Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: consultancy

26 Role of Consultancy in Engineering Education

Authors: V. Nalina, P. Jayarekha

Abstract:

Consultancy by an engineering faculty member of an institution undertakes consulting assignments to provide professional or technical solutions to specific fields. Consulting is providing an opportunity for the engineering faculty to share their insights for the real world problems. It is a dynamic learning process with respect to students and faculty as it increases the teaching and research activities. In this paper, we discuss the need for consultancy in engineering education with faculty contribution towards consultancy and advantages of consultancy to institutions. Balance the workload of the faculty consulting with the responsibilities of academics defined by the universities.

Keywords: consultancy, academic consulting, engineering consultancy, faculty consulting

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25 Influence of Branding and Consultancy Services on the Performance of Coaches, Athletes and Sports Managers in Nigeria

Authors: Yakubu Nkom Bityong, A. I. Kabido, K. Venkateswarlu

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The influence of branding and consultancy services on sports development and marketing mix has been a matter of interest among coaches athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. Marketers use sports as a promotional vehicle towards attracting customers to their products and services. The use of images, names, and photographs of sports personalities to advertise beverages, cars, and a whole range of other products and services as it is clearly noticed all over the television, radio and print media has generated a lot of argument among consumers who have vested interest and are more drawn to their favorite teams and sports personalities than they are to many company products This paper examines the influence of branding and consultancy services on sports Performance of coaches, athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. From a population of 7,441 made up of coaches, athletes and sports managers, 372 respondents were sampled for the study. A self developed and standardized questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. One-tailed t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Results revealed that branding and consultancy services influence the performances of coaches, athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. It was concluded that the establishment of the National Institute of Sports (NIS) in Lagos with affiliated sports training programmes in Nigerian Universities is responsible for boosting the performance of sports personalities in Nigeria. It was recommended that National Policy on Sports should be reviewed in order to inculcate new methods and strategies towards enhancing sports development initiatives in the country while stakeholders should intensify regular training and retraining programmes for coaches, athletes and sports managers to update their knowledge and skills.

Keywords: branding, consultancy, sports performance, sports development

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24 The Perceived Impact of Consultancy Organisations and Social Enterprises: Converging and Diverging Discourses

Authors: Seda Muftugil-Yalcin

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With the proliferation of the number of social enterprises worldwide, there is now a whole ecosystem full of different organisational actors revolving around social enterprises. Impact hubs, incubation centers, and organisations (profit or non-profit) that offer consultancy services to social enterprises can be said to constitute one such cluster in the eco-system. These organisations offer a variety of services to social enterprises which desire to maximize their positive social impact. Especially with regards to impact measurement, there are numerous systems/guides/approaches/tools developed that claim to benefit social enterprises. Many organisations choose one of the existing tools and craft programs that help social enterprises to measure and to manage their social impacts. However, empirical evidence with regards to how the services of these consultancy organisations are precisely utilized on the field is scarce. This inevitably casts doubt on the impact of these organisations themselves. This research dwells on four case studies from the Netherlands and Turkey. In each country, two university-affiliated impact centers and two independent consultancy agencies that work with social entrepreneurs in the area of social impact measurement are closely examined. The overarching research question has been 'With regards to impact measurement, how do the founders/managers of these organisations perceive and make sense of their contribution to social enterprises and to the social entrepreneurship eco-system at large?' As for methodology, in-depth interviews were carried out with the managers/founders of these organisations and discourse analysis method has been used for data analysis together with grounded theory. The comparison between Turkey and Netherlands elucidate common denominators of impact measurement hype and discourses that are currently existing worldwide. In addition, it also reveals differing priorities of social enterprises in these different settings, which shape the expectations of social enterprises of consultancy organisations. Comparison between university affiliated impact hubs and independent consultancy organisations also give away important data about how different forms of consultancy organisations (in this case university based and independent) position themselves in relation to alike organisations with similar aims. The overall aim of the research is to reveal the contribution of the consultancy organisations that work with social enterprises to the social entrepreneurship field as perceived by them through a cross cultural study. The findings indicate that in both settings, the organisations that were claiming to bring positive social impact on the social entrepreneurship eco-system through their impact measurement trainings were themselves having a hard time in concretizing their own contributions; which indicated that these organisations were in need of a different impact measurement discourse than the ones they were championing.

Keywords: consultancy organisations, social entrepreneurship, social impact measurement, social impact discourse

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23 Exploring Employee Experiences of Distributed Leadership in Consultancy SMEs

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Ramdane Djebarni, Russell Evans

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Despite a growth in literature on distributed leadership, the majority of studies are centred on large public organisations particularly within the health and education sectors. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap in the literature by exploring employee experiences of distributed leadership within two commercial consultancy SME businesses in the UK and USA. The aim of the study informed an exploratory method of research to gather qualitative data drawn from semi-structured interviews involving a sample of employees in each organisation. A series of broad, open questions were used to explore the employees’ experiences; evidence of distributed leadership; and extant barriers and practices in each organisation. Whilst some of our findings aligned with patterns and practices in the existing literature, it importantly discovered some emergent themes that have not previously been recognised in the previous studies. Our investigation identified that whilst distributed leadership was in evidence in both organisations, the interviewees’ experience reported that it was sporadic and inconsistent. Moreover, non-client focused projects were reported to be less important and distributed leadership was found to be inconsistent or non-existent.

Keywords: consultancy, distributed leadership, owner-manager, SME, entrepreneur

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22 Emotional Intelligence: Key to Job Satisfaction - A Case Study

Authors: Arpita Sabath, Jytoika Samuel

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Emotional Intelligence is conceptualized as a confluence of learned abilities resulting in wise behavior, high achievement and mental health. This case study is done on IT Sector employees of CAREERNET consultancy at Bangalore. Thus the present study intends to find out the difference in different dimensions of El and Js Scales among male and female employees and the existing relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction for the beginner age group of employees (25 yrs - 40 yrs) in order to enhance the employees productivity level in the present scenario of recession in employment. It is observed that all promotions and increment are achieved at these 25 yrs - 40 yrs age group employees. Therefore, the sample is selected randomly and grouped. Survey method with the administration of Emotional Intelligence Scale and opinionScedule is used. The findings of the study has revealed that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and performance excellence. The study is concluded with a remark that the relevance of this study should be followed by the administrative body of IT sectors to motivate them and to get more productive work from their employees

Keywords: emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, organisational behavior, IT sector

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21 Automatic Queuing Model Applications

Authors: Fahad Suleiman

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Queuing, in medical system is the process of moving patients in a specific sequence to a specific service according to the patients’ nature of illness. The term scheduling stands for the process of computing a schedule. This may be done by a queuing based scheduler. This paper focuses on the medical consultancy system, the different queuing algorithms that are used in healthcare system to serve the patients, and the average waiting time. The aim of this paper is to build automatic queuing system for organizing the medical queuing system that can analyses the queue status and take decision which patient to serve. The new queuing architecture model can switch between different scheduling algorithms according to the testing results and the factor of the average waiting time. The main innovation of this work concerns the modeling of the average waiting time is taken into processing, in addition with the process of switching to the scheduling algorithm that gives the best average waiting time.

Keywords: queuing systems, queuing system models, scheduling algorithms, patients

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20 Knowledge Management in Practice: An Exploratory Study Applied to Consulting Firms

Authors: Evgeniya Ivanova

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Nowadays, in the literature, there is still no fixed definition of knowledge management that often remains only as an academic discipline. The current market situation is changing very quickly, the need of new technologies is high, and knowledge management is the area that ensures that the know-how has not been lost during market development and adoption. The study examines how knowledge management is being leveraged and practiced in the management consultancy companies and provides not only the tips and best practices of applied knowledge management approaches but also the validation matrix for its successful or unsuccessful implementation. Different knowledge management approaches are explored on the basis of their practical implementation, including related challenges, knowledge sharing process, and barriers that are typical for consulting firms mostly driven by the agile working culture. The relevance of proposed topic is confirmed by the finding that corporate working culture and the exponentially developing technologies have a direct impact on the success of practical implementation of knowledge management.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge management in practice, consulting firm, knowledge management success

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19 Improving Cost and Time Control of Construction Projects Management Practices in Nigeria

Authors: Mustapha Yakubu, Ahmed Usman, Hashim Ambursa

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This paper presents the findings of a research which sought to investigate techniques used to improve cost and time control of construction projects management practice in Nigeria. However, there is limited research on issues surrounding the practical usage of these techniques. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to construction experts through a survey conducted on the 100 construction organisations and 50 construction consultancy firms in the Nigeria aimed at identifying common project cost and time control practices and factors inhibiting effective project control in practice. The study reveals that despite the vast application of control techniques a high proportion of respondents still experienced cost and time overruns on a significant proportion of their projects. Analysis of the survey results concluded that more effort should be geared at the management of the identified top project control inhibiting factors. This paper has outlined some measures for mitigating these inhibiting factors so that the outcome of project time and cost control can be improved in practice.

Keywords: construction project, cost control, Nigeria, time control

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18 Survival of Islamic Banking Services in Tanzania: A Quick Survey on Conflicting Legal Framework

Authors: Ayoub Ali Maulana

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“The success and sustainability of an Islamic finance system depends on the ability to establish a comprehensive legal and regulatory framework that supports synergy amongst the components in the system”. Numbers of banks have introduced Islamic banking windows claiming that their products follow Islamic banking values without any compromise. National Bank of Commerce Limited, Stanbic Bank Limited, Kenya Commercial Bank, The Peoples Bank of Zanzibar and Amana Bank Limited are some of the banks which offer Islamic banking products in Tanzania. To date, there is no single provision in Tanzanian laws that speak of Islamic banking activities in the country. Despite the fact that consultancy commissioned to International Monetary Fund (IMF) to research on the best laws to govern Islamic banking industry in the country, the speed is not encouraging in making sure that the same is introduced as soon as possible. This paper highlights the trend of the banking services in Tanzania and examines the application of Islamic banking system in the Tanzanian conventional banking environment. In particular the paper considers whether the Islamic banking services in Tanzania can survive without an appropriate legal framework that accommodates it.

Keywords: islamic banks, interest, islamic windows, Tanzania

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17 Applying an Application-Based Knowledge Capturing and Reusing for Construction Consultant Organizations Applying

Authors: Phan Nghiem Vu, Le Tuan Vu, Ta Quang Tai

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Knowledge Management effectively is critical to the survival and advance of a company, especially in company-based industries such as construction. Knowledge management practice is crucial to the survival and progress of a company, especially company-based knowledge such as construction consultancy. Effective knowledge management practices are very significant to the competitive and development of a consulting organization. Hence, the success of knowledge management implementation depends on knowledge capturing and reusing effectively. In this paper, a survey was carried out of engineers and managers with experience in seven construction consulting organizations that provide services on the north-central coast of Vietnam. The main objectives of the survey to finding out how these organizations capture and reuse knowledge and significant barriers to the implementation of knowledge management. A conceptual framework based-on Trello application is proposed to formalize the knowledge-capturing and reusing process within construction consulting companies. It is showed that the conceptual framework could be used to manage both implicit and explicit knowledge effectively in construction consultant organizations.

Keywords: knowledge management, construction consultant organization, knowledge capturing, reusing knowledge, application-based technology

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16 Analysis of Factors Used by Farmers to Manage Risk: A Case Study on Italian Farms

Authors: A. Pontrandolfi, G. Enjolras, F. Capitanio

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The study analyses the strategies Italian farmers use to cope with the risks that face their production. We specifically explore the potential and the limitations of the economic tools for climatic risk management in agriculture of the Common Agricultural Policy 2014-2020, that foresees contributions for economic tools for risk management, in relation to farms’ needs, exposure and vulnerability of agricultural areas to climatic risk. We consider at the farm level approaches to hedge risks in terms of the use of technical tools (agricultural practices, pesticides, fertilizers, irrigation) and economic/financial instruments (insurances, etc.). We develop cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses as well as analyses of correlation that underline the main differences between the way farms adapt their structure and management towards risk. The results show a preference for technical tools, despite the presence of important public aids on economic tools such as insurances. Therefore, there is a strong need for a more effective and integrated risk management policy scheme. Synergies between economic tools and risk reduction actions of a more technical, structural and management nature (production diversification, irrigation infrastructures, technological and management innovations and formation-information-consultancy, etc.) are emphasized.

Keywords: agriculture and climate change, climatic risk management, insurance schemes, farmers' approaches to risk management

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15 Measuring Engagement Equation in Educational Institutes

Authors: Mahfoodh Saleh Al Sabbagh, Venkoba Rao

Abstract:

There is plenty of research, both in academic and consultancy circles, about the importance and benefits of employee engagement and customer engagement and how it gives organization an opportunity to reduce variability and improve performance. Customer engagement is directly related to the engagement level of the organization's employees. It is therefore important to measure both. This research drawing from the work of Human Sigma by Fleming and Asplund, attempts to assess engagement level of customer and employees - the human systems of business - in an educational setup. Student is important to an educational institute and is a customer to be served efficiently and effectively. Considering student as customer and faculty as employees serving them, in–depth interviews were conducted to analyze the relationship between faculty and student engagement in two leading colleges in Oman, one from private sector and another from public sector. The study relied mainly on secondary data sources to understand the concept of engagement. However, the search of secondary sources was extensive to compensate the limited primary data. The results indicate that high faculty engagement is likely to lead to high student engagement. Engaged students were excited about learning, loved the feeling of they being cared as a person by their faculty and advocated the organization to other. The interaction truly represents an opportunity to build emotional connection to the organization. This study could be of interest to organizations interest in building and maintaining engagement with employees and customers.

Keywords: customer engagement, consumer psychology, strategy, educational institutes

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14 Cartel's Little Helpers: A Comparative Study of the Case Law Regarding the Facilitators of Collusion in Latin America Competition Law and Policy

Authors: Andres Calderon

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In order to avoid detection and punishment, cartels have recruited the help of third parties to organize, execute and disguise the anticompetitive practices cartel members have agreed upon. These third parties may take the form of consultancy firms, guilds or professional advisors that do not perform an economic activity in the market where the collusion takes place. This paper takes a look into how national competition authorities and national legislators have dealt with the emergence of the cartels’ facilitators in Latin America. Following the practice of other jurisdictions such as United States (Toys R' Us, Apple), European Union (AC Treuhand), United Kingdom (Replica Kits, Hasbro) and Spain (Urban, Snap-On), some countries (e.g. Argentina, Chile) in Latin America have started to conduct investigations and find antitrust liability in cartels’ facilitators for helping others to violate their national competition laws. Some countries (e.g. Peru and Colombia) have also amended their legislation to amplify the subjective scope of application in order to include cartels’ facilitators. The Latin American case is one of special relevance because public officials are often prone to promote or indulge agreements between competitors in sectors of political interest. A broad definition of cartels’ facilitator, consequently, could lead to the prosecution of punishment of public officials that may hinder the competitive process.

Keywords: anticompetitive practices, cartel, collusion, competition, facilitator, hub and spoke

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13 Governance Factors of Sustainable Stormwater Management: A Comparative Study of Case Cities in China and Sweden

Authors: Xiujuan Qiao

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Cities worldwide are increasingly adopting sustainable stormwater solutions such as using green infrastructure to mitigate challenges related to stormwater, e.g., pluvial flooding, and stormwater pollution. Barriers caused by governance factors have been identified as the main reason for the slow pace of sustainable stormwater management implementation. In this study, we examined governance factors influencing local implementation in four case cities: Lund and Malmö, Sweden, and Xi’xian New Area and Zhenjiang, China. Based on systems thinking of interrelations between previously identified influencing governance factors in sustainable stormwater management (SSM), we developed a causal loop diagram (SSM-CLD) and used it to analyze 23 semi-structured interviews with local government officers in the four case cities. Based on the results, we created one SSM-CLD for each country and analyzed the main differences between these four SSM-CLDs. The results revealed that differences in governance structures can lead to differences in the influencing governance factors. In top-down political systems, e.g., China, the role of national policy in setting local leaders’ priorities is significant for SSM implementation. In political systems with more power devolved to local governments, e.g., Sweden, public awareness and local government politicians’ priorities are important for SSM implementation. Acquiring funding for long-term maintenance was identified as a challenge in all four cities studied. These results are relevant for policymakers, local government departments, consultancy companies, and researchers seeking a better understanding of how governance factors influence sustainable stormwater management.

Keywords: sustainable stormwater management, causal loop diagram, governance structures, local government priorities, public awareness, maintenance

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12 Female Entrepreneurship in Transitional Economies: An In-Depth Comparative Study about Challenges Facing Female Entrepreneurs in Nigeria and Egypt

Authors: Dina Mohamed Ayman, Rafieu Akin

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In an attempt to increase the female total entrepreneurial activities (TEA) within Egypt and Nigeria, this paper aims to investigate the challenges facing female entrepreneurs operating in Egypt, in relative to Nigeria. In this regard, both researchers undertook a qualitative approach due to the scarcity of the literature reviewed on the topic; in those particular countries, and as an in-depth comparative mode. Therefore, ten Egyptian entrepreneurs in relative to ten Nigerian entrepreneurs were in-depth investigated. The research findings prove that female entrepreneurs face complex problems for being both gender and country-specific. Regarding the gender-specific obstacles, the work/life imbalance due to the scarcity of child-care nurseries and the prevalence of the gender-role division while performing the house chores rather than the concept of co-operation, acted as a main source of cultural challenge because women are considered mostly as 'housewives'. However, interestingly, this specific gender-discrimination challenge is proven to have no grounded effect in terms of the business-establishment and daily dealings neither in Egypt nor Nigeria, as one of the sample exclaimed 'as long as you pay, then no gender difference is set on the table'. Other country-specific challenges facing female entrepreneurs, lied in, the aggregate weak entrepreneurial framework governing both countries, also, women faced the difficulty of access to financial institutions with collateral requirements that are usually "hardly to be met", besides, the absence of the "micro-credit-Grameen-banks" concept. As well, the scarcity of incubators and business training centers providing network, consultancy and well-trained workforce to female entrepreneurs constitute a major hurdle for women entrepreneurs operating in both countries. Finally, this paper will conclude the research by offering a set of public-policy recommendations to pave the way for females to choose self-employment as a career path.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, female entrepreneurship, obstacles, framework conditions, culture, micro-credit

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11 The Role of the Coach in Elite Equestrian Sport

Authors: Victoria Lewis, L. Dumbell

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The British Equestrian Federation (BEF) aims to develop a holistic coach education and certification program, moving away from traditional autocratic instruction in line with the UK Coaching Framework. This framework is based on generic coaching science research where the coach is cited as a pivotal aspect in developing sporting success. Theoretic knowledge suggests that the role of the sports coach is to develop the physical, tactical, technical and psychological attributes of the athlete and is responsible for the planning, organization and delivery of the training plan and competition schedule. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that is the role required in equestrian sport as the rider takes responsibility for many of these tasks. This research aimed to address the void in current knowledge by gaining an understanding of coaching in equestrian sport in order to improve coaching education system through awareness of the role of the coach. Objectives were to examine the relationship between coach and rider at elite level in equestrian sport providing empirical evidence to suggest that the rider is, in part, ‘self –coached’. To identify the elite equestrian coaches’ role in coaching these ‘self-coached riders. A qualitative method using semi-structured interviews was used. A sample of elite coaches (N=3) and elite riders (N=3) were interviewed. Analysis of the transcripts revealed a total of 534 meaning units that were further grouped into sub-themes and general themes from the coaches’ perspective and the riders’ perspective. This led to the development of a final thematic structure revealing major dimensions that characterized coaching in elite equestrian sport. It was found that the riders at the elite level coach themselves the majority of the time, therefore, can be considered as ‘self-coached’ athletes. However, they do use elite coaches in a mentoring and consultancy role, where they seek guidance from the coach on specific problems, to sound ideas off or to seek reassurance that what they are doing is correct. Findings from this research suggest that the rider-coach relationship at the elite level is a professional one, based on trust and respect, but not a close relationship as seen in other sports. The results show the imperative need for the BEF to educate coaches in coaching the self-coached rider at the elite level, particularly in terms of mentoring skills. As well as incorporating rider education aimed at developing the independent, self-coached riders.

Keywords: coaching, elite sport, equestrian, self coached

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10 An Integrated Approach to Syllabus Design for Business Chinese

Authors: Dongshuo Wang, Minjie Xing

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International businesses prefer to hire people who speak more than one language. With the booming of China’s market, industries and trade, business leaders are looking for people who can speak Chinese and operate successfully in a Chinese cultural context, and therefore an increasing number of tertiary students choose a Business Chinese (BC) course. As a result, BC syllabus design is urgently needed. What business knowledge should be included in China’s context? What aspects of BC culture should be included? How much Chinese language should be introduced to conduct business in China? With these research questions, this research explores a syllabus design that integrates the three aspects of subject knowledge of business in communication, business practice including the procedure of and strategies for communicating business in practice and language skills including the disciplinary and professional contexts in which linguistic choices are made. After literature review and consultancy with China-related business professionals, senior staff from business schools and representatives of students, the authors of this paper, together with language tutors drafted a syllabus based on the integrated approach to include subject knowledge, business practice and language skills. Due to the nature of this research which requires trial/test and detailed description for each correction, qualitative methods are adopted. Two in-depth focus group interviews (with 2 staff and 4 students in each group), and 18 individual interviews (8 staff and 10 students) were conducted. QDA was used for systematizing, organizing, and analysing qualitative data. It was discovered that the business knowledge related to a Chinese cultural context, including face value, networking skills, strategic plans for signing a contract, marketing, sales, and after-sale service, should be introduced through lectures and seminars; business practice could be implemented by students setting up their own companies, virtual or real; and language skills would be trained via writing business messages and presenting their companies in fairs and exhibitions. After a longitudinal study of trials and amendments for three years from 2013 to 2016, the syllabus was approved by staff and students and the university. Students appreciated the syllabus, as they could apply the subject knowledge into practice by using it in their own companies and Chinese language was used throughout the process. The syllabus is now ready to be used in universities offering BC, and the designing process can be applied to other new courses as well.

Keywords: business Chinese, syllabus design, business knowledge, language skills

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9 Social Medical Club: A Social Business Policy to Ensure Quality Health Services to the Underprivileged Areas of Underdeveloped Countries

Authors: Hasan Al Banna, Nazmus Sakib, Anjan Roy

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From the perspective of the underdeveloped countries such as Bangladesh, health issue can readily be pointed out as the most demanding but the least promoted concern due to lack of initiatives from both government and NGOs. Furthermore an worldwide scenario is that most death and suffering from various pathogenic and non-pathogenic diseases occur due to delay diagnosis, and this happen for the lacking of regular health check-up facility or tradition. In this epistle, an innovative proposal on social business can be introduced to ensure the one-stop medical facility to the door-step of the rural society and create jobs for the educated rural youths to serve their own people. To illustrate the policy, this newly proposed organization will work as a health club which will offer a life-time membership to villagers within a very affordable fee of 250 BDT (2.63 Euro) per month. In this package the members will get the facility of tri-monthly full health check-up by specialist doctors, a health record book and computerized health database for each member and anytime medical consultancy for the members only. We will also organize free medical campaign and workshops on nutrition, sanitation, adulteration, pregnancy-care, child-health etc with the assistance of different sponsors. Among other services that will be provided on payment include emergency ambulance facility in low rents, quality diagnostic lab and 24-hour dispensary facility. Likewise, this policy will involve local educated people by recruiting them after providing intensive courses on nursing and other medical instrumental skills. Henceforth, the engagement of local youth will make the program more acceptable to the rural community. In the later part of this paper, a survey report on Daragram union of Manikganj district, Bangladesh, having population above 25000, will be presented to delineate the scenario how this policy can repay the initial capital expense of BDT 7 million (around 73381 Euro) within 5 years and how I can realistically earn handsome revenue from the first month of business. To recapitulate, this policy is very promising to enlighten the underprivileged community by providing health assurance, and alleviating unemployment besides the investor’s financial profit.

Keywords: create job for the rural people, handsome financial profit, quality health services, underprivileged areas of underdeveloped countries

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8 High-Performance Thin-layer Chromatography (HPTLC) Analysis of Multi-Ingredient Traditional Chinese Medicine Supplement

Authors: Martin Cai, Khadijah B. Hashim, Leng Leo, Edmund F. Tian

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Analysis of traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) supplements has always been a laborious task, particularly in the case of multi‐ingredient formulations. Traditionally, herbal extracts are analysed using one or few markers compounds. In the recent years, however, pharmaceutical companies are introducing health supplements of TCM active ingredients to cater to the needs of consumers in the fast-paced society in this age. As such, new problems arise in the aspects of composition identification as well as quality analysis. In most cases of products or supplements formulated with multiple TCM herbs, the chemical composition, and nature of each raw material differs greatly from the others in the formulation. This results in a requirement for individual analytical processes in order to identify the marker compounds in the various botanicals. Thin-layer Chromatography (TLC) is a simple, cost effective, yet well-regarded method for the analysis of natural products, both as a Pharmacopeia-approved method for identification and authentication of herbs, and a great analytical tool for the discovery of chemical compositions in herbal extracts. Recent technical advances introduced High-Performance TLC (HPTLC) where, with the help of automated equipment and improvements on the chromatographic materials, both the quality and reproducibility are greatly improved, allowing for highly standardised analysis with greater details. Here we report an industrial consultancy project with ONI Global Pte Ltd for the analysis of LAC Liver Protector, a TCM formulation aimed at improving liver health. The aim of this study was to identify 4 key components of the supplement using HPTLC, following protocols derived from Chinese Pharmacopeia standards. By comparing the TLC profiles of the supplement to the extracts of the herbs reported in the label, this project proposes a simple and cost-effective analysis of the presence of the 4 marker compounds in the multi‐ingredient formulation by using 4 different HPTLC methods. With the increasing trend of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) bringing natural products and health supplements into the market, it is crucial that the qualities of both raw materials and end products be well-assured for the protection of consumers. With the technology of HPTLC, science can be incorporated to help SMEs with their quality control, thereby ensuring product quality.

Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine supplement, high performance thin layer chromatography, active ingredients, product quality

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7 Current Situation of Midwifery Student Organization in Turkey

Authors: Yeliz Cakir Kocak, Hafize Ozturk Can, Sibel Icke, Ummahan Yucel, Esin Ceber Turfan

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Introduction: Midwifery organization in Turkey became official in 1954 with the foundation of Midwifery Association. Today there are two Professional organizations representing midwives: ‘Midwifery Association’ and ‘Association for Education, Research and Development in Midwifery (AERDM)’. In recent years, conjuction with the increase in the numbers of midwives, professional consciousness and professional organization conscious is increasing. The undergraduates of Midwifery Department of Ege University İzmir Ataturk School of Health have come together for their professions when they’re stil students, so they founded ‘Midwifery Community of Ege University (MCEU) (EGEBET in Turkish)’ in counseling within structors and the confirmation of the university in 2013. Objective: The aim of this presentation is to reveal the activities and grades of an undergraduate community in-three-years, founded by the undergraduates in order to raise awareness in pregraduate Professional organization. Thus it is aimed to be aware towards postgraduate Professional organization, and to reflect Professional unity and solidarity, alongside personal development to midwifery services by maintaining Professional development. In-the-presentation it is aimed to explain what dimension the organization of midwifery students in Turkey is, and to be a stimulus so that ICM can be more active on undergraduate communities. Findings: MCEU’s an activity that has launched in the scope of Social Responsibility Lecture instructed in curricula of second grade in the Midwifery Department. The community have performed lots activities to reach their objectives between the years of 2013-2016. MCEU have had 65 members in a very-soon period. Today the community that goes on its activities on social network in order to abolish the distances and reach more midwifery students’ve 444 members. MCEU aiming to make all the students of the Midwifery Department a member of this association also accepts the applications of national and international midwifery students. More over the community has published two student periodical magazine and carries out activities on Midwifery Day each year. Conclusion: In conjuction with the national introduction of MCEU in the student congress in 2013, it has received consultancy from the members of MCEU as a sample model in the student organization of midwifery department of other universities in Turkey, and stil remains receiving. Furthermore a student community has been founded under the roof of association with the demand of community’s members. Also academician has a responsibility to give direction to the future and shape the future. Therefore, it is thought that the study can be an instance for all branches of science students and academics. Acknowledgment: We thank to founder members of MCEU and all the other students remaining to perform activities because of their contributions to Professional organization.

Keywords: current situation, midwifery, organization, student

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6 Institutional Cooperation to Foster Economic Development: Universities and Social Enterprises

Authors: Khrystyna Pavlyk

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In the OECD countries, percentage of adults with higher education degrees has increased by 10 % during 2000-2010. Continuously increasing demand for higher education gives universities a chance of becoming key players in socio-economic development of a territory (region or city) via knowledge creation, knowledge transfer, and knowledge spillovers. During previous decade, universities have tried to support spin-offs and start-ups, introduced courses on sustainability and corporate social responsibility. While much has been done, new trends are starting to emerge in search of better approaches. Recently a number of universities created centers that conduct research in a field social entrepreneurship, which in turn underpin educational programs run at these universities. The list includes but is not limited to the Centre for Social Economy at University of Liège, Institute for Social Innovation at ESADE, Skoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship at Oxford, Centre for Social Entrepreneurship at Rosklide, Social Entrepreneurship Initiative at INSEAD. Existing literature already examined social entrepreneurship centers in terms of position in the institutional structure, initial and additional funding, teaching initiatives, research achievements, and outreach activities. At the same time, Universities can become social enterprises themselves. Previous research revealed that universities use both business and social entrepreneurship models. Universities which are mainly driven by a social mission are more likely to transform into social entrepreneurial institutions. At the same time, currently, there is no clear understanding of what social entrepreneurship in higher education is about and thus social entrepreneurship in higher education needs to be studied and promoted at the same time. Main roles which socially oriented university can play in city development include: buyer (implementation of socially focused local procurement programs creates partnerships focused on local sustainable growth.); seller (centers created by universities can sell socially oriented goods and services, e.g. in consultancy.); employer (Universities can employ socially vulnerable groups.); business incubator (which will help current student to start their social enterprises). In the paper, we will analyze these in more detail. We will also examine a number of indicators that can be used to assess the impact, both direct and indirect, that universities can have on city's economy. At the same time, originality of this paper mainly lies not in methodological approaches used, but in countries evaluated. Social entrepreneurship is still treated as a relatively new phenomenon in post-transitional countries where social services were provided only by the state for many decades. Paper will provide data and example’s both from developed countries (the US and EU), and those located in CIS and CEE region.

Keywords: social enterprise, university, regional economic development, comparative study

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5 Balanced Score Card a Tool to Improve Naac Accreditation – a Case Study in Indian Higher Education

Authors: CA Kishore S. Peshori

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Introduction: India, a country with vast diversity and huge population is going to have largest young population by 2020. Higher education has and will always be the basic requirement for making a developing nation to a developed nation. To improve any system it needs to be bench-marked. There have been various tools for bench-marking the systems. Education is delivered in India by universities which are mainly funded by government. This universities for delivering the education sets up colleges which are again funded mainly by government. Recently however there has also been autonomy given to universities and colleges. Moreover foreign universities are waiting to enter Indian boundaries. With a large number of universities and colleges it has become more and more necessary to measure this institutes for bench-marking. There have been various tools for measuring the institute. In India college assessments have been made compulsory by UGC. Naac has been offically recognised as the accrediation criteria. The Naac criteria has been based on seven criterias namely: 1. Curricular assessments, 2. Teaching learning and evaluation, 3. Research Consultancy and Extension, 4. Infrastructure and learning resources, 5. Student support and progression, 6. Governance leadership and management, 7. Innovation and best practices. The Naac tries to bench mark the institution for identification, sustainability, dissemination and adaption of best practices. It grades the institution according to this seven criteria and the funding of institution is based on these grades. Many of the colleges are struggling to get best of grades but they have not come across a systematic tool to achieve the results. Balanced Scorecard developed by Kaplan has been a successful tool for corporates to develop best of practices so as to increase their financial performance and also retain and increase their customers so as to grow the organization to next level.It is time to test this tool for an educational institute. Methodology: The paper tries to develop a prototype for college based on the secondary data. Once a prototype is developed the researcher based on questionnaire will try to test this tool for successful implementation. The success of this research will depend on its implementation of BSC on an institute and its grading improved due to this successful implementation. Limitation of time is a major constraint in this research as Naac cycle takes minimum 4 years for accreditation and reaccreditation the methodology will limit itself to secondary data and questionnaire to be circulated to colleges along with the prototype model of BSC. Conclusion: BSC is a successful tool for enhancing growth of an organization. Educational institutes are no exception to these. BSC will only have to be realigned to suit the Naac criteria. Once this prototype is developed the success will be tested only on its implementation but this research paper will be the first step towards developing this tool and will also initiate the success by developing a questionnaire and getting and evaluating the responses for moving to the next level of actual implementation

Keywords: balanced scorecard, bench marking, Naac, UGC

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4 Difficulties for Implementation of Telenursing: An Experience Report

Authors: Jacqueline A. G. Sachett, Cláudia S. Nogueira, Diana C. P. Lima, Jessica T. S. Oliveira, Guilherme K. M. Salazar, Lílian K. Aguiar

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The Polo Amazon Telehealth offers several tools for professionals working in Primary Health Care as a second formative opinion, teleconsulting and training between the different areas, whether medicine, dentistry, nursing, physiotherapy, among others. These activities have a monthly schedule of free access to the municipalities of Amazonas registered. With this premise, and in partnership with the University of the State of Amazonas (UEA), is promoting the practice of the triad; teaching-research-extension in order to collaborate with the enrichment and acquisition of knowledge through educational practices carried out through teleconferences. Therefore, nursing is to join efforts and inserts as a collaborator of this project running, contributing to the education and training of these professionals who are part of the health system in full Amazon. The aim of this study is to report the experience of academic of Amazonas State University nursing course, about the experience in the extension project underway in Polo Telemedicine Amazon. This was a descriptive study, the experience report type, about the experience of nursing academic UEA, by extension 'Telenursing: teleconsulting and second formative opinion for FHS professionals in the state of Amazonas' project, held in Polo Telemedicine Amazon, through an agreement with the UEA and funded by the Foundation of Amazonas Research from July / 2012 to July / 2016. Initially developed active search of members of the Family Health Strategy professionals, in order to provide training and training teams to use the virtual clinic, as well as the virtual environment is the focus of this tool design. The election period was an aggravating factor for the implementation of teleconsulting proposal, due to change of managers in each municipality, requiring the stoppage until they assume their positions. From this definition, we established the need for new training. The first video conference took place on 03.14.2013 for learning and training in the use of Virtual Learning Environment and Virtual Clinic, with the participation of municipalities of Novo Aripuanã, São Paulo de Olivença and Manacapuru. During the whole project was carried out literature about what is being done and produced at the national level about the subject. By the time the telenursing project has received twenty-five (25) consultancy requests. The consultants sent by nursing professionals, all have been answered to date. Faced with the lived experience, particularly in video conferencing, face to cause difficulties issues, such as the fluctuation in the number of participants in activities, difficulty of participants to reconcile the opening hours of the units with the schedule of video conferencing, transmission difficulties and changes schedule. It was concluded that the establishment of connection between the Telehealth points is one of the main factors for the implementation of Telenursing and that this feature is still new for nursing. However, effective training and updating, may provide to these professional category subsidies to quality health care in the Amazon.

Keywords: Amazon, teleconsulting, telehealth, telenursing

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3 Mental Health Surveys on Community and Organizational Levels: Challenges, Issues, Conclusions and Possibilities

Authors: László L. Lippai

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In addition to the fact that mental health bears great significance to a particular individual, it can also be regarded as an organizational, community and societal resource. Within the Szeged Health Promotion Research Group, we conducted mental health surveys on two levels: The inhabitants of a medium-sized Hungarian town and students of a Hungarian university with a relatively big headcount were requested to participate in surveys whose goals were to define local government priorities and organization-level health promotion programmes, respectively. To facilitate professional decision-making, we defined three, pragmatically relevant, groups of the target population: the mentally healthy, the vulnerable and the endangered. In order to determine which group a person actually belongs to, we designed a simple and quick measurement tool, which could even be utilised as a smoothing method, the Mental State Questionnaire validity of the above three categories was verified by analysis of variance against psychological quality of life variables. We demonstrate the pragmatic significance of our method via the analyses of the scores of our two mental health surveys. On town level, during our representative survey in Hódmezővásárhely (N=1839), we found that 38.7% of the participants was mentally healthy, 35.3% was vulnerable, while 16.3% was considered as endangered. We were able to identify groups that were in a dramatic state in terms of mental health. For example, such a group consisted of men aged 45 to 64 with only primary education qualification and the ratios of the mentally healthy, vulnerable and endangered were 4.5, 45.5 and 50%, respectively. It was also astonishing to see to what a little extent qualification prevailed as a protective factor in the case of women. Based on our data, the female group aged 18 to 44 with primary education—of whom 20.3% was mentally healthy, 42.4% vulnerable and 37.3% was endangered—as well as the female group aged 45 to 64 with university or college degree—of whom 25% was mentally healthy, 51.3 vulnerable and 23.8% endangered—are to be handled as priority intervention target groups in a similarly difficult position. On organizational level, our survey involving the students of the University of Szeged, N=1565, provided data to prepare a strategy of mental health promotion for a university with a headcount exceeding 20,000. When developing an organizational strategy, it was important to gather information to estimate the proportions of target groups in which mental health promotion methods; for example, life management skills development, detection, psychological consultancy, psychotherapy, would be applied. Our scores show that 46.8% of the student participants were mentally healthy, 42.1% were vulnerable and 11.1% were endangered. These data convey relevant information as to the allocation of organizational resources within a university with a considerable headcount. In conclusion, The Mental State Questionnaire, as a valid smoothing method, is adequate to describe a community in a plain and informative way in the terms of mental health. The application of the method can promote the preparation, design and implementation of mental health promotion interventions. 

Keywords: health promotion, mental health promotion, mental state questionnaire, psychological well-being

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2 Bridging Educational Research and Policymaking: The Development of Educational Think Tank in China

Authors: Yumei Han, Ling Li, Naiqing Song, Xiaoping Yang, Yuping Han

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Educational think tank is agreeably regarded as significant part of a nation’s soft power to promote the scientific and democratic level of educational policy making, and it plays critical role of bridging educational research in higher institutions and educational policy making. This study explores the concept, functions and significance of educational think tank in China, and conceptualizes a three dimensional framework to analyze the approaches of transforming research-based higher institutions into effective educational think tanks to serve educational policy making in the nation wide. Since 2014, the Ministry of Education P.R. China has been promoting the strategy of developing new type of educational think tanks in higher institutions, and such a strategy has been put into the agenda for the 13th Five Year Plan for National Education Development released in 2017.In such context, increasing scholars conduct studies to put forth strategies of promoting the development and transformation of new educational think tanks to serve educational policy making process. Based on literature synthesis, policy text analysis, and analysis of theories about policy making process and relationship between educational research and policy-making, this study constructed a three dimensional conceptual framework to address the following questions: (a) what are the new features of educational think tanks in the new era comparing traditional think tanks, (b) what are the functional objectives of the new educational think tanks, (c) what are the organizational patterns and mechanism of the new educational think tanks, (d) in what approaches traditional research-based higher institutions can be developed or transformed into think tanks to effectively serve the educational policy making process. The authors adopted case study approach on five influential education policy study centers affiliated with top higher institutions in China and applied the three dimensional conceptual framework to analyze their functional objectives, organizational patterns as well as their academic pathways that researchers use to contribute to the development of think tanks to serve education policy making process.Data was mainly collected through interviews with center administrators, leading researchers and academic leaders in the institutions. Findings show that: (a) higher institution based think tanks mainly function for multi-level objectives, providing evidence, theoretical foundations, strategies, or evaluation feedbacks for critical problem solving or policy-making on the national, provincial, and city/county level; (b) higher institution based think tanks organize various types of research programs for different time spans to serve different phases of policy planning, decision making, and policy implementation; (c) in order to transform research-based higher institutions into educational think tanks, the institutions must promote paradigm shift that promotes issue-oriented field studies, large data mining and analysis, empirical studies, and trans-disciplinary research collaborations; and (d) the five cases showed distinguished features in their way of constructing think tanks, and yet they also exposed obstacles and challenges such as independency of the think tanks, the discourse shift from academic papers to consultancy report for policy makers, weakness in empirical research methods, lack of experience in trans-disciplinary collaboration. The authors finally put forth implications for think tank construction in China and abroad.

Keywords: education policy-making, educational research, educational think tank, higher institution

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1 Integrating Experiential Real-World Learning in Undergraduate Degrees: Maximizing Benefits and Overcoming Challenges

Authors: Anne E. Goodenough

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One of the most important roles of higher education professionals is to ensure that graduates have excellent employment prospects. This means providing students with the skills necessary to be immediately effective in the workplace. Increasingly, universities are seeking to achieve this by moving from lecture-based and campus-delivered curricula to more varied delivery, which takes students out of their academic comfort zone and allows them to engage with, and be challenged by, real world issues. One popular approach is integration of problem-based learning (PBL) projects into curricula. However, although the potential benefits of PBL are considerable, it can be difficult to devise projects that are meaningful, such that they can be regarded as mere ‘hoop jumping’ exercises. This study examines three-way partnerships between academics, students, and external link organizations. It studied the experiences of all partners involved in different collaborative projects to identify how benefits can be maximized and challenges overcome. Focal collaborations included: (1) development of real-world modules with novel assessment whereby the organization became the ‘client’ for student consultancy work; (2) frameworks where students collected/analyzed data for link organizations in research methods modules; (3) placement-based internships and dissertations; (4) immersive fieldwork projects in novel locations; and (5) students working as partners on staff-led research with link organizations. Focus groups, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to identify opportunities and barriers, while quantitative analysis of students’ grades was used to determine academic effectiveness. Common challenges identified by academics were finding suitable link organizations and devising projects that simultaneously provided education opportunities and tangible benefits. There was no ‘one size fits all’ formula for success, but careful planning and ensuring clarity of roles/responsibilities were vital. Students were very positive about collaboration projects. They identified benefits to confidence, time-keeping and communication, as well as conveying their enthusiasm when their work was of benefit to the wider community. They frequently highlighted employability opportunities that collaborative projects opened up and analysis of grades demonstrated the potential for such projects to increase attainment. Organizations generally recognized the value of project outputs, but often required considerable assistance to put the right scaffolding in place to ensure projects worked. Benefits were maximized by ensuring projects were well-designed, innovative, and challenging. Co-publication of projects in peer-reviewed journals sometimes gave additional benefits for all involved, being especially beneficial for student curriculum vitae. PBL and student projects are by no means new pedagogic approaches: the novelty here came from creating meaningful three-way partnerships between academics, students, and link organizations at all undergraduate levels. Such collaborations can allow students to make a genuine contribution to knowledge, answer real questions, solve actual problems, all while providing tangible benefits to organizations. Because projects are actually needed, students tend to engage with learning at a deep level. This enhances student experience, increases attainment, encourages development of subject-specific and transferable skills, and promotes networking opportunities. Such projects frequently rely upon students and staff working collaboratively, thereby also acting to break down the traditional teacher/learner division that is typically unhelpful in developing students as advanced learners.

Keywords: higher education, employability, link organizations, innovative teaching and learning methods, interactions between enterprise and education, student experience

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