Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1478

Search results for: selective laser sintering

1478 Laser Additive Manufacturing: A Literature Review

Authors: Pranav Mohan Parki, C. Mallika Parveen, Tahseen Ahmad Khan, Mihika Shivkumar


Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the several manufacturing processes in use today. AM comprises of techniques such as ‘Selective Laser Sintering’ and ‘Selective Laser Melting’ etc. along with other equipment and materials has been developed way back in 1980s, although major use of these methods has risen during the last decade. AM seems to be the most efficient way when compared to the traditional machining procedures. Still many problems continue to hinder its progress to becoming the most widely used of all. This paper contributes to the better understanding of AM and also aims at providing viable solutions to these problems, which may further help in enabling AM to become the most flaw free production method.

Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM), 3D printing, prototype, laser sintering

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1477 Microstructures and Mechanical Property of ti6al4v - a Comparison between Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Javad Karimi, Prashanth Konda Gokuldoss


Microstructural inhomogeneity in additively manufactured materials affects the material properties. The present study aims in minimizing such microstructural inhomogeneity in Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from the gas atomized powder. A detailed and systematic study of the effect of remelting on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V manufactured by SLM was compared with electron beam melting and spark plasma sintering.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, Ti6Al4V, microstructure

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1476 Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Sintered 304L Stainless Steel Powders

Authors: Shijie Liu, Jehnming Lin


This study mainly discussed the mechanical properties of selective laser sintered 304L stainless steel powder specimen. According to a single layer specimen sintering, the microstructure and porosity were observed to find out the proper sintering parameters. A multi-layer sintering experiment was conducted. Based on the microstructure and the integration between layers, the suitable parameters were found out. Finally, the sintered specimens were examined by metallographical inspection, hardness test, tensile test, and surface morphology measurement. The structure of the molten powder coated with unmelted powder was found in metallographic test. The hardness of the sintered stainless steel powder is greater than the raw material. The tensile strength is less than the raw material, and it is corresponding to different scanning paths. The specimen will have different patterns of cracking. It was found that the helical scanning path specimen will have a warpage deformation at the edge of the specimen. The S-scan path specimen surface is relatively flat.

Keywords: laser sintering, sintering path, microstructure, mechanical properties

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1475 Development of β-Ti Alloy Powders for Additive Manufacturing for Application in Patient-Specific Orthopedic Implants

Authors: Eugene Ivanov, Eduardo del-Rio, Igor Kapchenko, Maija Nystrӧm, Juha Kotila


Series of low modulus beta Ti alloy billets and powders can be produced in commercial quantities using a combination of electron beam melting (EBM) and EIGA atomization processes. In the present study, TNZT alloy powder was produced and processed in the EOSINT M290 laser sintering system to produce parts for mechanical testing. Post heat treatments such as diffusion annealing to reduce internal stresses or hot isostatic pressing to remove closed pores were not applied. The density can visually be estimated to be > 99,9 %. According to EDS study Nb, Zr, and Ta are distributed homogeneously throughout the printed sample. There are no indications for any segregation or chemical inhomogeneity, i.e. variation of the element distribution. These points to the fact that under the applied experimental conditions the melt generated by the laser rapidly cools down in the SLM (Selective Laser Melting) process. The selective laser sintering yielded dense structures with relatively good surface quality. The mechanical properties, especially the elongation (24%) along with tensile strength ( > 500MPa) and modulus of elasticity (~60GPa), were found to be promising compared to titanium alloys in general.

Keywords: beta titanium alloys, additive manufacturing, powder, implants

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
1474 Fiber-Reinforced Sandwich Structures Based on Selective Laser Sintering: A Technological View

Authors: T. Häfele, J. Kaspar, M. Vielhaber, W. Calles, J. Griebsch


The demand for an increasing diversification of the product spectrum associated with the current huge customization desire and subsequently the decreasing unit quantities of each production lot is gaining more and more importance within a great variety of industrial branches, e.g. automotive industry. Nevertheless, traditional product development and production processes (molding, extrusion) are already reaching their limits or fail to address these trends of a flexible and digitized production in view of a product variability up to lot size one. Thus, upcoming innovative production concepts like the additive manufacturing technology basically create new opportunities with regard to extensive potentials in product development (constructive optimization) and manufacturing (economic individualization), but mostly suffer from insufficient strength regarding structural components. Therefore, this contribution presents an innovative technological and procedural conception of a hybrid additive manufacturing process (fiber-reinforced sandwich structures based on selective laser sintering technology) to overcome these current structural weaknesses, and consequently support the design of complex lightweight components.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP), hybrid design, lightweight design

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
1473 Laser Additive Manufacturing of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polyamide 12 Composites

Authors: Kun Zhou


Additive manufacturing has emerged as a disruptive technology that is capable of manufacturing products with complex geometries through an accumulation of material feedstock in a layer-by-layer fashion. Laser additive manufacturing such as selective laser sintering has excellent printing resolution, high printing speed and robust part strength, and has led to a widespread adoption in the aerospace, automotive and biomedical industries. This talk highlights and discusses the recent work we have undertaken in the development of carbon nanotube-reinforced polyamide 12 (CNT/PA12) composites printed using laser additive manufacturing. Numerical modelling studies have been conducted to simulate various processes within laser additive manufacturing of CNT/PA12 composites, and extensive experimental work has been carried out to investigate the mechanical and functional properties of the printed parts. The results from these studies grant a deeper understanding of the intricate mechanisms occurring within each process and enables an accurate optimization of process parameters for the CNT/PA12 and other polymer composites.

Keywords: CNT/PA12 composites, laser additive manufacturing, process parameter optimization, numerical modeling

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1472 Wear Behavior and Microstructure of Eutectic Al - Si Alloys Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Nan KANG, Pierre Coddet, Hanlin Liao, Christian Coddet


In this study, the almost dense eutectic Al-12Si alloys were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) from the powder mixture of pure Aluminum and pure Silicon, which show the mean particle sizes of 30 μm and 5μm respectively, under the argon environment. The image analysis shows that the highest value of relative density (95 %) was measured for the part obtained at the laser power of 280 W. X ray diffraction (XRD), Optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to determine the microstructures of the SLM-processed Al-Si alloy, which illustrate that the SLM samples present the ultra-fine microstructure. The XRD results indicate that no clearly phase transformation happened during the SLM process. Additionally, the vaporization behavior of Aluminum was detected for the parts obtained at high laser power. Besides, the maximum microhardness value, about 95 Hv, was measured for the samples obtained at laser power of 280 W, and which shows the highest wear resistance.

Keywords: al-Si alloy, selective laser melting, wear behavior, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
1471 A Comparative Study on the Dimensional Error of 3D CAD Model and SLS RP Model for Reconstruction of Cranial Defect

Authors: L. Siva Rama Krishna, Sriram Venkatesh, M. Sastish Kumar, M. Uma Maheswara Chary


Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technology that produces models and prototype parts from 3D CAD model data, CT/MRI scan data, and model data created from 3D object digitizing systems. There are several RP process like Stereolithography (SLA), Solid Ground Curing (SGC), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), 3D Printing (3DP) among them SLS and FDM RP processes are used to fabricate pattern of custom cranial implant. RP technology is useful in engineering and biomedical application. This is helpful in engineering for product design, tooling and manufacture etc. RP biomedical applications are design and development of medical devices, instruments, prosthetics and implantation; it is also helpful in planning complex surgical operation. The traditional approach limits the full appreciation of various bony structure movements and therefore the custom implants produced are difficult to measure the anatomy of parts and analyse the changes in facial appearances accurately. Cranioplasty surgery is a surgical correction of a defect in cranial bone by implanting a metal or plastic replacement to restore the missing part. This paper aims to do a comparative study on the dimensional error of CAD and SLS RP Models for reconstruction of cranial defect by comparing the virtual CAD with the physical RP model of a cranial defect.

Keywords: rapid prototyping, selective laser sintering, cranial defect, dimensional error

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
1470 Nanotechnology-Based Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections

Authors: Lucian Mocan, Teodora Mocan, Matea Cristian, Cornel Iancu


We present method of nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, using gold nanoparticles combined with a specific growth factor and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy. Ab (antibody solution) bound to GNPs (gold nanoparticles) was administered in vitro and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the microorganism. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy, and at the same time, normal cells were not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the infected tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of Ab bound to GNPs into bacteria following perfusion. These results may represent a major step in antibiotherapy treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, Klebsiella pneumoniae, nanoparticle functionalization, laser irradiation, antibody

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
1469 TA6V Selective Laser Melting as an Innovative Method Produce Complex Shapes

Authors: Rafał Kamiński, Joel Rech, Philippe Bertrand, Christophe Desrayaud


Additive manufacturing is a hot topic for industry. Among the additive techniques, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) becomes even more popular, especially for making parts for aerospace applications, thanks to its design freedom (customized and light structures) and its reduced time to market. However, some functional surfaces have to be machined to achieve small tolerances and low surface roughness to fulfill industry specifications. The complex shapes designed for SLM (ex: titanium turbine blades) necessitate the use of ball end milling operations like in the conventional process after forging. However, the metallurgical state of TA6V is very different from the one obtained usually from forging, because of the laser sintering layer by layer. So this paper aims to investigate the influence of new TA6V metallurgies produced by SLM on the machinability in ball end milling. Machinability is considered as the property of a material to obtain easily and by a cheap way a functional surface. This means, for instance, the property to limit cutting tool wear rate and to get smooth surfaces. So as to reach this objective, SLM parts have been produced and heat treated with various conditions leading to various metallurgies that are compared with a standard equiaxed α+β wrought microstructure. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, tool wear and cutting forces for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut 'ap', feed per tooth 'fz', spindle speed 'N') in accordance with industrial practices. This work has revealed that TA6V produced by SLM can lead to a better machinability that standard wrought alloys.

Keywords: ball milling, selective laser melting, surface roughness, titanium, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1468 Nanotechnology-Based Treatment of Liver Cancer

Authors: Lucian Mocan


We present method of Nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells (Human hepatocellular liver carcinomacell line), using gold nanoparticles combuned with a specific growth factor and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy usig ex vivo specimens. Ex vivo-perfused liver specimens were obtained from hepatocellular carcinoma patients similarly to the surgical technique of transplantation. Ab bound to GNPs was inoculated intra-arterially onto the resulting specimen and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the malignant tissue by means of the capillary bed. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy and at the same time surrounding parenchyma was not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the malignant liver tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of Ab bound to GNPs into tumor cells following ex-vivo intravascular perfusion. These unique results may represent a major step in liver cancer treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

Keywords: HepG2 cells, gold nanoparticles, nanoparticle functionalization, laser irradiation

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1467 FEM Simulations to Study the Effects of Laser Power and Scan Speed on Molten Pool Size in Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Yee-Ting Lee, Jyun-Rong Zhuang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, An-Shik Yang


Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly crucial in biomedical and aerospace industries. As a recently developed AM technique, selective laser melting (SLM) has become a commercial method for various manufacturing processes. However, the molten pool configuration during SLM of metal powders is a decisive issue for the product quality. It is very important to investigate the heat transfer characteristics during the laser heating process. In this work, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS® (work bench module 16.0) was used to predict the unsteady temperature distribution for resolving molten pool dimensions with consideration of temperature-dependent thermal physical properties of TiAl6V4 at different laser powers and scanning speeds. The simulated results of the temperature distributions illustrated that the ratio of laser power to scanning speed can greatly influence the size of molten pool of titanium alloy powder for SLM development.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, finite element method, molten pool dimensions, selective laser melting

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1466 Dependence of Dielectric Properties on Sintering Conditions of Lead Free KNN Ceramics Modified With Li-Sb

Authors: Roopam Gaur, K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram


In order to produce lead free piezoceramics with optimum piezoelectric and dielectric properties, KNN modified with Li+ (as an A site dopant) and Sb5+ (as a B site dopant) (K0.49Na0.49Li0.02) (Nb0.96Sb0.04) O3 (referred as KNLNS in this paper) have been synthesized using solid state reaction method and conventional sintering technique. The ceramics were sintered in the narrow range of 10500C-10900C for 2-3 hours to get precise information about sintering parameters. Detailed study of dependence of microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on sintering conditions was then carried out. The study suggests that the volatility of the highly hygroscopic KNN ceramics is not only sensitive to sintering temperatures but also to sintering durations. By merely reducing the sintering duration for a given sintering temperature we saw an increase in the density of the samples which was supported by the increase in dielectric constants of the ceramics. And since density directly or indirectly affects almost all the associated properties, other dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also enhanced as we approached towards the most suitable sintering temperature and duration combination.

Keywords: piezoelectric, dielectric, Li, Sb, KNN, conventional sintering

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1465 Flexural Response of Sandwiches with Micro Lattice Cores Manufactured via Selective Laser Sintering

Authors: Emre Kara, Ali Kurşun, Halil Aykul


The lightweight sandwiches obtained with the use of various core materials such as foams, honeycomb, lattice structures etc., which have high energy absorbing capacity and high strength to weight ratio, are suitable for several applications in transport industry (automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding industry) where saving of fuel consumption, load carrying capacity increase, safety of vehicles and decrease of emission of harmful gases are very important aspects. While the sandwich structures with foams and honeycombs have been applied for many years, there is a growing interest on a new generation sandwiches with micro lattice cores. In order to produce these core structures, various production methods were created with the development of the technology. One of these production technologies is an additive manufacturing technique called selective laser sintering/melting (SLS/SLM) which is very popular nowadays because of saving of production time and achieving the production of complex topologies. The static bending and the dynamic low velocity impact tests of the sandwiches with carbon fiber/epoxy skins and the micro lattice cores produced via SLS/SLM were already reported in just a few studies. The goal of this investigation was the analysis of the flexural response of the sandwiches consisting of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) skins and the micro lattice cores manufactured via SLS under thermo-mechanical loads in order to compare the results in terms of peak load and absorbed energy values respect to the effect of core cell size, temperature and support span length. The micro lattice cores were manufactured using SLS technology that creates the product drawn by a 3D computer aided design (CAD) software. The lattice cores which were designed as body centered cubic (BCC) model having two different cell sizes (d= 2 and 2.5 mm) with the strut diameter of 0.3 mm were produced using titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) powder. During the production of all the core materials, the same production parameters such as laser power, laser beam diameter, building direction etc. were kept constant. Vacuum Infusion (VI) method was used to produce skin materials, made of [0°/90°] woven S-Glass prepreg laminates. The combination of the core and skins were implemented under VI. Three point bending tests were carried out by a servo-hydraulic test machine with different values of support span distances (L = 30, 45, and 60 mm) under various temperature values (T = 23, 40 and 60 °C) in order to analyze the influences of support span and temperature values. The failure mode of the collapsed sandwiches has been investigated using 3D computed tomography (CT) that allows a three-dimensional reconstruction of the analyzed object. The main results of the bending tests are: load-deflection curves, peak force and absorbed energy values. The results were compared according to the effect of cell size, support span and temperature values. The obtained results have particular importance for applications that require lightweight structures with a high capacity of energy dissipation, such as the transport industry, where problems of collision and crash have increased in the last years.

Keywords: light-weight sandwich structures, micro lattice cores, selective laser sintering, transport application

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1464 Microstructure of Ti – AlN Composite Produced by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Jaroslaw Mizera, Pawel Wisniewski, Ryszard Sitek


Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an advanced additive manufacturing technique used for producing parts made of wide range of materials such as: austenitic steel, titanium, nickel etc. In the our experiment we produced a Ti-AlN composite from a mixture of titanium and aluminum nitride respectively 70% at. and 30% at. using SLM technique. In order to define the size of powder particles, laser diffraction tests were performed on HORIBA LA-950 device. The microstructure and chemical composition of the composite was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition in micro areas of the obtained samples was determined by of EDS. The phase composition was analyzed by X-ray phase analysis (XRD). Microhardness Vickers tests were performed using Zwick/Roell microhardness machine under the load of 0.2kG (HV0.2). Hardness measurements were made along the building (xy) and along the plane of the lateral side of the cuboid (xz). The powder used for manufacturing of the samples had a mean particle size of 41μm. It was homogenous with a spherical shape. The specimens were built chiefly from Ti, TiN and AlN. The dendritic microstructure was porous and fine-grained. Some of the aluminum nitride remained unmelted but no porosity was observed in the interface. The formed material was characterized by high hardness exceeding 700 HV0.2 over the entire cross-section.

Keywords: Selective Laser Melting, Composite, SEM, microhardness

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1463 A Study on the Magnetic and Mechanical Properties of Nd-Fe-B Sintered Magnets According to Sintering Temperature

Authors: J. H. Kim, S. Y. Park, K. M. Lim, S. K. Hyun


The effect of sintering temperature on the magnetic and mechanical properties of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets has been investigated in this study. The sintering temperature changed from 950°C to 1120°C. While remanence and hardness of the magnets increased with increasing sintering temperature, the coercivity first increased, and then decreased. The optimum magnetic and mechanical properties of the magnets were obtained at the sintering temperature of 1050°C. In order to clarify the reason for the variation on magnetic and mechanical properties of the magnets, we systematically analyzed the microstructure.

Keywords: magnetic and mechanical property, microstructure, permanent magnets, sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet

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1462 Thermodynamic and Immunochemical Studies of Antibody Biofunctionalized Gold Nanoparticles Mediated Photothermal Ablation in Human Liver Cancer Cells

Authors: Lucian Mocan, Flaviu Tabaran, Teodora Mocan, Cristian Matea, Cornel Iancu


We present method of Gold Nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells (Human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line), based on a simple gold nanoparticle carrier system, such as serum albumin (BSA), and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy. Hyperspectral, contrast phase, and confocal microscopy combined immunochemical staining were used to demonstrate the selective internalization of HSA-GNPs via Gp60 receptors and the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inside HepG2 cells. We examined the ability of laser-activated carbon nanotubes to induce Hsp70 expression using confocal microscopy. Hep G2 cells heat-shocked (laser activated BSA-GNPs) to 42°C demonstrated an up-regulation of Hsp70 compared with control cells (BSA-GNPs treated cells without laser), which showed no detectable constitutive expression of Hsp70. We observed a time-dependent induction in Hsp70 expression in Hep G2 treated with BSA-GNPs and LASER irradiated. The post-irradiation apoptotic rate of HepG2 cells treated with HSA-GNPs ranged from 88.24% (for 50 mg/L) at 60 seconds, while at 30 minute the rate increased to 92.34% (50 mg/L). These unique results may represent a major step in liver cancer treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, liver cancer, albumin, laser irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
1461 Study on Sintering System of Calcium Barium Sulphoaluminate by XRD Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Xiaopeng Shang, Xin YU, Jun CHANG


Calcium barium sulphoaluminate (CBSA), derived from calcium sulphoaluminate(CSA), has excellent cementitious properties. In this study, the sintering system of CBSA with a theoretical stoichiometric Ca3BaAl6SO16 was investigated. Rietveld refinement was performed using TOPAS 4.2 software to quantitatively calculate the content of CBSA and the actual ionic site occupancy of Ba2+. The results indicate that the contents of Ca4-xBaxAl6SO16 increases with increasing sintering temperature in the 1200℃-1400℃ ranges. When sintered at 1400℃ for 180min, the content of CBSA reaches 88.4%. However, CBSA begins to decompose at 1440℃ and the content of which decreases. The replacement rate of Ba2+ was also enlarged by increasing sintering temperature and prolonged sintering time. Sintering at 1400℃ for 180min is considered as the optimum when replacement rate of Ba2+ and the content of CBSA were taken into account. Ca3.2Ba0.8Al6SO16 with a content of 88.4% was synthesized.

Keywords: calcium barium sulphoaluminate, sintering system, Ba2+ replacement rate, Rietveld refinement

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1460 Fabricating an Infrared-Radar Compatible Stealth Surface with Frequency Selective Surface and Structured Radar-Absorbing Material

Authors: Qingtao Yu, Guojia Ma


Approaches to microwave absorption and low infrared emissivity are often conflicting, as the low-emissivity layer, usually consisting of metals, increases the reflection of microwaves, especially in high frequency. In this study, an infrared-radar compatible stealth surface was fabricated by first depositing a layer of low-emissivity metal film on the surface of a layer of radar-absorbing material. Then, ultrafast laser was used to generate patterns on the metal film, forming a frequency selective surface. With proper pattern design, while the majority of the frequency selective surface is covered by the metal film, it has relatively little influence on the reflection of microwaves between 2 to 18 GHz. At last, structures on the radar-absorbing layer were fabricated by ultra-fast laser to further improve the absorbing bandwidth of the microwave. This study demonstrates that the compatibility between microwave absorption and low infrared emissivity can be achieved by properly designing patterns and structures on the metal film and the radar-absorbing layer accordingly.

Keywords: frequency selective surface, infrared-radar compatible, low infrared emissivity, radar-absorbing material, patterns, structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1459 Performance and Processing Evaluation of Solid Oxide Cells by Co-Sintering of GDC Buffer Layer and LSCF Air Electrode

Authors: Hyun-Jong Choi, Minjun Kwak, Doo-Won Seo, Sang-Kuk Woo, Sun-Dong Kim


Solid Oxide Cell(SOC) systems can contribute to the transition to the hydrogen society by utilized as a power and hydrogen generator by the electrochemical reaction with high efficiency at high operation temperature (>750 ℃). La1-xSrxCo1-yFeyO3, which is an air electrode, is occurred stability degradations due to reaction and delamination with yittria stabilized zirconia(YSZ) electrolyte in a water electrolysis mode. To complement this phenomenon SOCs need gadolinium doped ceria(GDC) buffer layer between electrolyte and air electrode. However, GDC buffer layer requires a high sintering temperature and it causes a reaction with YSZ electrolyte. This study carried out low temperature sintering of GDC layer by applying Cu-oxide as a sintering aid. The effect of a copper additive as a sintering aid to lower the sintering temperature for the construction of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was investigated. GDC buffer layer with 0.25-10 mol% CuO sintering aid was prepared by reacting GDC power and copper nitrate solution followed by heating at 600 ℃. The sintering of CuO-added GDC powder was optimized by investigating linear shrinkage, microstructure, grain size, ionic conductivity, and activation energy of CuO-GDC electrolytes at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1400 ℃. The sintering temperature of the CuO-GDC electrolyte decreases from 1400 ℃ to 1100 ℃ by adding the CuO sintering aid. The ionic conductivity of the CuO-GDC electrolyte shows a maximum value at 0.5 mol% of CuO. However, the addition of CuO has no significant effects on the activation energy of GDC electrolyte. GDC-LSCF layers were co-sintering at 1050 and 1100 ℃ and button cell tests were carried out at 750 ℃.

Keywords: Co-Sintering, GDC-LSCF, Sintering Aid, solid Oxide Cells

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1458 Precise Spatially Selective Photothermolysis Skin Treatment by Multiphoton Absorption

Authors: Yimei Huang, Harvey Lui, Jianhua Zhao, Zhenguo Wu, Haishan Zeng


Conventional laser treatment of skin diseases and cosmetic surgery is based on the principle of one-photon absorption selective photothermolysis which relies strongly on the difference in the light absorption between the therapeutic target and its surrounding tissue. However, when the difference in one-photon absorption is not sufficient, collateral damage would occur due to indiscriminate and nonspecific tissue heating. To overcome this problem, we developed a spatially selective photothermolysis method based on multiphoton absorption in which the heat generation is restricted to the focal point of a tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond laser beam aligned with the target of interest. A multimodal optical microscope with co-registered reflectance confocal imaging (RCM), two-photon fluorescence imaging (TPF), and second harmonic generation imaging (SHG) capabilities was used to perform and monitor the spatially selective photothermolysis. Skin samples excised from the shaved backs of euthanized NODSCID mice were used in this study. Treatments were performed by focusing and scaning the laser beam in the dermis with a 50µm×50µm target area. Treatment power levels of 200 mW to 400 mW and modulated pulse trains of different duration and period were experimented. Different treatment parameters achieved different degrees of spatial confinement of tissue alterations as visualized by 3-D RCM/TPF/SHG imaging. At 200 mW power level, 0.1 s pulse train duration, 4.1 s pulse train period, the tissue damage was found to be restricted precisely to the 50µm×50µm×10µm volume, where the laser focus spot had scanned through. The overlying epidermis/dermis tissue and the underneath dermis tissue were intact although there was light passing through these regions.

Keywords: multiphoton absorption photothermolysis, reflectance confocal microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, spatially selective photothermolysis, two-photon fluorescence microscopy

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1457 Texture and Twinning in Selective Laser Melting Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: N. Kazantseva, P. Krakhmalev, I. Yadroitsev, A. Fefelov, N. Vinogradova, I. Ezhov, T. Kurennykh


Martensitic texture-phase transition in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V (ELI) alloys was found. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed the initial cubic beta < 100 > (001) BCC texture. Such kind of texture is observed in BCC metals with flat rolling texture when axis is in the direction of rolling and the texture plane coincides with the plane of rolling. It was found that the texture of the parent BCC beta-phase determined the texture of low-temperature HCP alpha-phase limited the choice of its orientation variants. The {10-12} < -1011 > twinning system in titanium alloys after SLM was determined. Analysis of the oxygen contamination in SLM alloys was done. Comparison of the obtained results with the conventional titanium alloys is also provided.

Keywords: additive technology, texture, twins, Ti-6Al-4V, oxygen content

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1456 Investigation on the Cooling Performance of Cooling Channels Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting for Injection Molding

Authors: Changyong Liu, Junda Tong, Feng Xu, Ninggui Huang


In the injection molding process, the performance of cooling channels is crucial to the part quality. Through the application of conformal cooling channels fabricated via metal additive manufacturing, part distortion, warpage can be greatly reduced and cycle time can be greatly shortened. However, the properties of additively manufactured conformal cooling channels are quite different from conventional drilling processes such as the poorer dimensional accuracy and larger surface roughness. These features have significant influences on its cooling performance. In this study, test molds with the cooling channel diameters of φ2 mm, φ3 mm and φ4 mm were fabricated via selective laser melting and conventional drilling process respectively. A test system was designed and manufactured to measure the pressure difference between the channel inlet and outlet, the coolant flow rate and the temperature variation during the heating process. It was found that the cooling performance of SLM-fabricated channels was poorer than drilled cooling channels due to the smaller sectional area of cooling channels resulted from the low dimensional accuracy and the unmolten particles adhered to the channel surface. Theoretical models were established to determine the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient of SLM-fabricated cooling channels. These findings may provide guidance to the design of conformal cooling channels.

Keywords: conformal cooling channels, selective laser melting, cooling performance, injection molding

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
1455 Influence of Selected Finishing Technologies on the Roughness Parameters of Stainless Steel Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting Method

Authors: J. Hajnys, M. Pagac, J. Petru, P. Stefek, J. Mesicek, J. Kratochvil


The new progressive method of 3D metal printing SLM (Selective Laser Melting) is increasingly expanded into the normal operation. As a result, greater demands are placed on the surface quality of the parts produced in this way. The article deals with research of selected finishing methods (tumbling, face milling, sandblasting, shot peening and brushing) and their impact on the final surface roughness. The 20 x 20 x 7 mm produced specimens using SLM additive technology on the Renishaw AM400 were subjected to testing of these finishing methods by adjusting various parameters. Surface parameters of roughness Sa, Sz were chosen as the evaluation criteria and profile parameters Ra, Rz were used as additional measurements. Optical measurement of surface roughness was performed on Alicona Infinite Focus 5. An experiment conducted to optimize the surface roughness revealed, as expected, that the best roughness parameters were achieved through a face milling operation. Tumbling is particularly suitable for 3D printing components, as tumbling media are able to reach even complex shapes and, after changing to polishing bodies, achieve a high surface gloss. Surface quality after tumbling depends on the process time. Other methods with satisfactory results are shot peening and tumbling, which should be the focus of further research.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, SLM, surface roughness, stainless steel

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1454 Sintering Atmosphere Effects on the Densification of Al-SiC Compacts

Authors: Tadeusz Pieczonka, Jan Kazior


The influence of SiC powder addition on densification of Al-SiC compacts during sintering in different atmospheres was investigated. It was performed in a dilatometer in flowing nitrogen, nitrogen/hydrogen (95/5 by volume) and argon. Fine, F500 grade of SiC powder was used. Mixtures containing 10 and 30 vol.% of SiC reinforcement were prepared in a Turbula mixer. Green compacts of about 82% of theoretical density were made of each mixture. For comparison, compacts made of pure aluminum powder were also investigated. It was shown that nitrogen is the best sintering atmosphere because only in this atmosphere did shrinkage take place. Its amount is lowered by ceramic powder addition, i.e. the more SiC the less densification occurs. Additionally, the formation of clusters enhanced in compacts containing 30 vol.% SiC, is also responsible for limiting the shrinkage. Microstructural examinations of sintered composites revealed that sintering of compacts occurs in the presence of the liquid phase exclusively in nitrogen.

Keywords: Al-SiC composites, densification, sintering atmosphere, materials engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
1453 Laser Shock Peening of Additively Manufactured Nickel-Based Superalloys

Authors: Michael Munther, Keivan Davami


One significant roadblock for additively manufactured (AM) parts is the buildup of residual tensile stresses during the fabrication process. These residual stresses are formed due to the intense localized thermal gradients and high cooling rates that cause non-uniform material expansion/contraction and mismatched strain profiles during powder-bed fusion techniques, such as direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). The residual stresses adversely affect the fatigue life of the AM parts. Moreover, if the residual stresses become higher than the material’s yield strength, they will lead to acute geometric distortion. These are limiting the applications and acceptance of AM components for safety-critical applications. Herein, we discuss laser shock peening method as an advanced technique for the manipulation of the residual stresses in AM parts. An X-ray diffraction technique is used for the measurements of the residual stresses before and after the laser shock peening process. Also, the hardness of the structures is measured using a nanoindentation technique. Maps of nanohardness and modulus are obtained from the nanoindentation, and a correlation is made between the residual stresses and the mechanical properties. The results indicate that laser shock peening is able to induce compressive residual stresses in the structure that mitigate the tensile residual stresses and increase the hardness of AM IN718, a superalloy, almost 20%. No significant changes were observed in the modulus after laser shock peening. The results strongly suggest that laser shock peening can be used as an advanced post-processing technique to optimize the service lives of critical components for various applications.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, Inconel 718, laser shock peening, residual stresses

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1452 Dielectric Properties of La2MoO6 Ceramics at Microwave Frequency

Authors: Yih-Chien Chen, Yu-Cheng You


The microwave dielectric properties of La2MoO6 ceramics were investigated with a view to their application in mobile communication. La2MoO6 ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state method with various sintering conditions. The X-ray diffraction peaks of La2MoO6 ceramic did not vary significantly with sintering conditions. The average grain size of La2MoO6 ceramics increased as the temperature and time of sintering increased. A maximum density of 5.67 g/cm3, a dielectric constants (εr) of 14.1, a quality factor (Q×f) of 68,000 GHz, and a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) of -56 ppm/℃ were obtained when La2MoO6 ceramics that were sintered at 1300 ℃ for 4h.

Keywords: ceramics, sintering, microwave dielectric properties, La2MoO6

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
1451 Microstructure and Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Martensitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Ming-Wei Wu, Yu-Jin Tsai, Ching-Huai Chang


Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a versatile technique for achieving effective densification of powder metallurgy (PM) steels and other materials. The aim of this study was to examine the influences of 0.6 wt% boron on the microstructure and LPS behavior of boron-alloyed 410 martensitic stainless steel. The results showed that adding 0.6 wt% boron can obviously promote the LPS due to a eutectic reaction and increase the sintered density of 410 stainless steel. The density was much increased by 1.06 g/cm³ after 1225ºC sintering. Increasing the sintering temperature from 1225ºC to 1275ºC did not obviously improve the sintered density. After sintering at 1225ºC~1275ºC, the matrix was fully martensitic, and intragranular borides were extensively found due to the solidification of eutectic liquid. The microstructure after LPS consisted of the martensitic matrix and (Fe, Cr)2B boride, as identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA).

Keywords: powder metallurgy, liquid phase sintering, stainless steel, martensite, boron, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
1450 Influence of Sintering Temperature on Microhardness and Tribological Properties of Equi-Atomic Ti-Al-Mo-Si-W Multicomponent Alloy

Authors: Rudolf L. Kanyane, Nicolaus Malatji, Patritia A. Popoola


Tribological failure of materials during application can lead to catastrophic events which also carry economic penalties. High entropy alloys (HEAs) have shown outstanding tribological properties in applications such as mechanical parts were moving parts under high friction are required. This work aims to investigate the effect of sintering temperature on microhardness properties and tribological properties of novel equiatomic TiAlMoSiW HEAs fabricated via spark plasma sintering. The effect of Spark plasma sintering temperature on morphological evolution and phase formation was also investigated. The microstructure and the phases formed for the developed HEAs were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) respectively. The microhardness and tribological properties were studied using a diamond base microhardness tester Rtec tribometer. The developed HEAs showed improved mechanical properties as the sintering temperature increases.

Keywords: sintering, high entropy alloy, microhardness, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
1449 Application of Laser Spectroscopy for Detection of Actinides and Lanthanides in Solutions

Authors: Igor Izosimov


This work is devoted to applications of the Time-resolved laser-induced luminescence (TRLIF) spectroscopy and time-resolved laser-induced chemiluminescence spectroscopy for detection of lanthanides and actinides. Results of the experiments on Eu, Sm, U, and Pu detection in solutions are presented. The limit of uranyl detection (LOD) in urine in our TRLIF experiments was up to 5 pg/ml. In blood plasma LOD was 0.1 ng/ml and after mineralization was up to 8pg/ml – 10pg/ml. In pure solution, the limit of detection of europium was 0.005ng/ml and samarium, 0.07ng/ml. After addition urine, the limit of detection of europium was 0.015 ng/ml and samarium, 0.2 ng/ml. Pu, Np, and some U compounds do not produce direct luminescence in solutions, but when excited by laser radiation, they can induce chemiluminescence of some chemiluminogen (luminol in our experiments). It is shown that multi-photon scheme of chemiluminescence excitation makes chemiluminescence not only a highly sensitive but also a highly selective tool for the detection of lanthanides/actinides in solutions.

Keywords: actinides/lanthanides detection, laser spectroscopy with time resolution, luminescence/chemiluminescence, solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 220