Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2584

Search results for: sonochemical mechanism

2584 Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel and Sonochemical Combination

Authors: Sabriye Piskin, Sibel Kasap, Muge Sari Yilmaz


Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel and sonochemical combination using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor at lower temperature for a short time. The effect of the reaction parameters (hydrolysis media, acid media, and reaction temperatures) on the synthesis of TiO2 particles were investigated in the present study. Characterizations of synthesized samples were prepared by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was shown that the reaction parameters played a significant role in the synthesis of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: crystalline TiO2, sonochemical mechanism, sol-gel reaction, XRD

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2583 Sonochemical Zinc Oxide and Layered Hydroxy Zinc Acetate Synthesis in Fenton-Like Reactions

Authors: Durata Haciu, Ozgur Birer


Zinc acetate solution is sonicated at high power in water and in ethanol in the absence and presence of various peroxides. In the absence of peroxides, the products are zinc oxide and layered hydroxy zinc acetate in water and in ethanol, respectively. Layered basic zinc acetate are prepared for the first time using sonochemical methods. The addition of peroxides alters the reaction mechanisms. In water, insoluble peroxides produce zinc oxides while the water soluble peroxide, i.e.hydrogen peroxide, completely destroyed the structure and casted a doubt on the accepted peroxide initiated mechanism of reactions. In ethanol,peroxide addition caused the reaction mechanism to change and some oxide formation is observed. The reaction mechanism is sensitive to water/ethanol amounts as well as the peroxide to zinc ion mole ratio.Thin zinc oxide wafers (ca. 30 nm) with band gaps of 3.24 eV were obtained.

Keywords: ultrasound, zinc oxide, hydroxy zinc acetate, fenton, peroxide initiation

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2582 A Kinetic Study on Recovery of High-Purity Rutile TiO₂ Nanoparticles from Titanium Slag Using Sulfuric Acid under Sonochemical Procedure

Authors: Alireza Bahramian


High-purity TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) with size ranging between 50 nm and 100 nm are synthesized from titanium slag through sulphate route under sonochemical procedure. The effect of dissolution parameters such as the sulfuric acid/slag weight ratio, caustic soda concentration, digestion temperature and time, and initial particle size of the dried slag on the extraction efficiency of TiO₂ and removal of iron are examined. By optimizing the digestion conditions, a rutile TiO₂ powder with surface area of 42 m²/g and mean pore diameter of 22.4 nm were prepared. A thermo-kinetic analysis showed that the digestion temperature has an important effect, while the acid/slag weight ratio and initial size of the slag has a moderate effect on the dissolution rate. The shrinking-core model including both chemical surface reaction and surface diffusion is used to describe the leaching process. A low value of activation energy, 38.12 kJ/mol, indicates the surface chemical reaction model is a rate-controlling step. The kinetic analysis suggested a first order reaction mechanism with respect to the acid concentrations.

Keywords: TiO₂ nanoparticles, titanium slag, dissolution rate, sonochemical method, thermo-kinetic study

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2581 Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Gd3+ Doped CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sonochemical Method

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka


In this report, we studied the impact of Gd3+ substitution on structural, magnetic and electrical properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by sonochemical method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure at low concentration of Gd3+ ions, however, GdFeO3 additional phase was observed at higher concentration of Gd3+ ions. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed that Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 5-20 nm. The magnetic properties of Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with Gd3+ concentration in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. The variation of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ, and AC conductivity were studied at room temperature.

Keywords: spinel ferrites, nanoparticles, sonochemical method, magnetic properties

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2580 Assessment of the Performance of the Sonoreactors Operated at Different Ultrasound Frequencies, to Remove Pollutants from Aqueous Media

Authors: Gabriela Rivadeneyra-Romero, Claudia del C. Gutierrez Torres, Sergio A. Martinez-Delgadillo, Victor X. Mendoza-Escamilla, Alejandro Alonzo-Garcia


Ultrasonic degradation is currently being used in sonochemical reactors to degrade pollutant compounds from aqueous media, as emerging contaminants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, drugs and personal care products.) because they can produce possible ecological impacts on the environment. For this reason, it is important to develop appropriate water and wastewater treatments able to reduce pollution and increase reuse. Pollutants such as textile dyes, aromatic and phenolic compounds, cholorobenzene, bisphenol-A and carboxylic acid and other organic pollutants, can be removed from wastewaters by sonochemical oxidation. The effect on the removal of pollutants depends on the type of the ultrasonic frequency used; however, not much studies have been done related to the behavior of the fluid into the sonoreactors operated at different ultrasonic frequencies. Based on the above, it is necessary to study the hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid generated by the ultrasonic irradiation to design efficient sonoreactors to reduce treatment times and costs. In this work, it was studied the hydrodynamic behavior of the fluid in sonochemical reactors at different frequencies (250 kHz, 500 kHz and 1000 kHz). The performances of the sonoreactors at those frequencies were simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Due to there is great sound speed gradient between piezoelectric and fluid, k-e models were used. Piezoelectric was defined as a vibration surface, to evaluate the different frequencies effect on the fluid into sonochemical reactor. Structured hexahedral cells were used to mesh the computational liquid domain, and fine triangular cells were used to mesh the piezoelectric transducers. Unsteady state conditions were used in the solver. Estimation of the dissipation rate, flow field velocities, Reynolds stress and turbulent quantities were evaluated by CFD and 2D-PIV measurements. Test results show that there is no necessary correlation between an increase of the ultrasonic frequency and the pollutant degradation, moreover, the reactor geometry and power density are important factors that should be considered in the sonochemical reactor design.

Keywords: CFD, reactor, ultrasound, wastewater

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2579 Reflections on Mechanism of Foreign Teachers’ Administration in Colleges and Universities in China

Authors: YangHui


Foreign teachers play an important role in the process of internationalization of higher education in China. Based on the method of literature analysis, firstly study the contents about the mechanism of the foreign teachers’ administration in our country, then secondly analyze the main barriers of the foreign teacher’s administration mechanism. Finally, it is suggested that the international exchange department in universities should constantly improve the employment mechanism, training mechanism, appraisal mechanism and incentive mechanism to promote the internationalization of higher education.

Keywords: internationalization of higher education, mechanism, administration of foreign teachers, colleges and universities, China

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2578 Sonochemically Prepared Non-Noble Metal Oxide Catalysts for Methane Catalytic Combustion

Authors: Przemyslaw J. Jodlowski, Roman J. Jedrzejczyk, Damian K. Chlebda, Anna Dziedzicka, Lukasz Kuterasinski, Anna Gancarczyk, Maciej Sitarz


The aim of this study was to obtain highly active catalysts based on non-noble metal oxides supported on zirconia prepared via a sonochemical method. In this study, the influence of the stabilizers addition during the preparation step was checked. The final catalysts were characterized by using such characterization methods as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and µRaman. The proposed preparation method allowed to obtain uniformly dispersed metal-oxide nanoparticles at the support’s surface. The catalytic activity of prepared catalyst samples was measured in a methane combustion reaction. The activity of the catalysts prepared by the sonochemical method was considerably higher than their counterparts prepared by the incipient wetness method.

Keywords: methane catalytic combustion, nanoparticles, non-noble metals, sonochemistry

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2577 Dynamic Synthesis of a Flexible Multibody System

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ben Abdallah, Imed Khemili, Nizar Aifaoui


This work denotes an insight into dynamic synthesis of multibody systems. A set of mechanism parameters design variable are synthetized based on a desired mechanism response, such as, velocity, acceleration and bodies deformations. Moreover, knowing the work space, for a robot, and mechanism response allow defining optimal parameters mechanism handling with the desired target response. To this end, evolutionary genetic algorithm has been deployed. A demonstrative example for imperfect mechanism has been treated, mainly, a slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. The transversal deflection of the connecting rod has been chosen as response to identify the mechanism design parameters.

Keywords: dynamic response, evolutionary genetic algorithm, flexible bodies, optimization

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2576 Analysis of a Single Motor Finger Mechanism for a Prosthetic Hand

Authors: Shaukat Ali, Kanber Sedef, Mustafa Yilmaz


This work analyzes a finger mechanism for a prosthetic hand that will help in improving the living standards of people who have lost their hands for a variety of reasons. The finger mechanism is single degree of freedom and hence has advantages such as compact size, reduced mass and less energy consumption. The proposed finger mechanism is a six bar linkage actuated by a single motor. The kinematic, static and dynamic analyses have been done by using the conventional methods of mechanism analysis. The kinematic results present the motion of the proposed finger mechanism and location of the fingertip. The static and dynamic analyses provide the useful information about the gripping force at the fingertip for various configurations and the selection of motor that will move the finger over its range of configuration. This single motor finger mechanism is simple and resembles the human finger’s motion suitable for grasping operation. This study can be used in the optimization of geometrical parameters of the proposed mechanism to obtain the desired configurations with minimum torque and enhanced griping.

Keywords: dynamics, finger mechanism, grasping, kinematics

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2575 Network Traffic Classification Scheme for Internet Network Based on Application Categorization for Ipv6

Authors: Yaser Miaji, Mohammed Aloryani


The rise of recent applications in everyday implementation like videoconferencing, online recreation and voice speech communication leads to pressing the need for novel mechanism and policy to serve this steep improvement within the application itself and users‟ wants. This diversity in web traffics needs some classification and prioritization of the traffics since some traffics merit abundant attention with less delay and loss, than others. This research is intended to reinforce the mechanism by analysing the performance in application according to the proposed mechanism implemented. The mechanism used is quite direct and analytical. The mechanism is implemented by modifying the queue limit in the algorithm.

Keywords: traffic classification, IPv6, internet, application categorization

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2574 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric and Electrical Properties of Gd3+ Doped Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Jaromir Havlica, Lukas Kalina, Pavel Urbánek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek


In this work, CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) spinel ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized by sonochemical method. The structural properties and cation distribution are investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The morphology and elemental analysis are screened using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The particle size measured by FE-SEM and XRD analysis confirm the formation of nanoparticles in the range of 7-10 nm. The electrical properties show that the Gd³⁺ doped cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄; x= 0.20) exhibit enhanced dielectric constant (277 at 100 Hz) and ac conductivity (20.17 x 10⁻⁹ S/cm at 100 Hz). The complex impedance measurement study reveals that as Gd³⁺ doping concentration increases, the impedance Z’ and Z’ ’ decreases. The influence of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on the magnetic property is examined by using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic property measurement reveal that the coercivity decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 234.32 Oe (x=0.00) to 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) and further increases from 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) to 68.62 Oe (x=0.20). The saturation magnetization decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 40.19 emu/g (x=0.00) to 21.58 emu/g (x=0.20). This decrease follows the three-sublattice model suggested by Yafet-Kittel (Y-K). The Y-K angle increases with the increase of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

Keywords: sonochemical method, nanoparticles, magnetic property, dielectric property, electrical property

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2573 Fast Authentication Using User Path Prediction in Wireless Broadband Networks

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Sathya Pavithra, Swaminathan Venkatraman


Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) utilizes the IEEE 802.1X mechanism for authentication. However, this mechanism incurs considerable delay during handoffs. This delay during handoffs results in service disruption which becomes a severe bottleneck. To overcome this delay, our article proposes a key caching mechanism based on user path prediction. If the user mobility follows that path, the user bypasses the normal IEEE 802.1X mechanism and establishes the necessary authentication keys directly. Through analytical and simulation modeling, we have proved that our mechanism effectively decreases the handoff delay thereby achieving fast authentication.

Keywords: authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA), handoff, mobile, user path prediction (UPP) and user pattern

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2572 Lotus Mechanism: Validation of Deployment Mechanism Using Structural and Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Parth Prajapati, A. R. Srinivas


The purpose of this paper is to validate the concept of the Lotus Mechanism using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools considering the statics and dynamics through actual time dependence involving inertial forces acting on the mechanism joints. For a 1.2 m mirror made of hexagonal segments, with simple harnesses and three-point supports, the maximum diameter is 400 mm, minimum segment base thickness is 1.5 mm, and maximum rib height is considered as 12 mm. Manufacturing challenges are explored for the segments using manufacturing research and development approaches to enable use of large lightweight mirrors required for the future space system.

Keywords: dynamics, manufacturing, reflectors, segmentation, statics

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2571 Design and Fabrication of Electricity Generating Speed Breaker

Authors: Haider Aamir, Muhammad Ali Khalid


Electricity harvesting speed bump (EHSB) is speed breaker of conventional shape, but the difference is that it is not fixed, rather it moves up and down, and electricity can be generated from its vibrating motion. This speed bump consists of an upper cover which will move up and down, a shaft mechanism which will be used to drive the generator and a rack and pinion mechanism which will connect the cover and shaft. There is a spring mechanism to return the cover to its initial state when a vehicle has passed over the bump. Produced energy in the past was up to 80 Watts. For this purpose, a clutch mechanism is used so that both the up-down movements of the cover can be used to drive the generator. Mechanical Motion Rectifier (MMR) mechanism ensures the conversion of both the linear motions into rotational motion which is used to drive the generator.

Keywords: electricity harvesting, generator, rack and pinion, stainless steel shaft

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2570 Two Degree of Freedom Spherical Mechanism Design for Exact Sun Tracking

Authors: Osman Acar


Sun tracking systems are the systems following the sun ray by a right angle or by predetermined certain angle. In this study, we used theoretical trajectory of sun for latitude of central Anatolia in Turkey. A two degree of freedom spherical mechanism was designed to have a large workspace able to follow the sun's theoretical motion by the right angle during the whole year. An inverse kinematic analysis was generated to find the positions of mechanism links for the predicted trajectory. Force and torque analysis were shown for the first day of the year.

Keywords: sun tracking, theoretical sun trajectory, spherical mechanism, inverse kinematic analysis

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2569 A Summary of the Research on the Driving Mechanism of Space Expansion in China's National New District

Authors: Qin Xia


’National New District’ as a regional overall promotion of strategic thinking has become increasingly mature, but its spatial expansion is still chaotic and disorderly, so it is urgent to summarize the complex and unique driving mechanism contained in its spatial expansion to formulate sustainable urban expansion plan. Under the understanding of the general laws of the driving mechanism of China's space expansion, it is found that the existing research on the driving mechanism of the space expansion of national new districts is insufficient. The research area focuses on the research of the driving mechanism of the space expansion of a single new area. In terms of research methods, qualitative description is the main focus. In terms of research content, it is limited to the expansion speed, intensity, and area of the new district itself and does not involve the expansion and utilization efficiency of space and the spillover efficiency to surrounding cities. The specific connotations of social, economic, political, and geographical categories are not thoroughly explored. It is often a general explanation that a certain factor has promoted it. The logic is not rigorous and convincing, and the description is relatively static, with different time and space. There is less literature on scale interaction. Through the reflection on the key and difficult points of the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area, it is clear that the existing research on the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area should be continued to drive the sustainable expansion of space.

Keywords: national new district, space expansion, driving mechanism, existing research

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2568 Modal Dynamic Analysis of a Mechanism with Deformable Elements from an Oil Pump Unit Structure

Authors: N. Dumitru, S. Dumitru, C. Copilusi, N. Ploscaru


On this research, experimental analyses have been performed in order to determine the oil pump mechanism dynamics and stability from an oil unit mechanical structure. The experimental tests were focused on the vibrations which occur inside of the rod element during functionality of the oil pump unit. The oil pump mechanism dynamic parameters were measured and also determined through numerical computations. Entire research is based on the oil pump unit mechanical system virtual prototyping. For a complete analysis of the mechanism, the frequency dynamic response was identified, mainly for the mechanism driven element, based on two methods: processing and virtual simulations with MSC Adams aid and experimental analysis. In fact, through this research, a complete methodology is presented where numerical simulations of a mechanism with deformed elements are developed on a dynamic mode and these can be correlated with experimental tests.

Keywords: modal dynamic analysis, oil pump, vibrations, flexible elements, frequency response

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2567 Ultrasonic Treatment of Baker’s Yeast Effluent

Authors: Emine Yılmaz, Serap Fındık


Baker’s yeast industry uses molasses as a raw material. Molasses is end product of sugar industry. Wastewater from molasses processing presents large amount of coloured substances that give dark brown color and high organic load to the effluents. The main coloured compounds are known as melanoidins. Melanoidins are product of Maillard reaction between amino acid and carbonyl groups in molasses. Dark colour prevents sunlight penetration and reduces photosynthetic activity and dissolved oxygen level of surface waters. Various methods like biological processes (aerobic and anaerobic), ozonation, wet air oxidation, coagulation/flocculation are used to treatment of baker’s yeast effluent. Before effluent is discharged adequate treatment is imperative. In addition to this, increasingly stringent environmental regulations are forcing distilleries to improve existing treatment and also to find alternative methods of effluent management or combination of treatment methods. Sonochemical oxidation is one of the alternative methods. Sonochemical oxidation employs ultrasound resulting in cavitation phenomena. In this study, decolorization of baker’s yeast effluent was investigated by using ultrasound. Baker’s yeast effluent was supplied from a factory which is located in the north of Turkey. An ultrasonic homogenizator used for this study. Its operating frequency is 20 kHz. TiO2-ZnO catalyst has been used as sonocatalyst. The effects of molar proportion of TiO2-ZnO, calcination temperature and time, catalyst amount were investigated on the decolorization of baker’s yeast effluent. The results showed that prepared composite TiO2-ZnO with 4:1 molar proportion treated at 700°C for 90 min provides better result. Initial decolorization rate at 15 min is 3% without catalyst, 14,5% with catalyst treated at 700°C for 90 min respectively.

Keywords: baker’s yeast effluent, decolorization, sonocatalyst, ultrasound

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2566 Research on Contract's Explicit Incentive and Reputation's Implicit Incentive Mechanism towards Construction Contractors

Authors: Li Ma, Meishuang Ma, Mengying Huang


The quality of construction projects reflects the credit and responsibilities of construction contractors for the owners and the whole society. Because the construction contractors master more relevant information about the entrusted engineering project under construction while the owners are in unfavorable position of gaining information, asymmetric information may lead the contractors act against the owners in order to pursue their own interests. Building a powerful motivation mechanism is the key to guarantee investor economic interests and the life and property of users in construction projects. Based on principal-agent theory and game theory, the authors develop relevant mathematical models to analyze and compare the contractor’s utility functions under different combinations of contracts’ explicit incentive mechanism and reputation’s implicit incentive mechanism aiming at finding out the conditions for incentive validity. The research concludes that the most rational motivation way is to combine the explicit and implicit incentive effects of both contracts and reputation mechanism, and puts forth some measures for problems on account of China’s current situation.

Keywords: construction contractors, contract, reputation, incentive mechanism

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2565 Analysis of Structure-Flow Interaction for Water Brake Mechanism

Authors: Murat Avci, Fatih Kosar, Ismail Yilmaz


In this study, structure-flow interaction for water brake mechanism is studied with Abaqus CEL approach. The water brake mechanism is used for dynamic systems such as sled system on rail. For the achievement of these system tests, structure-flow interaction should be investigated in detail. This study is about a sled test of an aircraft subsystem which rises to supersonic speeds thanks to rocket engines. To decrease or to stop the thrusting rocket sleds, water brake mechanisms are used. Water brake mechanism provides the deceleration of the structures that have supersonic speeds. Therefore, structure-flow interaction may cause damage to the water brake mechanism. To verify all design revisions with system tests are so costly so that some decisions are taken in accordance with numerical methods. In this study, structure-flow interaction that belongs to water brake mechanism is solved with Abaqus CEL approach. Fluid and deformation on the structure behaviors are modeled at the same time thanks to CEL approach. Provided analysis results are corrected with the dynamic tests. Deformation zones seen in numerical analysis are also observed in dynamic tests. Finally, Johnson-Cook material model parameters used for this analysis are proven, and it is understood that these parameters can be used for dynamic analysis like water brake mechanism.

Keywords: aircraft, rocket, structure-flow, supersonic

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2564 Design and Optimization for a Compliant Gripper with Force Regulation Mechanism

Authors: Nhat Linh Ho, Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang, Hieu Giang Le


This paper presents a design and optimization for a compliant gripper. The gripper is constructed based on the concept of compliant mechanism with flexure hinge. A passive force regulation mechanism is presented to control the grasping force a micro-sized object instead of using a sensor force. The force regulation mechanism is designed using the planar springs. The gripper is expected to obtain a large range of displacement to handle various sized objects. First of all, the statics and dynamics of the gripper are investigated by using the finite element analysis in ANSYS software. And then, the design parameters of the gripper are optimized via Taguchi method. An orthogonal array L9 is used to establish an experimental matrix. Subsequently, the signal to noise ratio is analyzed to find the optimal solution. Finally, the response surface methodology is employed to model the relationship between the design parameters and the output displacement of the gripper. The design of experiment method is then used to analyze the sensitivity so as to determine the effect of each parameter on the displacement. The results showed that the compliant gripper can move with a large displacement of 213.51 mm and the force regulation mechanism is expected to be used for high precision positioning systems.

Keywords: flexure hinge, compliant mechanism, compliant gripper, force regulation mechanism, Taguchi method, response surface methodology, design of experiment

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2563 Design and Analysis of Flexible Slider Crank Mechanism

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang


This study presents the optimal design and formulation of a kinematic model of a flexible slider crank mechanism. The objective of the proposed innovative design is to take extra advantage of the compliant mechanism and maximize the fatigue life by applying the Taguchi method. A formulated kinematic model is developed using a Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model (PRBM). By means of mathematic models, the kinematic behaviors of the flexible slider crank mechanism are captured using MATLAB software. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used to show the stress distribution. The results show that the optimal shape of the flexible hinge includes a force of 8.5N, a width of 9mm and a thickness of 1.1mm. Analysis of variance shows that the thickness of the proposed hinge is the most significant parameter, with an F test of 15.5. Finally, a prototype is manufactured to prepare for testing the kinematic and dynamic behaviors.

Keywords: kinematic behavior, fatigue life, pseudo-rigid-body model, flexible slider crank mechanism

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2562 Effects of Manufacture and Assembly Errors on the Output Error of Globoidal Cam Mechanisms

Authors: Shuting Ji, Yueming Zhang, Jing Zhao


The output error of the globoidal cam mechanism can be considered as a relevant indicator of mechanism performance, because it determines kinematic and dynamical behavior of mechanical transmission. Based on the differential geometry and the rigid body transformations, the mathematical model of surface geometry of the globoidal cam is established. Then we present the analytical expression of the output error (including the transmission error and the displacement error along the output axis) by considering different manufacture and assembly errors. The effects of the center distance error, the perpendicular error between input and output axes and the rotational angle error of the globoidal cam on the output error are systematically analyzed. A globoidal cam mechanism which is widely used in automatic tool changer of CNC machines is applied for illustration. Our results show that the perpendicular error and the rotational angle error have little effects on the transmission error but have great effects on the displacement error along the output axis. This study plays an important role in the design, manufacture and assembly of the globoidal cam mechanism.

Keywords: globoidal cam mechanism, manufacture error, transmission error, automatic tool changer

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2561 Development of a Harvest Mechanism for the Kahramanmaraş Chili Pepper

Authors: O. E. Akay, E. Güzel, M. T. Özcan


The pepper has quite a rich variety. The development of a single harvesting machine for all kinds of peppers is a difficult research topic. By development of harvesting mechanisms, we could be able to facilitate the pepper harvesting problems. In this study, an experimental harvesting machine was designed for chili pepper. Four-bar mechanism was used for the design of the prototype harvesting machine. At the result of harvest trials, 80% of peppers were harvested and 8% foreign materials were collected. These results have provided some tips on how to apply to large-scale pepper Four-bar mechanism of the harvest machine.

Keywords: kinematic simulation, four bar linkage, harvest mechanization, pepper harvest

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2560 Mechanism of Changing a Product Concept

Authors: Kiyohiro Yamazaki


The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis explaining the mechanism in the case, where the product is deleted or reduced the fundamental function of the product through the product concept changes in the digital camera industry. This paper points out not owning the fundamental technology might cause the change of the product concept. Casio could create new competitive factor so that this paper discusses a possibility of the mechanism of changing the product concept.

Keywords: firm without fundamental technology, product development, product concept, digital camera industry, Casio

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2559 A Workable Mechanism to Support Students Who Are at Risk

Authors: Mohamed Chabi


The project of helping students at risk started at the Math department in the new foundation program at Qatar University in the fall 2012 semester. The purpose was to find ways to help students who were struggling with their math courses Elementary algebra or Precalculus course due to many factors. Department had formed the Committee “students at Risk” at the start of 12-13 to assist struggling students in our math courses to get their studies on track. A mechanism was developed to support students who are at risk using a developed E-Monitoring system. E-Monitoring system was developed to manage automatically all transactions relevant to the students’ attendance, Students ‘‘warning Students’’ grading, etc. E-Monitoring System produce various statistics such as, Overall course statistics, Performance, Students at Risk… to help department to develop a higher quality of education in the Foundation Program at Math department. The mechanism was studies and evaluated. Whatever the cause, the sooner we identify students who are not performing well academically, the sooner we can provide, or direct them to the resources that are available to them. In this paper, we outline the mechanism and its effect on students’ performance. The collected data from various exams shows that students had benefited from the mechanism.

Keywords: students at risk, e-monitoring system, warning students, performance

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2558 Sonocatalytic Treatment of Baker’s Yeast Wastewater by Using SnO2/TiO2 Composite

Authors: Didem Ildırar, Serap Fındık


Baker’s yeast industry uses molasses as a raw material. Molasses wastewater contains high molecular weight polymers called melanoidins. Melanoidins are obtained after the reactions between the amino acids and carbonyl groups in molasses. The molasses wastewater has high biochemical and chemical oxygen demand and dark brown color. If it is discharged to receiving bodies without any treatment, it prevents light penetration and dissolved oxygen level of the surface water decreases. Melanoidin compounds are toxic effect to the microorganism in water and there is a resistance to microbial degradation. Before discharging molasses wastewater, adequate treatment is necessary. In addition to changing environmental regulations, properties of treated wastewater must be improved. Advanced oxidation processes can be used to improve existing properties of wastewater. Sonochemical oxidation is one of the alternative methods. Sonochemical oxidation employs the use of ultrasound resulting in cavitation phenomena. In this study, decolorization and chemical oxygen demand removal (COD) of baker’s yeast effluent was investigated by using ultrasound. Baker’s yeast effluent was supplied from a factory which is located in the north of Turkey. An ultrasonic homogenizator was used for this study. Its operating frequency is 20kHz. SnO2/TiO2 catalyst has been used as sonocatalyst. The effects of the composite preparation method, mixing time while composite prepared, the molar ratio of SnO2/TiO2, the calcination temperature, and time, the catalyst amount were investigated on the treatment of baker’s yeast effluent. . According to the results, the prepared composite SnO2/TiO2 by using ultrasonic probe gave a better result than prepared composite by using an ultrasonic bath. Prepared composite by using an ultrasonic probe with a 4:1 molar ratio treated at 800°C for 60min gave a better result. By using this composite, optimum catalyst amount was 0.2g/l. At these conditions 26.6% decolorization was obtained. There was no COD removal at the studied conditions.

Keywords: baker’s yeast effluent, COD, decolorization, sonocatalyst, ultrasonic irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
2557 Structured Access Control Mechanism for Mesh-based P2P Live Streaming Systems

Authors: Chuan-Ching Sue, Kai-Chun Chuang


Peer-to-Peer (P2P) live streaming systems still suffer a challenge when thousands of new peers want to join into the system in a short time, called flash crowd, and most of new peers suffer long start-up delay. Recent studies have proposed a slot-based user access control mechanism, which periodically determines a certain number of new peers to enter the system, and a user batch join mechanism, which divides new peers into several tree structures with fixed tree size. However, the slot-based user access control mechanism is difficult for accurately determining the optimal time slot length, and the user batch join mechanism is hard for determining the optimal tree size. In this paper, we propose a structured access control (SAC) mechanism, which constructs new peers to a multi-layer mesh structure. The SAC mechanism constructs new peer connections layer by layer to replace periodical access control, and determines the number of peers in each layer according to the system’s remaining upload bandwidth and average video rate. Furthermore, we propose an analytical model to represent the behavior of the system growth if the system can utilize the upload bandwidth efficiently. The analytical result has shown the similar trend in system growth as the SAC mechanism. Additionally, the extensive simulation is conducted to show the SAC mechanism outperforms two previously proposed methods in terms of system growth and start-up delay.

Keywords: peer-to-peer, live video streaming system, flash crowd, start-up delay, access control

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2556 Configuration Design and Optimization of the Movable Leg-Foot Lunar Soft-Landing Device

Authors: Shan Jia, Jinbao Chen, Jinhua Zhou, Jiacheng Qian


Lunar exploration is a necessary foundation for deep-space exploration. For the functional limitations of the fixed landers which are widely used currently and are to expand the detection range by the use of wheeled rovers with unavoidable path-repeatability, a movable lunar soft-landing device based on cantilever type buffer mechanism and leg-foot type walking mechanism is presented. Firstly, a 20 DoFs quadruped configuration based on pushrod is proposed. The configuration is of the bionic characteristics such as hip, knee and ankle joints, and can make the kinematics of the whole mechanism unchanged before and after buffering. Secondly, the multi-function main/auxiliary buffers based on crumple-energy absorption and screw-nut mechanism, as well as the telescopic device which could be used to protect the plantar force sensors during the buffer process are designed. Finally, the kinematic model of the whole mechanism is established, and the configuration optimization of the whole mechanism is completed based on the performance requirements of slope adaptation and obstacle crossing. This research can provide a technical solution integrating soft-landing, large-scale inspection and material-transfer for future lunar exploration and even mars exploration, and can also serve as the technical basis for developing the reusable landers.

Keywords: configuration design, lunar soft-landing device, movable, optimization

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2555 Idea Expropriation, Incentives, and Governance within Organizations

Authors: Gulseren Mutlu, Gurupdesh Pandher


This paper studies the strategic interplay between innovation, incentives, expropriation threat and disputes arising from expropriation from an intra-organization perspective. We present a simple principal-agent model with hidden actions and hidden information in which two employees can choose how much (innovative) effort to exert, whether to expropriate the innovation of the other employee and whether to dispute if innovation is expropriated. The organization maximizes its expected payoff by choosing the optimal reward scheme for both employees as well as whether to encourage or discourage disputes. We analyze two mechanisms under which innovative ideas are not expropriated. First, we show that under a non-contestable mechanism (in which the organization discourages disputes among employees), the organization has to offer a “rent” to the potential expropriator. However, under a contestable mechanism (in which the organization encourages disputes), there is no need for such rent. If the cost of resolving the dispute is negligible, the organization’s expected payoff is higher under a contestable mechanism. Second, we develop a comparable team mechanism in which innovation takes place as a result of the joint efforts of employees and innovation payments are made based on the team outcome. We show that if the innovation value is low and employees have similar productivity, then the organization is better off under a contestable mechanism. On the other hand, if the innovation value is high, the organization is better off under a team mechanism. Our results have important practical implications for the design of innovation reward system for employees, hiring policy and governance for different companies.

Keywords: innovation, incentives, expropriation threat, dispute resolution

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