions. Normal stiffness increases on the joints with increasing depth, and it can affect shear resistance. For correct assessment of joint shear resistance under varying normal stiffness and number of cycles, advanced laboratory shear machine is essential for the shear test. Conventional direct shear equipment has limitations such as boundary conditions, working under monotonic movements only, or cyclic shear loads with constant frequency and amplitude of shear loads. Hence, a large-scale servo-controlled direct shear testing machine was designed and fabricated to perform shear test under the both CNL and CNS conditions with varying normal stiffness at different frequencies and amplitudes of shear loads. In this study, laboratory cyclic shear tests were conducted on non-planar joints under varying normal stiffness. In addition, the effects of different frequencies and amplitudes of shear loads were investigated. The test results indicate that shear resistance increases with increasing normal stiffness at the first cycle, but the influence of normal stiffness significantly decreases with an increase in the number of shear cycles. The frequency of shear load influences on shear resistance, i.e. shear resistance increases with increasing frequency. However, at low shear amplitude the number of cycles does not affect shear resistance on the joints, but it decreases with higher amplitude.

Keywords: cyclic shear load, frequency of load, amplitude of displacement, normal stiffness

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3386 Numerical Investigation of Static and Dynamic Responses of Fiber Reinforced Sand

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Mahesh Kumar Jat, Rajib Sarkar


Soil reinforced with randomly distributed fibers is an attractive means to improve the performance of soil in a cost effective manner. Static and dynamic characterization of fiber reinforced soil have become important to evaluate adequate performance for all classes of geotechnical engineering problems. Present study investigates the behaviour of fiber reinforced cohesionless soil through numerical simulation of triaxial specimen. The numerical model has been validated with the existing literature of laboratory triaxial compression testing. A parametric study has been done to find out optimum fiber content for shear resistance. Cyclic triaxial testing has been simulated and the stress-strain response of fiber-reinforced sand has been examined considering different combination of fiber contents. Shear modulus values and damping values of fiber-reinforced sand are evaluated. It has been observed from results that for 1.0 percent fiber content shear modulus increased 2.28 times and damping ratio decreased 4.6 times. The influence of amplitude of cyclic strain, confining pressure and frequency of loading on the dynamic properties of fiber reinforced sand has been investigated and presented.

Keywords: damping, fiber reinforced soil, numerical modelling, shear modulus

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3385 Cyclic Plastic Deformation of 20MN-MO-NI 55 Steel in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Sarita Sahu, H. N. Bar


Low cycle fatigue behavior of a ferritic, martensitic pressure vessel steel at dynamic strain ageing regime of 250°C to 280°C has been investigated. Dynamic strain ageing is a mechanism that has attracted interests of researchers due to its fascinating inexplicable repetitive nature for quite a long time. The interaction of dynamic strain ageing and cyclic plasticity has been studied from the mechanistic point of view. Dynamic strain ageing gives rise to identical serrated flow behavior in tensile and compressive halves of hysteresis loops and this has been found to gives rise to initial cyclic hardening followed by softening behavior, where as in non-DSA regime continuous cyclic softening has been found to be the dominant mechanism. An appreciable sensitivity towards nature of serrations has been observed due to degree of hardening of stable loop. The increase in degree of hardening with strain amplitude in the regime where only A type serrations are present and it decreases with strain amplitude where A+B type of serrations are present. Masing type of locus has been found in the behavior of metal at 280°C. Cyclic Stress Strain curve and Master curve has been constructed to decipher among the fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. Fractographic examinations have also shown a competition between progression of striations and secondary cracking.

Keywords: dynamic strain ageing, hardening, low cycle fatigue, softening

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3384 Mechanical Model of Gypsum Board Anchors Subjected Cyclic Shear Loading

Authors: Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Fumiya Ikedo


In this study, the mechanical model of various anchors embedded in gypsum board subjected cyclic shear loading were investigated. Shear tests for anchors embedded in 200 mm square size gypsum board were conducted to measure the load - load displacement curves. The strength of the gypsum board was changed for three conditions and 12 kinds of anchors were selected which were ordinary used for gypsum board anchoring. The loading conditions were a monotonous loading and a cyclic loading controlled by a servo-controlled hydraulic loading system to achieve accurate measurement. The fracture energy for each of the anchors was estimated by the analysis of consumed energy calculated by the load - load displacement curve. The effect of the strength of gypsum board and the types of anchors on the shear properties of gypsum board anchors was cleared. A numerical model to predict the load-unload curve of shear deformation of gypsum board anchors caused by such as the earthquake load was proposed and the validity on the model was proved.

Keywords: gypsum board, anchor, shear test, cyclic loading, load-unload curve

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3383 Strain Softening of Soil under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Kobid Panthi, Suttisak Soralump, Suriyon Prempramote


In June 27, 2014 slope movement was observed in upstream side of Khlong Pa Bon Dam, Thailand. The slide did not have any major catastrophic impact on the dam structure but raised a very important question; why did the slide occur after 10 years of operation? Various site investigations (Bore Hole Test, SASW, Echo Sounding, and Geophysical Survey), laboratory analysis and numerical modelling using SIGMA/W and SLOPE/W were conducted to determine the cause of slope movement. It was observed that the dam had undergone the greatest differential drawdown in its operational history in the year 2014 and was termed as the major cause of movement. From the laboratory tests, it was found that the shear strength of clay had decreased with a period of time and was near its residual value. The cyclic movement of water, i.e., reservoir filling and emptying was coined out to be the major cause for the reduction of shear strength. The numerical analysis was carried out using a modified cam clay (MCC) model to determine the strain softening behavior of the clay. The strain accumulation was observed in the slope with each reservoir cycle triggering the slope failure in 2014. It can be inferred that if there was no major drawdown in 2014, the slope would not have failed but eventually would have failed after a long period of time. If there was no major drawdown in 2014, the slope would not have failed. However, even if there hadn’t been a drawdown, it would have failed eventually in the long run.

Keywords: slope movement, strain softening, residual strength, modified cam clay

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3382 The Application of Distributed Optical Strain Sensing to Measure Rock Bolt Deformation Subject to Bedding Shear

Authors: Thomas P. Roper, Brad Forbes, Jurij Karlovšek


Shear displacement along bedding defects is a well-recognised behaviour when tunnelling and mining in stratified rock. This deformation can affect the durability and integrity of installed rock bolts. In-situ monitoring of rock bolt deformation under bedding shear cannot be accurately derived from traditional strain gauge bolts as sensors are too large and spaced too far apart to accurately assess concentrated displacement along discrete defects. A possible solution to this is the use of fiber optic technologies developed for precision monitoring. Distributed Optic Sensor (DOS) embedded rock bolts were installed in a tunnel project with the aim of measuring the bolt deformation profile under significant shear displacements. This technology successfully measured the 3D strain distribution along the bolts when subjected to bedding shear and resolved the axial and lateral strain constituents in order to determine the deformational geometry of the bolts. The results are compared well with the current visual method for monitoring shear displacement using borescope holes, considering this method as suitable.

Keywords: distributed optical strain sensing, rock bolt, bedding shear, sandstone tunnel

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3381 Evaluation of Hybrid Viscoelastic Damper for Passive Energy Dissipation

Authors: S. S. Ghodsi, M. H. Mehrabi, Zainah Ibrahim, Meldi Suhatril


This research examines the performance of a hybrid passive control device for enhancing the seismic response of steel frame structures. The device design comprises a damper which employs a viscoelastic material to control both shear and axial strain. In the design, energy is dissipated through the shear strain of a two-layer system of viscoelastic pads which are located between steel plates. In addition, viscoelastic blocks have been included on either side of the main shear damper which obtains compressive strains in the viscoelastic blocks. These dampers not only dissipate energy but also increase the stiffness of the steel frame structure, and the degree to which they increase the stiffness may be controlled by the size and shape. In this research, the cyclical behavior of the damper was examined both experimentally and numerically with finite element modeling. Cyclic loading results of the finite element modeling reveal fundamental characteristics of this hybrid viscoelastic damper. The results indicate that incorporating a damper of the design can significantly improve the seismic performance of steel frame structures.

Keywords: cyclic loading, energy dissipation, hybrid damper, passive control system, viscoelastic damper

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3380 A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents

Authors: A. Baqqal, O. Abduhamid, H. Abdul-Hameed, T. Messager, G. Ayoub


In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.

Keywords: cyclic loading unloading, polyethylene, semi-crystalline polymer, viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model

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3379 Analytical Model for Columns in Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chang Seok Lee, Sang Whan Han, Girbo Ko, Debbie Kim


Existing reinforced concrete structures are designed and built without considering seismic loads. The columns in such buildings generally exhibit widely spaced transverse reinforcements without using seismic hooks. Due to the insufficient reinforcement details in columns, brittle shear failure is expected in columns that may cause pre-mature building collapse mechanism during earthquakes. In order to retrofit those columns, the accurate seismic behavior of the columns needs to be predicted with proper analytical models. In this study, an analytical model is proposed for accurately simulating the cyclic behavior of shear critical columns. The parameters for pinching and cyclic deterioration in strength and stiffness are calibrated using test data of column specimens failed by shear.

Keywords: analytical model, cyclic deterioration, existing reinforced concrete columns, shear failure

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3378 Finite Element Simulation of an Offshore Monopile Subjected to Cyclic Loading Using Hypoplasticity with Intergranular Strain Anisotropy (ISA) for the Soil

Authors: William Fuentes, Melany Gil


Numerical simulations of offshore wind turbines (OWTs) in shallow waters demand sophisticated models considering the cyclic nature of the environmental loads. For the case of an OWT founded on sands, rapid loading may cause a reduction of the effective stress of the soil surrounding the structure. This eventually leads to its settlement, tilting, or other issues affecting its serviceability. In this work, a 3D FE model of an OWT founded on sand is constructed and analyzed. Cyclic loading with different histories is applied at certain points of the tower to simulate some environmental forces. The mechanical behavior of the soil is simulated through the recently proposed ISA-hypoplastic model for sands. The Intergranular Strain Anisotropy ISA can be interpreted as an enhancement of the intergranular strain theory, often used to extend hypoplastic formulations for the simulation of cyclic loading. In contrast to previous formulations, the proposed constitutive model introduces an elastic range for small strain amplitudes, includes the cyclic mobility effect and is able to capture the cyclic behavior of sands under a larger number of cycles. The model performance is carefully evaluated on the FE dynamic analysis of the OWT.

Keywords: offshore wind turbine, monopile, ISA, hypoplasticity

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3377 Investigation of Extreme Gradient Boosting Model Prediction of Soil Strain-Shear Modulus

Authors: Ehsan Mehryaar, Reza Bushehri


One of the principal parameters defining the clay soil dynamic response is the strain-shear modulus relation. Predicting the strain and, subsequently, shear modulus reduction of the soil is essential for performance analysis of structures exposed to earthquake and dynamic loadings. Many soil properties affect soil’s dynamic behavior. In order to capture those effects, in this study, a database containing 1193 data points consists of maximum shear modulus, strain, moisture content, initial void ratio, plastic limit, liquid limit, initial confining pressure resulting from dynamic laboratory testing of 21 clays is collected for predicting the shear modulus vs. strain curve of soil. A model based on an extreme gradient boosting technique is proposed. A tree-structured parzan estimator hyper-parameter tuning algorithm is utilized simultaneously to find the best hyper-parameters for the model. The performance of the model is compared to the existing empirical equations using the coefficient of correlation and root mean square error.

Keywords: XGBoost, hyper-parameter tuning, soil shear modulus, dynamic response

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3376 Evaluation of Seismic Behavior of Steel Shear Wall with Opening with Hardener and Beam with Reduced Cross Section under Cycle Loading with Finite Element Analysis Method

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi


During an earthquake, the structure is subjected to seismic loads that cause tension in the members of the building. The use of energy dissipation elements in the structure reduces the percentage of seismic forces on the main members of the building (especially the columns). Steel plate shear wall, as one of the most widely used types of energy dissipation element, has evolved today, and regular drilling of its inner plate is one of the common cases. In the present study, using a finite element method, the shear wall of the steel plate is designed as a floor (with dimensions of 447 × 6/246 cm) with Abacus software and in three different modes on which a cyclic load has been applied. The steel shear wall has a horizontal element (beam) with a reduced beam section (RBS). The hole in the interior plate of the models is created in such a way that it has the process of increasing the area, which makes the effect of increasing the surface area of the hole on the seismic performance of the steel shear wall completely clear. In the end, it was found that with increasing the opening level in the steel shear wall (with reduced cross-section beam), total displacement and plastic strain indicators increased, structural capacity and total energy indicators decreased and the Mises Monson stress index did not change much.

Keywords: steel plate shear wall with opening, cyclic loading, reduced cross-section beam, finite element method, Abaqus software

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3375 Shear Buckling of a Large Pultruded Composite I-Section under Asymmetric Loading

Authors: Jin Y. Park, Jeong Wan Lee


An experimental and analytical research on shear buckling of a comparably large polymer composite I-section is presented. It is known that shear buckling load of a large span composite beam is difficult to determine experimentally. In order to sensitively detect shear buckling of the tested I-section, twenty strain rosettes and eight displacement sensors were applied and attached on the web and flange surfaces. The tested specimen was a pultruded composite beam made of vinylester resin, E-glass, carbon fibers and micro-fillers. Various coupon tests were performed before the shear buckling test to obtain fundamental material properties of the I-section. An asymmetric four-point bending loading scheme was utilized for the shear test. The loading scheme resulted a high shear and almost zeros moment condition at the center of the web panel. The shear buckling load was successfully determined after analyzing the obtained test data from strain rosettes and displacement sensors. An analytical approach was also performed to verify the experimental results and to support the discussed experimental program.

Keywords: strain sensor, displacement sensor, shear buckling, polymer composite I-section, asymmetric loading

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3374 Numerical Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panels Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: H. Meddah, M. Berediaf-Bourahla, B. El-Djouzi, N. Bourahla


Shear walls made of cold formed steel are used as lateral force resisting components in residential and low-rise commercial and industrial constructions. The seismic design analysis of such structures is often complex due to the slenderness of members and their instability prevalence. In this context, a simplified modeling technique across the panel is proposed by using the finite element method. The approach is based on idealizing the whole panel by a nonlinear shear link element which reflects its shear behavior connected to rigid body elements which transmit the forces to the end elements (studs) that resist the tension and the compression. The numerical model of the shear wall panel was subjected to cyclic loads in order to evaluate the seismic performance of the structure in terms of lateral displacement and energy dissipation capacity. In order to validate this model, the numerical results were compared with those from literature tests. This modeling technique is particularly useful for the design of cold formed steel structures where the shear forces in each panel and the axial forces in the studs can be obtained using spectrum analysis.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, cyclic loading, modeling technique, nonlinear analysis, shear wall panel

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3373 Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Jun Tian, Yu Yang, Liping Zhang, Qianhua Kan


Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.

Keywords: constitutive model, elevated temperature, ratcheting, SA 508-3

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3372 Assessment of Rock Masses Performance as a Support of Lined Rock Cavern for Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage

Authors: Vathna Suy, Ki-Il Song


In order to store highly pressurized gas such as an isothermal compressed air energy storage, Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) are constructed underground and supported by layers of concrete, steel and rock masses. This study aims to numerically investigate the performance of rock masses which serve as a support of Lined Rock Cavern subjected to high cyclic pressure loadings. FLAC3D finite different software is used for the simulation since the software can effectively model the behavior of concrete lining and steel plate with its built-in structural elements. Cyclic pressure loadings are applied onto the inner surface of the cavern which then transmitted to concrete, steel and eventually to the surrounding rock masses. Changes of stress and strain are constantly monitored throughout all the process of loading operations. The results at various monitoring locations are then extracted and analyzed to assess the response of the rock masses, specifically on its ability to absorb energy during loadings induced by the changes of cyclic pressure loadings inside the cavern. By analyzing the obtained data of stress-strain relation and taking into account the behavior of materials under the effect of strain-dependency, conclusions on the performance of rock masses subjected to high cyclic loading conditions are drawn.

Keywords: cyclic loading, FLAC3D, lined rock cavern (LRC), strain-dependency

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
3371 Development and Evaluation of Removable Shear Link with Perforated Web

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


The objective of this paper is to investigate, through an analytical study, the behavior of both stiffened and un-stiffened removable shear link with perforated web considering different number and size of web openings. Removable shear link with perforated web is a novel shear link beam proposed to be used in eccentrically braced frame (EBF). The proposed link overcomes the difficulties during construction slab due to less cross-sectional areas of the link to control the plastic deformation on the conventional EBF with removable shear link. Finite element analyses were conducted under both cyclic and monotonic loading and from the results obtained design equations are developed.

Keywords: eccentrically braced frame, removable shear link, perforated web, non-linear FE analysis

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3370 Influence of Different Asymmetric Rolling Processes on Shear Strain

Authors: Alexander Pesin, Denis Pustovoytov, Mikhail Sverdlik


Materials with ultrafine-grained structure and unique physical and mechanical properties can be obtained by methods of severe plastic deformation, which include processes of asymmetric rolling (AR). Asymmetric rolling is a very effective way to create ultrafine-grained structures of metals and alloys. Since the asymmetric rolling is a continuous process, it has great potential for industrial production of ultrafine-grained structure sheets. Basic principles of asymmetric rolling are described in detail in scientific literature. In this work finite element modeling of asymmetric rolling and metal forming processes in multiroll gauge was performed. Parameters of the processes which allow achieving significant values of shear strain were defined. The results of the study will be useful for the research of the evolution of ultra-fine metal structure in asymmetric rolling.

Keywords: asymmetric rolling, equivalent strain, FEM, multiroll gauge, profile, severe plastic deformation, shear strain, sheet

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3369 Plastic Strain Accumulation Due to Asymmetric Cyclic Loading of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C

Authors: R. S. Rajpurohit, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh


Asymmetric stress cycling leads to accumulation of plastic strain which is called as ratcheting strain. The problem is generally associated with nuclear fuel cladding materials used in nuclear power plants and pressurized pipelines. In the present investigation, asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with three different parameters namely, mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate (keeping two parameters constant and varying third parameter) to see the plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life and deformation behavior of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C. The tests were conducted with variable mean stress (45-70 MPa), stress amplitude (95-120 MPa) and stress rate (30-750 MPa/s) and tested specimens were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that with the increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, the ratcheting strain accumulation increases with reduction in fatigue life. However, increase in stress rate leads to improvement in fatigue life of the material due to small ratcheting strain accumulation. Fractographs showed a decrease in area fraction of fatigue failed region.

Keywords: asymmetric cyclic loading, ratcheting fatigue, mean stress, stress amplitude, stress rate, plastic strain

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3368 Cyclic Behaviour of Wide Beam-Column Joints with Shear Strength Ratios of 1.0 and 1.7

Authors: Roy Y. C. Huang, J. S. Kuang, Hamdolah Behnam


Beam-column connections play an important role in the reinforced concrete moment resisting frame (RCMRF), which is one of the most commonly used structural systems around the world. The premature failure of such connections would severely limit the seismic performance and increase the vulnerability of RCMRF. In the past decades, researchers primarily focused on investigating the structural behaviour and failure mechanisms of conventional beam-column joints, the beam width of which is either smaller than or equal to the column width, while studies in wide beam-column joints were scarce. This paper presents the preliminary experimental results of two full-scale exterior wide beam-column connections, which are mainly designed and detailed according to ACI 318-14 and ACI 352R-02, under reversed cyclic loading. The ratios of the design shear force to the nominal shear strength of these specimens are 1.0 and 1.7, respectively, so as to probe into differences of the joint shear strength between experimental results and predictions by design codes of practice. Flexural failure dominated in the specimen with ratio of 1.0 in which full-width plastic hinges were observed, while both beam hinges and post-peak joint shear failure occurred for the other specimen. No sign of premature joint shear failure was found which is inconsistent with ACI codes’ prediction. Finally, a modification of current codes of practice is provided to accurately predict the joint shear strength in wide beam-column joint.

Keywords: joint shear strength, reversed cyclic loading, seismic vulnerability, wide beam-column joints

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3367 Experimental And Numerical Study Of An Innovative Infill Web-Strips Steel Plate Shear Wall With Rigid Beam-To-Column Connections

Authors: Wahab Abdul Ghafar, Tao Zhong


Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) are resilient lateral load-resisting structures that provide efficient energy dissipation while subjected to seismic forces. This study examined experimentally and numerically the cyclic behaviors of innovative infill web-strips (IWS-SPSW) and conventional un-stiffened steel plate shear (USPSW). As a result, two specimens of a 1/3 scale single-story single-bay IWS-SPSW and USPSW were constructed and tested under cyclic lateral loading protocol. Semi-rigid end-plate beam-to-column connectors were used for the steel plate shear walls beam-to-column connection. The steel plate walls with infill web strips showed high ductility and a great shear load-bearing capacity. The hysteresis results showed that the IWS-SPSW had high energy dissipation with no severe beam-column damages; on the other hand, the USPSW displayed high shear load-bearing capacity with less ductility and tearing web plate corners. The FE models were created and validated with experimental data. It has been proved that the infill web-strips can affect an SPSW system's high performance and overall energy dissipation. The material features of the infill web-strips, such as steel strength and thickness, can significantly enhance the system's impact.

Keywords: infill web-strips steel plate shear wall, cyclic test, failure mechanism, hysteresis behaviors

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3366 Comparing the Behaviour of the FRP and Steel Reinforced Shear Walls under Cyclic Seismic Loading in Aspect of the Energy Dissipation

Authors: H. Rahman, T. Donchev, D. Petkova


Earthquakes claim thousands of lives around the world annually due to inadequate design of lateral load resisting systems particularly shear walls. Additionally, corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures is one of the main challenges in construction industry. Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement can be used as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement. FRP has several excellent mechanical properties than steel such as high resistance to corrosion, high tensile strength and light self-weight; additionally, it has electromagnetic neutrality advantageous to the structures where it is important such as hospitals, some laboratories and telecommunications. This paper is about results of experimental research and it is incorporating experimental testing of two medium-scale concrete shear wall samples; one reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP) bar and one reinforced with steel bars as a control sample. The samples are tested under quasi-static-cyclic loading following modified ATC-24 protocol standard seismic loading. The results of both samples are compared to allow a judgement about performance of BFRP reinforced against steel reinforced concrete shear walls. The results of the conducted researches show a promising momentum toward utilisation of the BFRP as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement with the aim of improving durability with suitable energy dissipation in the reinforced concrete shear walls.  

Keywords: shear walls, internal fibre reinforced polymer reinforcement, cyclic loading, energy dissipation, seismic behaviour

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