Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9529

Search results for: cracks width control

9529 Tensile Behavior of Oil Palm Fiber Concrete (OPFC) with Different Fiber Volume

Authors: Khairul Zahreen Mohd Arof, Rahimah Muhamad

Abstract:

Oil palm fiber (OPF) is a fibrous material produced from the waste of palm oil industry which is suitable to be used in construction industry. The applications of OPF in concrete can reduce the material costs and enhance concrete behavior. Dog-bone test provides significant results for investigating the behavior of fiber reinforced concrete under tensile loading. It is able to provide stress-strain profile, modulus of elasticity, stress at cracking point and total crack width. In this research, dog-bone tests have been conducted to analyze total crack width, stress-strain profile, and modulus of elasticity of OPFC. Specimens are in a dog-bone shape with a long notch in the middle as compared to the end, to ensure cracks occur only within the notch. Tests were instrumented using a universal testing machine Shimadzu 300kN, a linear variable differential transformer and two strain gauges. A total of nine specimens with different fibers at fiber volume fractions of 0.75%, 1.00%, and 1.25% have been tested to analyze the behavior under tensile loading. Also, three specimens of plain concrete fiber have been tested as control specimens. The tensile test of all specimens have been carried out for concrete age exceed 28 days. It shows that OPFC able to reduce total crack width. In addition, OPFC has higher cracking stress than plain concrete. The study shows plain concrete can be improved with the addition of OPF.

Keywords: cracks, crack width, dog-bone test, oil palm fiber concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
9528 Efficient Control of Brushless DC Motors with Pulse Width Modulation

Authors: S. Shahzadi, J. Rizk

Abstract:

This paper describes the pulse width modulated control of a three phase, 4 polar DC brushless motor. To implement this practically the Atmel’s AVR ATmega 328 microcontroller embedded on an Arduino Eleven board is utilized. The microcontroller programming is done in an open source Arduino IDE development environment. The programming logic effectively manipulated a six MOSFET bridge which was used to energize the stator windings as per control requirements. The results obtained showed accurate, precise and efficient pulse width modulated operation. Another advantage offered by this pulse width modulated control was the efficient speed control of the motor. By varying the time intervals between successive commutations, faster energizing of the stator windings was possible thereby leading to quicker rotor alignment with these energized phases and faster revolutions.

Keywords: brushless DC motors, commutation, MOSFET, PWM

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
9527 Influence of Structural Cracks on Transport Performance of Reinforced Concrete

Authors: V. A. Okenyi, K. Yang, P. A. M. Basheer

Abstract:

Concrete structures in service are constantly under the influence of load. Microstructural cracks often develop in them and considering those in the marine environment; these microcracks often serve as a means for transportation of harmful fluids into the concrete. This paper studies the influence of flexural tensile stress that structural elements undergo on the transport properties of such concrete in the tensile zone of the structural member. Reinforced concrete beams of 1200mm ⨉ 230mm ⨉ 150mm in dimension in a four-point bending set up were subjected to various levels of the loading required to cause a microcrack width of 100µm. The use of Autoclam permeability tests, sorptivity tests as well as the Permit chloride ion migration tests were employed, and results showed that air permeability, sorptivity and water permeability all increased as the load increased in the concrete tensile zone. For air permeability, an increase in stress levels led to more permeability, and the addition of steel macrofibers had no significant effect until at 75% of stress level where it decreased air permeability. For sorptivity, there was no absorption into concrete when no load was added, but water sorptivity index was high at 75% stress levels and higher in steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). Steel macrofibers produced more water permeability into the concrete at 75% stress level under the 100µm crack width considered while steel macrofibers helped in slightly reducing the migration of chloride into concrete by 8.8% reduction, compared to control samples at 75% stress level. It is clear from this research that load-induced cracking leads to an increase in fluid permeability into concrete and the effect of the addition of steel macrofiber to concrete for durability is not significant under 100µm crack width.

Keywords: durability, microcracks, SFRC, stress Level, transport properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
9526 Space Vector PWM and Model Predictive Control for Voltage Source Inverter Control

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for two-level three phase (2L-3P) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). VSI with associated system is subjected to both control techniques and the results are compared. Matlab/Simulink was used to model, simulate and validate the control schemes. Findings of this study show that MPC is superior to SVPWM in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD) and implementation.

Keywords: voltage source inverter, space vector pulse width modulation, model predictive control, comparison

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
9525 Fixed-Frequency Pulse Width Modulation-Based Sliding Mode Controller for Switching Multicellular Converter

Authors: Rihab Hamdi, Amel Hadri Hamida, Ouafae Bennis, Fatima Babaa, Sakina Zerouali

Abstract:

This paper features a sliding mode controller (SMC) for closed-loop voltage control of DC-DC three-cells buck converter connected in parallel, operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM), based on pulse-width modulation (PWM). To maintain the switching frequency, the approach is to incorporate a pulse-width modulation that utilizes an equivalent control, inferred by applying the SM control method, to produce a control sign to be contrasted and the fixed-frequency within the modulator. Detailed stability and transient performance analysis have been conducted using Lyapunov stability criteria to restrict the switching frequency variation facing wide variations in output load, input changes, and set-point changes. The results obtained confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in achieving an enhanced output transient performance while faithfully realizing its control objective in the event of abrupt and uncertain parameter variations. Simulations studies in MATLAB/Simulink environment are performed to confirm the idea.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, pulse width modulation, power electronics, sliding mode control

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
9524 Prediction of Unsaturated Permeability Functions for Clayey Soil

Authors: F. Louati, H. Trabelsi, M. Jamei

Abstract:

Desiccation cracks following drainage-humidification cycles. With water loss, mainly due to evaporation, suction in the soil increases, producing volumetric shrinkage and tensile stress. When the tensile stress reaches tensile strength, the soil cracks. Desiccation cracks networks can directly control soil hydraulic properties. The aim of this study was for quantifying the hydraulic properties for examples the water retention curve, the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function, the shrinkage dynamics in Tibar soil- clay soil in the Northern of Tunisia. Then a numerical simulation of unsaturated hydraulic properties for a crack network has been attempted. The finite elements code ‘CODE_BRIGHT’ can be used to follow the hydraulic distribution in cracked porous media.

Keywords: desiccation, cracks, permeability, unsaturated hydraulic flow, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
9523 Cracks Detection and Measurement Using VLP-16 LiDAR and Intel Depth Camera D435 in Real-Time

Authors: Xinwen Zhu, Xingguang Li, Sun Yi

Abstract:

Crack is one of the most common damages in buildings, bridges, roads and so on, which may pose safety hazards. However, cracks frequently happen in structures of various materials. Traditional methods of manual detection and measurement, which are known as subjective, time-consuming, and labor-intensive, are gradually unable to meet the needs of modern development. In addition, crack detection and measurement need be safe considering space limitations and danger. Intelligent crack detection has become necessary research. In this paper, an efficient method for crack detection and quantification using a 3D sensor, LiDAR, and depth camera is proposed. This method works even in a dark environment, which is usual in real-world applications. The LiDAR rapidly spins to scan the surrounding environment and discover cracks through lasers thousands of times per second, providing a rich, 3D point cloud in real-time. The LiDAR provides quite accurate depth information. The precision of the distance of each point can be determined within around  ±3 cm accuracy, and not only it is good for getting a precise distance, but it also allows us to see far of over 100m going with the top range models. But the accuracy is still large for some high precision structures of material. To make the depth of crack is much more accurate, the depth camera is in need. The cracks are scanned by the depth camera at the same time. Finally, all data from LiDAR and Depth cameras are analyzed, and the size of the cracks can be quantified successfully. The comparison shows that the minimum and mean absolute percentage error between measured and calculated width are about 2.22% and 6.27%, respectively. The experiments and results are presented in this paper.

Keywords: LiDAR, depth camera, real-time, detection and measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
9522 Pulse Generator with Constant Pulse Width

Authors: Rozita Borhan, Hanif Che Lah, Wee Leong Son

Abstract:

This paper is about method to produce a stable and accurate constant output pulse width regardless of the amplitude, period and pulse width variation of the input signal source. The pulse generated is usually being used in numerous applications as the reference input source to other circuits in the system. Therefore, it is crucial to produce a clean and constant pulse width to make sure the system is working accurately as expected.

Keywords: amplitude, Constant Pulse Width, frequency divider, pulse generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
9521 Investigation on the stability of rock slopes subjected to tension cracks via limit analysis

Authors: Weigao. Wu, Stefano. Utili

Abstract:

Based on the kinematic approach of limit analysis, a full set of upper bound solutions for the stability of homogeneous rock slopes subjected to tension cracks are obtained. The generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion is employed to describe the non-linear strength envelope of rocks. In this paper, critical failure mechanisms are determined for cracks of known depth but unspecified location, cracks of known location but unknown depth, and cracks of unspecified location and depth. It is shown that there is a nearly up to 50% drop in terms of the stability factors for the rock slopes intersected by a tension crack compared with intact ones. Tables and charts of solutions in dimensionless forms are presented for ease of use by practitioners.

Keywords: Hoek-Brown failure criterion, limit analysis, rock slope, tension cracks

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
9520 Open-Loop Vector Control of Induction Motor with Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique

Authors: Karchung, S. Ruangsinchaiwanich

Abstract:

This paper presents open-loop vector control method of induction motor with space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique. Normally, the closed loop speed control is preferred and is believed to be more accurate. However, it requires a position sensor to track the rotor position which is not desirable to use it for certain workspace applications. This paper exhibits the performance of three-phase induction motor with the simplest control algorithm without the use of a position sensor nor an estimation block to estimate rotor position for sensorless control. The motor stator currents are measured and are transformed to synchronously rotating (d-q-axis) frame by use of Clarke and Park transformation. The actual control happens in this frame where the measured currents are compared with the reference currents. The error signal is fed to a conventional PI controller, and the corrected d-q voltage is generated. The controller outputs are transformed back to three phase voltages and are fed to SVPWM block which generates PWM signal for the voltage source inverter. The open loop vector control model along with SVPWM algorithm is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink software and is experimented and validated in TMS320F28335 DSP board.

Keywords: electric drive, induction motor, open-loop vector control, space vector pulse width modulation technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
9519 The Influence of Microsilica on the Cluster Cracks' Geometry of Cement Paste

Authors: Maciej Szeląg

Abstract:

The changing nature of environmental impacts, in which cement composites are operating, are causing in the structure of the material a number of phenomena, which result in volume deformation of the composite. These strains can cause composite cracking. Cracks are merging by propagation or intersect to form a characteristic structure of cracks known as the cluster cracks. This characteristic mesh of cracks is crucial to almost all building materials, which are working in service loads conditions. Particularly dangerous for a cement matrix is a sudden load of elevated temperature – the thermal shock. Resulting in a relatively short period of time a large value of a temperature gradient between the outer surface and the material’s interior can result in cracks formation on the surface and in the volume of the material. In the paper, in order to analyze the geometry of the cluster cracks of the cement pastes, the image analysis tools were used. Tested were 4 series of specimens made of two different Portland cement. In addition, two series include microsilica as a substitute for the 10% of the cement. Within each series, specimens were performed in three w/b indicators (water/binder): 0.4; 0.5; 0.6. The cluster cracks were created by sudden loading the samples by elevated temperature of 250°C. Images of the cracked surfaces were obtained via scanning at 2400 DPI. Digital processing and measurements were performed using ImageJ v. 1.46r software. To describe the structure of the cluster cracks three stereological parameters were proposed: the average cluster area - A ̅, the average length of cluster perimeter - L ̅, and the average opening width of a crack between clusters - I ̅. The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the relationships between measured stereological parameters, and the compressive strength and the bulk density of the modified cement pastes. The tests of the mechanical and physical feature have been carried out in accordance with EN standards. The curves describing the relationships have been developed using the least squares method, and the quality of the curve fitting to the empirical data was evaluated using three diagnostic statistics: the coefficient of determination – R2, the standard error of estimation - Se, and the coefficient of random variation – W. The use of image analysis allowed for a quantitative description of the cluster cracks’ geometry. Based on the obtained results, it was found a strong correlation between the A ̅ and L ̅ – reflecting the fractal nature of the cluster cracks formation process. It was noted that the compressive strength and the bulk density of cement pastes decrease with an increase in the values of the stereological parameters. It was also found that the main factors, which impact on the cluster cracks’ geometry are the cement particles’ size and the general content of the binder in a volume of the material. The microsilica caused the reduction in the A ̅, L ̅ and I ̅ values compared to the values obtained by the classical cement paste’s samples, which is caused by the pozzolanic properties of the microsilica.

Keywords: cement paste, cluster cracks, elevated temperature, image analysis, microsilica, stereological parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
9518 The Impact of Urethral Plate Width on Surgical Outcomes After Distal Hypospadias Repair in Children

Authors: Andrey Boyko

Abstract:

Nowadays, there is no consensus about the influence of urethral plate (UP) width on the surgical outcomes after distal hypospadias repair. The purpose of the research was to study the association between UP width and surgical outcomes after distal hypospadias repair in children. Materials and methods: The study included 138 patients with distal hypospadias. The mean age at the time of surgery was 4.6 years (6 months – 16 years). We measured UP width at the “midpoint within the glans” and used the HOSE scale to assess postoperative outcomes. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – the patients (107) with UP < 8mm, group 2 – patients (31) with UP > 8mm. All boys underwent TIP repair. Preincision means UP width after incision means UP width, and the UP ratio was analyzed. Statistical data were obtained using Statistica 10. Results: The findings were preincision mean UP width - 5.4 mm and 9.4 mm; after incision mean UP width - 13mm and 17.5 mm; UP ratio - 0.41 and 0.53 in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Most postoperative complications (fistula, meatal stenosis, and stricture) happened in patients with UP width < 8 mm versus ≥ 8 mm (7/107 versus 2/31, respectively). HOSE results were 15.77 (group 1), 15.65 (group 2). The follow up lasted up to 12 months. Statistical analysis proved the absence of correlation between UP width and postoperative complications. Conclusions: In conclusion, it should be noted that the success of surgical repair mostly depended on the surgical technique.

Keywords: children, distal hypospadias, tip repair, urethral plate width

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9517 Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Based Design and Simulation of a Three-Phase Voltage Source Converter Systems

Authors: Farhan Beg

Abstract:

A space vector based pulse width modulation control technique for the three-phase PWM converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed control scheme is based on a synchronous reference frame model. High performance and efficiency is obtained with regards to the DC bus voltage and the power factor considerations of the PWM rectifier thus leading to low losses. MATLAB/SIMULINK are used as a platform for the simulations and a SIMULINK model is presented in the paper. The results show that the proposed model demonstrates better performance and properties compared to the traditional SPWM method and the method improves the dynamic performance of the closed loop drastically. For the space vector based pulse width modulation, sine signal is the reference waveform and triangle waveform is the carrier waveform. When the value of sine signal is larger than triangle signal, the pulse will start producing to high; and then when the triangular signals higher than sine signal, the pulse will come to low. SPWM output will change by changing the value of the modulation index and frequency used in this system to produce more pulse width. When more pulse width is produced, the output voltage will have lower harmonics contents and the resolution will increase.

Keywords: power factor, SVPWM, PWM rectifier, SPWM

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
9516 Numerical Study for Improving Performance of Air Cooled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell on the Cathode Channel

Authors: Mohamed Hassan Gundu, Jaeseung Lee, Muhammad Faizan Chinannai, Hyunchul Ju

Abstract:

In this study, we present the effects of bipolar plate design to control the temperature of the cell and ensure effective water management under an excessive amount of air flow and low humidification conditions in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC model developed and applied to consider a three type of bipolar plate that is defined by ratio of inlet channel width to outlet channel width. Simulation results show that the design which has narrow gas inlet channel and wide gas outlet channel width (wide coolant inlet channel and narrow coolant outlet channel width) make the relative humidity and water concentration increase in the channel and the catalyst layer. Therefore, this study clearly demonstrates that the dehydration phenomenon can be decreased by using design of bipolar plate with narrow gas inlet channel and wide gas outlet channel width (wide coolant inlet channel and narrow coolant outlet channel width).

Keywords: PEMFC, air-cooling, relative humidity, water management, water concentration, oxygen concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
9515 Crack Width Evaluation for Flexural RC Members with Axial Tension

Authors: Sukrit Ghorai

Abstract:

Proof of controlling crack width is a basic condition for securing suitable performance in serviceability limit state. The cracking in concrete can occur at any time from the casting of time to the years after the concrete has been set in place. Most codes struggle with offering procedure for crack width calculation. There is lack in availability of design charts for designers to compute crack width with ease. The focus of the study is to utilize design charts and parametric equations in calculating crack width with minimum error. The paper contains a simplified procedure to calculate crack width for reinforced concrete (RC) sections subjected to bending with axial tensile force following the guidelines of Euro code [DS EN-1992-1-1 & DS EN-1992-1-2]. Numerical examples demonstrate the application of the suggested procedure. Comparison with parallel analytical tools support the validity of result and show the percentage deviation of crack width in both the procedures. The technique is simple, user-friendly and ready to evolve for a greater spectrum of section sizes and materials.

Keywords: concrete structures, crack width calculation, serviceability limit state, structural design, bridge engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
9514 Effects of Tomato-Crispy Salad Intercropping on Diameter of Tomato Fruits under Greenhouse Conditions

Authors: Halil Demir, Ersin Polat

Abstract:

This study, in which crispy salad plants was cultivated between the two rows of tomato, was conducted in Spring 2007 in a research glasshouse at Akdeniz University. Crispy salad (Lactuca sativa var. crispa cv. Bohemia) plants were intercropped with tomato (Solanum lycopersicon cv. Selin F1) plants as the main crop. Tomato seedlings were planted according to double line plantation system with 100 cm large spacing, 50 cm narrow spacing and 50 cm within row plant spacing. In both control and intercropping applications, each plot was 9.75 m2 according to plantation distances and there were 26 plants per each plot for tomato. Crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30 cm spacing as one row in the middle of tomato plants and with 30x30 spacing as two rows between plants rows. Moreover, salad seedlings were transplanted between tomato plants above the tomato rows that were planted in two rows with intervals of 50 cm and also with 25x25 cm spacing as the third row in the middle of tomato rows. While tomato plants were growing during the research, fruit width and height were measured periodically with 15 days in the tomato fruits of the third cluster from the formation of fruit to fruit ripening. According to results, while there were no differences between cropping systems in terms of fruit width, the highest fruit height was found in Control trial in the first measurement. In the second measurement while the highest fruit width was determined with 64.39 mm in Control, there were no differences between cropping systems. In the third measurement, the highest fruit width and height were obtained from Control with 68.47 mm and 55.52 mm, respectively. As a conclusion the trial, which crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30x30 cm spacing as two rows between tomato plants rows, was determined as a best intercropping application.

Keywords: crispy salad, glasshouse, intercropping, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
9513 Comparative Analysis of SVPWM and the Standard PWM Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor

Authors: L. Lakhdari, B. Bouchiba, M. Bechar

Abstract:

The multi-level inverters present an important novelty in the field of energy control with high voltage and power. The major advantage of all multi-level inverters is the improvement and spectral quality of its generated output signals. In recent years, various pulse width modulation techniques have been developed. From these technics we have: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.

Keywords: induction motor, multilevel inverters, SVPWM, SPWM, THD

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
9512 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

Authors: J. Y. Lee, H. S. Lim, S. H. Yoon

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.

Keywords: diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, RC members, shear behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
9511 Recent Advances in Pulse Width Modulation Techniques and Multilevel Inverters

Authors: Satish Kumar Peddapelli

Abstract:

This paper presents advances in pulse width modulation techniques which refers to a method of carrying information on train of pulses and the information be encoded in the width of pulses. Pulse Width Modulation is used to control the inverter output voltage. This is done by exercising the control within the inverter itself by adjusting the ON and OFF periods of inverter. By fixing the DC input voltage we get AC output voltage. In variable speed AC motors the AC output voltage from a constant DC voltage is obtained by using inverter. Recent developments in power electronics and semiconductor technology have lead improvements in power electronic systems. Hence, different circuit configurations namely multilevel inverters have become popular and considerable interest by researcher are given on them. A fast Space-Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) method for five-level inverter is also discussed. In this method, the space vector diagram of the five-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of three-level inverters. In turn, each of these six space vector diagrams of three-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of two-level inverters. After decomposition, all the remaining necessary procedures for the three-level SVPWM are done like conventional two-level inverter. The proposed method reduces the algorithm complexity and the execution time. It can be applied to the multilevel inverters above the five-level also. The experimental setup for three-level diode-clamped inverter is developed using TMS320LF2407 DSP controller and the experimental results are analysed.

Keywords: five-level inverter, space vector pulse wide modulation, diode clamped inverter, electrical engineering

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9510 Conceptual Design of Panel Based Reinforced Concrete Floating Substructure for 10 MW Offshore Wind Turbine

Authors: M. Sohail Hasan, Wichuda Munbua, Chikako Fujiyama, Koichi Maekawa

Abstract:

During the past few years, offshore wind energy has become the key parameter to reduce carbon emissions. In most of the previous studies, floaters in floating offshore wind turbines (FOWT) are made up of steel. However, fatigue and corrosion are always major concerns of steel marine structures. Recently, researchers are working on concrete floating substructures. In this paper, the conceptual design of pre-cast panel-based economical and durable reinforced concrete floating substructure for a 10 MW offshore wind turbine is proposed. The new geometrical shape, i.e., hexagon with inside hollow boxes, is proposed under static conditions. To design the outer panel/side walls to resist hydrostatic forces, special consideration for durability is given to limit the crack width within permissible range under service limit state. A comprehensive system is proposed for transferring the ultimate moment and shear due to strong wind at the connection between steel tower and concrete floating substructure. Moreover, a stable connection is also designed considering the fatigue of concrete and steel due to the fluctuation of stress from the mooring line. This conceptual design will be verified by subsequent dynamic analysis soon.

Keywords: cracks width control, mooring line, reinforced concrete floater, steel tower

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
9509 Experimental Implementation of Model Predictive Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Authors: Abdelsalam A. Ahmed

Abstract:

Fast speed drives for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is a crucial performance for the electric traction systems. In this paper, PMSM is drived with a Model-based Predictive Control (MPC) technique. Fast speed tracking is achieved through optimization of the DC source utilization using MPC. The technique is based on predicting the optimum voltage vector applied to the driver. Control technique is investigated by comparing to the cascaded PI control based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). MPC and SVPWM-based FOC are implemented with the TMS320F2812 DSP and its power driver circuits. The designed MPC for a PMSM drive is experimentally validated on a laboratory test bench. The performances are compared with those obtained by a conventional PI-based system in order to highlight the improvements, especially regarding speed tracking response.

Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous motor, model-based predictive control, DC source utilization, cascaded PI control, space vector pulse width modulation, TMS320F2812 DSP

Procedia PDF Downloads 563
9508 Numerical Prediction of Effects of Location of Across-the-Width Laminations on Tensile Properties of Rectangular Wires

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole

Abstract:

This paper presents the finite element analysis numerical investigation of the effects of the location of across-the-width lamination on the tensile properties of rectangular wires for civil engineering applications. FE analysis revealed that the presence of the mid-thickness across-the-width lamination changes the cup and cone fracture shape exhibited by the lamination-free wire to a V-shaped fracture shape with an opening at the bottom/pointed end of the V-shape at the location of the mid-thickness across-the-width lamination. FE analysis also revealed that the presence of the mid-width across-the-thickness lamination changes the cup and cone fracture shape of the lamination-free wire without an opening to a cup and cone fracture shape with an opening at the location of the mid-width across-the-thickness lamination. The FE fracture behaviour prediction approach presented in this work serves as a tool for failure analysis of wires with lamination at different orientations which cannot be conducted experimentally.

Keywords: across-the-width lamination, tensile properties, lamination location, wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
9507 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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9506 Implementation of Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Techniques in Multilevel Inverter

Authors: M. Suresh Kumar, K. Ramani

Abstract:

This paper proposed the Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation for the minimization of Total Harmonic Distortion in Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter. Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation method uses Alternate Position of Disposition scheme to determine the appropriate switching angle to Multi-Level Inverter. In this paper simulation results shows that the validation of Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method does capably eliminate a great number of precise harmonics and minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion value in output voltage waveform.

Keywords: alternate position, fast fourier analysis, multi-carrier pulse width modulation, multi-level inverter, total harmonic distortion

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9505 Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors in Rotating Disks Containing 3D Semi-Elliptical Cracks

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Seyed Mohammad Navid Ghoreishi

Abstract:

Initiation and propagation of cracks may cause catastrophic failures in rotating disks, and hence determination of fracture parameter in rotating disks under the different working condition is very important issue. In this paper, a comprehensive study of stress intensity factors in rotating disks containing 3D semi-elliptical cracks under the different working condition is investigated. In this regard, after verification of modeling and analytical procedure, the effects of mechanical properties, rotational velocity, and orientation of cracks on Stress Intensity Factors (SIF) in rotating disks under centrifugal loading are investigated. Also, the effects of using composite patch in reduction of SIF in rotating disks are studied. By that way, the effects of patching design variables like mechanical properties, thickness, and ply angle are investigated individually.

Keywords: stress intensity factor, semi-elliptical crack, rotating disk, finite element analysis (FEA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
9504 SVM-DTC Using for PMSM Speed Tracking Control

Authors: Kendouci Khedidja, Mazari Benyounes, Benhadria Mohamed Rachid, Dadi Rachida

Abstract:

In recent years, direct torque control (DTC) has become an alternative to the well-known vector control especially for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). However, it presents a problem of field linkage and torque ripple. In order to solve this problem, the conventional DTC is combined with space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). This control theory has achieved great success in the control of PMSM. That has become a hotspot for resolving. The main objective of this paper gives us an introduction of the DTC and SVPWM-DTC control theory of PMSM which has been simulating on each part of the system via Matlab/Simulink based on the mathematical modeling. Moreover, the outcome of the simulation proved that the improved SVPWM- DTC of PMSM has a good dynamic and static performance.

Keywords: PMSM, DTC, SVM, speed control

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
9503 Comparison of Flow and Mixing Characteristics between Non-Oscillating and Transversely Oscillating Jet

Authors: Dinku Seyoum Zeleke, Rong Fung Huang, Ching Min Hsu

Abstract:

Comparison of flow and mixing characteristics between non-oscillating jet and transversely oscillating jet was investigated experimentally. Flow evolution process was detected by using high-speed digital camera, and jet spread width was calculated using binary edge detection techniques by using the long-exposure images. The velocity characteristics of transversely oscillating jet induced by a V-shaped fluidic oscillator were measured using single component hot-wire anemometer. The jet spread width of non-oscillating jet was much smaller than the jet exit gap because of behaving natural jet behaviors. However, the transversely oscillating jet has a larger jet spread width, which was associated with the excitation of the flow by self-induced oscillation. As a result, the flow mixing characteristics desperately improved both near-field and far-field. Therefore, this transversely oscillating jet has a better turbulence intensity, entrainment, and spreading width so that it augments flow-mixing characteristics desperately.

Keywords: flow mixing, transversely oscillating, spreading width, velocity characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
9502 Battery Energy Storage System Economic Benefits Assessment on a Network Frequency Control

Authors: Kréhi Serge Agbli, Samuel Portebos, Michaël Salomon

Abstract:

Here a methodology is considered aiming at evaluating the economic benefit of the provision of a primary frequency control unit using a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). In this methodology, two control types (basic and hysteresis) are implemented and the corresponding minimum energy storage system power allowing to maintain the frequency drop inside a given threshold under a given contingency is identified and compared using DigSilent’s PowerFactory software. Following this step, the corresponding energy storage capacity (in MWh) is calculated. As PowerFactory is dedicated to dynamic simulation for transient analysis, a first order model related to the IEEE 9 bus grid used for the analysis under PowerFactory is characterized and implemented on MATLAB-Simulink. Primary frequency control is simulated using the two control types over one-month grid's frequency deviation data on this Simulink model. This simulation results in the energy throughput both basic and hysteresis BESSs. It emerges that the 15 minutes operation band of the battery capacity allocated to frequency control is sufficient under the considered disturbances. A sensitivity analysis on the width of the control deadband is then performed for the two control types. The deadband width variation leads to an identical sizing with the hysteresis control showing a better frequency control at the cost of a higher delivered throughput compared to the basic control. An economic analysis comparing the cost of the sized BESS to the potential revenues is then performed.

Keywords: battery energy storage system, electrical network frequency stability, frequency control unit, PowerFactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
9501 Crack Width Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Members under Shrinkage Effect by Pseudo-Discrete Crack Model

Authors: F. J. Ma, A. K. H. Kwan

Abstract:

Crack caused by shrinkage movement of concrete is a serious problem especially when restraint is provided. It may cause severe serviceability and durability problems. The existing prediction methods for crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement are mainly numerical methods under simplified circumstances, which do not agree with each other. To get a more unified prediction method applicable to more sophisticated circumstances, finite element crack width analysis for shrinkage effect should be developed. However, no existing finite element analysis can be carried out to predict the crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement because of unsolved reasons of conventional finite element analysis. In this paper, crack width analysis implemented by finite element analysis is presented with pseudo-discrete crack model, which combines traditional smeared crack model and newly proposed crack queuing algorithm. The proposed pseudo-discrete crack model is capable of simulating separate and single crack without adopting discrete crack element. And the improved finite element analysis can successfully simulate the stress redistribution when concrete is cracked, which is crucial for predicting crack width, crack spacing and crack number.

Keywords: crack queuing algorithm, crack width analysis, finite element analysis, shrinkage effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
9500 Model of Elastic Fracture Toughness for Ductile Metal Pipes with External Longitudinal Cracks

Authors: Guoyang Fu, Wei Yang, Chun-Qing Li

Abstract:

The most common type of cracks that appear on metal pipes is longitudinal cracks. For ductile metal pipes, the existence of plasticity eases the stress intensity at the crack front and consequently increases the fracture resistance. It should be noted that linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) has been widely accepted by engineers. In order to make the LEFM applicable to ductile metal materials, the increase of fracture toughness due to plasticity should be excluded from the total fracture toughness of the ductile metal. This paper aims to develop a model of elastic fracture toughness for ductile metal pipes with external longitudinal cracks. The derived elastic fracture toughness is a function of crack geometry and material properties of the cracked pipe. The significance of the derived model is that the well-established LEFM can be used for ductile metal material in predicting the fracture failure.

Keywords: Ductile metal pipes, elastic fracture toughness, longitudinal crack, plasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 163