Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: single-crystal X-ray crystallography

36 Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cu(II) Complex of a Pyridine-Naphthoimidazole-Based Ligand

Authors: Shuang Zhao, Shintaro Ito, Yoshihiro Ohba, Hiroshi Katagiri

Abstract:

We present the synthesis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography of a Cu(II) complex(bmn-bpy) of a pyridine-naphthoimidazole-based ligand containing two naphthoimidazoles as the chromophores and a vacant coordination site on Cu(II).

Keywords: synthesis, Cu(II) complex, single-crystal X-ray crystallography

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35 Crystallography Trials of Escherichia coli Nitrate Transporter, NarU

Authors: Naureen Akhtar

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The stability of the protein in detergent-containing solution is the key for its successful crystallisation. Fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) is a potential approach for screening monodispersity as well as the stability of protein in a detergent-containing-solution. In this present study, covalently linked Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) to bacterial nitrate transporter, NarU from Escherichia coli was studied for pre-crystallisation trials by FSEC. Immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and gel filtration were employed for their purification. The main objectives of this study were over-expression, detergent screening and crystallisation of nitrate transporter proteins. This study could not produce enough proteins that could realistically be taken forward to achieve the objectives set for this particular research. In future work, different combinations of variables like vectors, tags, creation of mutant proteins, host cells, position of GFP (N- or C-terminal) and/or membrane proteins would be tried to determine the best combination as the principle of technique is still promising.

Keywords: transporters, detergents, over-expression, crystallography

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34 The Structural and Electrical Properties of Cadmium Implanted Silicon Diodes at Room Temperature

Authors: J. O. Bodunrin, S. J. Moloi

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This study reports on the x-ray crystallography (XRD) structure of cadmium-implanted p-type silicon, the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of unimplanted and cadmium-implanted silicon-based diodes. Cadmium was implanted at the energy of 160 KeV to the fluence of 10¹⁵ ion/cm². The results obtained indicate that the diodes were well fabricated, and the introduction of cadmium results in a change in behavior of the diodes from normal exponential to ohmic I-V behavior. The C-V measurements, on the other hand, show that the measured capacitance increased after cadmium doping due to the injected charge carriers. The doping density of the p-Si material and the device's Schottky barrier height was extracted, and the doping density of the undoped p-Si material increased after cadmium doping while the Schottky barrier height reduced. In general, the results obtained here are similar to those obtained on the diodes fabricated on radiation-hard material, indicating that cadmium is a promising metal dopant to improve the radiation hardness of silicon. Thus, this study would assist in adding possible options to improve the radiation hardness of silicon to be used in high energy physics experiments.

Keywords: cadmium, capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, high energy physics experiment, x-ray crystallography, XRD

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33 Synthesis, Crystallography and Anti-TB Activity of Substituted Benzothiazole Analogues

Authors: Katharigatta N. Venugopala, Melendhran Pillay, Bander E. Al-Dhubiab

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Tuberculosis (TB) infection is caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and it is one of the most threatening and wide spread infectious diseases in the world. Benzothiazole derivatives are found to have diverse chemical reactivity and broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. Some of the important pharmacological activities shown by the benzothiazole analogues are antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-tubercular, anti-leishmanial, anticonvulsant and anti-HIV properties. Keeping all these facts in mind in the present investigation it was envisaged to synthesize a series of novel {2-(benzo[d]-thiazol-2-yl-methoxy)-substitutedaryl}-(substitutedaryl)-methanones (4a-f) and characterize by IR, NMR (1H and 13C), HRMS and single crystal x-ray studies. The title compounds are investigated for in vitro anti-tubercular activity against two TB strains such as H37Rv (ATCC 25177) and MDR-MTB (multi drug resistant MTB resistant to Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol) by agar diffusion method. Among the synthesized compounds in the series, test compound {2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-methoxy)-5-fluorophenyl}-(4-chlorophenyl)-methanone (2c) was found to exhibit significant activity with MICs of 1 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL against H37Rv and MDR-MTB, respectively when compared to standard drugs. Single crystal x-ray studies was used to study intra and intermolecular interactions, including polymorphism behavior of the test compounds, but none of the compounds exhibited polymorphism behavior.

Keywords: benzothiazole analogues, characterization, crystallography, anti-TB activity

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32 Palladium/Platinum Complexes of Tridentate 4-Acylpyrazolone Thiosemicarbazone with Antioxidant Properties

Authors: Omoruyi G. Idemudia, Alexander P. Sadimenko

Abstract:

The need for the development of new sustainable bioactive compounds with unique properties that can become potential replacement for commonly used medicinal drugs has continued to gain tremendous research concerns because of the problems of disease resistant to these medicinal drugs and their toxicity effects. NOS-donor heterocycles are particularly of interest as they have showed good pharmacological activities in the midst of their interesting chelating properties towards metal ions, an important characteristic for transition metal based drugs design. These new compounds have also gained application as dye sensitizers in solar cell panels for the generation of renewable solar energy, as greener water purification polymer for supply and management of clean water and as catalysts which are used to reduce the amount of pollutants from industrial reaction processes amongst others, because of their versatile properties. Di-ketone acylpyrazolones and their azomethine schiff bases have been employed as pharmaceuticals as well as analytical reagents, and their application as transition metal complexes have being well established. In this research work, a new 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one-thiosemicarbazone was synthesized from the reaction of 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one and thiosemicarbazide in methanol. The pure isolate of the thiosemicarbazone was further reacted with aqueous solutions of palladium and platinum salts to obtain their metal complexes, in an effort towards the discovery of transition metal based synthetic drugs. These compounds were characterized by means of analytical, spectroscopic, thermogravimetric analysis TGA, as well as x-ray crystallography. 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one thiosemicarbazone crystallizes in a triclinic crystal system with a P-1 (No. 2) space group according to x-ray crystallography. The tridentate NOS ligand formed a tetrahedral geometry on coordinating with metal ions. Reported compounds showed varying antioxidant free radical scavenging activities against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 µg/ml concentrations. The platinum complex have shown a very good antioxidant property against DPPH with an IC50 of 76.03 µg/ml compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 of 74.66 µg/ml) and as such have been identified as a potential anticancer candidate.

Keywords: acylpyrazolone, free radical scavenging activities, tridentate ligand, x-ray crystallography

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31 Biological Studies of N-O Donor 4-Acypyrazolone Heterocycle and Its Pd/Pt Complexes of Therapeutic Importance

Authors: Omoruyi Gold Idemudia, Alexander P. Sadimenko

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The synthesis of N-heterocycles with novel properties, having broad spectrum biological activities that may become alternative medicinal drugs, have been attracting a lot of research attention due to the emergence of medicinal drug’s limitations such as disease resistance and their toxicity effects among others. Acylpyrazolones have been employed as pharmaceuticals as well as analytical reagent and their application as coordination complexes with transition metal ions have been well established. By way of a condensation reaction with amines acylpyrazolone ketones form a more chelating and superior group of compounds known as azomethines. 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one was reacted with phenylhydrazine to get a new phenylhydrazone which was further reacted with aqueous solutions of palladium and platinum salts, in an effort towards the discovery of transition metal based synthetic drugs. The compounds were characterized by means of analytical, spectroscopic, thermogravimetric analysis TGA, as well as x-ray crystallography. 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one phenylhydrazone crystallizes in a triclinic crystal system with a P-1 (No. 2) space group based on x-ray crystallography. The bidentate ON ligand formed a square planar geometry on coordinating with metal ions based on FTIR, electronic and NMR spectra as well as magnetic moments. Reported compounds showed antibacterial activities against the nominated bacterial isolates using the disc diffusion technique at 20 mg/ml in triplicates. The metal complexes exhibited a better antibacterial activity with platinum complex having an MIC value of 0.63 mg/ml. Similarly, ligand and complexes also showed antioxidant scavenging properties against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical at 0.5mg/ml relative to ascorbic acid (standard drug).

Keywords: acylpyrazolone, antibacterial studies, metal complexes, phenylhydrazone, spectroscopy

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30 X-Ray Crystallographic Studies on BPSL2418 from Burkholderia pseudomallei

Authors: Mona Alharbi

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Melioidosis has emerged as a lethal disease. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms of virulence and pathogenicity of Burkholderia pseudomallei remain unknown. However, proteomics research has selected putative targets in B. pseudomallei that might play roles in the B. pseudomallei virulence. BPSL 2418 putative protein has been predicted as a free methionine sulfoxide reductase and interestingly there is a link between the level of the methionine sulfoxide in pathogen tissues and its virulence. Therefore in this work, we describe the cloning expression, purification, and crystallization of BPSL 2418 and the solution of its 3D structure using X-ray crystallography. Also, we aimed to identify the substrate binding and reduced forms of the enzyme to understand the role of BPSL 2418. The gene encoding BPSL2418 from B. pseudomallei was amplified by PCR and reclone in pETBlue-1 vector and transformed into E. coli Tuner DE3 pLacI. BPSL2418 was overexpressed using E. coli Tuner DE3 pLacI and induced by 300μM IPTG for 4h at 37°C. Then BPS2418 purified to better than 95% purity. The pure BPSL2418 was crystallized with PEG 4000 and PEG 6000 as precipitants in several conditions. Diffraction data were collected to 1.2Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P2 21 21 with unit-cell parameters a = 42.24Å, b = 53.48Å, c = 60.54Å, α=γ=β= 90Å. The BPSL2418 binding MES was solved by molecular replacement with the known structure 3ksf using PHASER program. The structure is composed of six antiparallel β-strands and four α-helices and two loops. BPSL2418 shows high homology with the GAF domain fRMsrs enzymes which suggest that BPSL2418 might act as methionine sulfoxide reductase. The amino acids alignment between the fRmsrs including BPSL 2418 shows that the three cysteines that thought to catalyze the reduction are fully conserved. BPSL 2418 contains the three conserved cysteines (Cys⁷⁵, Cys⁸⁵ and Cys¹⁰⁹). The active site contains the six antiparallel β-strands and two loops where the disulfide bond formed between Cys⁷⁵ and Cys¹⁰⁹. X-ray structure of free methionine sulfoxide binding and native forms of BPSL2418 were solved to increase the understanding of the BPSL2418 catalytic mechanism.

Keywords: X-Ray Crystallography, BPSL2418, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Melioidosis

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29 An Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Study of CoTi Thin Films

Authors: Jose Alberto Duarte Moller, Cynthia Deisy Gomez Esparza

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The cobalt-titanium system was grown as thin films in an INTERCOVAMEX V3 sputtering system, equipped with four magnetrons assisted by DC pulsed and direct DC. A polished highly oriented (400) silicon wafer was used as substrate and the growing temperature was 500 oC. Xray Absorption Spectroscopy experiments were carried out in the SSRL in the 4-3 beam line. The Extenden X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra have been numerically processed by WINXAS software from the background subtraction until the normalization and FFT adjustment. Analyzing the absorption spectra of cobalt in the CoTi2 phase we can appreciate that they agree in energy with the reference spectra that corresponds to the CoO, which indicates that the valence where upon working is Co2+. The RDF experimental results were then compared with those RDF´s generated theoretically by using FEFF software, from a model compound of CoTi2 phase obtained by XRD. The fitting procedure is a highly iterative process. Fits are also checked in R-space using both the real and imaginary parts of Fourier transform. Finally, the presence of overlapping coordination shells and the correctness of the assumption about the nature of the coordinating atom were checked.

Keywords: XAS, EXAFS, FEFF, CoTi

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28 Production of Amorphous Boron Powder via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

Authors: Meltem Bolluk, Ismail Duman

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Boron exhibits the properties of high melting temperature (2273K to 2573 K), high hardness (Mohs: 9,5), low density (2,340 g/cm3), high chemical resistance, high strength, and semiconductivity (band gap:1,6-2,1 eV). These superior properties enable to use it in several high-tech areas from electronics to nuclear industry and especially in high temperature metallurgy. Amorphous boron and crystalline boron have different application areas. Amorphous boron powder (directly amorphous and/or α-rhombohedral) is preferred in rocket firing, airbag inflating and in fabrication of superconducting MgB2 wires. The conventional ways to produce elemental boron with a purity of 85 pct to 95 prc are metallothermic reduction, fused salt electrolysis and mechanochemical synthesis; but the only way to produce high-purity boron powders is Chemical Vapour Deposition (Hot Surface CVD). In this study; amorphous boron powders with a minimum purity of 99,9 prc were synthesized in quartz tubes using BCl3-H2 gas mixture by CVD. Process conditions based on temperature and gas flow rate were determined. Thermodynamical interpretation of BCl3-H2 system for different temperatures and molar rates were performed using Fact Sage software. The characterization of powders was examined by using Xray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Stereo Microscope (SM), Helium gas pycnometer analysis. The purities of final products were determined by titration after lime fusion.

Keywords: amorphous boron, CVD, powder production, powder characterization

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27 Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Red and Green Emitting Luciferase Enzymes

Authors: Wael M. Rabeh, Cesar Carrasco-Lopez, Juliana C. Ferreira, Pance Naumov

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Bioluminescence, the emission of light from a biological process, is found in various living organisms including bacteria, fireflies, beetles, fungus and different marine organisms. Luciferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a two steps oxidation of luciferin in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP to produce oxyluciferin and releases energy in the form of light. The luciferase assay is used in biological research and clinical applications for in vivo imaging, cell proliferation, and protein folding and secretion analysis. The luciferase enzyme consists of two domains, a large N-terminal domain (1-436 residues) that is connected to a small C-terminal domain (440-544) by a flexible loop that functions as a hinge for opening and closing the active site. The two domains are separated by a large cleft housing the active site that closes after binding the substrates, luciferin and ATP. Even though all insect luciferases catalyze the same chemical reaction and share 50% to 90% sequence homology and high structural similarity, they emit light of different colors from green at 560nm to red at 640 nm. Currently, the majority of the structural and biochemical studies have been conducted on green-emitting firefly luciferases. To address the color emission mechanism, we expressed and purified two luciferase enzymes with blue-shifted green and red emission from indigenous Brazilian species Amydetes fanestratus and Phrixothrix, respectively. The two enzymes naturally emit light of different colors and they are an excellent system to study the color-emission mechanism of luciferases, as the current proposed mechanisms are based on mutagenesis studies. Using a vapor-diffusion method and a high-throughput approach, we crystallized and solved the crystal structure of both enzymes, at 1.7 Å and 3.1 Å resolution respectively, using X-ray crystallography. The free enzyme adopted two open conformations in the crystallographic unit cell that are different from the previously characterized firefly luciferase. The blue-shifted green luciferase crystalized as a monomer similar to other luciferases reported in literature, while the red luciferases crystalized as an octamer and was also purified as an octomer in solution. The octomer conformation is the first of its kind for any insect’s luciferase, which might be relate to the red color emission. Structurally designed mutations confirmed the importance of the transition between the open and close conformations in the fine-tuning of the color and the characterization of other interesting mutants is underway.

Keywords: bioluminescence, enzymology, structural biology, x-ray crystallography

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26 High-pressure Crystallographic Characterization of f-block Element Complexes

Authors: Nicholas B. Beck, Thomas E. Albrecht-Schönzart

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High-pressure results in decreases in the bond lengths of metal-ligand bonds, which has proven to be incredibly informative in uncovering differences in bonding between lanthanide and actinide complexes. The degree of f-electron contribution to the metal ligand bonds has been observed to increase under pressure by a far greater degree in the actinides than the lanthanides, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. However, the actual changes in bond lengths have yet to be quantified, although computationally predicted. By using high-pressure crystallographic techniques, crystal structures of lanthanide complexes have been obtained at pressures up to 5 GPa for both hard and soft-donor ligands. These studies have revealed some unpredicted changes in the coordination environment as well as provided experimental support to computational results

Keywords: crystallography, high-pressure, lanthanide, materials

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25 Investigation on Morphologies, Forming Mechanism, Photocatalytic and Electronic Properties of Co-Zn Ferrite Nanostructure Grown on the Reduced Graphene Oxide Support

Authors: Qinglei Liu, Ali Charkhesht, Tiva Sharifi, Ashkan Bahadoran

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Graphene sheets are promising nanoscale building blocks as a support material for the dispersion of nanoparticles. In this work, a solvothermal method employed to directly grow Co1-xZnxFe2O4 ferrite nanospheres on graphene oxide support that is subsequently reduced to graphene. The samples morphology, structure and crystallography were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influences of the Zn2+ content on photocatalytic activity, electrical conductivity and magnetic property of the samples are also investigated. The results showed that Co1-x Znx Fe2 O4 nanoparticles are dispersed on graphene sheets and obtained nanocomposites are soft magnetic materials. In addition the samples showed excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

Keywords: reduced graphene oxide, ferrite, magnetic nanocomposite, photocatalytic activity, solvothermal method

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24 Preparation of Chemically Activated Carbon from Waste Tire Char for Lead Ions Adsorption and Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Lucky Malise, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

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The use of tires in automobiles is very important in the automobile industry. However, there is a serious environmental problem concerning the disposal of these rubber tires once they become worn out. The main aim of this study was to prepare activated carbon from waste tire pyrolysis char by impregnating KOH on pyrolytic char. Adsorption studies on lead onto chemically activated carbon was carried out using response surface methodology. The effect of process parameters such as temperature (°C), adsorbent dosage (g/1000ml), pH, contact time (minutes) and initial lead concentration (mg/l) on the adsorption capacity were investigated. It was found that the adsorption capacity increases with an increase in contact time, pH, temperature and decreases with an increase in lead concentration. Optimization of the process variables was done using a numerical optimization method. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis, XRay diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope was used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon char before and after activation. The optimum points 1g/ 100 ml for adsorbent dosage, 7 for pH value of the solution, 115.2 min for contact time, 100 mg/l for initial metal concentration, and 25°C for temperature were obtained to achieve the highest adsorption capacity of 93.176 mg/g with a desirability of 0.994. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon produced and that the weight loss taking place during the activation step is small.

Keywords: waste tire pyrolysis char, chemical activation, central composite design (CCD), adsorption capacity, numerical optimization

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23 Micro-Texture Effect on Fracture Location in Carbon Steel during Forming

Authors: Sarra Khelifi, Youcef Guerabli, Ahcene Boumaiza

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Advances in techniques for measuring individual crystallographic orientations have made it possible to investigate the role of local crystallography during the plastic deformation of materials. In this study, the change in crystallographic orientation distribution during deformation by deep drawing in carbon steel has been investigated in order to understand their role in propagation and arrest of crack. The results show that the change of grain orientation from initial recrystallization texture components of {111}<112> to deformation orientation {111}<110> incites the initiation and propagation of cracks in the region of {111}<112> small grains. Moreover, the misorientation profile and local orientation are analyzed in detail to discuss the change from {111}<112> to {111}<110>. The deformation of the grain with {111}<110> orientation is discussed in terms of stops of the crack in carbon steel during drawing. The SEM-EBSD technique was used to reveal the change of orientation; XRD was performed for the characterization of the global evolution of texture for deformed samples.

Keywords: fracture, heterogeneity, misorientation profile, stored energy

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22 X-Ray Crystallographic, Hirshfeld Surface Analysis and Docking Study of Phthalyl Sulfacetamide

Authors: Sanjay M. Tailor, Urmila H. Patel

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Phthalyl Sulfacetamide belongs to well-known member of antimicrobial sulfonamide family. It is a potent antitumor drug. Structural characteristics of 4-amino-N-(2quinoxalinyl) benzene-sulfonamides (Phthalyl Sulfacetamide), C14H12N4O2S has been studied by method of X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/n with unit cell parameters a= 7.9841 Ǻ, b= 12.8208 Ǻ, c= 16.6607 Ǻ, α= 90˚, β= 93.23˚, γ= 90˚and Z=4. The X-ray based three-dimensional structure analysis has been carried out by direct methods and refined to an R-value of 0.0419. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N-H…N, N-H…O and π-π interactions. The Hirshfeld surfaces and consequently the fingerprint analysis have been performed to study the nature of interactions and their quantitative contributions towards the crystal packing. An analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots facilitates a comparison of intermolecular interactions, which are the key elements in building different supramolecular architectures. Docking is used for virtual screening for the prediction of the strongest binders based on various scoring functions. Docking studies are carried out on Phthalyl Sulfacetamide for better activity, which is important for the development of a new class of inhibitors.

Keywords: phthalyl sulfacetamide, crystal structure, hirshfeld surface analysis, docking

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21 Heterodimetallic Ferrocenyl Dithiophosphonate Complexes of Nickel(II), Zinc(II) and Cadmium(II) as High Efficiency Co-Sensitizers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Tomilola J. Ajayi, Moses Ollengo, Lukas le Roux, Michael N. Pillay, Richard J. Staples, Shannon M. Biros Werner E. van Zyl

Abstract:

The formation, characterization, and dye-sensitized solar cell application of nickel(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) ferrocenyl dithiophosphonate complexes were investigated. The multidentate monoanionic ligand [S₂PFc(OH)]¯ (L1) was synthesized from the reaction between ferrocenyl Lawesson’s reagent, [FcP(=S)μ-S]₂ (FcLR), (Fc = ferrocenyl) and water. Ligand L1 could potentially coordinate to metal centers through the S, S’ and O donor atoms. The reaction between metal salt precursors and L1 produced a Ni(II) complex of the type [Ni{S₂P(Fc)(OH)}₂] (1) (molar ratio 1:2), a tetranickel (II) complex of the type [Ni₂{S₂OP(Fc)}₂]₂ (2) (molar ratio (1:1), as well as a Zn(II) complex [Zn{S₂P(Fc)(OH)}₂]₂ (3), and a Cd(II) complex [Cd{S₂P(Fc)(OH)}₂]₂ (4). Complexes 1-4 were characterized by 1H and 31P NMR and FT-IR, and complexes 1 and 2 were additionally analysed by X-Ray crystallography. After co-sensitization, the DSSCs were characterized using UV-Vis, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and photovoltaic measurements (I-V curves). Overall finding shows that co-sensitization of our compounds with ruthenium dye N719 resulted in a better overall solar conversion efficiency than only pure N719 dye under the same experimental conditions. In conclusion, we report the first examples of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) co-sensitized with ferrocenyl dithiophosphonate complexes.

Keywords: dithiophosphonate, dye sensitized solar cell, co-sensitization, solar efficiency

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20 Study of Functional Relevant Conformational Mobility of β-2 Adrenoreceptor by Means of Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: G. V. Novikov, V. S. Sivozhelezov, S. S. Kolesnikov, K. V. Shaitan

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The study reports about the influence of binding of orthosteric ligands as well as point mutations on the conformational dynamics of β-2-adrenoreceptor. Using molecular dynamics simulation we found that there was a little fraction of active states of the receptor in its apo (ligand free) ensemble corresponded to its constitutive activity. Analysis of MD trajectories indicated that such spontaneous activation of the receptor is accompanied by the motion in intracellular part of its alpha-helices. Thus receptor’s constitutive activity directly results from its conformational dynamics. On the other hand the binding of a full agonist resulted in a significant shift of the initial equilibrium towards its active state. Finally, the binding of the inverse agonist stabilized the receptor in its inactive state. It is likely that the binding of inverse agonists might be a universal way of constitutive activity inhibition in vivo. Our results indicate that ligand binding redistribute pre-existing conformational degrees of freedom (in accordance to the Monod-Wyman-Changeux-Model) of the receptor rather than cause induced fit in it. Therefore, the ensemble of biologically relevant receptor conformations is encoded in its spatial structure, and individual conformations from that ensemble might be used by the cell in conformity with the physiological behaviour.

Keywords: seven-transmembrane receptors, constitutive activity, activation, x-ray crystallography, principal component analysis, molecular dynamics simulation

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19 A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain Post Caesarean Section

Authors: Madeleine Cox

Abstract:

Objective: discussion of diagnosis of vernix caseosa peritonitis, recovery and subsequent caesarean seciton Case: 30 year old G4P1 presented in labour at 40 weeks, planning a vaginal birth afterprevious caesarean section. She underwent an emergency caesarean section due to concerns for fetal wellbeing on CTG. She was found to have a thin lower segment with a very small area of dehiscence centrally. The operation was uncomplicated, and she recovered and went home 2 days later. She then represented to the emergency department day 6 post partum feeling very unwell, with significant abdominal pain, tachycardia as well as urinary retention. Raised white cell count of 13.7 with neutrophils of 11.64, CRP of 153. An abdominal ultrasound was poorly tolerated by the patient and did not aide in the diagnosis. Chest and abdominal xray were normal. She underwent a CT chest and abdomen, which found a small volume of free fluid with no apparent collection. Given no obvious cause of her symptoms were found and the patient did not improve, she had a repeat CT 2 days later, which showed progression of free fluid. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed with general surgeons, which reveled turbid fluid, an inflamed appendix which was removed. The patient improved remarkably post operatively. The histology showed periappendicitis with acute appendicitis with marked serosal inflammatory reaction to vernix caseosa. Following this, the patient went on to recover well. 4 years later, the patient was booked for an elective caesarean section, on entry into the abdomen, there were very minimal adhesions, and the surgery and her subsequent recovery was uncomplicated. Discussion: this case represents the diagnostic dilemma of a patient who presents unwell without a clear cause. In this circumstance, multiple modes of imaging did not aide in her diagnosis, and so she underwent diagnostic surgery. It is important to evaluate if a patient is or is not responding to the typical causes of post operative pain and adjust management accordingly. A multiteam approach can help to provide a diagnosis for these patients. Conclusion: Vernix caseosa peritonitis is a rare cause of acute abdomen post partum. There are few reports in the literature of the initial presentation and no reports on the possible effects on future pregnancies. This patient did not have any complications in her following pregnancy or delivery secondary to her diagnosis of vernix caseosa peritonitis. This may assist in counselling other women who have had this uncommon diagnosis.

Keywords: peritonitis, obstetrics, caesarean section, pain

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18 Using Surface Entropy Reduction to Improve the Crystallization Properties of a Recombinant Antibody Fragment RNA Crystallization Chaperone

Authors: Christina Roman, Deepak Koirala, Joseph A. Piccirilli

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Phage displaying synthetic Fab libraries have been used to obtain Fabs that bind to specific RNA targets with high affinity and specificity. These Fabs have been demonstrated to facilitate RNA crystallization. However, the antibody framework used in the construction of these phage display libraries contains numerous bulky, flexible, and charged residues, which facilitate solubility and hinder aggregation. These residues can interfere with crystallization due to the entropic cost associated with burying them within crystal contacts. To systematically reduce the surface entropy of the Fabs and improve their crystallization properties, a protein engineering strategy termed surface entropy reduction (SER) is being applied to the Fab framework. In this approach, high entropy residues are mutated to smaller ones such as alanine or serine. Focusing initially on Fab BL3-6, which binds an RNA AAACA pentaloop with 20nM affinity, the SER P server (http://services.mbi.ucla.edu/SER/) was used and analysis was performed on existing RNA-Fab BL3-6 co-crystal structures. From this analysis twelve surface entropy reduced mutants were designed. These SER mutants were expressed and are now being measured for their crystallization and diffraction performance with various RNA targets. So far, one mutant has generated 3.02 angstrom diffraction with the yjdF riboswitch RNA. Ultimately, the most productive mutations will be combined into a new Fab framework to be used in a optimized phage displayed Fab library.

Keywords: antibody fragment, crystallography, RNA, surface entropy reduction

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17 Mixed Matrix Membranes Based on [M₂(DOBDC)] (M = Mg, Co, Ni) and Polydimethylsiloxane for CO₂/N₂ Separation

Authors: Hyunuk Kim, Yang No Yun, Muhammad Sohail, Jong-Ho Moon, Young Cheol Park

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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are emerging absorbents assembled from metal ions and organic ligands, have attracted attention for their permanent porosity and design of tunable pore size. These microporous materials showed interesting properties for CO₂ storage and separation. In particular, MOFs with high surface area and open metal sites showed the remarkable adsorption capacity and selectivity for CO₂. [Mg₂ (DOBDC)] (DOBDC = 2,5-dioxidobenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate) (MOF-74 or CPO-27) is a well-known absorbent showing an exceptionally high CO₂ sorption capacity at low partial pressure and room temperature. In this work, we synthesized [M₂(DOBDC)(DMF)₂] (M = Mg, Co, Ni) and determined their single-crystal structures by X-ray crystallography. The removal of coordinated guest molecules generates Lewis acidic sites and showed high CO₂ adsorption affinity. Both CO₂ adsorption capacity and surface area are much higher than reported values in literature. To fabricate MMMs, microcrystalline [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF)₂] was synthesized by microwave reaction and dispersed in PDMS solution. The MMMs with a various amount of [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF) ₂] in PDMS were fabricated by a solution casting method. [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF)₂]@PDMS membrane showed higher CO2 permeability and CO₂/N₂ selectivity than those of PDMS. Therefore, we believe that MMMs combining polymer and MOFs provide new materials for CO₂ separation technology.

Keywords: metal-organic frameworks, mixed matrix membrane, CO2/N2 separation, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

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16 Hyaluronic Acid Binding to Link Domain of Stabilin-2 Receptor

Authors: Aleksandra Twarda, Dobrosława Krzemień, Grzegorz Dubin, Tad A. Holak

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Stabilin-2 belongs to the group of scavenger receptors and plays a crucial role in clearance of more than 10 ligands from the bloodstream, including hyaluronic acid, products of degradation of extracellular matrix and metabolic products. The Link domain, a defining feature of stabilin-2, has a sequence similar to Link domains in other hyaluronic acid receptors, such as CD44 or TSG-6, and is responsible for most of ligands binding. Present knowledge of signal transduction by stabilin-2, as well as ligands’ recognition and binding mechanism, is limited. Until now, no experimental structures have been solved for any segments of stabilin-2. It has recently been demonstrated that the stabilin-2 knock-out or blocking of the receptor by an antibody effectively opposes cancer metastasis by elevating the level of circulating hyaluronic acid. Moreover, loss of expression of stabilin-2 in a peri-tumourous liver correlates with increased survival. Solving of the crystal structure of stabilin-2 and elucidation of the binding mechanism of hyaluronic acid could enable the precise characterization of the interactions in the binding site. These results may allow for designing specific small-molecule inhibitors of stabilin-2 that could be used in cancer therapy. To carry out screening for crystallization of stabilin-2, we cloned constructs of the Link domain of various lengths with or without surrounding domains. The folding properties of the constructs were checked by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It is planned to show the binding of hyaluronic acid to the Link domain using several biochemical methods, i.a. NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence polarization assay.

Keywords: stabilin-2, Link domain, X-ray crystallography, NMR, hyaluronic acid, cancer

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15 Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of New Quinazolinone-Based Compounds against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7

Authors: Maryam Zahedifard, Fadhil Lafta Faraj, Maryam Hajrezaie, Nazia Abdul Majid, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Hapipah Mohd Ali

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In the current study, we prepared two new quinazoline schiff bases through condensation reaction of 2-aminobenzhydrazide with 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 3-methoxy-5-bromosalicylaldehyde. The chemical structures of both newly synthesized compounds (1 and 2) were confirmed by FT-IR and X-ray crystallography studies. The cytotoxic effect of compounds was investigated against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. MTT results showed that (1) and (2) decreased the viability of MCF-7 cells in a time-dependent manner, exhibiting an IC50 value of 3.23 ± 0.28 µg/mL and 3.41 ± 0.34 µg/mL, respectively, after a 72-hours treatment period. In contrast, they did not show significant anti-proliferative effect towards MCF-10A normal breast cells and WRL-68 normal liver cells. We found a perturbation in mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, suggesting an activation of apoptosis by compounds, which was confirmed by activation of the initiator caspase-9 and the executioner caspases-3/7. (1) was also able to trigger extrinsic pathway via activation of caspase-8 and inhibition of NF-κB translocation. The acute toxicity test showed no toxicity effect of the compounds in rats. Our results showed that the selected synthesized compounds are highly potent to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via either intrinsic or extrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

Keywords: Quinazoline Schiff base, apoptosis, MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, caspase, NF-κB translocation

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14 Synthesis and Characterisation of Bio-Based Acetals Derived from Eucalyptus Oil

Authors: Kirstin Burger, Paul Watts, Nicole Vorster

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Green chemistry focuses on synthesis which has a low negative impact on the environment. This research focuses on synthesizing novel compounds from an all-natural Eucalyptus citriodora oil. Eight novel plasticizer compounds are synthesized and optimized using flow chemistry technology. A precursor to one novel compound can be synthesized from the lauric acid present in coconut oil. Key parameters, such as catalyst screening and loading, reaction time, temperature, residence time using flow chemistry techniques is investigated. The compounds are characterised using GC-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR techniques, X-ray crystallography. The efficiency of the compounds is compared to two commercial plasticizers, i.e. Dibutyl phthalate and Eastman 168. Several PVC-plasticized film formulations are produced using the bio-based novel compounds. Tensile strength, stress at fracture and percentage elongation are tested. The property of having increasing plasticizer percentage in the film formulations is investigated, ranging from 3, 6, 9 and 12%. The diastereoisomers of each compound are separated and formulated into PVC films, and differences in tensile strength are measured. Leaching tests, flexibility, and change in glass transition temperatures for PVC-plasticized films is recorded. Research objective includes using these novel compounds as a green bio-plasticizer alternative in plastic products for infants. The inhibitory effect of the compounds on six pathogens effecting infants are studied, namely; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella choleraesuis and Klebsiella oxytoca.

Keywords: bio-based compounds, plasticizer, tensile strength, microbiological inhibition , synthesis

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13 Preceramic Polymers Formulations for Potential Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Saja M. Nabat Al-Ajrash, Charles Browning, Rose Eckerle, Li Cao

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Three preceramic polymer formulations for potential use in 3D printing technologies were investigated. The polymeric precursors include an allyl hydrido polycarbosilane (SMP-10), SMP-10/1,6-dexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) mixture, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The rheological property of the polymeric precursors, including the viscosity within a wide shear rate range was compared to determine the applicability in additive manufacturing technology. The structural properties of the polymeric solutions and their photocureability were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to study polymeric to ceramic conversion for versatile precursors. The prepared precursor resin proved to have outstanding photo-curing properties and the ability to transform to the silicon carbide phase at temperatures as low as 850 °C. The obtained ceramic was fully dense with nearly linear shrinkage and a shiny, smooth surface after pyrolysis. Furthermore, after pyrolysis to 1350 °C and TGA analysis, PDMS polymer showed the highest onset decomposition temperature and the lowest retained weight (52 wt%), while SMP.10/HDDA showed the lowest onset temperature and ceramic yield (71.7 wt%). In terms of crystallography, the ceramic matrix composite appeared to have three coexisting phases, including silicon carbide, and silicon oxycarbide. The results are very promising to fabricate ceramic materials working at high temperatures with complex geometries.

Keywords: preceramic polymer, silicon carbide, photocuring, allyl hydrido polycarbosilane, SMP-10

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12 Biophysical Characterization of Archaeal Cyclophilin Like Chaperone Protein

Authors: Vineeta Kaushik, Manisha Goel

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Chaperones are proteins that help other proteins fold correctly, and are found in all domains of life i.e., prokaryotes, eukaryotes and archaea. Various comparative genomic studies have suggested that the archaeal protein folding machinery appears to be highly similar to that found in eukaryotes. In case of protein folding; slow rotation of peptide prolyl-imide bond is often the rate limiting step. Formation of the prolyl-imide bond during the folding of a protein requires the assistance of other proteins, termed as peptide prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases). Cyclophilins constitute the class of peptide prolyl isomerases with a wide range of biological function like protein folding, signaling and chaperoning. Most of the cyclophilins exhibit PPIase enzymatic activity and play active role in substrate protein folding which classifies them as a category of molecular chaperones. Till date, there is not very much data available in the literature on archaeal cyclophilins. We aim to compare the structural and biochemical features of the cyclophilin protein from within the three domains to elucidate the features affecting their stability and enzyme activity. In the present study, we carry out in-silico analysis of the cyclophilin proteins to predict their conserved residues, sites under positive selection and compare these proteins to their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts to predict functional divergence. We also aim to clone and express these proteins in heterologous system and study their biophysical characteristics in detail using techniques like CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Overall we aim to understand the features contributing to the folding, stability and dynamics of the archaeal cyclophilin proteins.

Keywords: biophysical characterization, x-ray crystallography, chaperone-like activity, cyclophilin, PPIase activity

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11 Excited State Structural Dynamics of Retinal Isomerization Revealed by a Femtosecond X-Ray Laser

Authors: Przemyslaw Nogly, Tobias Weinert, Daniel James, Sergio Carbajo, Dmitry Ozerov, Antonia Furrer, Dardan Gashi, Veniamin Borin, Petr Skopintsev, Kathrin Jaeger, Karol Nass, Petra Bath, Robert Bosman, Jason Koglin, Matthew Seaberg, Thomas Lane, Demet Kekilli, Steffen Brünle, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Wenting Wu, Christopher Milne, Thomas A. White, Anton Barty, Uwe Weierstall, Valerie Panneels, Eriko Nango, So Iwata, Mark Hunter, Igor Schapiro, Gebhard Schertler, Richard Neutze, Jörg Standfuss

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Ultrafast isomerization of retinal is the primary step in a range of photoresponsive biological functions including vision in humans and ion-transport across bacterial membranes. We studied the sub-picosecond structural dynamics of retinal isomerization in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin using an X-ray laser. Twenty snapshots with near-atomic spatial and temporal resolution in the femtosecond regime show how the excited all-trans retinal samples conformational states within the protein binding pocket prior to passing through a highly-twisted geometry and emerging in the 13-cis conformation. The aspartic acid residues and functional water molecules in proximity of the retinal Schiff base respond collectively to formation and decay of the initial excited state and retinal isomerization. These observations reveal how the protein scaffold guides this remarkably efficient photochemical reaction.

Keywords: bacteriorhodopsin, free-electron laser, retinal isomerization mechanism, time-resolved crystallography

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10 Development of Materials Based on Phosphates of NaZr2(PO4)3 with Low Thermal Expansion

Authors: V. Yu. Volgutov, A. I. Orlova, S. A. Khainakov

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NaZr2(PO4)3 (NZP) and their structural analogues are characterized by a peculiar behaviors on heating – they have different expansion and contraction along different crystallographic directions due to specific arrangements of crystal structure in these compounds. An important feature of such structures is the ability to incorporate into their structural analogues wide variety of metal cations having different size and oxidation states, with different combinations and concentrations. These cations are located in different crystallographic non-equivalent positions of octahedral tetrahedral crystal framework as well as in inter-framework cavities. Through, due to iso- and hetero-valent isomorphism of the cations (and the anions) in NZP, it becomes possible to tuning the compositions and to obtain the compounds with ‘on a plan’ properties. For the design of compounds with low and ultra-low thermal expansion including those with tailored thermal expansion properties, the following crystallochemical principles it seems are promising: 1) Insertion into crystal M1 position the cations having different sizes and, 2) the variation in the composition of compounds, providing different occupation of crystal M1 position. Following these principles we have designed and synthesized the next NZP-type phosphates series: a) where radii of the cations in the M1 crystal position was varied: Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3 - Th1/4Zr2(PO4)3 (series I); R1/3Zr2(PO4)3 where R= Nd, Eu, Er (series II), b) where the occupation of M1 crystal position was varied: Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3-Er1/3Zr2(PO4)3 (series III) and Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3-Sr1/2Zr2(PO4)3 (series IV). The thermal expansion parameters were determined over the range of 25-800ºC. For each series the minimum axial coefficient of thermal expansion αa = αb, αc and their anisotropy Δα = Iαa - αcI, 10-6 K-1 was found as next: -1.51, 1.07, 2.58 for Th1/4Zr2(PO4)3 (series I); -0.72, 0.10, 0.81 for Nd1/3Zr2(PO4)3 (series II); -2.78, 1.35, 4.12 for Er1/6Zr1/8Zr2(PO4)3 (series III); 2.23, 1.32, 0.91 for Sr1/2Zr2(PO4)3 (series IV). The measured tendencies of the thermal expansion of crystals were in good agreement with predicted ones. For one of the members from the studied phosphates namely Th1/16Zr3/16Zr2(PO4)3 structural refinement have been carried out at 25, 200, 600, and 800°C. The dependencies of the structural parameters with the temperature have been determined.

Keywords: high-temperature crystallography, NaZr2(PO4)3, (NZP) analogs, structural-chemical principles, tuning thermal expansion

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9 Antiplasmodial Activity of Drimane Sesquiterpene Isolated from Warburgia salutaris

Authors: Mthokozisi Simelane

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Background: Malaria remains a life-threatening disease in tropical regions despite the advances in the treatment of this disease, it still remains a significant burden as some parasites have become resistant to the currently available drugs. This has created a necessity for the development of alternative, more efficient antimalarial drugs. Warburgia salutaris is a traditional medicinal plant used in malaria treatment by Zulu traditional healers. Materials and methods: The W. salutaris stem-bark was extracted with dichloromethane and the compound was isolated through column chromatography. The compound was identified and characterized by spectroscopic analysis (1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and MS) and the structure was also confirmed by x-ray crystallography. The anti-plasmodial activity (in vitro) was studied on NF54 Plasmodium falciparum strain (CQS). Cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay on HEK239 and HEPG2 cell lines. Docking of Mukaadial acetate was conducted in AutoDock Vina. Structural modifications were conducted in UCSF Chimera and molecular interactions examined in LigPlot. Results: The compound, Mukaadial Acetate showed appreciable inhibition (IC50 0.44±0.10 µg/ml) of the parasite growth and cytotoxicity activity of 0.124±0.109 and 0.199±0.083 (µg/ml) on HEK293 and HEPG2 cells respectively. Molecular docking revealed that Mukaadial Acetate binds to the purine, pyrophosphate and ribose binding sites of the PfHGXPRT with an optimum binding conformation and forms hydrogen bond, steric and hydrophobic interactions with the residues inhabiting the respective binding sites. Conclusion: It is apparent that W. salutaris contains components (including Mukaadial Acetate) that exhibit antimalarial activity. This study scientifically validates the use of this plant in folk medicine.

Keywords: plasmodium falciparum, molecular docking, antimalarial activity, PfHGXPRT, Warburgia salutaris, mukaadial acetate

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8 Ankle Fracture Management: A Unique Cross Departmental Quality Improvement Project

Authors: Langhit Kurar, Loren Charles

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Introduction: In light of recent BOAST 12 (August 2016) published guidance on management of ankle fractures, the project aimed to highlight key discrepancies throughout the care trajectory from admission to point of discharge at a district general hospital. Wide breadth of data covering three key domains: accident and emergency, radiology, and orthopaedic surgery were subsequently stratified and recommendations on note documentation, and outpatient follow up were made. Methods: A retrospective twelve month audit was conducted reviewing results of ankle fracture management in 37 patients. Inclusion criterion involved all patients seen at Darent Valley Hospital (DVH) emergency department with radiographic evidence of an ankle fracture. Exclusion criterion involved all patients managed solely by nursing staff or having sustained purely ligamentous injury. Medical notes, including discharge summaries and the PACS online radiographic tool were used for data extraction. Results: Cross-examination of the A & E domain revealed limited awareness of the BOAST 12 recent publication including requirements to document skin integrity and neurovascular assessment. This had direct implications as this would have changed the surgical plan for acutely compromised patients. The majority of results obtained from the radiographic domain were satisfactory with appropriate X-rays taken in over 95% of cases. However, due to time pressures within A & E, patients were often left without a post manipulation XRAY in a backslab. Poorly reduced fractures were subsequently left for a long period resulting in swollen ankles and a time-dependent lag to surgical intervention. This had knocked on implications for prolonged inpatient stay resulting in hospital-acquired co-morbidity including pressure sores. Discussion: The audit has highlighted several areas of improvement throughout the disease trajectory from review in the emergency department to follow up as an outpatient. This has prompted the creation of an algorithm to ensure patients with significant fractures presenting to the emergency department are seen promptly and treatment expedited as per recent guidance. This includes timing for X-rays taken in A & E. Re-audit has shown significant improvement in both documentation at time of presentation and appropriate follow-up strategies. Within the orthopedic domain, we are in the process of creating an ankle fracture pathway to ensure imaging and weight bearing status are made clear to the consulting clinicians in an outpatient setting. Significance/Clinical Relevance: As a result of the ankle fracture algorithm we have adapted the BOAST 12 guidance to shape an intrinsic pathway to not only improve patient management within the emergency department but also create a standardised format for follow up.

Keywords: ankle, fracture, BOAST, radiology

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7 Comparison of Different Artificial Intelligence-Based Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Methods

Authors: Jamerson Felipe Pereira Lima, Jeane Cecília Bezerra de Melo

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The difficulty and cost related to obtaining of protein tertiary structure information through experimental methods, such as X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy, helped raising the development of computational methods to do so. An approach used in these last is prediction of tridimensional structure based in the residue chain, however, this has been proved an NP-hard problem, due to the complexity of this process, explained by the Levinthal paradox. An alternative solution is the prediction of intermediary structures, such as the secondary structure of the protein. Artificial Intelligence methods, such as Bayesian statistics, artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM), among others, were used to predict protein secondary structure. Due to its good results, artificial neural networks have been used as a standard method to predict protein secondary structure. Recent published methods that use this technique, in general, achieved a Q3 accuracy between 75% and 83%, whereas the theoretical accuracy limit for protein prediction is 88%. Alternatively, to achieve better results, support vector machines prediction methods have been developed. The statistical evaluation of methods that use different AI techniques, such as ANNs and SVMs, for example, is not a trivial problem, since different training sets, validation techniques, as well as other variables can influence the behavior of a prediction method. In this study, we propose a prediction method based on artificial neural networks, which is then compared with a selected SVM method. The chosen SVM protein secondary structure prediction method is the one proposed by Huang in his work Extracting Physico chemical Features to Predict Protein Secondary Structure (2013). The developed ANN method has the same training and testing process that was used by Huang to validate his method, which comprises the use of the CB513 protein data set and three-fold cross-validation, so that the comparative analysis of the results can be made comparing directly the statistical results of each method.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, protein secondary structure, protein structure prediction, support vector machines

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