Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 711

Search results for: crystalline TiO2

711 Improving the Corrosion Resistance of Magnesium by Application of TiO₂-MgO Coatings

Authors: Eric Noe Hernandez Rodriguez, Cristian Esneider Penuela Cruz

Abstract:

Magnesium is a biocompatible and biodegradable material that has gained increased interest for application in resorbable orthopedic implants. However, to date, much research is being conducted to overcome the main disadvantage: its low corrosion resistance. In this work, we report our findings on the development and application of TiO₂-MgO coatings to improve and modulate the corrosion resistance of magnesium pieces. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique was employed to obtain the TiO₂-MgO coatings. The effect of the experimental parameters on the modulation of the TiO₂:MgO ratio was investigated. The most critical parameters were the chemical composition of the precursor electrolytic solution and the current density. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, the coatings were porous; however, they become more compact as the current density increases. XRD measurements showed that the coatings are formed by a composite consisting of TiO₂ and MgO oxides, whose ratio can be changed by the experimental conditions. TiO₂ had the anatase crystalline structure, while the MgO had the FCC crystalline structure. The corrosion resistance was evaluated through the corrosion current (Icorr) measured at room temperature by the polarization technique (Tafel). For doing it, Hank's solution was used in order to simulate the body fluids. Also, immersion tests were conducted. Tafel curves showed an improvement of the corrosion resistance at some coated magnesium pieces in contrast to control pieces (uncoated). Corrosion currents were lower, and the corrosion potential changed to positive values. It was observed that the experimental parameters allowed to modulate the protective capacity of the coatings by changing the TiO₂:MgO ratio. Coatings with a higher content of TiO₂ (measured by energy dispersive spectroscopy) showed higher corrosion resistance. Results showed that TiO₂-MgO coatings can be successfully applied to improve the corrosion resistance of Mg pieces in simulated body fluid; even more, the corrosion resistance can be tuned by changing the TiO₂:MgO ratio.

Keywords: biomaterials, PEO, corrosion resistance, magnesium

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710 Effect of Transition Metal (Fe, Mn) Ion Doping on TiO2 Nano Particles

Authors: Kirit Siddhapara, Dimple Shah

Abstract:

In this research, we have studied the doping behaviors of two transition metal ion dopants on the crystal phase, particle sizes, XRD patterns, EDAX spectra, and photoreactivity of TiO2 nanoparticles. The crystalline size of TiO2 is close to 4 nm Calculated from (1 0 1) peak by using FWHM method in Scherrer’s equation. Test metal ion concentrations ranged from 1% to 4 at.%, we report the growth of [Fe, Mn]xTiO2 nanocrystals prepared by Sol-Gel technique, followed by freeze-drying treatment at -30°C temperature for 12hrs. The obtained Gel was thermally treated at different temperature like 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that dopant concentration affects thermal decomposition. The photoreactivities of transition metal ion-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under UV irradiation were quantified by the degradation of formaldehyde.

Keywords: growth from solution, sol-gel method, nanomaterials, oxides, magnetic materials, titanium compounds

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709 Is [email protected] Core-Shell Nanoparticles Superior to Ag Surface Doped TiO2 Nanostructures?

Authors: Xiaohong Yang, Haitao Fu, Xizhong An, Aibing Yu

Abstract:

[email protected] dioxide ([email protected]) core-shell nanostructures and Ag surface doped TiO2 particles ([email protected]) have been designed and synthesized by sol-gel and hydrothermal methods under mild conditions. These two types of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized in terms of their properties by various techniques such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and ultra violet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Specifically, the photocatalystic performance and antibacterial behavior of such nanocomposites have been investigated and compared. It was found that The [email protected] core-shell nanostructures exhibit superior photocatalytic property to the Ag surface doped TiO2 particles under the reported conditions. While with UV pre-irradiation, the [email protected] core-shell composites exhibit better bactericidal performance. This is probably because the Ag cores tend to facilitate charge separation for TiO2, producing greater hydroxyl radicals on the surface of the TiO2 particles. These findings would be useful for the design and synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites with desirable photocatalystic and antimicrobial activity for environmental applications.

Keywords: [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles, Ag surface doped TiO2 nanoparticles, photocatalysis, antibacterial

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708 Synthesis of Mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ Nanocomposites as Efficient Photocatalyst for Treatment Industrial Wastewater under Visible Light and UV Illumination

Authors: Ibrahim Abdelfattah, Adel Ismail, Ahmed Helal, Mohamed Faisal

Abstract:

Advanced oxidation technologies are an environment friendly approach for the remediation of industrial wastewaters. Here, one pot synthesis of mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposites at different In₂O₃ contents (0-3 wt%) have been synthesized through a facile sol-gel method to evaluate their photocatalytic performance for the degradation of the imazapyr herbicide and phenol under visible light and UV illumination compared with commercially available either Degussa P-25 or UV-100 Hombikat. The prepared mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposites were characterized by TEM, STEM, XRD, Raman FT-IR, Raman spectra and diffuse reflectance UV-visible. The bandgap energy of the prepared photocatalysts was derived from the diffuse reflectance spectra. XRD Raman's spectra confirmed that highly crystalline anatase TiO₂ phase was formed. TEM images show TiO₂ particles are quite uniform with 10±2 nm sizes with mesoporous structure. The mesoporous TiO₂ exhibits large pore volumes of 0.267 cm³g⁻¹ and high surface areas of 178 m²g⁻¹, but they become reduced to 0.211 cm³g⁻¹ and 112 m²g⁻¹, respectively upon In₂O₃ incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 5 - 7 nm. The 0.5% In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposite is considered to be the optimum photocatalyst which is able to degrade 90% of imazapyr herbicide and phenol along 180 min and 60 min respectively. The proposed mechanism of this system and the role of In₂O₃ are explained by details.

Keywords: In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposites, sol-gel method, visible light illumination, UV illumination, herbicide and phenol wastewater, removal

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707 Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on TiO2 by Using Carbon Materials

Authors: Bashir Ahmmad, Kensaku Kanomata, Fumihiko Hirose

Abstract:

The effect of carbon materials on TiO2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water/alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO2, repectively. The order of H2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO2, various parameters of experimental conditions were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO2, WNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 was made for the amount of H2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 were tested.

Keywords: photocatalysis, carbon materials, alcohol reforming, hydrogen production, titanium oxide

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706 Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Doped in Degradation of Acid Dye

Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, M. Mansour, A. Bentouami, B. Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by XRD, BET and UV- vis DRS. The photocatalytic efficiency of the Zn -Fe TiO2 treated at 500°C was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Zn-Fe-TiO2 (500°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the Rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV-visible diffuse reflection material showed that the Fe-Zn-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Zn -Fe- TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Fe-Zn-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, doping

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705 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-Doped with Sulfur and Nitrogen

Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, A. Bentouami, B. Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the S, N co-doped TiO2 treated at 600°C for 1 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material S-N-TiO2 (600°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the S-N-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of S-N-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic S-N-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

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704 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-doped with Bismuth and Zinc

Authors: B.Benalioua, I.Benyamina, A.Bentouami, B.Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the Bi, Zn co-doped TiO2 treated at 670°C for 2 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Bi-Zn-TiO2 (670°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the Bi-Zn-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Bi-Zn-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Bi-Zn-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 70 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 120 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

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703 Sol-Gel Synthesis and Optical Characterisation of TiO2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Arabi Nour El Houda, Iratni Aicha, Talaighil Razika, Bruno Capoen, Mohamed Bouazaoui

Abstract:

TiO2 thin films have been prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating technique in order to elaborate antireflective thin films for monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si). The titanium isopropoxyde was chosen as a precursor with hydrochloric acid as a catalyser for preparing a stable solution. The optical properties have been tailored with varying the solution concentration, the withdrawn speed, and the heat-treatment. We showed that using a TiO2 single layer with 64.5 nm in thickness, heat-treated at 450°C or 300°C reduces the mono-Si reflection at a level lower than 3% over the broadband spectral do mains [669-834] nm and [786-1006] nm respectively. Those latter performances are similar to the ones obtained with double layers of low and high refractive index glasses respectively.

Keywords: thin film, dip-coating, mono-crystalline silicon, titanium oxide

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702 Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel and Sonochemical Combination

Authors: Sabriye Piskin, Sibel Kasap, Muge Sari Yilmaz

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Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel and sonochemical combination using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor at lower temperature for a short time. The effect of the reaction parameters (hydrolysis media, acid media, and reaction temperatures) on the synthesis of TiO2 particles were investigated in the present study. Characterizations of synthesized samples were prepared by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was shown that the reaction parameters played a significant role in the synthesis of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: crystalline TiO2, sonochemical mechanism, sol-gel reaction, XRD

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701 4-Chlorophenol Degradation in Water Using TIO₂-X%ZnS Synthesized by One-Step Sol-Gel Method

Authors: M. E. Velásquez Torres, F. Tzompantzi, J. C. Castillo-Rodríguez, A. G. Romero Villegas, S. Mendéz-Salazar, C. E. Santolalla-Vargas, J. Cardoso-Martínez

Abstract:

Photocatalytic degradation, as an advanced oxidation technology, is a promising method in organic pollutant degradation. In this sense, chlorophenols should be removed from the water because they are highly toxic. The TiO₂ - X% ZnS photocatalysts, where X represents the molar percentage of ZnS (3%, 5%, 10%, and 15%), were synthesized using the one-step sol-gel method to use them as photocatalysts to degrade 4-chlorophenol. The photocatalysts were synthesized by a one-step sol-gel method. They were refluxed for 36 hours, dried at 80°C, and calcined at 400°C. They were labeled TiO₂ - X%ZnS, where X represents the molar percentage of ZnS (3%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). The band gap was calculated using a Cary 100 UV-Visible Spectrometer with an integrating sphere accessory. Ban gap value of each photocatalyst was: 2.7 eV of TiO₂, 2.8 eV of TiO₂ - 3%ZnS and TiO₂ - 5%ZnS, 2.9 eV of TiO₂ - 10%ZnS and 2.6 eV of TiO2 - 15%ZnS. In a batch type reactor, under the irradiation of a mercury lamp (λ = 254 nm, Pen-Ray), degradations of 55 ppm 4-chlorophenol were obtained at 360 minutes with the synthesized photocatalysts: 60% (3% ZnS), 66% (5% ZnS), 74% (10% ZnS) and 58% (15% ZnS). In this sense, the best material as a photocatalyst was TiO₂ -10%ZnS with a degradation percentage of 74%.

Keywords: 4-chlorophenol, photocatalysis, water pollutant, sol-gel

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700 Comparison of Tribological Properties of TiO₂, ZrO₂ and TiO₂–ZrO₂ Composite Films Prepared by Sol–Gel Method

Authors: O. Çomaklı, M. Yazıcı, T. Yetim, A. F. Yetim, A. Çelik

Abstract:

In this study, TiO₂, ZrO₂, and TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films were coated on Cp-Ti substrates by sol-gel method. Structures of uncoated and coated samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction and SEM. XRD data identified anatase phase in TiO₂ coated samples and tetragonal zirconia phase in ZrO₂ coated samples while both of anatase and tetragonal zirconia phases in TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films. The mechanical and wear properties of samples were investigated using micro hardness, pin-on-disk tribotester, and 3D profilometer. The best wear resistance was obtained from TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films. This can be attributed to their high surface hardness, low surface roughness and high thickness of the film.

Keywords: sol-gel, TiO₂, ZrO₂, TiO₂–ZrO₂, composite films, wear

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699 Photocatalytic Glucose Electrooxidation Applications of Titanium Dioxide Supported CD and CdTe Catalysts

Authors: Hilal Kivrak, Aykut ÇağLar, Nahit Aktaş, Ali Osman Solak

Abstract:

At present, Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ catalysts are prepared via sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction method. These catalysts are characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ are employed as catalysts for the photocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are used to investigate their glucose electrooxidation activities of catalysts at long and under UV illumination (ʎ=354 nm). CdTe/TiO₂ catalyst is showed the best photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation activity compared to Cd/TiO₂ catalyst.

Keywords: cadmium, NaBH4 reduction method, photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation, Tellerium, TiO2

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698 The Study of Visible Light Active Bismuth Modified Nitrogen Doped Titanium Dioxide Photocatlysts

Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, A. Bentouami, B. Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the Bi, N co-doped TiO2 treated at 600°C for 1 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Bi -N- TiO2 (600°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the Bi-N-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Bi-N-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Bi-N-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

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697 Optical and Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Co-Ni Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreddine Toubal

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We investigate the structural, optical and magnetic properties of TiO2, Co-doped TiO2, Ni-doped TiO2 and Co-Ni co-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip coating method. Fully anatase phase was obtained by adding metal ions without any detectable impurity phase or oxide formed. AFM and SEM micrographs clearly confirm that the addition of Co-Ni affects the shape of anatase nanoparticles. The crystallite sizes and surface roughness of TiO2 films increase with Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping, respectively. The refractive index, thickness and optical band gap values of the films were obtained by means of optical transmittance spectra measurements. The band gap of TiO2 sample was decreased by Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping TiO2 films. Both undoped and Co-Ni co-doped films were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature may due to the presence of oxygen vacancy defect and the probable formation of metal clusters Co-Ni.

Keywords: Co-Ni co-doped, anatase TiO2, ferromagnetic, sol-gel method, thin films

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696 Effects of Copper and Cobalt Co-Doping on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Tio2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol Gel Method

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreeddine Toubal

Abstract:

Un-doped TiO2, Co single doped TiO2 and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 thin films have been growth on silicon substrates by the sol-gel dip coating technique. We mainly investigated both effects of the dopants and annealing temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of TiO2 films using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Vis spectroscopy. The chemical compositions of Co-doped and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films were confirmed by XRD, Raman and FTIR studies. The average grain sizes of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites were increased with annealing temperature. AFM and SEM reveal a completely the various nanostructures of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites thin films. The films exhibit a high optical reflectance with a large band gap. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained for the (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films. The polyhedral surface morphology might possibly improve the surface contact between particle sizes and then contribute to better electron mobility as well as conductivity. The obtained results suggest that the prepared TiO2 films can be used for optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: sol-gel, TiO2 thin films, CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites films, Electrical conductivity

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695 Advanced Nanostructured Materials and Their Application for Solar Fuel

Authors: A. Hegazy, Ahmed Elsayed, Essam El Shenawy, N. Allam, Hala Handal, K. R. Mahmoud

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Highly crystalline, TiO₂ pristine sub-10 nm anatase nanocrystals were fabricated at low temperatures by post hydrothermal treatment of the as-prepared TiO₂ nanoparticles. This treatment resulted in bandgap narrowing and increased photocurrent density value (3.8 mA/cm²) when this material was employed in water splitting systems. The achieved photocurrent values are among the highest reported ones so far for the fabricated nanoparticles at this low temperature. This might be explained by the increased surface defects of the prepared nanoparticles. It resulted in bandgap narrowing that was further investigated using positron annihilation experiments by measuring positron lifetime and Doppler broadening. Besides, homogeneous spherical TiO₂ nanoparticles were synthesized in large diameter and high surface area and the high percentage of (001) facet by sol-gel method using potassium persulfate (K₂S₂O₈) as an oxidizing agent. The fabricated particles exhibited high exposed surface area, high photoactivity and reduced band gap. Enhanced performance for water splitting applications was displayed by formed TiO₂ nanoparticles. Their morphological and structural properties were studied to optimize their synthesis parameters in an attempt to construct more applicable fuel cells in the industry for hydrogen fuel production.

Keywords: positron annihilation, solar energy, TiO2 nanoparticles, water splitting

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694 Photocatalytic Oxidation of Gaseous Formaldehyde Using the TiO2 Coated SF Filter

Authors: Janjira Triped, Wipada Sanongraj, Wipawee Khamwichit

Abstract:

The research work covered in this study includes the morphological structure and optical properties of TiO2-coated silk fibroin (SF) filters at 2.5% wt. TiO2/vol. PVA solution. SEM micrographs revealed the fibrous morphology of the TiO2-coated SF filters. An average diameter of the SF fiber was estimated to be approximately 10µm. Also, it was confirmed that TiO2 can be adhered more on SF filter surface at higher TiO2 dosages. The activity of semiconductor materials was studied by UV-VIS spectrophotometer method. The spectral data recorded shows the strong cut off at 390 nm. The calculated band-gap energy was about 3.19 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the filter was tested for gaseous formaldehyde removal in a modeling room with the total volume of 2.66 m3. The highest removal efficiency (54.72 ± 1.75%) was obtained at the initial formaldehyde concentration of about 5.00 ± 0.50ppm.

Keywords: photocatalytic oxidation process, formaldehyde (HCHO), silk fibroin (SF), titanium dioxide (TiO2)

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693 Effect of Addition of Surfactant to the Surface Hydrophilicity and Photocatalytic Activity of Immobilized Nano TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Eden G. Mariquit, Winarto Kurniawan, Masahiro Miyauchi, Hirofumi Hinode

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This research studied the effect of adding surfactant to the titanium dioxide (TiO2) sol-gel solution that was used to immobilize TiO2 on glass substrates by dip coating technique using TiO2 sol-gel solution mixed with different types of surfactants. After dipping into the TiO2 sol, the films were calcined and produced pure anatase crystal phase. The thickness of the thin film was varied by repeating the dip and calcine cycle. The prepared films were characterized using FE-SEM, TG-DTA, and XRD, and its photocatalytic performances were tested on degradation of an organic dye, methylene blue. Aside from its phocatalytic performance, the photo-induced hydrophilicity of thin TiO2 films surface was also studied. Characterization results showed that the addition of surfactant gave rise to characteristic patterns on the surface of the TiO2 thin film which also affects the photocatalytic activity. The addition of CTAB to the TiO2 dipping solution had a negative effect because the calcination temperature was not high enough to burn all the surfactants off. As for the surface wettability, the addition of surfactant also affected the induced surface hydrophilicity of the TiO2 films when irradiated under UV light.

Keywords: photocatalysis, surface hydrophilicity, TiO2 thin films, surfactant

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692 Structural Characterization and Application of Tio2 Nano-Partical

Authors: Maru Chetan, Desai Abhilash

Abstract:

The structural characteristics & application of TiO2 powder with different phases are study by various techniques in this paper. TTIP, EG and citric acid use as Ti source and catalyst respectively synthesis for sol gel synthesis of TiO2 powder. To replace sol gel method we develop the new method of making nano particle of TiO2 powder. It is two route method one is physical and second one is chemical route. Specific aim to this process is to minimize the production cost and the large scale production of nano particle The synthesis product work characterize by EDAX, SEM, XRD tests.

Keywords: mortal and pestle, nano particle , TiO2, TTIP

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691 ZnO / TiO2 Nanoparticles for Degradation of Cyanide Ion

Authors: Masoumeh Tabatabaee, Zahra Shahryarzadeh, Masoud R. Shishebor

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Advanced oxidation process (AOPs) is alternative method for the complete degradation many organic pollutants. When a photocatalyst absorbs radiation whose energy hν > Eg an ē from its filled valance band (VB) is promoted to its conduction band (CB) and valance band holes h+ are formed. Electron would reduce any available species, including O2, water and hydroxide ion to form hydroxyl radicals. ZnO and TiO2 are important photocatalysts with high catalytic activity that have attracted much research attention. TiO2 can only absorb a small portion of solar spectrum in the UV region and many methods such as dye sensitization, doping of other metals and using TiO2 with another semiconductor have been used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under solar irradiation. Studies have shown that the use of metal oxides or sulfide such as WO3, MoO3, SiO2, MgO, ZnO, and CdS with TiO2 can significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Due to similarity of photodegradation mechanism of ZnO with TiO2, it is a suitable semiconductor using with TiO2 and recently nanosized bicomponent TiO2-ZnO photocatalysts were prepared and used for degradation of some pollutants. In this study, Nano-sized ZnO/TiO2 composite was synthesized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of it. The effect of photocatalytic activity of prepared ZnO/TiO2 on the degradation of cyanide ion under UV was investigated. The effect of various parameters such as ZnO/TiO2 concentration, amount of photocatalyst, amount of H2O2, initial dye or cyanide ion concentration, pH and irradiation time on were investigated. Results show that more than 95% of 4 mgL-1 cyanide ion degraded after 60-min reaction time and under UV irradiation.

Keywords: photodegradation, ZnO/TiO2, nanoparticle, cyanide ion

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690 Elaboration and Characterization of PVDF/TiO2 Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Z. Benabid, S. Kridi, F. Zouai, D. Benachour

Abstract:

The aim of present work is to characterize the PVDF/TiO2 blends as nanocomposites, and study the effect of TiO2 on properties of different compositions and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the method used for filler treatment. Nanocomposite samples were synthesized by molten route in an internal mixer. The TiO2 nanoparticles were treated with stearic acid in order to obtain a good dispersion, and the demonstration of the effectiveness of the treatment on the morphology and roughness of the nanofiller was established by microstructural analysis by FTIR and AFM. The various developed nanocomposite compositions were characterized by different methods; i.e. FTIR, XRD, SEM and optical microscopy. Rheological, dielectric and mechanical studies were also performed. The results showed a remarkable increase in the crystallinity of the PVDF/neat TiO2 nanocomposite containing 1 wt% loading of filler, due to the nucleation effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. A good dispersion was obtained in PVDF/treated TiO2 nanocomposites. The rheological study showed an increase in the fluidity in all developed nanocomposite compositions, involved by the orientation of TiO2 nanoparticles in the flow direction. The dielectric study revealed an increase in electrical conductivity in PVDF/neat TiO2 nanocomposites. However, in PVDF/ treated TiO2 nanocomposites, the electrical conductivity was decreased by the addition of 0.5 and 2 wt% loading of filler.

Keywords: nanocomposites, PVDF, TiO2, comixing, mechanical treatment

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689 Investigation of Tribological Behavior of Electrodeposited Cr, Co-Cr and Co-Cr/Tio2 Nano-Composite Coatings

Authors: S. Mahdavi, S.R. Allahkaram

Abstract:

Electrodeposition is a simple and economic technique for precision coating of different shaped substrates with pure metal, alloy or composite films. Dc electrodeposition was used to produce Cr, Co-Cr and Co-Cr/TiO2 nano-composite coatings from Cr(III) based electrolytes onto 316L SS substrates. The effects of TiO2 nano-particles concentration on co-deposition of these particles along with Cr content and microhardness of the coatings were investigated. Morphology of the Cr, Co-Cr and Co-Cr/TiO2 coatings besides their tribological behavior were studied. The results showed that increment of TiO2 nano-particles concentration from 0 to 30 g L-1 in the bath increased their co-deposition and Cr content of the coatings from 0 to 3.5 wt.% and from 23.7 to 31.2 wt.%, respectively. Microhardness of Cr coating was about 920 Hv which was higher than Co-Cr and even Co-Cr/TiO2 films. Microhardness of Co-Cr and Co-Cr/TiO2 coatings were improved by increasing their Cr and TiO2 content. All the coatings had nodular morphology and contained microcracks. Nodules sizes and the number of microcracks in the alloy and composite coatings were lower than the Cr film. Wear results revealed that the Co-Cr/TiO2 coating had the lowest wear loss between all the samples, while the Cr film had the worst wear resistance.

Keywords: Co-Cr alloy, electrodeposition, nano-composite, tribological behavior, trivalent chromium

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688 Preparation and Characterization of TiO₂-SiO₂ Composite Films on Plastics Using Aqueous Peroxotitanium Acid Solution

Authors: Ayu Minamizawa, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa

Abstract:

Aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution was prepared by the reaction between H₂O₂ solution and TiO₂ fluorinated using F₂ gas. The coating of TiO₂/SiO₂ multilayer on the surface of polycarbonate (PC) resin was carried out step by step using the TEOS solution and aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution. We confirmed each formation of SiO₂ and TiO₂ layer by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. The formation of a TiO₂ thin layer on SiO₂ coated on polycarbonate (PC) was carried out at 120 ℃ and for 15 min ~ 3 h with aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution using a hydrothermal synthesis autoclave reactor. The morphology TiO₂ coating layer largely depended on the reaction time, as shown in the results of SEM-EDS analysis. Increasing the reaction times, the TiO₂ layer expanded uniformly. Moreover, the surface fluorination of the SiO₂ layer can promote the formation of the TiO₂ layer on the surface.

Keywords: aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution, photocatalytic activity, polycarbonate, surface fluorination

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687 Synthesis and Characterization of Lactic Acid Grafted TiO2 Nanocomposites

Authors: Qasar Saleem

Abstract:

The aim of this project was to synthesize and analyze Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite. When dispersed at the nanoscale TiO2 can behave as see through transparent UV filters and thermomechanical materials. The synthesis plan involved three stages. First, dispersion of TiO2 white powder in water/ethanol solvent system. Second grafting TiO2 surface by oligomers of lactic acid aimed at changing its surface features. Third polymerization of lactic acid monomer with grafted TiO2 in the presence of anhydrous stannous chloride as a catalyst. Polylactic acid grafted-TiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized by melt polycondensation in situ of lactic acid onto titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles surface. The product was characterized by TGA, DSC, FTIR, and UV analysis and degradation observation. An idea regarding bonds between the grafting polymer and surface modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. Characteristics peaks of Ti–carbonyl bond, the related intensities of the Fourier transmission absorption peaks of graft composite, the melt and decomposition behavior stages of Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite convinced that oligomers of polylactic acid were chemically bonded on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles. Through grafting polylactic acid, the Polylactic acid grafted -TiO2 sample shown good absorption in UV region and degradation behavior under normal atmospheric conditions. Regaining transparency of degraded white opaque Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite on heating was another character. Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite will be a potential candidate in future for biomedical, UV shielding and environment friendly material.

Keywords: condensation, nanocomposites, oligomers, polylactic

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686 The Effect of the Calcination Temperature and SiO2 Addition on the Physical Properties’ of Sol Gel TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Nour El Houda Arabi, Aicha Iratni, Talaighil Razika, Bruno Capoen, Mohamed Bouazaoui

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In this paper, we report the effect of the calcination temperature and SiO2 addition on structural, optical and hydrophilicity of TiO2 films deposited by deep-coating sol-gel process. XRD investigation of the structural TiO2 films with increasing the temperature calcination, reveals that rutile phase will appear for the high temperature (>1000°C). However, the addition of SiO2 relate the densification of TiO2 films. Ellipsometric and UV-visible measure show that the refractive index grow with increasing temperature, against the film thickness decreases. On the other hand, the addition of SiO2 decreases the refractive index and increases the TiO2 film thickness. Finally, the hydrophilicity is assisted by contact angle measurement. It is found that addition of 50% of SiO2 to TiO2 is most effective for reducing the contact angle of water.

Keywords: physical properties, sol, gel, TiO2/SiO2 composite films

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685 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Butanol over Ag/TiO2

Authors: Thabelo Nelushi, Michael Scurrell, Tumelo Seadira

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Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues which arise from occurrence of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Exposure to these greenhouse gases results in health risk. Hydrogen is regarded as an alternative energy source which is a clean energy carrier for the future. There are different methods to produce hydrogen such as steam reforming, coal gasification etc., however the challenge with these processes is that they emit CO and CO2 gases and are costly. Photocatalytic reforming is a substitute process which is fascinating due to the combination of solar energy and renewable sources and the use of semiconductor materials such as catalysts. TiO2 is regarded as the most promising catalysts. TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method and Ag/TiO2 are being investigated for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from butanol. The samples were characterized by raman spectroscopy, TEM/SEM, XRD, XPS, EDAX, DRS and BET surface area. 2 wt% Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticle showed enhanced hydrogen production compared to a non-doped TiO2. The results of characterization and photoactivity shows that TiO2 nanoparticles play a very important role in producing high hydrogen by utilizing solar irradiation.

Keywords: butanol, hydrogen production, silver particles, TiO2 nanoparticles

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684 TiN/TiO2 Nanostructure Coating on Glass Substrate

Authors: F. Dabir, R. Sarraf-Mamoory, N. Riahi-Noori

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In this work, a nanostructured TiO2 layer was coated onto a FTO-less glass substrate using screen printing technique for back contact DSSC application. Then, titanium nitride thin film was applied on TiO2 layer by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) as charge collector layer. The microstructure of prepared TiO2 layer was characterized by SEM. The sheet resistance, microstructure and elemental composition of titanium nitride thin films were analysed by four point probe, SEM, and EDS, respectively. TiO2 layer had porous nanostructure. The EDS analysis of TiN thin film showed presence of chlorine impurity. Sheet resistance of TiN thin film was 30 Ω/sq. With respect to the results, PACVD TiN can be a good candidate as a charge collector layer in back contacts DSSC.

Keywords: TiO2, TiN, charge collector, DSSC

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683 Elaboration and Characterization of PP/TiO2 Composites

Authors: F. Z. Benabid, S. Kridi, F. Zouai, D. Benachour

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The aim of present work is to characterize the PP/TiO2 blends as composites, and study the effect of TiO2 on properties of different compositions and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the method used for filler treatment. Nanocomposite samples were synthesized by molten route in an internal mixer. The TiO2 nanoparticles were treated with stearic acid in order to obtain a good dispersion, and the demonstration of the effectiveness of the treatment on the morphology and roughness of the nanofiller was established by microstructural analysis by FTIR and AFM. The various developed nanocomposite compositions were characterized by different methods; i.e. FTIR, XRD, SEM and optical microscopy. Rheological, dielectric and mechanical studies were also performed. The results showed a remarkable increase in the impact strength results which increased about 39% compared to neat PP. The rheological study showed an increase in the fluidity in all developed composite compositions, involved by the good dispersion of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: composites, PP, TiO2, comixing, mechanical treatment

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682 Effect of O2 Pressure of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanostructure on Morphology Properties for Gas Sensing

Authors: Samar Y. Al-Dabagh, Adawiya J. Haider, Mirvat D. Majed

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Pure nanostructure TiO2 and thin films doped with transition metal Fe were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on Si (111) substrate. The thin films structures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology properties were determined from atomic force microscopy (AFM), which shows that the roughness increases when TiO2 is doped with Fe. Results show TiO2 doped with Fe metal thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate has maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapor at 10 mbar oxygen pressure than at 0.01 and 0.1 mbar with optimum operation temperature of 250°C.

Keywords: pulsed laser deposition (PLD), TiO2 doped thin films, nanostructure, gas sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 311